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INTRODUCTION.
Protagoras of Plato is one of the few whose authenticity has never been called in dialogues question by any eminent scholar. None of the dialogues
attributed to Plato
is

THE

so

full

of fallacious reasoning;
difficult to

perhaps none contains an ethical theory so
reconcile with

ordinary Platonic teaching ; but the extraordinary vivacity and power of the dramatic representation, as well as the charm of style, have
furnished proofs of authenticity which even the most
sceptical critics

have been unable to

resist

i.

Analysis.

A
fitting

of the Protagoras will form a introduction to the discussion of its scope and
brief analysis

purpose. Socrates narrates the dialogue to a friend (309 A

310 A).

ment

Hippocrates had visited Socrates in great excite at an early hour, in order to obtain from him a
introduction
to

personal

Protagoras,

who had

just
set

arrived in Athens.
out,

In the interval before they

subjected his young friend to an interrogatory, which forced him to admit that he was
Socrates

PREFACE.
k

HE

present edition of the Protagoras

is

on the same

lines as the Pitt Press editions of the

Apology, Crito,

[and Euthyphro.

The

Editors venture to hope that

the

study of this

delightful dialogue, for

which much has already been done
recently

in English

by

Mr Wayte and more

by

Mr

Turner,

may

be

still

further

encouraged by the publication of this

edition.

Mr
tions,

Neil, of

Pembroke

College, has kindly read through
criticisms

the proofs,

and contributed various

and sugges

CAMBRIDGE,
July
6,

1893.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
this

edition

a few errors and misprints have been

IN corrected,

but

we have not thought

it

necessary or

desirable to introduce any further changes.

EMMANUEL COLLEGE,
September a8, 1905.

x

IN1WODUCTION.

about to entrust his soul to a sophist, without knowing what a sophist really is. Such a course of action
Socrates

declared

to

be

perilous

in

the

extreme

Protagoras presently 3140). proceeded to the house of Callias, where Protagoras was staying, and having with some difficulty obtained
admittance, found themselves spectators of an animated scene, in which Protagoras, Hippias, and Prodicus
are the leading figures (3140 316 A). At this point the true business of the dialogue After Hippocrates has been introduced to begins.

(3ioA

Socrates and

Protagoras, the latter delivers a speech claiming for
his

a high antiquity. Poets, religious musicians and others who were in reality teachers, have vainly tried to disguise themselves Sophists
profession
,
:

Protagoras has found it both more and more honest to profess himself openly prudent that which he is, a Sophist and Educator of men. Prodicus and Hippias wiih their respective adherents

by other names

assemble to

hear Protagoras publicly explain the advantages of his teaching (316 A 317 E). Aided by a little Socratic questioning, Protagoras
citizens.

explains that his art consists in making men Socrates professes to have thought

good
that

civic virtue could not

be communicated by teaching, and that on two grounds first, because the Athenians
:

do not think it can, since they allow any man to advise them in matters connected with the state with out requiring from him evidence that he has been taught, whereas they will only listen to an expert when they are deliberating on matters connected with and second, because as a matter of fact, the arts statesmen have not succeeded in transmitting great
:

INTRODUCTION.
their

xi

civic
c).

virtue

to

their

sons and

wards (317 E

320

The
and
falls

reply of Protagoras into three sections.
first

is in

the form of a

p>?crts

In the
a

he endeavours to

justify the

Athenians

for permitting

any one
is

to give counsel

relating

myth of

pre-historic

politics, by man, according to

on

which no one
virtue, Justice

destitute of the foundations of civic

and Shame (320 c 323 A). That every man has part by nature in this virtue is, moreover, a universal belief, for he who publicly declares him
self to
(3 2 3

be wicked

is

universally looked

upon

as

mad

A

323

c).

Protagoras next endeavours to prove that the Athenians regard virtue as capable of being taught. In the first place, we hold men responsible for lacking
that only

which

it

was

in their

power
for

to acquire,

and

responsible wrong-doing Punishment, in the second place, is intended both by the Athenians and by all other men

we hold

them
A).

their

(3230

324

virtue (324 A 324 D). Protagoras addresses himself to the Finally, question why do not the sons of great statesmen

to be a

means of teaching

possess the same virtue as their fathers?

It is

not

from lack of teaching

:

for

it

would be absurd to

suppose that statesmen teach their sons everything except the one thing needful for life as a citizen, and
in point of -fact, virtue
is

taught at every stage of
tutors,
finally

human
herself,

life

teachers for

by parents, nurses, soul and body, and
the

professional

by the

state

through

medium of

the laws and

the

punishment which

their violation entails.

But child

ren are often inferior to their parents in the capacity

xii

INTRODUCTION.
and
it

for learning,

is

for this

to fall short in civic virtue, although,

reason that they seem compared with

ization might

untutored savages, even the worst products of civil seem models of morality. Protagoras

concludes by declaring himself a teacher of virtue and 328 D). explaining his method of taking fees (324 D
After thanking Hippocrates for bringing him to hear so fine a display, Socrates requests the Sophist to

explain a matter which he had
single virtues each of
different
virtue,

names

for

left obscure Are the them parts of virtue, or only one thing? They are parts of

says

Protagoras,

in

answer

to

the

cross-

examination of his

rival, distinct

from each other and

the whole, as the parts of the face are different from In number the whole face and from one another. they are five
justice,

temperance, holiness, courage,

and wisdom, and wisdom is the greatest of them. We may possess one without possessing all the five. Each has its own peculiar efficacy and no one of

them

is

like

another (328 D

330
first

B).

Socrates endeavours in the

instance to

make
and
not

Protagoras admit that justice and holiness are identical,
It is admitted that justice is just or nearly so. : but if justice and holiness do holiness holy

resemble each other, justice will not be holy, but unholy, and holiness will not be just, but unjust a conclusion which the Sophist rejects. Protagoras
graciously concedes that there

may be

a considerable

resemblance between justice and holiness, without however allowing that the two virtues are alike
(33

33 2 A). next step in the argument seeks to establish the identity of temperance and wisdom.

B

The

a<po<ruV>;,

INTRODUCTION.
Protagoras admits,
is

xiii

nothing
is

can

have
it.

more

the opposite of than one thing
is
\

ro<i

a,

and

which

opposed to

a^poorn^
(ro<j>ia.

crw^pcxrur^, as well as to

however opposed to from which it follows

that
for

and erco^poon;^ are nothing but two names one and the same thing (332 A 333 B).
ao<f>ta

If Socrates had also proved the identity of temperance and justice, four out of the five virtues would have been equated, but as he embarks upon
his

argument, Protagoras seizes the opportunity to plunge into a pr/o-is on the relativity of the notion

good or beneficial Here ensues an
protests

(3330
rival s

3340).
in

interlude,

which

Socrates

against
to

his

lengthy speeches,

and

At last, in deference to the depart. entreaties of Callias, backed up by some remarks from Alcibiades, Critias, Prodicus, and Hippias, Socrates consents to stay, on condition that Protagoras shall first question him and afterwards submit to be
threatens

questioned in his turn (334 c
Protagoras

338

E).

proposes

for

criticism

a

poem

of

Simonides, remarking that the subject of the discussion
will still be dpe-nj, though it is transferred from human conduct to the sphere of poetry. A good poem,

Socrates

admits,

will

not

contradict
it

itself:

but

Simonides, after asserting that
good, proceeds in this
It
is

is

hard to become

poem

to censure Prodicus for
.

saying contradicts himself, Socrates denies,
that
to
:

good

That Simonides on the ground be good is not the same as to become Simonides agreed with Hesiod in perhaps
hard to be good
*

the view that

it

is

remain, good.

Your cure

hard to become, but easy to is worse than the disease,

xiv

INTRODUCTION.
:

replies Protagoras

it

would be the height of

folly

good an easy thing. Socrates thereupon, with Prodicus approval, at first suggests that hard may mean not difficult , but evil since the word
to call being
* ,

hard
thing

so
evil

means says Prodicus the Cean in Ceos; but soon abandoning

some
these

sophistries

he volunteers to give a continuous exposi

poem (338 E 342 A). Sparta and Crete are in reality the chief seats of philosophy in Greece, though they try to conceal the
tion of the

fact

The

wise

men

of old

knew

this

and

in imitation

of the Spartans compressed their wisdom into short and pithy sentences, one of which was the saying of Pittacus It is hard to be good Simonides wrote
.

his

poem

to overthrow this

maxim (342 A

343

c).

theory of the an exposition conceived (as will be afterwards poem by shewn ) in the most sophistical spirit, but he correctly
1

Socrates proceeds to support his

apprehends the central idea,
it

viz.

that in a world where

not hard, but impossible to be good, we should not expect too much in the way of moral excellence
is

(343 c

347

A).

exposition of the poem being finished Socrates expresses himself disparagingly on the value
of poetical criticism as a means of arriving at the and the original question is resumed with Socrates for interrogator, as before. Conceding all
that Socrates has hitherto

The

truth,

been trying to prove,

viz.

that justice, holiness,

wisdom and temperance are of the same kind, Protagoras takes his stand upon the sole remaining virtue and denies that courage bears
any resemblance
to the other four.
1

By way

of reply,

p. xxvii.

INTRODUCTION.
Socrates

xv

draws

a

distinction

knowledge, and tfa ppo? without knowledge, endeavours to identify the former with courage.
proof which he offers
:

between Oappos with and

The
1

is

far

from

conclusive

,

as

Protagoras points out it is therefore dropped and a subtler train of reasoning now begins (347 A 351 B).

To
is

the proposal of Socrates, that pleasure should
evil,

be identified with good, and pain with
unwilling
to

Protagoras

assent

He

allows

however that

knowledge and wisdom, whenever they are present in a man, control his impulses and determine his conduct. But how is this to be reconciled with the

common
which
is

man having knowledge of that does the worse, because he is over come by pleasure ? In what sense are pleasures thus
belief that a
better,

called evil?

It is shewn that pleasures are called evil are followed by pain, and pains good when they are followed by pleasure, but pleasure in itself is

when they

good and pain

in itself

is

evil.

To be overcome by
:

pleasure is therefore to be overcome by good but as the phrase implies a censure, it is evident that the good which overcomes is unworthy to overcome the
evil.
is less

Unworthy
of
it
:

the

from which we infer that

good can only be because there to be overcome

by pleasure is to choose less in place of greater good. Such a choice can only be the result of ignorance, so
that
it

is

incorrect to

say that

we

ever knowingly
still

choose the worse, and pleasure

may

be identified

with good, pain with evil (351 B 357 E). Socrates now makes use of this identification to

prove that knowledge and courage are the same. If pleasure is good, so likewise is every action which
1

See note on 3^9

B.

xvi

INTRODUCTION.
:

aims at pleasure and as no one knowingly chooses evil rather than good, no one ever does that which he knows to be evil. Now fear is the expectation of
evil,

so that no one, neither the hero nor the coward,
fearful.

encounters that which he believes to be
follows that the coward

It

who
is

refuses to fight

when he

ought to
courage,
It
is

fight,

refuses

by reason of

In other words cowardice
its

his ignorance. ignorance, and therefore

opposite,

is

knowledge (358 A
in

pointed

out

conclusion

that

360 E). whereas

Protagoras had started by maintaining that virtue could be communicated by teaching, and Socrates by

doubting whether
:

it

could, they have
is

places but otherwise not.

since

if

virtue

knowledge,

it

now changed can be taught,
a desire to

Socrates
after

expresses

resume the subject
is in itself

he has discovered what virtue

It

(360 E 362 A). appears from the preceding analysis that the
falls

Protagoras
I.

naturally into these sections:

(309 A
II.

Introduction to the narration of the dialogue 3 10 A).

Introduction to the dialogue

itself

(310 A

317*0III. Protagoras description of his profession, followed by the objections of Socrates (317 E 3200).

A p^tm from Protagoras, containing both and Xo yo? (3200 3280). pvOos
IV.

V.

Cross-examination of Protagoras by Socrates,
p^o-i?

ending abruptly with a short
(3281)

by Protagoras

334

c).

VI.

Interlude (334

338

E).

INTRODUCTION.

xvii

VII. Cross-examination of Socrates by Protagoras, ending with a p^crts by Socrates (338 E 347 A). VIII. Conclusion of the cross-evamination of

by Protagoras, and 360 E). Sophist (347 A IX. Epilogue (360 E 362
Socrates

final

defeat

of

the

A).

2.

T/tf

General Scope and Purpose of the
Protagoras.

In seeking to understand the scope and purpose of the Protagoras, we shall find it convenient, in the first instance, to view the form of the dialogue
as far as possible apart from the matter.

Considered as to its form, the dialogue is an indictment primarily of Protagoras as an educator of young men. It is not however as an individual that
attacked, but as the most distinguished T representative of the Sophists o/xoAoyu>

Protagoras

is

1

:

o-o<i-

<m/s

eli/cu,

he says

in

3178,

Kal TraiSeueiv dvOpwTrovs

;

and before Protagoras appears on the
was called
.

scene, Plato

is

careful to instruct us as to the nature of that

which

Prodicus and Hippias, as well Sophist as Protagoras, receive their share of ridicule*, and

may be supposed

to suffer with

him

in so far as the

aim and method of

their teaching agreed

with

his,

although they are not directly associated with him in 4 his fall*, which, as rivals in the profession, they
doubtless viewed with something
1

more than equa-

313 cfi., 316 off. 315 cff., 337 A ff., 337 off., 247 A. * Socrates himself expressly separates them off in 359
*

A.

*

318

E,

340 B

ff.,

34*

A

ff.

xviii

INTRODUCTION.
.

1 It is part of the irony of the situation when nimity Prodicus and Hippias fail to see that whereas in the

actual discussion

it is

only Protagoras
the

who

is

worsted,

the attack

is

in reality directed against the professional

Sophist

in

general

e/xTropd?

ns

Pitted against Protagoras, as the representative of Whether in the Sophists, we find, as usual, Socrates. this case we are to regard Socrates as speaking for

Plato or for himself,
it is

we

shall presently inquire

:

in the in
re

meantime, which the contrast presents
:

well to notice

one particular aspect
itself.

Protagoras

presents the principle of /xaKpoXoyi a, Socrates that of ppaxyXoyia. the former excels in continuous discourse,

the latter in the

and answer.

method of investigation by question In the only section of the dialogue
his usual

where Socrates deserts

method,

in order to

deliver a harangue upon the poem of Simonides, he expressly asserts that the method of Protagoras is
futile
8
,

and

it

must be admitted

that he

is

himself,

whether intentionally or not, altogether unsuccessful
in applying
it.

formal aspect, therefore, the Protagoras may be regarded as an attempt to shew the superiority of
its
1

In

In 341 A

ff.
:

against his rival

and

Prodicus furnishes Socrates with weapons in 358 A 359 A they lend their assent to

the train of reasoning by which Protagoras is finally overthrown. Boniu (Platonische Studien p. 260) is suiely wrong in regarding their assent to Socrates counter-reasoning as a proof that they
too are refuted
different
:

what

is

refuted

is

from the other virtues

the statement that courage is a statement to which they

never assented.

3*7

Compare Bonitz

I.e.

pp.

6o

it a.

JNTRODUCT1ON.
Socrates
discourse.
to Protagoras

xU
"

of dialectic to continuous

is not merely a philo the subject-matter of the dispute sophical prize-fight": between the rival interlocutors is one of great import

But the dialogue

ance for the theory of education. It is first expressly raised in 3 19 A: Can virtue be communicated by teaching? If not, education, as it was understood by
Socrates no less than by Protagoras, is impossible. The doubts expressed by Socrates upon the subject nowhere throughout the dialogue amount to a denial
of what every self-respecting teacher must hold to be true: that the Athenians do not think virtue teachable

proves nothing, as they may be mistaken that Athe nian statesmen do not teach it to their sons may prove only that it cannot be taught by Athenian statesmen
:

1

.

But the reasons adduced by Socrates against the view that virtue can be taught are judiciously chosen in
order to drive Protagoras into a defence of his posi tion. Protagoras was not only professionally a teacher

of virtue, and therefore bound to hold that virtue could

be taught, but as the representative of the Sophists, he was bound to maintain that the beliefs and practice 8 of the Arch-Sophist of them all, the Athenian Dem us were in harmony with his own. Accordingly he meets
,

Socrates with a

flat

denial

the Athenians
it

do hold

virtue to be teachable

and teach

in a multitude of

ways. It is possible to hold this view and still believe that the elements of virtue are present by nature in every man, as Protagoras also asserts and such was
:

no doubt

m

reality the belief

of the Athenians, as

it is

perhaps of the ordinary practical
1 2

man

in

all

ages.

319 A 320 B. See Rep. vi 491 A

xx
Plato
s

INTRODUCTION.
own view
of education as the development of

the

itself be regarded as of this ethical creed. psychological counterpart But there still remains the question, what must we

the faculties innate in soul

may

suppose virtue to be, in order that it may be taught ? It is here that Socrates differs from the Athenians and
Virtue, according to Socrates, can only be communicated by the teacher if it is identical with knowledge, and to prove this identity the whole of the

Protagoras.

dialogue from 3290, with the partial exception of the section on the poem and of the interlude in 333 B

338

E, is

devoted.

The

conclusion to be drawn

is

that

Virtue can indeed be taught, but not by the Sophists, any more than by the educational system, public
opinion, and laws of the Athenians, because in there is no knowledge.

them

In connexion with
ask
is
:

it

this conclusion, we naturally not taught by the Sophists, how To this question the dialogue to be taught?

If

virtue

is

itself furnishes
is

an implicit answer.

Inasmuch

as virtue

knowledge, it must be taught by dialectic, the only means by which knowledge can be communicated.
of Socrates, which
it is

The method

the object of the

formal side of the dialogue to represent as triumphant

over the Sophistic the method which

/xaxrpoXoyia, is to
will

be understood as

been shewn to
are reunited

fail.

It

succeed where Sophistic has is thus that form and matter
attains
its

and the dialogue

unity as a

work of

art.

INTRODUCTION.

vd

3.

On

the

my tk of

Protagoras.

So much it was needful to say about the central theme of the dialogue, but there remain three episodes which call for special discussion, partly
from
their

and

partly

connexion with the subject of the whole, on account of their substantive philoso

phic value.
first of these is the myth of Protagoras. The of this episode in the argument is to shew that place the Athenians do right in permitting all and sundry to

The

It is not unlikely advise them on political questions. that the introduction of the mythical form as a vehicle 1 There can at of exposition was due to Protagoras
.

all

events be no doubt that

it

favour in the literary circles

was rapidly coming into of the day, and that it

was sometimes employed not only by the so-called 3 but by the other Socratic schools as well Sophists as the Academy. It is therefore not unreasonable to suppose that the myth with which we are concerned was written by Protagoras himself. The style shows many marked peculiarities of the kind which we should suppose that Protagoras affected 4 and al though this might be set down to Plato s skill as an
, ,

imitator,

it

is

difficult to see

why Plato should have

taken such pains to imitate where he manifestly did

1

Dummler As

s

Akademika
ch. XI.

p. 136.

*
*

See note on

ad

init.
:

*

for example the Cynics See on 320 E.

see

Diimmler

I.e.

p.

I

folL

xxii

INTRODUCTION.
.

1 not intend to caricature

has recently lent the weight of his authority to the view which we are 8 advocating, and an Italian scholar has made it seem
Zeller

1

probable that the work from which this fable is taken had among other motives the polemical one of main
taining against the theories of Hippias and his fol In the lowers the superiority of vo /xos to <ro-i?.

catalogue of Protagoras works preserved by Diogenes 4 Laertius , two books are mentioned, in either of which
the fable
rrys

may have

occurred,
:

Trepl TroXtreta?

cV aipxo

Karao-rao-ews

most probably

it

and Trept formed

part of the latter.

We
the

have commented

in detail in the notes

upon

general bearings and literary connexions require to be noticed

subject-matter of

the

myth:

but

its

here.

We may say broadly that two views of early society were current in antiquity. On the one hand the
laudator temporis adi loved to represent the past as a

golden age, from whose glories we have
1

fallen

away

:

Grote

(li

p. 47)

perhaps
is
"

states the case too strongly

when

he says that the fable
well as
fable

fully equal, in point
it is

charm
I

in

my judgment

of perspicuity as even superior to any other

in

episode

is

but hardly any one will now deny that the one of the most valuable and interesting parts of the
lato":

dialogue.
style

It

should be borne

in

mind
in

that the fable differs in

the rest of the dhdogue (except at 334 A, where see note) as much as it differs from the myths of Plato. If Plato could insert in one of his works a

from what Protagoras says

speech by Lysias (Phaedrus 230 E foil. ) I see no reason to suppose that he might not have made Protagoras deliver a speech of his

own making.
1 *
4

In the Archiv
J*

fur

Geschichte der Philosophic v a p. 175
foil.

ff.

Chiapelli ibid. HI p. 15 and p. 356

PLATONIS PROTAGORAS.

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PLATONIS PROTAGORAS
WITH INTRODUCTION NOTES AND APPENDICES

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TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PAGE

PREFACE
INTRODUCTION

...
. .

vii

ix
i

TEXT
NOTES
APPENDIX
I

75

(THE POEM OF SIMONIDES)

.

.194
.

APPENDIX
INDICES

II

(PROTAGORAS LIFE AND FRAGMENTS)

.

201

205

IN TROD UCTION.

xxiii

while others again saw in the far-distant past little but savagery and woe, out of which humanity has by slow 1 Not a few and this is degrees climbed upward
.

perhaps

the

original

view,

whereof the others are

fragments maintained that the reigns of good and evil succeed each other in ever-recurrent cycles, as we
find in the
2 The fable of Pro myth of the Politicus It is in tagoras represents mankind as having risen.
.

effect

novel version of the story of Prometheus So far as superinduced upon a cosmological theory.
a

concerns the creation of

man

out of the four elements,

and the assumption of a period of time during which there were no men upon the earth, we can find

1 See DUmmler s Akaclemika p. ?i6 ff. (Die Anfange des Menschengeschlechts). There is an excellent and learned col lection of passages bearing on the Golden Age by Graf in

80, and another by Eichhoff in Leipziger Studien vn I pp. i 601. Fleckeisen s Jahrbiicher Vol. 120 (1879) pp. 581 2 2690 foil. When Eichhoff (I.e. p. 596) asserts that there

no hint of a golden age awaiting mankind in the future in Greek profane writings, he ignores the evidence of Hesiod. (weir In the Works and Days 174 TJK^T 175 we read:
is
/JL

i

juere<Vcu

dv8pa.(rii>,

dX\

77

TrptxrOe davelv
Ka.1

77

i,

and

ibid.

180

181 Zeus 5 6X6r

rovro

ytvos fjiepbiruv avOpuirwv,
Te\Ow<Ti.v.

Number
Polit.

efrr av yeivb^evoi iro\ioKp6ra(f)Oi has been pointed out elsewhere (The Nuptial of Plato, p. 60) that the sign of the recommencement of

It

the golden age

273 E)

:

cited

p. 57,
"

by Mr where it is stated that one of the children whose appearance shall be

is when children are born with grey hairs (cf. an interesting parallel is afforded by the Testament James in his account of the Revelation of Peter

signs of the as of those

end shall be advanced in

There years: for they that are born shall be white-haired". the three are traces of a similar tradition in Greek mythology
:

Graeae, for example, had grey hairs from their birth.
A. P.

xxiv
parallel views
1

INTRODUCTION.
in

Plato,

and

to a certain extent in

but there seems to be nothing in con temporary or previous literature to account for the peculiarities of the Prometheus legend as it meets us

Empedocles

;

According to Hesiod mankind originally pos sessed fire, but lost it through the impious cunning of Prometheus. When Prometheus steals it back again for
here.
,

2

ished, he

the use of man, both he and humanity are severely pun by the eagle preying on his vitals, humanity

by the creation of woman. In Aeschylus, Prometheus appears in like manner as the befriender of man against the gods, but we hear nothing of Pandora, nor does it appear that man had ever possessed the use of
fire till

Prometheus came and
to

stole

it.

On

the other

hand, Aeschylus greatly amplifies the services of Pro

metheus

of astronomy, number,

mankind, assigning to him the invention writing, medicine, and divi
.

nation, as well as the elements of material happiness

and comfort 3

Although

Aeschylus that

we owe

it is not expressly stated by the political or social art to

Prometheus, the poet can hardly have intended ex
pressly to exclude it from the list of his benefactions , since the arts which are attributed to Prometheus
4

presuppose that man has already become in some It was reserved for Prota measure a TroArriKoV
u>oi/.

goras to represent TroAmK?; as a later

gift,

not from

Prometheus, but from Zeus himself, in direct and perhaps conscious antagonism to Hesiod, according
to

whom
1

the age in which

we are now

living

knows

2

3

See the notes on 320 D foil. Theogony 521616: Works and Days 47 Prom. 445 506.

ff.

4

Prom.

06 Trao-cu

T^

INTRODUCTION.
neither Justice nor

xxv
fruitful

Shame 1

.

But the great and

innovation introduced into the legend by Protagoras, whether on his own responsibility, or in accordance
with his authorities, consists in

making Prometheus

and Epimetheus
mortal things.
they had moulded

assist

The
his

the gods in the making of work of the gods ended when
the lower animals
:

man and

it

was
to

Prometheus and
furnish
hoofs,

brother

who were charged

them with such accidentals as size, strength, hair and hide, not to speak of food and proProtagoras version of the legend, in

creative power.

which Prometheus already takes part in the creation of man, proved the germ of the later representation of In the hero as the artificer of mankind out of clay. this form the story was transmitted by the poets of
the

New Comedy

to

and

interesting reliefs

Rome 2 and appears in quaint 3 upon Roman Sarcophagi
,
.

4.

On

Socrates

criticism of

Simonides poem.

1

The second
is

the criticism
.

episode which it is needful to discuss given by Socrates of the poem of

Simonides 4

to shew, the aim of the Protagoras is to prove that virtue cannot be commu nicated by teaching, unless knowledge and virtue are
1

As we have endeavoured

2

T)fj.as

Am.
3

\tyovy raXXa irdvra faa. Compare Philemon in Lucian 16. 43 and Hor. Od. I 16. 13 See Baumeister s Denkmaler des klassischen Alterthums
Florileg.

Works and Days 192 Menander ap. Stob.

diKij 8

cv

X
II

Pff l Ka L

*

<*/5cbs

OVK
8i>

ecrrai.

27 Hpo/j.r)0tjs,

TrXdcrcu Ko.1

P-

M134

On

the restoration of the

poem

see Appendix.

C 2

xxvi
identical.

INTRODUCTION.
Now
as

regarded

Poetry, in the days of Plato, was perhaps the most powerful means of

teaching virtue, and Protagoras had already main It was tained its educative value in his speech.
therefore necessary to inquire whether the claims of It became all the the Muses were well founded.

more necessary when the Sophists
in
this as

or

some of them

other respects went with the stream, and developed the practice of poetical criticism 1 Socrates exposition of the poem is into an art
in

many

.

intended to shew by a practical demonstration that poetry does not teach virtue because in poetry there There cannot be knowledge in the is no knowledge.
written words of poets ous ourc aVepeV&u otoV r icrrlv T ttijTOUS Ot TToXXol 6V T019 TTfpl (Si/ A.eyOV<TlV, 7rayd/AVOl

Adyois
Trept

ot /xev Tcu5ra

</>acrtv

TOV

Troifjrrjv voeiv,

ot 8*

erepa,

Trpay/Aaros
:

SiaAcyd/xcvoi

o

dSwarova-w e^cAeycat
to ask

(347 E)

for

knowledge implies the power
its

and

answer questions

method

is,

in short, dialectic.

Browning and other societies would have received short shrift from Socrates, unless the members com municated with the poet to find out what he meant and even then the poet would himself require to be cross-examined an ordeal from which he would not
:

be

emerge successfully, being in fact but a 2 Plato s objection to poetry in the himself Sophist is not yet based upon ethical and meta Protagoras the Republic, physical grounds as it was when he wrote
likely to
.

but rather reminds us of his condemnation in the Phaedrus 3 of written books in general as a means of
1

2 8

See note on 338 E. See 316 D and note
275 D-

in loc.

IN l R OD UCTION.
education.

xx vii

he does not
explain his

The poet is a 0etos dv-rjp, who says what know even when alive he cannot meaning: how much less shall another
: !

when he

is

dead

to prove his point without doing so

Socrates might have been content much violence to

Simonides meaning.
admittedly sophistical.
in the

His exposition of the poem

is

To begin

with, there

poem

itself to indicate that

nothing Simonides primary
of Pittacus, as

is

intention was to overthrow the

maxim

Socrates avers 1

:

Pittacus

is is

what

is

untrue, but what

censured for saying not less than the whole truth.
is

The

real subject of the

poem

the impossibility of
:

continued perfection among mankind the mention of Pittacus is but an episode, which might have been
omitted without injuring the argument as a whole. But it is in the explanation of details that Socrates
runs
riot

most.

His comments upon /*V 2
ci

,

upon

are obviously and s while in dealing with tv wpaas intentionally absurd, 6 and c/cwV he contrives by the most perverse sophistry
d\r]0<i)^

\

upon

KO.KOS 8

KaKoJs

4

,

to wrest the plain meaning of Simonides into his own favourite theories of the identity between knowledge

and virtue and the impossibility of voluntary

sin.

But

the exaggerated perversity of his exposition is doubtless intended as a satire on the epideictic displays in vogue

among some
it

of the Sophists

:

Plato would fain

plain that he can beat a Sophist
1

on

his

make own ground.
s

342 A

343 c

:

344 B
fr.

et al.

Schleiermacher

reference to
fr.

the fragment of Simonides (in Schneidewin s Delectus

i of

Simonides = Bergk 4
poetrj.
2

57)
3

proves nothing for this particular 343 D.
4

343D.

34 5 A.

INTRODUCTION.
At the
outset,

speech of Protagoras in 3160:
Hippias,
Trept

he borrows some features from the and the remark of
is

when

the episode

ended,

cv

//,eV /xot

SOKCIS

taking as in dicating that Hippias at least accepted the picture as We have not a fair representation of his method to say for certain whether the picture is sufficient data
TOV
aa-fjia.To<;

8i,\r)\vOevai

may be
1
.

a caricature or not: probably it is just as much and as little of a caricature as the representation of the

At all events, if the Sophists in the Euthydemus. sketch is even approximately true to nature, no one
will

deny poets on
If the

that the Sophists
their shelves
2
"

had better have

if

put the they desired to reach the
"

truth of things.

view which we have taken
for

is

correct,

it

will

be vain to look
episode.

reasoned ethical teaching in the
3

opinion of Dummler , that Plato is here attacking Antisthenes for regarding virtue as receives no support from the dialogue, dvair6pX.r)To<s*,

The

even

if

we allowed

that the truly virtuous

man

could

ever have seemed to Plato or even to Socrates capable
of losing his virtue.
1

From

this point

compared with the speech of Socrates
241 D.
2

of view, the whole episode should be in the Phaedrus 237 B

348 A, where Socrates virtually confesses that his exposition

is

naught.
3 4

Akademika

p. 50.

Diog. Laert. VI 105.

INTR OD UCTION.
5.

xxix

On
The

the identification of the Pleasant
last

and

the Good.

episode which requires to be discussed in
is

connexion with the argument of the dialogue
identification

the

by Socrates of the good and the pleasant. This identity is the hypothesis from which the final refu
tation of Protagoras
is

deduced

:

it

is

not a substan

tive result of the dialogue,

but only a means to an end.
Protagoras
:

We
first

remark
is it

at the

outset, that

is

at

unwilling to accept the identification
d$
1

still

more

noteworthy

that Socrates in reality offers
rjv

no proof,

beyond the
equating
eu

fallacy

with rJSeW

which begs the question by The long discussion on the
,

meaning of the common phrase to be overcome by pleasure does indeed remove one obstacle in the way
of the identification, but beyond this Even here there are fallacies, as
infers that
it

does not go.
Socrates

when

of

its

knowledge always determines the conduct 2 possessor because it is her nature to rule and
,

in the subtle reasoning of
fact,

3 355 D which,
,

in point of

presupposes the theory that might is right. The only convincing proof, from the Socratic point of view, of the identity of the good and the pleasant,

would be to demonstrate

their essential unity
:

by an

but of analysis of the connotation of the two names this there is no hint in the Protagoras. The meaning of * Good and of Pleasant is supposed to be already

known.
1

351
2

352

B.

The

fallacy lies in a confusion of the ideal
I<rxvp6v,,

and the

real:

knowledge may be
See note
in loc.

riye^ovLKhv
in

and dpxiKov, and

yet not Iffx^^v, -^ye/jiove^eiv, or
3

&pxfw

each individual case.

XXX

INTRODUCTION.
The
teaching of the Protagoras on the relation

between Pleasure and Good, as is well known, differs toto caelo from that of nearly every other dialogue Not to mention the Philebus and the of Plato.
1

,

where the point is rather that Pleasure 3 and i.e. the Chief Good, in the Gorgias 4 the Phaedo we have the most explicit assertion of Contrast the distinction between the two notions.
Republic is not the
,

2

the following passages
OVK &pa Tb
v ovde
tticrre

:

X^-yets 5^ rti as, efprjv,
/ca/ctDy,

w
T)V,

Tb dvidadai

Taybpa, T&V dvOpuiruv eu
v

eTepov ylyverai TO ijdv TOV

TOVS 5e

/ca/ctDs

;

"E0?;.

Ap

ovv
r}v,

dyaOov (Gorg. 497 A). ov raurd yiyveTai,

8oKi
c3

o~oi

avOpuTros dv eu
/cat
o<

0tXe,
/ca/cd

el

dvtwu.evos re

Tayadd

rots

i)oeo~i.v

ovde rd

fyrj;
fiiovs

OVK
TOV

e(pri.

Tt 5

,

et

r/i

rots dviapols

(Gorg. 497 D).

fiiov

Te\tvT7)<reiev,

OVK

<prj.

To

fj,ev

dpa

TI<

$r]v

dyadov, TO 5

drjdi

(Prot. 351 B).
2i/iju,/a,
/J.T]

yap

e ciJ
IffTTjs,

/Aev

yap
tdv

rioea Trpbs

oi)% avTij

-f)

i]

opdrj Trpbs dpeTrjv

rd

fJ-eifa

del

/cat

d\\ayr), r/oovas Trpbs r)8ovds /cat \viras Trpbs \VTras /cat cpbfiov
Trpbs (pbfiov /caraXXdrrecr^at /cat

\r)TTTea.

oe

\VTrrjpd
/cat

Trpbs

\VTrr)pd,

rd ^Xdrrw

a/MKpo-

u,elfa Trpbs

^Xdrrw uaTrep

vofj.la

-

ywara /crX.

(Phaedo 69

A).

Tepa edv oe ijoea. Trpbs \V7rr)pd, edv fj.ev rd dviapd VTrep(3dX\r)Tai VTTO r&v 7)dett)v, edv re rd eyyvs
inrb
TU>V

irbppw edv re rd Trbppw

VTTO

T&V

eyyvs,

TavTrjv
rj

Trjv

rrpd^Lv TrpctKTeov ev
evfj

dv raOr
VTTO

edv oe rd
ov

ijoea.

T&V

dviapwv,

irpaKTea.

(Prot.

356
1

B).

2

53 c foil. VI 509 A ov yap
Ei)0^/xetfoil.
rjv

orjTTOv o~v

ye

7]8oi>r]v

avTb

(i.e.

r6

\tyeis.
3

8

eyu.
4

495 A

64 D, 68 E

foil.

INTRODUCTION.
Such passages, which might be multiplied at shew that, if there is any meaning in words, the
thesis
is

xxxi
will,

anti

a real one.

Nor doei

the contrast

lurk

merely in isolated passages, for the

whole tone and

argument of the Gorgias and the Phaedo are opposed to any communion between pleasure and good. Various explanations of the difficulty have been
offered.

Those who
Plato
its
"are

(like

distinct compositions, written
1

Grote) hold that the dialogues of each with

own

no

circumstances and purpose / find of course the Protagoras is perhaps difficulty to explain
:

The most the strongest bulwark in their argument. adherents of the opposite school deny thorough-going 2 that Plato is serious , Plato s object being merely to
prove that whatever we take to be the Chief Good, virtue can only be identified with the knowledge Between these two extreme views comes thereof.
the

theory that the
is

identification

of Pleasure

and

Good

seriously meant, either as the view of Plato

himself

when he wrote
It

the Protagoras, or as a faithful

historical picture of the teaching of his master
this subject.

upon

seems clear to us that Plato

is

serious,

but

we do

holding that the view

not find sufficient evidence to justify us in which he advocates whether
it

he believed

formerly or not

was

at this time held

by the philosopher himself. To the opposite theory, it seems a fatal objection that in none of the minor
dialogues which are universally admitted to be earlier
Plato and the companions of Socrates II p. 89. Schleiermacher s Introduction to the Dialogues of Plato p. 95: Bonitz Platonische Studien p. 264: compare Grote II
8
1

p. 87.

xxxii

INTRODUCTION.

than the Protagoras does there seem to be any hint of hedonism. On the contrary, the analogues to the or Calculating art which meet us in the Measuring

Charmides 1 and Laches 2 are concerned not with the
weighing of pleasure, but with the determination of

what

is that which regards the episode in question as intended to represent the views of the historical Socrates. It is true that even in the

good The most probable view
.

is

9

Memorabilia Socrates never
that Pleasure
is
,

in so

many words

declares

Good 4 but he
.

the practice of the virtues on

frequently inculcates account of the pleasures

which they bring 5 Moreover, if Socrates actually did sometimes call pleasure good, it is easier to understand how the Cyrenaics could have fathered

Hedonism upon him. It is of course quite possible that the formulating of the doctrine is due to Plato, and that the historical truth of the picture suffered by the introduction of greater brevity and
their

we may even suppose that Plato, for dramatic or other reasons, was not careful to represent his Master in all respects as he was. But to stigmatise
precision
:

the doctrine as
1
3

"

utterly

un-Socratic,"

as Schleiermacher

1990. a unification of pleasure and good The nearest approach elsewhere in Plato seems to be in Laws II 663 A ff. OVKOVV
to
6 /xey pi] j^w/HJ wi

174 A

foil.

2

\67os
e

i]5u

re Kal

diKaiov

Kal dyadfo

re
9)v

Kal

Ka\6v iriQavbs 7
offiov

,

/UTjS^ erepov,
:

irpos

r6 TWO. td^Xeiv

rbv

Kal

insisting
4 5

diKaiov filov KT\. where, however, Plato is merely on the practical importance of the identification for the

welfare of a state.

He
e.g.
p.

identifies

u>0Ai/toj>

with good in

Mem.

IV

6.

8

ff.

n

i.

19: IV

5.

3 9: see Zeller Philosophic der Griechen

II

i

126.

INTROD UCTION.
does
as
1

xxxiii

,

worth.
it

seems to involve a misconception of its moral There is nothing degrading in the theory

is

worked out by Socrates, since

it

is

not the

each individual species of which we are recommended to choose, but pleasure the balance of pleasure generally and in the long run:
balance of pleasure in

would be quite open to Socrates to maintain that the lower pleasures are never to be chosen, because they are always followed by more pain, or even that
it
2 they are not even pleasant .

we accept this explanation, the identification of pleasure and good will be in harmony with the general realistic tone of the dialogue, and we shall be justified in holding that in the Protagoras we see the ethical
If

no

less

than the educational theories of Socrates and
.

3 Protagoras brought face to face

6.

Date of Composition.
the date

Of

external evidence as to
is

when

the

Protagoras was written, there

none.

The internal evidence, so far as it goes, is in favour of an early date. It rests upon indications furnished by (i) the language and style, (2) the
doctrine, (3) references
itself.
1

and

allusions in the dialogue

2 Cf. Arist.
TO.S

Introduction to the Dialogues of Plato p. 95. Eth. Nic. x 2. n73 b 20 717)65 5 TOVS
rCov

irpo<t>{povTa$

eTTOveidlffTovs

rfbovw \yoi

rts

av

5ri

of>K

&rrt

ravd

i)5ta..

The

historical Socrates

assertion, if
I

would have stopped short of this we may judge from such evidence as Xen. Mem.
s article

4

.

12.
3

See Dr Jackson

on the Sophists in the Encyclopaedia

Britannica.

xxxiv

INTRODUCTION.
linguistic

On

grounds,

Ritter

1

holds
B.C.

that

the
the

dialogue was composed before evidence upon which he relies is

399

But

chiefly derived

from

the relative frequency of certain particles and for mulae throughout the dialogue, and (as usual with evidence of this kind) it is by no means clear that

Plato

s

choice of particles and the like

is

not a result

of the character of the composition rather than an index to its date. It is also unlikely on many grounds
that

any of Plato

s

of Socrates.

The

dialogues are anterior to the death proofs derived from the exuberant

vivacity, the boisterous juvenility

and dramatic

fire

of

the dialogue are surer, if more intangible, 2 to a comparatively early date
.

and

all

point

In two points of doctrine the Protagoras shews
affinity

its

with the earlier and purely Socratic dialogues. Holiness, as in the Laches, is reckoned as a virtue

and placed by the side of Si/caioo-wr?, whereas in the Republic and Phaedo ocrioV^s is excluded, and it is
only the four cardinal virtues that are recognised as 3 such Too much stress ought not to be laid upon
.

we may trust Xeriophon 4 the recognition of oo-iorr/s as a distinct virtue had the sanction of Socrates. The second point is of more
this

argument, but at

least, if

,

Although the subject of the dialogue might seem to have expressly invited mention of that
importance.
1

2

Untersuchungen tiber Plato, p. 127. This subject is well handled by Ast, Platen
al.,

s

Leben und

Schriften, p. 70 foil. 3 Prot. 329 c et

Lach. 199 D, Rep.

69

C.

The

doctrine of the

the Protagoras in this 4 Mem. iv 6. 4.

Meno and point: Meno 78

IV. 428 A, Phaedo Gorgias resembles that of

D, Gorg. 507 B.

INTRODUCTION.
demotic virtue
allusion to
it is
1

xxxv
so much, no

of which Plato
.

made

perhaps a natural conclusion that Plato had not yet elaborated the distinction unknown to Socrates between scientific and un
It is

made 2

scientific virtue

:

but

it

should

at the

same time be

remembered

that Plato

may have

deliberately refrained

from adverting to this subject in order to
picture of Socrates
this

more

true to nature.
is

make his However
only an

may

be, the distinction in question

ethical deduction

from the metaphysical distinction between knowledge and true opinion its absence
:

from the Protagoras

is

therefore in

purely Socratic tone of the dialogue, where in vain for the metaphysical speculations

harmony with the we look
or

pre

suppositions of Plato
1

s

mature age.
between demotic and down. See on the whole
I.

It is in the

Meno
s

that the difference
clearly laid

philosophic virtue is subject Archer- Hind
2

first

Phaedo, Appendix

nearest approach to a recognition of two virtues, one scientific and the other unscientific, is in the speech of Protagoras

The

The elements of 7roXm/cr? apery implanted in mankind beginning and transmitted by father to son are in their essence distinct from scientific virtue, and so far resemble the
320 C
foil.

at the

8-ijfj.oTLKrj

speech

is

apery of Platonic teaching not taken up by Socrates,

:

who

but this part of Protagoras s will not even allow that

the (so-called) virtue which the sophists and public opinion try to teach is virtue in any sense of the word, since it is not know

Schone (Uber Platon s Protagoras, p. 51) thinks that the Platonic Socrates does recognise the distinction between true and demotic virtue when he expresses (319 A) a doubt whether
ledge. virtue can

be taught, since he afterwards proves himself that
doubt Socrates change of position
its justification
it is

it

can.

No

in the course of the

dialogue finds

in this distinction

between true

and spurious virtue
can
see, there is

(as

nothing in

found in the Meno), but so far as we the Protagoras which shews that Plato

had

as yet

made

the distinction explicit to himself.

xxxvi

INTRODUCTION.
1

From
Peltasts
,

the allusion in the dialogue to the art of the 2 Teichmiiller has endeavoured to fix the

It is known that date of composition more precisely. there were Peltasts in Thrace before the time of
3

Iphicrates

,

but there

is

no proof that they formed a

regular corps of the Athenian army till the military reforms of 391, which are associated with his name.

Teichmiiller points out that Plato speaks of Peltasts in such a way as to imply that they are no longer unfamiliar or foreign to his readers 4 and assigns the
,

dialogue to 393 or 392 B.C., when Iphicrates probably began to organise the new arm.
these grounds we cannot go far astray in the dialogue to the second half of the first assigning decade of the fourth century B.C.
all

On

7.

Date of

the Action.

The majority of critics are agreed in supposing the dialogue to be conceived as taking place before the war, in 433 or 432 B.C.
It is in

harmony with
,

this that Pericles
,

and

his

sons are represented as still alive 5 that Socrates is 6 still young and that Alcibiades 7 is but a youth and
1

35

A

rives d
.

ire\TaffTLKoL
2 3

cf.

TrAras ^o^res; ot ireXraffTiKol Theaet. 165 D TreXTCWTi/cds dfr/p.
p. 20.

TJ

oi /UT;

;

Oi

4

:

i: cf. (with Teichmiiller) id. n 29. Eurip. Alcest. 498 BprjKlas TT^XTTJS aval- et al. 4 Contrast Xenophon Mem. in 9. 2, where peltasts are

Literarische Fehden, Thucydides iv in.

similarly cited in illustration, but called 6 315 A et al. They died in 429.
6 7

6p/ces

iv

Trc Xrcus.

314 B

et al.

3098.

He

In 432 he would be was born in 451.

36.

INTROD UCTJON.
Agathon a lad
1
.

xxxvii

Other indications of minor im

portance point in the same direction. But in patent authen contradiction to this date come the facts
2 that the Wild Men of by Athenaeus which Plato alludes to as represented Pherecrates, 3 last year (Wp^o-i) was produced in 420 B.C., and that

ticated

,

Hipponicus,

the

father

of

Callias,

is

apparently

supposed
42IB.C.
witness

to

be dead, whereas he was alive till nearly Athenaeus is not always an unprejudiced

when Plato is concerned, but we have no Plato frequently reason to reject his evidence here. introduces anachronisms in matters not essential to
the action of his dialogues
1

4
.

2 3 4

He was born about 448. 315 D. Athen. v 218 B and XI 505 F.
327 D.

Compare

Zeller,

Uber

die

Anachronismen

in

den Platoni-

schen Gesprachen in the Abhandlungen d. Berl. Akad. for 1873, The difficulties connected with the Hist. Phil. Kl. p. 8 1 ff.
date of action of the Protagoras are well summarized by Sauppe.

TTPQTArOPAS
[H
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TA TOY AIAAOrOY

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j

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him

the arrival of

fcai
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Protagoras,

and

*

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avr(O aVefOce Tt9, t
\

r

<.

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>

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how Hippocrates
and he determined to visit Protagoras
at

eVUV<$

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f

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v

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e77, eypiiyopas
rriv (bcovtiv

v

O6t9/

/cat

eye*)
r,

yvovs avrov,
fjbrj

house of Callias, to see if he would teach Hippocrates wisdom.
;

e^Tjv, ovros.

n vecorepov dyye\\eis
ye.

v

y

,

r)

8

09,

el
rl,

fjtrj

dyaOd
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10

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;

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ye.

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i,

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Kal

15

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t

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en

aev eve^elp^o-a evOvs rrapa

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rovro;

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;

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09

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09,

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4
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ev

II

310 E
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co?

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av rwv

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35
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en
7/3,

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ore TO irporepov

eTre^tj/jirjo-ev.

aXXa

w

^(aKpares, Trdvres rbv

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1

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\

,

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Trapa KaXXi a TW
el-Troy
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aXX

I

KOI

670)

M^TTft), coyaOe,

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e^avao-royfjiev

45

KOI Trepubvres avrov SiaTptywiJiev, ea)? ay Ta ?roXXa Tar etTa taj/^ey. /cal

7p

eVSoy
fo>9

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ware, Qdppei, /caTaX^-v/royae^a avrov,
ei9 rr/y av\r)V Kal ej(0 a jro TreipwfJ.evo^ rovE
T7/9
,

TO etVo9, eVSoy.
III.

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\

Before
cits

setting

pfO/A?;9

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Et7T

vvv
tion
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;

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10 TOZ/

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30

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d/covo/jLev
;

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35

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o?

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virkfycuvkv TI rjjuLepas,

Et

//e^

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Tot?

Su

8e, TIV
f/

eoitcev, &fj\ov OTL aocfrio-Trjs yevrja-o^evo^. 40 8 e Trpo? ^ew^, OVK av alcr^vvoto eh
7<w,

TGI/?

Et\\7}vas aavTov aofyicrTrjV Trape-^cov

Ata,

<w

AXX
B aXX

; Nr) TOV %d)KpaTes, elirep ye a ^iavoov^ai %pr) \eyew. apa, w ^TTTroKpaTes, p,r) ov TOLavT^v vTro\a/jL-

(Bdveis (TOV Trjv Trapa
o laTrep
rj

UpcoTayopov paJ&i\<rw eaeaOai, 45 TOV ypaujAaTio~Tov eyeveTo Kal Trapa

6

TTAATn.NOI
;

III 312 B
ei

KiOapicrTov Kal TraiSoTptpov
eTrl TraiSeta,

TOVTWV ydp av

a>9

TOV ISiWTrjv Kal TOV e\ev9epov
(])?),

50

Tldvv

fjiev

ovv

uot, So/eel,

TOiavTi]

aaXXov

elvai

?;

irapd TLpwTayopov udOrjoris. Oicrda ovv o /xeXXe9 vvv irpaTTeiv, IV.
Socrates shews

r)

o~e

^6dvei ;^
aX
Tj5*
^V

fa

$

eyw.

Tov
fo)9

Trepi;

"On

S

iocs* ?ot

know

OepaTTeVOrai dvSpl,

0>79,

00(f>l(T-

^
dyvoets, ov$e

o TI $e TTOTe 6

ao(f>iaTrj$

eaTiV, 6avel

av
dyaOq) OVT

el

olaBa.
Trjv

fcalroi,

TOVT

OTW Trapa$i$w$
TOV

el tca/co)

TrpdyaaTi.

^v^rjv olaOa, OVT* el Oluai y\ ecfrr), el&evai.
;

Aeye
10 09,

8^, TL i]yel elvai

o-otyiaTijv

Ifyoj uev,

t)

8

wairep Tovvoaa \eyei, TOVTOV elvai TOV TWV aofy&v OVKOVV, TJV & eyw, TOVTO aev e^eaTt, eTTio-Trjuova.

\eyeiv Kal Trepl ^wypdcfrwv Kal irepl TCKTOVWV, on a\X el TL$ ovTol elaiv ol TWV aotywv eiTKTT^iJLOve^
epoiTO rjuas,
15

D

TWV

uoves,

eltTTOifJiev

aotywv elalv ol ^wypdcfroi, CTTHTT/Jav TTOV aura), OTL TWV Trpbs Trjv
TL

dTrepyaalav
eciTiVy

T^V TWV elxovwv, Kal
cro^>i(JT^9

el $e Ti9 eKelvo epoiTOy o Be

raXXa OVTWS. TWV TI ao(f)wv

av aTTOKpivoifJLeda avTw; Trolas eiridTCLT r]^ ; TV av eiirotuev avTov eivai, w
TI
20 eiridTdT^v
r\v

TOV

Troirjo ai,

Betvbv

8

6700,

a\ri6fi

\eyotfjLev,
r)

ov

Xeyeiv ; "1(70)9 uevTOi iKavws

a^,
ye"
,

epwTrjffews

yap

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pioTrjs

(70^)icrTr/9

aTTOKpiO is rjuiv SelTai, Trepl Seivbv Trotel \eyeiv. wcrTrep 6 KiQa-

ert

Beivbv B^TTOV iTOiel

25 eTriaTrjuova, Trepl

\eyew Trepl ovirep Kal E TtLlev KiOapieews r) ydp; Nafc
Trepl

o Be 8r/

cro06<TT^9

TLVOS

Seivbv

Troiel

\eyeiv;

r

TTPHTArOPAI.
OTI,

7
Et/eo? ye.

Trepl oinrep

KOI eTri&Taa-Oai,

Ti

e<JTiv
8>;

o crocfricrTrjs
ovtceTi,

TOVTO) Trepl ov avro? re eTno TTHJiwv early Kal TOV fj,aOt]Ty]V Troiei ; AT,

Ma

e^>7/,

313

e^w crofc \eyeiv. Kat 6700 elirov V.
otot/

30
\

yttera

TOVTO

Ti ovv ; oloOa
Hippocrates
therefore

Ti^a KivSvvov
J
l

6i

(IS
>

ebei TM, OiaKlVOVVevOVTa
v
/

vs.

*

^ eV
PS
,v

T0

aM ^ a
/

ttVTO

/j

ryeveCTUCll

ij

etr
KCll

7
v

TTOVripOVy

^
x

IN*
*
\

eTTlTpeTTeiV

will

11

VpridTOV 7TO\\a (IV
etre
oi/,

greatly endanger the welfare of his
S0ul>

by

feedi

"g

,

with unknown food bought of an,
**

eTTLTpeiTTeov r
T0l>?

unknown

species
[

of mankind.

6t?

(7Vji{3oV\rV
/ca

T6

<)l\OV$

CLV

TOVS o/ceovs,
ecnl

cr/coTrov/jievos

o 8e Trepl vrXe/o^o? roO creo/zaro? ^76?,

al ev

GU

TTCIVT"

TO,

era

it)

ev

rj

KaKws

10

B

irpaTTeiv, xprjaTOv } Trovrjpov avTov ^evo^evov, Trepl Se TOVTOV ovTe TW TraTpl ovre TOJ d$e\(f)w eTreKoivctxrct)

ovTe

7]fjiMv

TWV

Tatp(i)v ovSevi, elr

cTriTpeTTTeov eire
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"^V^jv,

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ecnrepas dicov(Tas, w? (^r;?, opOpios r)Kwv Trepl 15 TOVTOV ovBeva \6yov ov$e <TVp/3ov\r)V iroiei, eire
eTTiTpeTreiv o~avTov
avTu>

eiTe

fAij,

eroiyuo? 8

el

dva\l(7Keiv
a)? ^S?;

TCL

re aavTov Kal

TCL

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SieyvwicwS)

on

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co

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?
CTL>

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^77,

ef

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\eyets.

A/>

ou^,

al

iTTTro/^/oaTe?, o

o? TWI^ dyayyl/jLWv,

a<

25

yap cpoiye rotoOro?
Be,
do

Ti?.

Sw^pare?,

^f%^ rm;

M.a0rffj,a<nv

8
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r)V

nAATHNOS
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eyco.

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/j,rj,

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c

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76

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D

ovre avrol Haao-iv o TL ^ptjorrov 77 Trovrjpov irepl TO zTraivovaiv 8e iravia TnwXoiWe?, cure oi w^ou,

1

Trap 35 larpos wv.

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at

pr) Tt9 rv^rj

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ry

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ra f^aBrujLara Trepidyovres
Kal

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T?)V avTTjV

efjiol
rj

d\\rjv

;

Trjv avTijv,

$?].

dpa TOLOVTOV
dv
/cal
o~v
;

Bircaioo-vvr) olov Bl/caiov elvai,
rco
ep(i)Ta>vTi

e ycoye aTTOKpivo/jievos

OVKOVV
epoiTO
dv, a;?

D

NW,
Nat,
TL

e(f)r).

E
8
09.

ovv

yLtera

TOVTO
;

fjfjids

OVKOVV Kal oo-LOTTjTd Tivd
eya)fjiai.
T)

<aT6

elvai

fyaljjiev

OVKOVV
dv
rj

cj)aTe

Kal

TOVTO

45 Trpdy/jid
o-vve^rj.

elvai;

fyalfJiev

ov

;

Kat TOVTO
0are
;

TioTpov Be TOVTO avTO TO
dv eycoy, dv
evcfrtf/jieL,
ecfrrjv,

Trpdy/jid
TJ

TOLOVTOV 7T(f)VKevaL olov dvoo~Lov eivai

olov oo~iov

TW

epaiTij/jiaTL,

Kal

oj

dvOpwire
ye
f)

a%o\f) /jievTav TL E
*rl

50

aXXo
Be

oariov eh), el pr) avTtj
;

oo-ioTiqs OO~LOV eaTai.

av

ov% oura)9 dv diroKpivaLo ; Tldvv pev

ovv,

e(f>rj.

XIX

33i c

TTPnTArOPAS.
"Ell

31

XIX.
>

ovv yuera TOVT
/
>

eliroL
;
/

epwTwv
dp*
S. "In that case each virtue ill be unlike

ovv o\Lyov 7rpoTpov OVK
/

e\e<yT
><s

/i

*

r

*
>

c.

0/9C70)? VfAGJV ~ \

KaTTjKOVO-a;
/

OOt;aTe H.QI
*
Ol>TCt>?

(pavat,
v
f,

Ta

9 T?)? aperrjS fAOpta eiVCil
\

w

every other, and
llo l iness

eyovra Trpos a\\7]\a,

*% i

-v

&>9

9 oi;/c

<*

eivai
,

TO

v

for

ex-

ample will be unjust."

TQOV

,

aVT(t)V OLOV TO
^
\
\

v

r/

670)76 OTt Ta /Aey

11

TpOV CLTTOLfJi CIV aXXa OpQtoS rjKOVCraS,
,/
>

/i

>/

Protagoras concedesthat jusl ce anc nonness are like

ort 8e /cal

6yae

oTet eiTrelv TOVTO,
\

331 Kovcras eyci) B

TipcoTayopas yap 6Be TctvTa el ovv eiTroi d\r)6rj oSe \eyei, av (f)f)$ OVK elvai TO eTepov fiopiov olov IIpwTCiyopa;
r)p(ji>Tu>v.

a>

TO eTepov TWV
TL

TT)? a/36T/)?

;

(jo?

euro? 6 \6yos
u>

av avTw aTTOKpivcuo ;

Avdyfcr),

<j)r),

ojJLo\oyelv.

Tl

ovv,

w UpcoTayopa,
15

avTw, Tavra 6/jio\oyr)o-avTS, eav 7;yua? eTravepijTai" OVK apa evTiv oo-iOTrjs olov OLKCLIOV elvai Trpdyfia,
ovSe BiKatoo-vvrj olov OCTLOV,
ocrLOTris olov
firj

SLKCIIOV,

aXX aXX

olov

fjirj

ocriov

rj

&
Se

ciSiKov

apa,

TO

B dvoaiov ;

TI

avTat

ctTTOKpivov/jLeda;

eyat

fiev

yap

auro? v7Tp ye e/jLavrov (fralrjv av KOI TTJV SiKaioo-vvijv 20 oaiov elvai KOI TYJV ocnoT^Ta SiKaiov, KOI vTrep aov
be,
el

/ie

6^779,

TavTa av TavTa

dTroKpivol/jLrjv

OTI

TITOL

TavTov y eaTiv SiKaioTijs OGIOT^TI 77 o TL 6^016TaTov Kal fj,a\i(TTa "TTCIVTCOV r) re SiKaioavvt] olov
OO-IOTTJS
el

Kal

r)

OCT^OTT??

olov &iKaioo~vvr}.
rj

dXX

opa, 25

BtaKwXve^

diroKpiveo-Qai,
fjioi

Kal

crol

C

oi^TO)?.

Ov

Trdvv

SoKel,

efyrj,

w

a7r\ovv elvai, &o~Te crvyxcopfja-ai, Trjv re &iKaioo-vvijv otnov elvai Kal Trjv ocrtor^Ta SiKaiov, d\\d TL /J.OL
SoKel ev
<f)epei

avTu>

Sidtyopov elvai.

d\\d

TL TOVTO Bia- 30

;

e(j)r)

el

yap

jBov\ei }

ecrTO) 7]^lv

Kal SiKaio-

32

TTAATniSIOI
ocriov /cal oGiOTrjs BiKaiov.

XIX

331 c

M^

/zot, r^v

6

ovoev yap Beouai TO el /3ov\ei TOVTO /cal el aoi BoKel eXey^eadai, aXX eae re KOI ae TO S e//,e Te /cal ae
35

TOUTO \eya), oiopevos OVTO) TOV \6yov fte\TL(TT

av

\ey%eo 0at,
r)

)

ei

Tt? TO et a(pe\oi avTov.

AXXa

/tei^TOt,

D

Trpo&eoiKev TI SiKaioavvrj OCTIOTIJTI /cal yap OTIOVV orwovv a^f] ye TTTJ TrpoaeoiKev. TO yap \ev/cov
09,

S

TO) n,e\avi

earns

oirrj Trpoo-eoi/cev, teal

TO aK\rjpbv Tc3
elvat,

40

/Jid\,aKa>,

Kal Tak\a a

So/cei

evavriayrara

d\\rj/cal

Aoi?*

/cal

a Tore

etya/jiev

a\\rjv Svvauiv

e^ew

TO erepov olov TO erepov, ra TOV 7rpoaa)7rov HOpia, d/jifj ye Try Trpocreoitcev /cal eanv TO erepov olov wcrre TOVTM ye TCO TpoTrw /cav TavTa TO erepov
ov/c elvai

45 eXe7^ot?, el /3ov\oto,

&><?

ajravTa
rt,

e<mv

oaoia d\\tf- E

Xot?.

aXX ov^l ra
oi>$e

oaoiov

Ka\elv
IT

rd dvbfioiov
e%r)

TI

e^oina ojjLOLa Bfaatov e^ovra dvouoia, KCLV
/cal

aw

0-p.iKpbv

TO

ouoiov.

eyco

Oavpciaa^

elirov 7T/309 avTov,

50 TO oo-toz^ 7T/309

^H yap ovro) GOI TO Bi/caiov Kal aXX^Xa e%ei, ware ouoiov TI
efyrjv eya), 33:

e%iv d\\ij\oi$ ; Ov irdvv, (f)ij, oi;TO)9, ov av /AOL SoKets oU<jQai. AXXa /JLIJV, av
a>9

|

SOKCIS uoi e%eiv 7T/)09 TOVTO, TOVTO ToBe Be aXXo wv eXeye? eTria-KetywaeOa. edcrcouev,
a)^

XX.
Socrates

*

TOVT&) TOJ Kfypocrvvriv TI /caXefc / "E^)?;. ^ TOVVaVTlOV eCTTiV fj P^7Atart 01 next
<7r

^^

OOKCL,

<j>7J.

av0pa>voi

HoTCpOV 6p0fa Te
CTOi

TOT6
<TO><t>pOVelv

S K-

justice,

OVQ~IV OVTCO TTpaTTOVTeS
>ij.

f,

rj

TOVVaVTlOV ;
;

QVKOVV
et

(r&<f>po<Tvvg

o-wcfrpovovcriv

B

t ^

rovvavriov tirparTov

;

codd.

XX332E
Avdy/crj.
TrpaTTOva-i,

TTPHTArOPAS.
OVKOVV
Kal
ol
fJbrj

33

opOws TTpaTTOVTes d
OVTCO
ecrrlv TO 10

ov

o-oxfrpovova-iv
e(f)ij.

T6?;

^vvSoKel pot,

^ovvavTiov dpa
o-axfypbvws
;

d<j)p6va)5

Trpdrrew

rc5

"E^.

OVKOVV
OVKOVV
et
rt,

TO, fJLev

d<f)p6v(0s

irparro/jLeva dtypoavvrj Trpdrrerai,
croMfipoo vvrj
;

rd Be
ei

(T0)<j)p6v(i)<i

Q/jLoXoyei.

TL

o-^v

Trprrerai,,

t^upw?
ESo/cet.

Trprrerai,, KOI

rt

dcrOeveiq,

daOeva)? ;

Kal

et

fjt,erd 15

ra^ou?, ra^ea)?,
c"E^.

teal ei rt yu-era
$r)

ySpaSuT^ro?, /3/3aSea)?;
Trpdrrerai, VTTO rov

Kal

el TI

ft)(7auTft>9

avrov
tcaXov ;

Trpdrrerai,,
^vve(f)rj.

Kal

el

TL
ST;,

evavriov ;

<&epe

evavrl&s, VTTO rov S 171; 706, eaTiv
TI

n

%vve%(apei,.

TOUTW eariv

TI evavriov Trkrjv 20

TO

alo"%p6v ;

OVK ecmv.

Tt Se; ecmv

dyaOov;

"E(TTl,V.

OVK

TOUTCO eCTTlV TI evaVTLOV 7T\f)V TO KaKOV ; Tt Se ; eaTiv TI 6v ev ecrTW. ;
<f>a>vf}

"E^>7/.

TOUTW

D

evavTiov a\\o irXrjv TO fiapv ; evl eKdo-Tw TWV OVK OVKOVV, r\v 8 70;, evavTtcov ev JJLOVOV eaTLV evavTiov Kal ov TroXXa;
fir)

ecTTiv TI

e</>?7.

25

%vv(0/JLO\6

f

yei,.

"\6i

$rf,

r\v

8

eyco,

Ta

a)fJLO\oytjiJLeva

fjfjilv.

a)fjLO\o<yr)Kafjiev
f

dvaXoyKroofjieda ev evl /JLOVOV

evavTiov elvai, 7r\el(o Se

fiij ;

HyLtoXo7^a/iei/.

To

$e evavTLtoS TrpaTTO^evov VTTO evavTicov irpaTTecrOat,; 30 QfjLoXoyriKaiJbev be evavTia)? TrpaTTeaOai o "E07;.

av dtypovws TTpaTTrjTai,

TO>

craxfrpovws

To

8e

cr(a<f>p6vco$

TTpaTTo^evov VTTO

E

TrpaTTeo-Oai, TO oe dcfrpovws VTTO dtypocrvvrjs ; OVKOVV eiirep evavTiws TrpaTTeTat, VTTO 35 ^vve^copeL.

evavTiov TTpaTTOiT dv ; Nat. UpaTTCTat 8e TO /J,ev TO 5e VTTO d^poo-vvrjs ; Nat. VTTO o-axf)po(Tvvr)<;
f

;

Tldvv ye.

OVKOVV

VTTO

evavrUov OVTWV ;
3

A. P.

34
Nat.
EivavTiov

nAATniMO!
1

XX
rot?

332 E

dp

eo-rlv

dcfrpoavvrj

40 QalveTai.

Me/jLvrjaai,
TJ/JLLV
*Ez>

ovv

on

ev

a)/jio\6yr}Tat

^vvtofioXoyei.

d(j)poo-vvr] crofyq evavTiov elvai; Be evl JJLOVOV evavTiov elvai ;
"KvawjJiev
rj
\

<&r)/j,L

HoTepov
TO ev evl

ovv,

w UpcoTayopa,
evavriov
elvai,,

rwv \6yd)v ;
q>

333;

IJLOVOV

e/ceivov ev

eXe^ero

45 erepov elvai aco^poavvT)^

dperrjs,

teal

Trpo?

TO)

fjuopiov Se e/cdrepov elvcu /cat dvofioia /cal erepov

ao^ta,

avrd

teal

at

Swdpeis avrwv,

axrTrep

rd rov

Trpoaco-

TTOV fAopia; Trorepov ovv Srj \vo-wp,ev; OVTOI yap ol \OJOL d/jbtyorepoi, ov Trdvv /jLOvai/c&s \eyovrai, ov yap 50 o-vvaBovortv ovSe avvap/jLOTrovonv aXX^Xot?. TrcG? yap av avvaSoiev, etTrep ye dvdy/cij evl fiev ev IJLOVOV B

evavriov
OVTI

elvai,,

7r\eia)

Se

/JLIJ,

rfj

Be

dfypoavvr)

evl
77

o-o(f)la
<t)

evavria

/cal

crw^poa-vvrj
r)

av

fyalverai;

yap,

Upwrayopa,
/cal

e^rjv eya),
d/covTcos.

aXXa)? TTW? ;
ev

55 \6yrjorev

/i,aX
TI

OVKOVV

av
TI

eirj

arwfypoa-vvri Kal
r)[j,iv
TI

ao(f)ia; TO Be Trporepov av
/cal
r)

ec

Bt/caLoo-vvr)

GO^OT?;?

o"%eB6v
fjbrj

ravrov

ov.
/juev,

Wi TI, r]V 5 eya), w Upayrayopa, dTro/cdaa)aXXa /cal ra Xotvra Btao-Ke^^/jieBa. dpd T/9
So/eel

60 croi

dSi/cwv avOpayjros

o-co(f)poveiv,
c3

OTI dSi/cel;

Alo-^vvoi/jirjv

av

6uo~\oyeiv,

eVel

ya)y\ e^, ^to/cpares, TOVTO C TroXXot ye (j)ao-iv TWV dv0pu>7ra)v.
e/ceivovs

Tlorepov ovv Trpo?
e<j)7jv

}

T)

irpos

o~e ;

Et

(BovXeu,

etyrj,

rov \6yov Trpbs TOVTOV

65 rov

ovBev

rbv \6yov BiaXe^Orjri, TOV roov TroXXto^. AXX* /not Bia<j)epei,, eav fjuovov crv ye dTro/cplvrj, etr* ovv So/cet a 01 ravra, e ire JMT). TOV yap \oyov eycoye
t<7&)9

/jbd\iaTa e^erd^a), av/jL^aivet uevToi,

/cal

e/jie

TOV

Kal TOV aTro/cpivo/jLevov

XXI 334B

nPHTArOPAI.
To
eivai,
/

35

D
o

XXI.
ovayepri
,

fj^ev

Tlpcoraryopas*

V

ovv Trputrov e/ca\\(i)7riero r rov rydp \6yov vrtdro r
uevroi avveya), ,

when Protago-

eTreira
/i

pnaev airoKpiveauai.

tfT*

Wi

*/ bri,
sx

i

eqrnv evw,
,

ras launches out nto a lon S and J irrelevant

OOKOVGL
dSifcovvres;
cfrpovelv

TfcI/65
ecfrij.

5

"Eo-ro),

To

Se

o-&>-

To 8 eu \eyeis ev (ftpovew ; "E^. ev ftov\evea-6ai, on aSi/covaiv ; "Eo-rw, e^?;. IIo8 e et eu Trpdrrovo-w dSiKovvres r) el repov, v)v
7<w,

<j>povelv

/cafcoSs

;

Et

ev.

Ae^et?
8
70),

ow
;

dya6a arra
Kat
z/at yu,a

elvai; Aeya). 10

^A^
E

ov^,

77^

raur

early dyaOd,

a eanv
e^?/, icav

a)(j)e\ifjba

rot? dvOptoTTOLS

At

,

KCL\W dyaOd. yw-^ rot? dvOpwiTOLS a)(f)e\i/jLa fj, eycoye Kai IJLOL eBotcet, 6 Up COT ay 6 pas tjS rj rerpa^vvOai re /cal dycoviav /cal Traparerd^Oat, TT^O? TO aTTOKplveaOai
eVetS?) ovv

15

ewpwv avrov ovrco? fyovra, ev\afBov^evo^
\

34

Tlorepov, rjv 8 eyw, \eyew, do UpcoTayopa, a firjo evl dvdpwirwv ftx^eXfcyLta eaTiv, rj a fjurjo e TO TrapaTrav a)<f)e\i/jLa ; KOI rd roiavra crv dyaOd
rjpe/JLa r)p6fj,rjv.
,
e<j>ij*

dva)(f>e\7j

dX)C eycoye TroXXa oIS a 20 ecrri, /cal atria /cal jrord

/cal (frdpfjuatca ical

aXXa

fjivpia,

rd Be ye

ftx^e Xtyta

rd

Se

dv0pa>7roi<i

jj,ev

ovSerepa, Inrcois Se*

,

rd Be icvalv rd oe Be rd Be rov BevBpov rats
/3\darai<?

rd Be ffovalv ye rovrwv fjiev ovSevi,
/Jiev
rj

pi^ais dyaOa, 25

B rat? Be r&v
el
r

Trovrjpd, olov
/JLCV
piai<>

/cal

KOTTpos, rcdvrwv

(f>vra)v

rat?
ejrl

dyaOov

rou? TrropOovs /cal rovs veovs e m{3dX\,eiv, irdvra dTr6\\vaiv eVet /cal ro e\aiov diraaiv earcv Trdy/ca/cov /cal rals 30 rot? fjbev rat?
<f>vrois

8 e0e\ois

32

36

TTAATniMOZ

XXI 3346
ro>

rov dvOptoTrov, rat9 Be rov dvOpwirov dp&ybv /cal OVTCO Be 7roi/ci\ov TI ecrnv TO dyaOov aXX&> a-w^a-Ti.
/cal

TravToBairov,
o-ft)/xaT09

ware

/cal

evravda rot?
rc3
/cal
dv0p(07r<p,

35

rov

dyaOov ecmv

/Jiev e^codev rot? S eVro9

C

Tavrbv rovro /cdfciaTOV

Sid TOVTO
/ji

ol

larpol

aTrayopevovcriv rot9 do-Oevovai

aXX
,

rj

o TL o-fju/cpordra) ev TOVTOI? ot?

ocrov fnovov Trjv Svcr^epeiav /caTacr^eo ai, TTJV

40 eVl rat? alo-Orjaeo-i, rat9 V TOt9 (TtTlOt9 T6 A^al

&a

TOJ^

pivwv yiyvo/Aewrjv
ol irapovres
/cat

O"^TOi9.

XXII.
Socrates

Et7r6^ro9
^
-?r^

ow
TT

ravra avrov
009

dveOopv^rfaav
says

eu
v
,

Xeyot*
>

670)
\

must depart
n other business nless Protagoas will consent

etTTOV
,

\l

v

LLpwrayopa,
Tt9
y
,

eyco
>

,

eTT i\.r)(T[JLtoV
,

WV

*

/
,

aVUpCOTTOS,

Kdl eav
N

/

5

neans

converse by of short

Tt9 ftOt Lia/COa A67^, e7Ti\aVUaVOLiai 7TOi

D

and
mswers.
treats

him

Callias to

.<-, ov av * o A0709. w

^0^ VTTOKCOCpOS

, %, , (ticnrep ovv, et * \

,

/

eTvyva-

(i)V,

O)OV

aV

a0at
/cal

rj

7T/309

TOVS a\\ov$,

ovra)
JJLOI,
<7ot

/cal

vvv,

e

10 eTTiXtjo fjLOvi,

e^Tu^e9, avvre^ve
Troiei, el yu-eXXo)

/3pa%vTepa<;
/ce\evei,<;

lirecrQai.
rj

IIw9
B

ouz/

fj,e

/3pa%ea dTroKplveadai ;
r)

j3pa%vTpd
eyat.

cot,

effrij,

aTroKpivayfjiai,
ec^rj.

Bel;
TJV

M.rjBafjLto?, tfv
B* eyco.

15

Tiorepa ovv E ocra e/Jiol Bo /eel Beiv diroicpivecrdai, roo-avrd o-oi, djroKplvwfiai, rj ocra aoi; A/ctf/coa yovv, TJV B* eyco, on av oto9 T el /cal avrbs /cal a\\ov BiBdgat, Trepl rwv
ocra Bel ;

AXX

Nat,

pa/cpa \eyeiv, edv PovXrj, OVTCOS, ware rov \6yov jjuyBeTTOTe eTrCkiTrelv, KOI av {3pa%ea ourft)9, 20 wcrre fjujBeva crov ev Ppa^VTepois el el jrelv ovv 335

avrwv

/cal

\

flat,

rw erepw

XXII
,

335

D

TTPnTAfOPAZ.
<f>ij,

37

eyai TroXXot? /3pa%v\oyia. *fl ^co/t/oare?, et? aywva \6ycov dtyiKOfji rjv dvOptoiroLS, ical el TOVTO erroiovv o av /eeXeuet?, eo? 6 avriXeycov eKe\evev
rf)

/AC Sia\e<yea0ai,
e(f)aiv6fjL7]v
f/

ovrco 8ie\ey6/JLr]v, ovSevos dv /SeXrtW 25

rot?

ov& av ejevero Upcorayopov ovofjua ev KOL j(t) EX,X^crfcz/. eyvcvv yap on OVK ripecrev
e/jL7rpoa0ev,

auro? aura) rat? aTrotcpicrecrw rat?

KOI

on

B

ov/c e6e\riGOi
?77?;o-a//.ez>o5

eicu>v

elvai dTTOKpivo/Aevos SiaXeyeaBai
efjiov
ep<yov

OVKZTL

elvai Trapelvat, ev 30
to

rat?
ovS*

crvvova-iais,

AXXa
^a>

rot,,

e^rjv,
TO,

Upcorayopa,

eyco XtTra^cS?

Trapd

avvovaiav yiuv yiyveaQai, aXX $ia\e ryea0ai, to? eyco Svvajjiai, eireaOai, rore aoi StaXeoyLicu.
cri)
yu-ei^
&>?

SOKOVVTO, TTJV eireiodv arv f$ov\r)
crol

7f>,

X^yercu
/cal

Trepl o-oO, ^7)5 5e 35

Kal auro?,

/tat

eV /jia/cpo\oyia

ev
el"

C

oto? T

Se TCL

avvovaias iroielaOai cro^o? yap fiaKpa ravra d&vvaros, eTrel ej3ov\6/jL7jv av oto?
el

T

elvai.

d\\a ae
f

e^prjv

rj/jilv

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w

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8

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ro

named
e ques

into
ic
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owing himself to

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ta,

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el

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TO TrpwTov eyco ere ?;/ Tf](ra, co UpcoTayopa, rjBeox; av eTrl TeXo9 Kal yap BoKel JMOI TO Trepl /jueTa (TOV (TKOTrov/jievos.
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yap
Kal

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ol fiev

erepa, Trepl
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ev rot?

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re

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ere

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formulates buestion to
discussed.

Socrates again the

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wisdom, tempercourage, mce,
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one thing, or are hey all parts of
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plies that four of them are tolerably like each

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but that of is courage another Quite
Other,

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Socrates that
is

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Aeyeis $e rwas, ecfrrjv, w Upwrayopa, dv0po)7rc0v ev tfv, row? Se KaKw ; Socratesbegins

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/AT)

TCL

avrwv diro^aeTai d\\o ; KOI avdis av dviapd a)aavT(t)<; ovrws ov /ca0 OGOV dviapd,
avr

i$fcarcd;
fo>5

GVK

oi$a,

co

av

ep&)ra9, el e/Jiol

aTTOKpireov eo-rlv,
/cal

a>5

ra ^Sea

D

re
fJLOl

dyaOd
&OKGL

earns

airawa
elvai

rd dviapd

KCLKCL

d\\d
/JLOl

OV

fjLOVOV

TTpOS

TT)V

VVV dlTQKpKTlV

do-<f)a\eaTpov

dTro/cplvacrOai,,

d\\d

/cal

TT/OO?

20 Trdvra

TOV

d\\ov

/3lov

rov e^ov, OTI eari
/cal
/cal

fjuev

a

rjSecov OVK eariv dyaOd, ean S av dviapwv OVK ean /ca/cd, ean S a earns,

TWV

a TWV
rplrov

d ov&erepa, ovre r)v S eyco, ov rd
2$wnv;

/ca/cd

ovr dyadd.
i^ere^ovra

HBea
77

Se /caXet?,

77801/779

rroiovvra 7780-

Hdvv 7

,

6^)77.

Touro TOLVVV

\eyo), /caO^

oaov E

778^ early, el OVK d<ya0d, rr\v rjbovrjv avrr)v epcorwv el OVK d<ya06v eanv. Qarcep av \eyeis, ecfrr), eKaarore,
a>

\o ryov
307781;
77877

80/^77

Sw/cpare9, aKOTrcopeOa avro, /cal edv elvai TO aKefjifjua K.OLI TO avTO
el 8e

jjbev

irpos

<>aivr)Tai

re Kal djaOov, avy^wprjaofjieOa
d/jL^La^rtjao/Jbev.
fiyefJLOveveiv
(>?),

yLt77,

rore

Yiorepov ovv, r]V 8
a/cetyews,
77

e<yct),

av

/3ov\ei
At/cai09,

TTJ^

6700

av r^yelaOai

av ydp Kal

35

rov \6yov. A/) ovv, r)v 8 eyco, T$Se try av THMV yevoiro ; wairep el Ti9 avOpwrrov aKOTrwv 352 K TOV el T} 7T/309 VyleiaV 77 7T/009 d\\0 Ti TO)V
8oi>9

9

TOV

au>LJLaros

epywv,
eliroi

IBaiv

TO

TrpoaaiTrov

Kal

r9

Wi

877 fioi d7TOKa\v^a<i

Kal rd

XXXV

352D

TTPnTATOPAS.

6l

KOI TO {jLerdfypevov eTr&ei^ov, Iva Kal eya) TOLOVTOV TI TroOa) Trpos TTJV 40 o~Ke*fyiv Oeaa-dfjievos on ovrcos e^et? 73-^09 TO dyaOov

KCU TO

7)Bv,
(o

ft>9
</>?79,

BeOfjLai

TOIOVTOV TL

i7TlV

Wl

Brf fjuot, TipcoTayopa, KOI ToSe TT}? Siavoias aTroB KaXvtyoV 7TW? 6^66? 7T/3O9 e7ri(7T7J/jLr)V TTOTCpOV KOI TOVTO aoi So/eel waTrep rot? TroXXot? dv6p COTTON, rj 45
,

aXX&)?; So/cet Se rot? TroXXot? Trepl ^iridTr]^^ TOI OVTOV Ti, ov/c la^ypov ovS* rj^efJioviKov ov8* dp^itcov
elvai

ovSe

&>?

d\)C

evovcrr]?

TOIOVTOV avTOv OVTOS SiavoovvTai,, TroXXa/ct? dvdpdt)7T(o i m<TTr]^ Y]^ ov Trjv
Trepl
r

avTov dp^eiv, aXX
ov,

aXXo

TI,

rore pkv 50

rore

Be

r)ovr)V,

a,

TroXXa/a?

Be

(f)6/3ov,

rore Be XVTTIJV, evioTe Be are^/^w? Biavo ovfjuevoi,

C

Trepl TT)? eTTio-TruJLt]^,
KO/jLevrjs

viro

TWV d\\wv aTrdvTWV.

waTrep Trepl dvBpairoBov, TrepteXdp* ovv Kal aol

TOLOVTOV TI Trepl ai)r% BoKei, rj Ka\6v re elvai rj 55 Kal olov dp^eiv TOV dvOpwirov, Kal eavrrep
rt?
VTTO
fJLrjBevos,

Tayadd Kal ra KaKa, fjbrj dv KpaTfjOijvai, aXX arra TrpaTTeuv 77 a dv ^
co<TTe

Ke\evrj,
)

a XX

Ifcavrjv

elvai Trjv ^OOVY](JIV
e^rj,

dvOpwTrw; Kal

BoKel,

coaTrep

av

60

D

eVrt

/cat e/xot

aofyiav Kal eTTio-T^fJirjv /JLrj ov^l irdvTwv tydyai elvai TWV dvOpcoTreicov
e<^?;^

76,

70),

cri)

\e<ya)v

Kal

ovv OTL ol TToXXot rwz/ dvOpcoTTcov efjiol re /cat crol 65 ov TreWovTai,, aXXa 7roXXov9 yi>yva)(TKOVTas ra
<a<7t

/3eXrt(7Ta ou/c e&e\eiv irpaTTeiv, et~ov avTois, aXXa aXXa TrpaTTeiV Kal oaovs Brj eya) rjpojjbvjv o TI Trore

aiTiov

e<7Tt

TOVTOV, VTTO rjBovfjs

<fta

62
70
r)

rTAATHNO!
\v7rrjs
rj

XXXV

352 E

&v vvv 8rj eya) e\ejov biro TWOS TOVTCOV E KpaTov/jLevovs Tavra iroielv TOVS TTOIOVVTCLS.
yap
ol/jLai,
e(j)ij,

w

*2,(f)KpaT<;,
"I#t

KOI

d\\a OVK
eyLtoO e

o

\eyovo~iv ol dvdpcoTrot.
(Tov Treideiv
TOV<$

Srj

yu-er

di>0pa)7rov<;

KCLI

SiSda/ceiv o ecrrtv
VTTO
\

75

avTols TOVTO TO TrdOos, o ye avrd.

<f>acriv

fjTTacrdai teal ov Trpdrreiv $t,d
tryvajaKeiv

TWV ravra rd
<ydp

rjSovwv 353

tcro)?

dv

OTL
,

OVK

epotvr
el
/AT)

opOws \ey6T6, dv 77/^0.9 co Upcorayopa re

&

80

2<a)KpaTes,

eanv TOVTO TO
CO-TLV, /cal

i)TTao-6ai,

d\\d

TL TTOT

TI

vfjuels

auTo

elvau; eiiraTOv rjjMV.
0-/C07TL(70aL T7)V

Tl

oe,

w

^coicpaTes, Set

TWV TTO\\WV B6^av

dvOpCOTTGW, OL
e

85

dv Tv^axn, TOVTO \eyovcriv; Olfjuai, r\v 8 elvai TI THM,V TOVTO 7T/309 TO egevpeiv Trepl d
TI

Ta\\a jLoia Ta
r

T9 deTrs

TTWS

TTOT

r)

yijcrao 0ai,

fj

olyuai
el
,

7rov

dv eycoye fcd\\,icrTa (j)avepov &e pr) ftovXei, el eco <$i\ov,
<JQI

AXX

effrrj,

opOous

\eyew

KOI

Trepatve

XXXVI.
Pleasures
are

Tld\iv TOLVVV, e^Tjv eya), el epoivTO Tt Ovv TOVTO evai, O rjfieLS C

when absfolw
goo
P wh?n thTy
**

TWV
V

^V^T 6

TTpO^ CiVTOVS O)Bi

dfCOV6Te

Stf

by
at

eBa jdp
jpdtrai.

iifilv e

7w

T

Kal Upco<Z

d\\o

TI ydp,

cLv-

Oe

-

(fraTe V/ALV TOVTO yiyvea-Oai ev oloV TTO\\dK^ V7TO (TLTCOV Kal TTOTWV Kal

d<l>po$i(Ti(t)v

KpaTov^evoi

rjftecov

OVTCOV,

<yi<yv(*>crKOVTe<$

XXXVI 354B
OVKOVV

TTPHTArOPAS.
avTa irpaTTeLv ;
eya)
;
<&alev

63
dv. 10

OTL TTOvrjpd ecTTLV, QUO)?
epol/jieQ*

av avTovs
Try
r&>

re KOI

av 7rd\tv

D

Trovrjpd $e

avra

c^are elvat,

TroTepov OTL Trjv

7)oovr)v TavTTjv ev

earn;

irapaxpfjaa Trape^eL KOI r)$v avrwv, rj on et9 rov varepov ^povov re Troiel real Trevias /cal a\\a rotavra TroXXa voaovs
/ca<TTov

15

Trapacr/cev afet

;

17

KCLV el TL

TOVTWV

6/9

TO vcrrepov
Trotet

8

av

/carca
;

tfv,

o

n

/j,a06vTa

%aipeiv

KOL

OTrrjovv

ap*

oto/u-e^

av
rj

d\\o
T?)?

TL

aTro/cpivacrOai,
T7}9
TO,

aurou?, co Tlparayopa, OTL ov Kara rrjv avTrjs 20

7780^779

E d\\a Bia
ra\\a.
TToXhtOvs

vaTepov
fjuev

Trapa^pfj^a epyacriav KCLKCL eaTLV, ytyvofjieva, voaov? re /cal
olfjuat,,
ecfrrj

70)
az/

6

TlpcoTayopas, TOVS

raura tnroKpivacrOaL.
Trote?,
\

OVKOVV
TTOLOVVTCL

vocrovs

TrotovvTa

avLas

KCLI

Trevuas

dvuas 25

354

TTOLel;

6/jLO\oyoLv dv,

009

eywfAaL

^vve^Tj

6

TIpw-

Tayopas.
<f>a/juev

/caicd

dvOpwiroL, vfjitv, (9 re /cal UpcoTayopas, St ovSev aXXo raOra eyct) ovTa, 77 SLOTL et9 dvias re aTroreXeura :at aXXa>z/
(fralveTai,

OVKOVV

w

v diroo-Tepel ;

6/jLO\oyotV dv ;

^vveSo/cet, rjfMv 30
el epol-

Ov/covv 7rd\iv dv avrovs TO evavTLov

w dvOpwrroL

ol

\eyovTes av dyaBd dvLapd

elvai, dpa ov TCL TOLaoe \eyeTe, olov TO, re yvuvdo-ia Kal ra9 crTpareta9 Kal r9 VTTO TWV laTpwv OepaTreias &LCL Kavo-e(i)v re KOL TOJJLWV Kal tyapfJiaKeLwv Kal
r<X9

35

\ifjLO KTOVI>WV yiyvofj,evas,

OTL

TavTa dyaOd
ev
rc5

/juev

eo-Tiv,

B dviapd Se; (fralev dv ; 2<vve$oKei,. roSe dya0d avTa /caXetre, OTL
oSuj/a9
et9

TloTepov ovv
OTL
40

T9

eV^ttT<x9

7rape%et #al d\yr)$6vas,
vyleiai, TC air

rj

TOP vo~Tepov %povov

avT&v yiyvovTai

64

TTAATniMO!

XXXVI

354 u

Kal eve^iat, T&V vwpaTtov Kal TWV iroXecov o-corrjpiai, fcal d\\(0v dp%al Kal TT\OVTOL; fyalev dv, co? eyw/jLai.

45

Tavra Se dyadd ean S^ aXXo TL, rj OTL a7roT6\vra KOI \VTTMV diraXXayd? re /ecu et? o ttTTOT/ooTra? ; rj e^ere n aXXo reXo? \e^eiv a7ro/8Xe ^rai/T69 avrd dyaOd /ca\eiT, aXV rj ^8o^a? C
2<vve$oKeL.

et9 rjSovds

}

re

/cal

\v7ras; OVK av fyaiev, W9
6
9
Hpa)Ta>y6pa<;.

e^ay/jbai.

OuS

OVKOVV
Se

rrjv

dyaObv

ov,

rr]v

\i>7rrjv

$oKaKov;

^vve&oKet.

Tour dpa

rjyela-O

elvai Ka/cov,

rrjv \V7rrjv, Kal dyaOov rrjv rjftovijv, eTrel Kal avro rb %aipeiv Tore \eyere KCLKOV elvai, orav
pf)
rj

ocra9

avrb ex 6t V ^vir
>

TCOV
55 TL

v

avrw rjSovwv eVel

el

avro TO %aipeiv Ka/cbv /caXetre /cal reXo9 a7ro/3XeT|ra^T9, e^otre av Kal
^T6.

Kar d\\o et9 aXXo TL D
elirelv
6
Tlpco-

fjfjuv
(f>rj

OuS

ejjiol

SoKOvcriv,

AXXo
\V7reio-0ai,

TL ovv 7rd\tv Kal Trepl avTov TOV 6 auro9 Tpoiros; rore /eaXetre avTo TO

60 \v7rei(r6ai

dyadov, oTav
aTraXXctTT?;
fj

rj

yu,et^bu9

X^7ra9 TMV Iv

ovawv

yu,e/fou9 rj&ovds

TWV \V7rwv

^rj ;

eVel

el 77/909

aXXo

TL reXo9 aTroySXe-

7T6T, oraz/ Ka\rfTe avTo TO \wrrelcr6ai dyaOov, r) Trpbs aXX ou% e^ere. o 6700 \eyco, e%6T6 ^yu-tz/ clvW
65

E

AX?;^,
efyrjv

e^>7;,

X67649, o TI/?ci)Ta7o/3a9.

eya),

/JL6 dvepoiaOe, evena TroXXa Tret TOVTOV

el

w

HaXtj/ TOLVVV, dvOpwrroi, TWOS ovv
TCOWTOV
vfj,ei<;

cri77 671/0

(j/cere

yu-ot,

(arjv av
rjTTco elvaL

eycoye.

yap ov pdbiov dTTO$el%ai, TL edTLV vrore TOVTO, o
70 /caXetre rwz/

f]ovwv

eTreiTa ev

al a7ro8e/fet9.

aXX

GTL

TOVTW elalv Kal vvv dvaOeaOai

XXXVII

355

D

TTPflTArOPAI.
\

65

555 e%eo~Tiv, el Try
rf

Trjv

e^ere a XXo TL (f)dvai elvai TO dyaOov rjSovtjv, 77 TO KCLKOV aXXo TI 77 Trjv dviav, f)
TO
Be
77860)9
el

dp/eel

vfjilv

\VTTWV;

dp/eel

KaTaffiwvaL TOV j3iov avev Kal fjirj e%eT6 fJLrjSev aXXo

75

$avai elvai dyaOov 77 KCIKOV, o firj els TavTa Te\evTa, TO fjieTa TOVTO aKoveT. (frrjfu yap vfuv TOVTOV o{/rw? CXOVTOS ye\olov TOV \6yov yiyve<r0at,, ^Tav \eyrjTe
)

OTI

TroXXa/ct?

yiyv<iy<TKwv

TO,

Katca

dv0pa)7ro$,
fir)

OTL

KCLKO, eaTiv,

o/zft)?

TrpaTTet avTa, e%bv
dyo/Aevos
teal

TTpaTTeiv, 80
/cal

B

UTTO

TWV rj&ovwv
au \eyeT,

eVTrX^TTo/^ez/o?

av6i<$

OTL yiyvoocrKoyv 6 av0pa)7ros

TayaOa

TrpaTTew OVK eOe\ei Bid ra? TrapaxprjjAa
TOVTCDV
r)TTCOfJ,VO<;.
f

rjSovds, VTTO

XXXVII.
eVrat, eav
r/

H9
>

Se

TavTa ye\oid

ea-Tiv,

f

a/j,a, 7]oei,
"

TroXXot? bvbfJiaa-i ^pwfJieOa The irase To be overc overcome v \ \ /j re Kai aviapw Kai ayauw Kai by pleasure
/JLTJ

KCLKto),

aA-A
v

-v -v

?

>v

7TeiOr)

OVO
/i

?

>

">

efyaVT] TClVTa, OV-

i

c^

an

absurd

way

OLV Kai ovouao~iv 7rpoo~ayopeva)u,ev avTa,
,

of expressing the fact that men often choose a
less

7rlTa TTpWTOV LLV ayaUO) Kai KaK(t), ffv \ i\t cs\ VeuevOL Crj aval? nbei Te Kai avtapCt).
*

S od

in

ference
greater.

to

P re a

C OVTO)
7T09

ft

/

ff

r

f

>

reason ignorance

It is by of their

that

>/

\e<ya)u,ev

OTI

r

yi yvwo~KO)v o av(

r

Ta KaKa OTI KaKa
T/,9 77/^09
;

ecrTiv,
T/,

ouw<$

avTa

TTOICL.

eav
VTTO 10

ovv TOU

eprjTai, 8ia

r}TT(it)fjLevo<>,

(J)ijo~o/jiev
yw-ei/

e/cetz/09 eptfaeTai, rjfJids

77/^1;

8e UTTO
I

ovKeTi

efcecTTiv eiTcelv 3

avTi

T?}9 7780^779

aXXo yap ovoua II TO dyaOov eKeivw &rj d
1

Kal Xeyco/jiev, OTL rfTTwaevo^

VTTO TIVOS;

(frrfcrei,

TOV

dyaOov,
?7/Lta9

<f)r}o~ofjLev

vrj

Ata.

av ovv Tv^y
epel"

b epbuevos 15
77

v/Bpio-Trjs

wv, ye\do~Tat, Kal

ye\oiov
QTI
VTTO

D \eyeTe

Trpdyaa, el TTpaTTei Tt9 KaKa, eaTiv, ov Beov avTov TrpaTTeiv,

yiyv<ioo~Ku>v

rjTTcofj,evo<;

A. P.

5

66

TTAATHNO!

XXXVII

355

D

20 vfuv ToSv

TWV dyaOwv. dpa, (frrjo-ei, OVK dia)v dya6wv ra /ca/cd, r} dgicov ;

OVTCOV VIKCLV ev
(ferjcro^ev

&r)\ov

OTI diroKpivofjievQi,
etfrj/jidpTavev

on

OVK d^iwv OVTCOV ov yap dv
rjTTO) elvai TCOV rjSovcov.

ov fyapev

Kara

2$

dvd^id eanv rdjaOa roov Karcwv rj TO, KCLKCL TWV dyaOwv ; rj /car* d\\o TL rj orav rd JJLCV fueifa, rd 3e afjLiKpoTepa y ; rj TrXeto), rd Se eXarro) rj; ov% E
TI Be,
(f)jjaet tcro)?,

elireiv a/VXo

i}

TOVTO. $f]\ov dpa,

(j)rj<7i,,

on

rb

TOVTO Xeyere,
/caicd

dvn

\afA/3dviv. Tavra jj,ev Srj ovo/jLara ircu^iv TO rjSv re KOI dviapov eVt 30 <XUTO?9 TOUTOt9, KOI \ejWfJL6V OTL CtvOpWTTO Tore fjiev e\eyo/jiev Ta icaicd, vvv Se Xejcofjiev Ta dviapd,

\aTTova)v dyaOwv /uei^co ovv OVTW. fjLeTa\dj3a)/jiv

Ta

tyi<yvca<TKCt)v,

OTI

dviapd eaTiv, ^rrw /ie^o?
\

VTTO

TWV
aXX?? 35

rjSewv, Srj\ov OTL

dva^icov OVTCOV vifcdv.
<rrivt

KCLI rt9

dva^La
35

r]$ovfi ?rpo9 \VTrrjv

dXX

?}

\r]\wv KOI eXXeti/ri9 ; TavTa 8 eVrl pel
/cpoTepa
<yi<yvoiJieva

v7Tp/3o\rj aXGJ re KCLI o-fja-

oXX?jXft)z^ /cal TrXeta) real
el

eXarra)

/cal

fjid\\ov Kal TJTTOV.
Siafyepei,

yap

Tt9 \eyoi, OTL

aXXa

TroXu

w

Sft)A:/3aT69,

TO Trapa^pfj^a r]v TOV et9 TOV

pwv aXXw TM, Kal \VTrrj ; ov yap eo-0 OTW 40 (fraiqv eycoye) rj ifiovf) aXXa), ttXX UHTirep dyaObs ivTavai avOpwiros, crvvOels B
vcrTepov %povov Kal 7;Seo9 Kal\VTnjpov,

dv

Ta
edv

rj&ea Kal avvOels

Ta

\V7rrjpd, Kal TO

771)9 Kal TO
ea-Tiv.

Troppu) (7Tr;cra9 ev TOJ
fjiev

%vy>,

etVe TroTepa TT\elw
tVr^9, Ta
/jiei^a)

yap

r)$ea TTpbs rjSea

del Kal

45 TrXeta) \rj7TTea

TW
fjiev

edv Be \virr] pd 7T/309 \V7rrjpd, Ta e Xaredv Be r)Sea ?rpo9 \VTrrjpd, edv Kal (T/MKpoTepa

Ta dviapd v7rep/3d\\r)Tai

VTTO TCOV rjSewv, edv re

Ta

771/9 V7TO TtoV TTOppCO edv T

Ta

TTOppCO V7TO TOJV
rj

eyyvs, TavTijv TT)V irpd^iv TrpaKTeov ev

dv TavT C

XXXVII
evfj

357

A

TTPnTArOPAZ.

6;

firf TTT)

edv Be rd rfBea VTTO TWV dviapwv, ov irpaKTea 50 a\\r) e%ei, (frairjv dv, ravra, dvOpwiroi ; oW OTL OVK av ^vveBoKet KOI XXo>9 \eyeiv. e%oiv
o>

f

Ore
<f)ij<T(0.

Brj

TOVTO OVTWS e^et, roSe /iot aivTai vfMv TTJ otyei, TO, avrd
ftta>,

Oev

fj,ev

Kal

TO.

7ra%ea

ical TO,

iroppwOev Be eKdrrw i] ov ; ^i]dov(TL vroXXa MO-CLVTW, Kal at (fxoval
/JLei^ov 9,

55

at laai,

cyyvOev pev
av.

TroppcoOev Se
rjfuv rjv TO ev

D

<&alev

Et ovv ev TOVTCO

rd fiev fJieydXa JJLIJKTJ Kal TTpdrreiv Kal \a/jiftdveiv, rd Se a^LKpa Kal favyeiv Kal JJLTJ TrpdrTeiv, r/9 av tf/J4V o-corfjpia etydvrj rov /3tou; apa r] /jierpr)v rc3
e^vr}
rj r) rov (frawouevov Svvauis ; rj avrrj ir\dva Kal eVotet dvco re Kal Kara)

60

fj,ev

ew ravrd Kal fieraueXeiv Kal ev Kal ev rat? alpicrecrtv rciov f^eydXwv re Kal 65
E
TO
Be uerprjTiKr) aKVpov /Jiev av eTrolrjcre rovro Be TO d\rj&e$ f]<ivyiav av <pdvTacrua, Bij\w<rao-a
,

TI

d\r)0e1 7roir)0~ev e^etv TTJV ^v^rjv aevovaav eVl Kal eawaev av TOV ftiov ; ap av ouoXoyolev ol dvOpwTO>

1

Trot Trpo?
77

TavTa ?J/xa9 TTJV

ueTprjTiKrjv vw^eiv dv Te^vrjv, 70

wao\6yei. Ti 8\ el ev TTJ TOV TrepiTTOV Kal dpTiov aipeo-ei T^/JLIV r\v t] (TWTrjpia TOV /3iov, OTTore TO 7r\eov opO&s eSet, e\ecrdat Kal
d\\r)v ;
T^rjv ueTpvjTiKijv,

OTTore TO
7T/909

eXaTTO^,

r]

avTo

7T/909
fcT

eavTo

rj

TO erepov
Cirj,

TO

TpOV,

tV
|

77^9

TTOppO)

Tl

dv

7$

57 eo~(pev rjalv TOV fiiov ; a/o dv OVK eTTto TJJfjirj ; Kal dp* dv ov /AeTprjTiKij Ti9, eTreiB^Trep vTrepjSo\ri<; Te Kal evBeia? ecrTlv rj Te^vrj ; eTreiBrj Be TrepiTTov Te Kal

dpTiov,

dpa d\\r)

Tt9 ^ dpiOarjTiKij
rj

ol dvOpwjroi)

ov

/

ESo/coi;^

; 6ao\oyoiev dv dv Kal TW Hpco-

So

68

TTAATnNOS
6jjiO\oyeiv.

XXXVII
eirel

357

A

rayopa

Etc/

,

o5

civOpwiroi,

Be

Brj

rjSovfjs re Kal XvTrrjs ev opOfj ry alpeaei e^dvrj Jjfilv Kal e\drTI awrrjpia rov fflov ovaa, rov re rrXeiovos

B fjuei^ovos Kal ajJUKporepov Kal rroppwrepw KOI eyyvrepco, dpa Trpwrov fjiev ov fAerprjriKrj 85 V7rep/3o\f]s re Kal eVSeta? ovaa Kal tVor^ro?
rovos Kal

aXXT/Xa? (TKe^i^
f/

;

AXX

avdyKrj.

E?ret 8e

dvdyKrj STJTTOV re^vtj Kal faum?ftf}. fjiev Tolvvv re^vrj Kal eirurrqfvq early avrrj,
Hrt<?

go

elaavO^ aKe^o^eOa ori Se
e^apKel
<yopav

eTrio-Tij/jLn

eariv, roaovrov

TT/JO? rrjv diroSeil-iv, rjv eyLte 8et

Kal Tlpcora-

ttTToSetfat Trepl

wv

iKa

rjf^el^

rfpeaOe Se, el C aXX?;Xot5 a)fj,o\oyov/jiv eVtrjpeo-0
tjfjias.

ev elvai Kpelrrov,
95 OTTOU
v/jieis

ai^

eV ^, /cat 7;8o^5 Kal
t

d\\a rovro del Kparelv, rwv aXKwv arcavrw

7roXXa/9 Kparelv Kal rov et^oro? dvOpwirov, eTreibr) Se VJMV ov% a)/jLo\oyovco rovro rjpeaOe jjiev, fJiera Tlpcorayopa re Kal el yiti) eari rovro rb TrdOrjfjLa 7/80^9 rjr^a)Kpare$,
8e 8^ e(j)are rr)v rjSovrjv
r)fjia<$

100 racrOai,

aXXa

rl TTOT
r/jjilv.

elvai;

elrrare

el fj,ev

early Kal ri vfAeis avro fyare ovv rore evOvs VJMV el-

D

on d^aOLa, Kare*ye\dre dv qfjLwv vvv Be dv KarayeXdre, Kal VJJLWV avrwv Karaye\daea6e.
105

Kal yap v^els M/Jio\oy^Kare eVtcrTTj/^ svSeia e^a^aprdveiv Trepl rip rwv rjSovwv aipeaiv Kal \VTTWV Tot/9
ej;ajjiaprdvovras

ravra

Se eariv

Kal ov

fjbovov eTTLarrjfJiris,

dyaOd re Kal KaKa aXXa Kal ^9 TO TrpoaOev eri
tj

on
no

/jLerpqnKTJs

Be e^a/Aapravo/jievr}

dvev emarr) yit??9 tare rrov Kal avrol on dpa- E 6ia rrpdrrerai. ware rovr earlv rb 7780^9 tfrrw elvai,
f

fjieyiarrj

7/9

Upcorayopa? 6$e

(frrjalv

larpbs

XXXVIII
elvai
/cal

353 c

TTPHTArOPAI.
ical

69
v^els Se Sid TO ovre avrol ovre

TlpoSt/cos
TI
77

IvrTT/a?

olecrOai

aXXo

djjiadiav elvai
TOI>?

Tou? v/nerepovs TratSa? Trapa TOVTWV SiSaa/cdrovcrSe TOU? aofyia-Tas TreyLtTrere, co? ou Si&a/CTOv
Xoi>?

115

6Wo9, aXXa

Kf]SbfJievoi

TOV apyvpiov
/cal
fjuev

/cal

ov

Tourot? Kd/cws Trpdrrere

ISia KOL

XXXVIII.
58
fJLevoi
|

Taura
/

TO!? TroXXoi?
\

avrifJiev
>

v/xa? Se S^ yLtera IT^coraiTTTTia T6
r

*

? fr
(I)
v

epO)T(t),
N

K.CLI

t

yap Orj TTorepov OOKW
/

5.r

(7TCO

VplV
aKrfui]

LlpOOlKe A0705
-i-r
/

NOW

fear

is

^

expectation

of

,

>>/l->/

*

evil; and as no one willingly enters on what he believes be to

tyevSeorOai.

ra

elprj/j,eva.

heyeiv t] evil, eBotcet, aTracnv d\7j6fj TTrep^uct)? OfjLoXojetre dpa, rjv 8 eyw, TO (JLGV
v[ju,v

r/

dyaOov
TOV$

elvai, TO &e

dviapov

tca/cov.

TTJV &e Tlpo&itcov

biaipecnv

TWV

bvojjidTWv TrapaiTov/JLai

etVe

ydp

B

i]Bi>

erre Tepirvov \eyeis etre
t/oet?
,

^apTov, etre oirbOev /cal 10

Ta TOiavTa

bvofjid^tov,

w

/SeA/ncrre IT/)o-

diroKpivat. Ye\d(Ta^ ovv o ITpoS^o? a-vva)/jLO\6yr)o-e, /cal ol aXXot. T/ 8e
yLtot

TOUTO

7T/3O? o jBovXo/jLai

cJ 77, eya), TO Toiovoe ; al eirl TOVTOV avSpes, TTpdgeis airaaai, eVl TOV aXuTrco? fJi; /cal ^8ew?, a/a ou 15
<f)rjv

Ka\ai

*2,vv&6/c6L

TO tca\ov epyov dyaOov re /cal c dpa, effrrjv eyw, TO rjSv dyaOov e ouSel? ovre et8ft)? ovTe o/oyLtei/o? a XXa /3eXTt&) elvai,
\

J

;

/cal

~Eil

77

a

C

TTOiet, /cal

Sward, eVetra

Trotet

oi)Se

TO ^TTft) elvai avTOv
/cpeiTTco

raura, efov ra y5eXrta> XXo Tt TOUT eaTiv rj d^aOia, 20
7

oi)8e

eavTov aXXo Tt

(rocfria.

^vveboicei

TTCKTIV.

Tt 8e 8^; d^adiav dpa TO TOiovBe \ey6T6, TO

tyev&fj eyeiv

&6%av
dia>v

/cal
;

TGOV TroXXoO

Kal TOVTO

e^revadai jrepl TWV Trpay^dTwv irdcri avveoo/ceL "AXXo

t Post

A-aXai add, codd. Kat

70
25 TI

HAATHNOI
ovv e^qv
}

XXXVIII 3580
e/cwv ep^eTai

eycf), eiri

ye

TO,

KaKa ovbels
eVt a

ovB*
Kev,

7rl

a

o^eTai Ka/cd

elvai,,

ovB* eo~Ti TOVTO, 0)9 eot-

ev dv0p(t)7rov

(pvcrei,,

oleTai

KaKa
a\

elvai

D

eOekeiv levai CLVTI

TWV dyaOcov OTav T
"

Bvolv Ka/colv TO GTepov aipelaQai, ovBels TO KrcavTa TavTa crvveBo30 aipijcreTai e^bv TO e XaTTov. Ti ovv ; e^i^v eya), Ka\eiTe TI 8eo9 Kei aTcacriv q/JLiv.

Kal fyoftov ;

Kal dpa OTrep

eyct) ;

vr/309

o~e

\eya),

c3

TIpoBixe. Trpoo-BoKiav TIVOL \eya) KaKov TOVTO, etVe E86/cet TIpwTayopa aev cboftov elVe 8eo9 Ka\elTe. i
I

i

*

I

I

35

Kal iTTTrla 8eo9 T6 Kal
,

(f)6/3o<z

elvai TOVTO,

HpoBiKw
co

Be

E

<o/3o9

B ov.

AXX*

ovBev, e^rjv Hyco,
TCL
r

el d\7jdr)

ejJL

jrpoo~6ev

dpd
40

Tt9 dvOpa)7r(ov e0e\rjo-ei eirl

TavTa

levai

a

Kev, e^bv eVt

a

urj

; rj

dBvvaTOV eK TWV
levai eirl

a ydp BeBotKev, a)uo\6yr)Tat, r^yelaOat KaKa
Be r)yelTai KaKa, ovBeva OVTC

a elvai" TavTa OVTG
35
5
/

eKovTa.

ESojvet Kal
O* \

TavTa
\

Tradiv.
/

AAA1 A.
"\r

~\r -\r T ~\r

/~\

c/

/

f

(JvTO)

or)

TOVTCOV VTTOKeiuevcov,
T6 Kal

^ i]v

o^^

o eyco,

\7T7ria, dTroiXoyeiadoy

fj,r)

TO TrpuiTov dire^ \ \ a TO TrpcoTOv

tlherefore
1 I

bra-

r/

Uery, its opposite, ik wisdom.
\

TpOV
f/

OLOV TO
/

?

\r/
TepOV,
^
/

>,/

LOiaV
>

06
>

o>vr

aVTOV

\eyci),

d\\

eKacrTOV e^eiv ovvafjuv aXK ov TavTa a TO vaTepov eijrev. TO yap vdTepov efyr)
>

^ ^

10 TCL fjbev

TeTTapa eTrieiKws 7rapa7r\rj(rt,a d\\7J\oi^ elvai, TO Be ev Trdvv TTO\V Siafyepeiv TWV d\\a)v, TTJV dvBpelav, B
/ju

yvwo-eaOai Be
co

e(j)rj

retc/jujpiq*

^wKpaTes,

dv9p(*)7rov<$

evptfaeis ydp, dvocriwTdTovs aev ovTas Kal

Tc3Se-

XXXIX

359 E
ical

TTPnTArOPAS.
dKoXa&TordTOvs
teal

71

d&iKcordrovs

d^aOeaTarovs,
Sia(f>epi

dvBpetordrovs Se
Speta TWV aXXaw

w

yvwaet, ort TTO\V
ttTT 6 K

97

av-

15

/jLOpiwv TTJS dperfjs.

KOI
Kol

eya>

evOvs

TOT6

TTGLVV cOaVfJLCKTa Tr]V

p iff IV

,

Tt fia\\OV

eTreibrj

ravra
el

/J,e0*

vfAMV Si^rj\0ov.

rjpofjbrjv

S

ovv

TOVTOV,

TOU? dvbpelovs \eyoi 6appa\eov?
Me/jLvyo-ai,, r\v S eyco,

o Se, KOI
20

C tVa? 7

,

(j)rj.

Upwrayopa^avra
7]

eVl
e

ri

Xe^ei?

tra?

dvai rou? avbpeiovs ;

OVKOVV e a?rep ot SetXoi; OVK etyrj. erepa; Nat, ?; 8 09. IIoTepo^ ol fj,ev 8etXot eVt ra OappaXea
ep^ovrai,, ol 8e av&peioi eVt ra Seivd; ZcoKpares, ovrays VTTO TWV avOpwTrwv.

Aeyerai
AXr;^/),

Srf, co

25

e^z/

D

eyo),

\eyeis
eli^ai

IVa?
roi>9

aXX* ou roOro epcorw, aXXa av eTrl TI 0$9 rov9 dvSpelovs ; ap* eVl ra Seivd, rjyov/Jieelz^at,
17

Sct^a

eVt ra

^117;

AXXa

TOUTO 7

,

e</>?7,

eV 0*9 o-u eXeyes rot9 \6yois dTre^ei^Orj apn on dBv- 30 Kal roOro, e^)?;^ 70), aXr;^e9 ~\,eyW war varov. el TOVTO opQws d7re&ei%6r), CTTI /AW a Seivd jjyelrai
elvdi

ouSet9

ep^erai,

eTrei&rj

TO

T/TTO)

eivai eavrov
^r]v eVt

Tjvpedrj dfjiaOia ovcra.

QfjLoXoyei.

AXXa

a 76
35

Oappovaiv Trdvres av ep^ovrai, Kal $ei\ol /cal dv&peioi,, /cal ravrrj ye eVt ra aura ep-^ovrai ol &ei\oi re /cal

E

AXXa fjLevroi, ecf)^, M ^co/cpares, Trav ye ol dv&peioi. rovvavriov larlv eVl a o i re SetXot ep^ovrai Kal ol dvftpeloi. avTifca els TOP 7r6\e/j,ov ol fj,ev edeXovcrw
ievai, ol oe

OVK e6e\ovcriv.
;

Tlorepov, e^qv eya), Ka\ov 40
e(f>ij.

OVKOVV efaep KaXoz^, i} alcr^pov Kal dyadbv a)/jio\oyrfa afjiv ev rots e^irpocrOev* /ca\6v,
uv
levai

yap Ka\d$ TTpd^eis aTrdaas dyaOds

a)/j,o\oyrj-

\eyeis, Kal del efjioiye BoKel OV

72
45 Op#ft)9 76,
(j)ijv

HAATHNOS
6*70).

XXXIX
</>$9

359 E
TOI>

d\\d

\

Trorepov?
&

et9
ical

360

OVK e6e\eiv teVat, KoKov ov
rj

dyaOov ;
ettrep
efyrj.

S

09.

Oi)/coOj/,
;

rjv

700,

Ka\ov KOI dyaOov,
A/3* O^^

/cal rfiv

H/ioX^^Tat yovv,
KOl ijSlOV
;

yt<yi>(f)(TKOl>TS

01

$l\ol OVK

0\OVCTIV IkvOl

50 67T6 TO K(JL\\i6v T6 KOI afJLGlVOV

AXXa

Kal

TOVTO eav 6/^0X070)^6^, $?), ^iacf)0epov^ev r9 e/i6/^0X07^9. Tt 8 6 dvSpelos ; ov/c eVl TO
T6
(f)i],

/cat

afJiewov KOL rjbiov ep XjETaL

;

A.vdyKij>

ofJLo\Qyelv.
>

Qv/covv 0X0)9

ot

dvSpeioi,

OVK aid- B

55

XP

OV<
<t>offov<;

fyoftovVTai,
r

Odpprj Qappovaiv; dp ov /caXa; HyLtoXo7efc. Et 8e /caXa, /cat dyadd; Nat. Ou/co)i/ /cat ot 8etXol /cat ot Opaaels Kal ol
fjbaivbiievoi,

AX^^,

orav fyojSwvTai, ov$e alo"%pa Et 8e yu^ alcr^pd, e^)?;.

Tovvavrlov alvxpovs re 0o/3oi 9
r

<f)o/3ovvTai,

60 Kal alffXfid ddpprj Oappovcrw; aiv Be TO, ala"%pd Kal /ca/ca &C
/

ljj,o\6<yeL

Oi/T0)9
ol

eX 6i

^
>

7?

<

aXXo ^^
rj

Tt

rj

^>

appovoY dyvoiav TOUTO oY o C

BetXol, &ei,\iav

670)7

,

e^)^.

dvBpeiav AetXot Se ou Sta T
;

65 dfJLaBiav ecfrdvrjcrav ovres

Tldvv
r

7*, e^iy.

dpa

TTJV d/jiaOlav SetXot elcriv;

ljj,o\,6<yei.

Ata At

o Se

SetXot elaiv, SetXta 6yLtoXo76tTat Trapd aov ; ^wecf)?). QVKOVV rj TGOV $ewu>v Kal yu^ S6tz^o3i^ dfjiaOia SetXta
et?;;

az>

ETreVeuo ez/.
SetXta.
ao<pia

AXXa
"E^?;.

/^^,

TJV
f)

6*70),

evavrlov

70 dvBpeia

QVKOVV
rfj
C

roov

Sewtov Kal

D

u^ Set^aw
SetXt a;

evavria

rovrcov djjbaOia I

Kat ivravda

eVt eTreveva-ev.

H

Se

TOVTWV

75

Ila^u /A07t9 ewravOa eirevevcrev. H aocfria TWV Seivoov Kal /LLTJ Seivwv dvBpela ecrrlv, evavTia dpa oucra T^ TOVTWV dpaBia; Oi^/ceVt evravOa OVT eVt-

XL

361 c
r}0e\r)(rev

TTPnTArOPAI.
eaiya re
(/>#9

73

vevaai

Tlpcorayopa, ovre av

a

epcora)
(f>rjv

Kal eya) elrrov Tt Brj, w ovre dTrocfrrjs ; Aveyco,

E

e

T09,

effrrf,

Trepavov.

E*v

y,

povov

epofjuevos

eri

ere,

ei

VOL waTrep rb Trpoorov
d/jLaOearaTOi
ecf)rj,

en

SOKOVCTIV eliai

rives

avOpwiroi

<&L\oviKeiv fjioi,

Bo/cels,

w

dv&peioTaroi, Be. So ^w/cpares, TO eyLte elvai
/juev,

TOV aTTOKpivofjievov \apiov pal ovv aoi,
e/c

/ecu

\eya) ore

TWV

w/jio\oyr]fjLeva)v

dSvvarov

p,oi So/eel elvai.

XL.
ravra,
TTOT
<rrlv

QVTOL,
rj

r]v

S eyw,

a\\ov

eveica epcora) Trdvra
conclusion

Xi
\

aKe^raadau /SouXoyLte^o?, TTCO? ra irepl TT}? dperfjs KOI ri TTOT
rj

|^

avrb

dperij.

olSa yap OTI rovrov
\
>

^

es ras
er
t

^
.

d

^ ^ op

361 Qavepov

yevopevov ^d\iar av Kara- K^^hkh f \\ started v jevoiro eKeivOyirepi ov eyco re KCLI av
>

*j 5

/

fiatcpbv
to?

\6yov eKarepos
dpri
eo&o<>

dTrerelvafjiev, eyat
0)9

fj,ev

ov BiSa/crbv dperr), orv S
rj

BiSatcrov.
a)o~7rep

/cat

Bo/cel rjfjiwv

TWV \6ycov
eare,

/carrjyopelv re KOI /carayeXdv, Kal
elirelv

el

(fxdvrjv

\dftoi,, 10

av

on

aroiroi
/jiev

y

w

^OOK pares re KOI

Hpayrayopcf av
B
Bets,

\eyu>v

ori ov BiSaKTov

eanv

dperr] ev rot9 e^rrpoadev, vvv aeavrq) rdvavrla (nrev-

eTr%eipwv aTroBel^ai
/cal

o>9

Trdvra %ptf/jLara ecrrlv
15

eTTiartj/jirj,

dvBpela,
el fiev

w

Kal 77 o-co^poavvrj Kal r) rj BiKaioa-vvrj rpoTra) yLtaXtcrr av BiBaKrbv (fraveiTj rj dperr]
rj

ydp d\\o ri r]v i} eTriarrjfjL rj dperr), wcnrep TIpwrayopas eTre^eipei \eyeiv, cracfrtos OVK av r\v BiBaKrov
crv o-TrevBets, at el ^avrjaerat eTnorrrj^rj 6\ov, ZtoKpares, Oav^dcnov ear at firj BiBaKrbv ov. Tlpco- 20 rayopas S av BiBaKrbv rare vTrodefJLevos vvv rovvavriov C eoiKev a-TrevBovri, o\iyov Trdvra fj,d\\ov (fravrjvat, avrb
&>9

vvv Be

Kal ovrcos dv iJKiara

e ir]

BiBaKrov.

eya)

74
ovV)
co

TTPnTArOPAZ.

XL

361 c

TIpo&Tayopa, irdvTa TCLVTCU KaOopcuv aico KCITO)

25 TaparTojjieva Set^ft)9,

Traaav Trpodvjjiiav e^co avTa yeveaOai. KOI ^ovKoLjJL^v av ravra e%e\6elv Kal eVt TTJV aperrjv o TI can, Kal irdXtv
Oai,
r)

trepl

avrov,

etre

SiSafcrbv

etre

pi]

30 ev rfj

E7r^//^^eu? eKeivos /cal orKe^ei, cr^rfKy e^aTrartfcras, waTrep Kal ev rf)
^yLta? o
&>?

TToAXa/as

D

Siavojjif) rjfjLeXijcrev rjfjLWV, rjpeaev ovv JJLOL Kal ev TW jjivOto 6 Tlpo/jirjOevs fjid\\ov TOV ETr^^^ea)? co TOV fiiov xpcojjievos eya) Kal Trpo^Oov/Jbevo^ vTrep
orv.
^>^9

35

TOV e/AavTOv TravTos irdvTa TavTa TrpajfiaTevofiai,, Kal el av e9e\oi<;, oirep Kal KaT dp%as e^yov, yn-era GOV

av rj^HTTa TavTa
E<ya)

o-vvBiao-KOTTOLijv. Kal 6 TlptoTayopas,

Sco^pare?, eTraivto crov Trjv TrpoOvKal TTJV Bie^oSov TWV \6ya>v. Kal yap oi/re Ta\\a E elvai, av6pu>7ros, (frOovepos re TJKIG-T av/jL6v,

cJ

</>?;,

40 0pa)7rcov, eVet Kal irepl

aov trpos 7ro\\ovs &r) eiprjKa, OTI dov evTvy%dv(o TroXv yLiaXtora ayafJLai, ere, TWV [lev Kal Trdvv Kal \eya) ye OTI OVK av 6av~
,,

el TWV \\oyi/AG)v yevoio dvSpoov errl crotylq. Kal Trepl TOVTCOV Be elaavO^, OTCLV /3ov\rj, c le^i/Aev AXX rjv 362 45 vvv 8 wpaJjS rj Kal ITT d\\o TI TpeireaOai. S 670), OVTCO ftp?) TTOielv, el aoi BoKel. Kal yap euol
\

,

levai rrd\ai

&a

}

a\\a KaXX/a

ra5

TavT eTrovTes Ka aKovaavTes

NOTES.
This is how the title evSeiKTiKos. ITpa>T(ryopas 11 (To^wrTaf appears in B, except that evdtiKTiKos (which is absent in T) is appa 1 Plato probably called the dialogue rently from a later hand .
the majority IT pur ay 6 pas (compare the titles Crito, Euthyphro, etc. the words TJ of the dialogues are named after an interlocutor) and &5fiKTiK6s were added by Thrasylus, whose date is
:
<ro<t>iffTal

about the Christian
endeictic

era.
it is

The Protagoras

is

the sole example of an
it

was thought to be an arraignment (& 5eiis) of the Sophists. That this is the meaning of eV<W Tt/c6s, and not probative can be inferred from the fact that
dialogue:
so called because
,

Albinus used (\eyKTiK6s in its place (eiffayoiyi} et s roi)s IIXciTWJ os Cobet takes the right view: see his edition of 8ia\6yovs Ch. v.
Diog. Laert. in 51).
into tetralogies
is
is

The arrangement
due
sixth

of the Platonic dialogues

also probably

to Thrasylus.

the second dialogue of the

tetralogy,

The Protagoras the others being
s

(i)

Euthydemus,

(3)

Gorgias, (4) Meno.

See Grote

Plato, Vol.

I

p. 158 foil.

CHAPTER
Socrates meets a friend,

I.

who

asks

him

to describe his interview

with Protagoras.
i.

iroOev

oipav.

The opening words
id

of Cicero

s

translation of

309 A

the Protagoras are preserved by Priscian (vi 63):

"quid

tu?

tandem appares, o Socrate? an
i

quidem dubium non
9J:

est,

unde quin ab
the best

B
s

denotes the Bodleian

MS = Bekker s
first

T a manuscript in the
s t.
is

library of St
is

Mark

at Venice (append, class. 4 cod.

i)=Bekker
class.

The former

representative of the MSS of the

class: the latter

supposed by Schanz to

be the source of

all

the

MSS of the second

76
Alcibiade?"
1

NOTES ON
17

i

309 A

= Latin

1

forestall Socrates
0?}$ diatpdeipew,
2.

answer to the
roi)s

an? introduces a second question intendedjo first compare Apol. 26 B TTWS ue
:

J M^XTjre,
wpav.

Kvviry0"fov

vewrepovs 77 S^Xov 5rj 6 rt /cr\. ; For the metaphor in Kvv-rjyeaLov Sauppe
;

quotes Soph. 222
7rpo<reVxes

D ry T&V ep&VTUv
I

drjpy. rbv vovv, tos &H/CCIS, o#7rw

and Xen. Mem.
KT\.

2.

24

AX/a/3td5?is

5ta

,uj>

/cdXXoj

6r)pd)/u.evos

TOV

Trepl

TTJV

A\Kij3id5ov wpav
is

(=T6j>

upatov

AX/a-

a slight irapa TrpoffdoFrom hunting, no doubt after the young K LOLV as in the English It was part of Socrates habitual and blooming Alcibiades irony
^Ldd-rjv, cf. jSfy
:

Hpa/cXefy for jSicuos Hpa/cX^s)

.

to pretend to

be in love with young

men

of ability

(cf.

the words of

Alcibiades in Symp.

2160

Zw/cpdr^s

e pum/cws

Stckeircu rCov KO.\&V

Kal dei irepl TOIJTOVS tari Kal e/CTr^TrX^fcrat

and 2i6E:
well

see also infra,

note on 310 A line 38). Kal JJLTJV poi Kai. 3.

Kal

fj.rjv

is

merely

as in

Phaedo

840 Kal
well,
it

fjt,r)t>

rdX?7^
is

trot

^pw.

was only the other

The second Kai goes with Trpyrjv: In the next day that I saw him etc.
Bekker
is

line KctXos

d^p

in the predicate: the readings of

(av/jp)

and Athenaeus

(6

d^p) are

less

good,

av^p ^VTOL

but yet a

man
5.

)( Trcuy.

s

V

^v

At the age of 18 an Athenian eis di>5pa$ iveypa^ero. a ^ T ^S iiJJiiv vTrom|ji,irXanvos. avTou = fj.6vois is
eV//,ej>

emphatic as in the usual avrol yap
tos

y

tv avrois TJ/MV elpijcrOai.
cf.

apologises for

of ws ye

Euthycl. 307
/cat

A

ofs

ye

irpbs

<re

and therefore precedes TJIMV. di Tjp ^VTOL for this use TdX-rjdTJ elpr)<r0ai and infra
:

339 E: jcat in
Hevos
is

Trw-jwj/os is

and not
in

even

.

_IITTO-

in uTroTrt/iTrXd-

diminutive,
TI r/fi^pas.

like

sub-

Latin.

So

in

312

A

rjSf)

yap

vir(f>a.i.vv

7.

ou

o-ii

roi)

"ita

cum

"In interrogationibus haec particula" (/teVH^VTOI. ou negatione coniungitur, ut gravissima sententiae vox

iatercedat,

quo modo

aliquis eis

veritatis ingerit speciem" (Hoefer,

quae ex altero quaerit summam de particulis Platonicis, p. 34).

The idiom

is very frequent in Plato, e.g. Rep. I 339 B, Crat. 439 A, Theaet. 163 E. Translate You don t mean to say that you dis approve of Homer
.

309 B

8.

8s

&H xa P l0 T* TT v
"

l

1

lP Tl v KT^

Homer

II.

xxiv 348 and

Od. X 2/9 Trp&Tov
less precise.

virrfv-qTri

rovTrep xaptecrrdrT;

77/377.

To

insert TTJV

(with Hirschig) before

T/ ^T/J/

The

line in

would make the reference to Homer Homer refers to Hermes, and Sauppe

quotes Clement to shew that sculptors modelled their busts of

Hermes

after Alcibiades,

i

309 c
12.

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
u gpoiyc 28oj-v, sc.
5iaKfiff9ai.
ere

77
to his

Socrates replies

Kal ovv KCU apri air tKclvov ?pxofj.cu,

in the words ;) second, where ovv marks the regression Both B and T read apxo/J.ai by mistake for to the earlier inquiry. fpXo/J.a.1 tpxofj.cu is found in a Vienna codex (suppl. phil. gr. 7)
0ah>ei
:

friend s second question (/cat TTWS Trpos and to his first question (17 Trap fKftvov

6 peata as StaKeirat;) first,

which Krai and Wohlrab place along with
MSS.
1

B

in the first class of

6.

OVT

irpo<rixv

lirtXavOavop/qv
:

T.

re following otfre throws

emphasis on the second clause
O(JT
is

avrbv vofiifciv dcovs

TOV>

Apol. 26 C TravTawacrl /*e 0??s The idiom re d XXoi S ravra SidaffKfir.
e.g.

sponds to neque

347 E, 360 D, 361 E) and corre que or (more frequently) neque et in Latin. For the interchange of pronouns exdvov avrov see on 310 D. Kal iroXv -y* i.e. KoXXiovi eWri xoJ 21.
very

common

in Plato (e.g. infra

.

39 C

ApSripTY|. Abdera, on the coast of Thrace, was the The reputation of the birthplace of Democritus and of Protagoras.
25.

and stupidity seems not to be earlier than the age see pseudo-Dem, irtpl TWV irpos A\Qa.vpov 23 uffTrep ev ApdrjpiTais T? Mapwj etTats dXX OVK iv A^veUocs TroXtreuiptvoi and Cic. ad Atticum vn 7. 4. vU os- Schanz writes Wos in conformity with the general 27.
city for heaviness

of Demosthenes:

usage of inscriptions about Plato s time, but MSS upon the whole favour vttos see the Editor s note on Crito 45 C.
:

28.

TO

cro<j>wTaTov.

So

the

MSS

:

Schanz and others read

apparently the reading of Ficinus, who translates the word by sapientins. Socrates however is thinking of Protagoras, who is not but cro^wraros (line 32) the effect of the neuter
ffofiuTepov,
<7o06y,
:

TO ao(f)il}TaTov
co<f)UT(pov

is

to generalise the statement into a

kind of adage.

would introduce a somewhat frigid comparison between Alcibiades and Protagoras in respect of wisdom ; and it should also be noted that the MSS reading (ro^wrarov was more likely to be
changed to an allusion
<jo<f)(jjTfpov

,

ji

to

by mistake than vice versa. There may be some proverbial form of speech resembling that in
\<^ffrov
:

5 vyiaiveiv KT\. Theognis 255 KaXXiarov rb dtKaioTarov cf. also the Scholium referred to in Gorg. 45 r E. The sentiment is an interesting anticipation of the Stoic paradoxes as to the beauty

of the wise man.
30.

d\X
etc.

r\

just

left

So

expresses surprise and interest: What! have you in Gorg. 447 A dXX 77 r6 \eyop.vov

78
coprrjs
fjKo/j.ei
;

NOTES ON
Presently
o\>i>

i

309 c
see

/ue*>

is

as

usual corrective:

on

Apol. 26

B.
<ro<}>wTaTos

3090

33-

etvai Ilpwra-yopas.

The

interest

is

sustained

by reserving the name of Protagoras to the end. elirwv KT\. Trow -y* iroXXd Sauppe places a comma 37. 310 A
K<xl

after TTO.VV ye, but

it

suits the rapid

movement of

the dialogue better

to take Trctpu Avith TroXXd.
38.
,

T ovv ov
.

Sujyijtrw.

Literally
rf

why
ov

didn

t

you

relate
/ecu

,

i.e.

tell

us at once

So

in

317 D

ovv

/ecu

npbdiKoi>

Iinriav

e /vaXe crayuej ; This construction of ri ov and rl oyv ov is common in animated conversational style, especially with the second person
:

e.g.
OTI

Gorg. 503 B
<J"ra

rl

oi>xi

Kal

e>oi

avrbv

^0pa<ras

rls eartv

;

=
<t>pa.vov

rdx
Ttjv

oik av

<j)6di>ois

Qpatyv as Thompson remarks.
ffvyyeyovus in
line

|uvov<rav

recalls

36.

The

continual

(

use of the words evve tvai, (rvyyiyveffOai, ir\T](ndeiv, l&a.i eirL, epav and the like to denote the relation between learner and teacher in

Plato

s

dialogues depends upon the conception of the philosophical
:

impulse as fyws
39.

see

Symp.

210.

e|avaerTt]oras

TOV iratSa rovrovC.
this, as

The

slave

was doubtless
it

in attendance

on the Friend.

42.

aKoviyre.

From
-f\

well as from

-rjfj.e is

and

a/cohere,

appears that the Friend was not the only
cf.

listener.

BnrXTJ av ci r] 44. \cipis. The expression is almost proverbial: (with Schneidewin on Soph. Phil. 1370) Eur. Rhesus 162 163

iravrl

yap TrpoffKei^vov

K<?p5os

TT/DOS epyit)

rrjv

xapiv rtKTCi dur\TJv,
Ka.fj.oL

and Eur. Suppl. 333 Xap/ia yiyi>Tai r65e.

334

rqide T

fiprjKas

KO\US

dtTrhovv 5

CHAPTER
Socrates begins his story.
early hour
1.

II.

and entreated him
(3a6os 6 p0pov.
opQpos
is

to apply to Protagoras
is

Hippocrates called on him at an on his behalf.
the period just before
it

rt
:

opdpos jSadvs

daybreak

was more
2.

the morning twilight, and (3a6vs implies that dark than light Crito 43 A. similar use of (3a6vs
:

A

is

seen in the expressions
IiriroKparris

/3a0e?<z

vvt-

and

j8a0e?a effirtpa.

Hippocrates is known only from this dialogue. 5^ without preceding fj.tv is regular in such twofold descriptions of a person: Sauppe refers to Aesch. Pers. 151 ^77 and Hclt. VII 10 irarpl T$ ff$ fj.rjT-r]p (3a,<ri\tws, /3ctir/Xeia 6
3a<rwvos

8

a8eX(f>6s.

t

ii

3 io c

PLATO S PROTA GORAS.
,

79
5^=
vel

-rjyopevov.

The

use of 5e in /J.a\\ov

potius
5.

is

the same.

fjei tirei-yoncvos.

SoBT:
s

neither in the 3rd singular of such 3101?

forms nor elsewhere do Plato
(Vol.

MSS always avoid
(pe\Kv<rTiK6v

hiatus.

Schanz

xn

p. xv)

would

insert the v

in such

forms before

a vowel, unless a pause follows. 9. I-mroKpaTTis, efav, OVTOS.

We

have followed Heindorf in

Heindorf (following Ficinus) cor printing a full stop after ouros. rectly takes the words as an aside; Socrates recognises Hippocrates

by
the

his voice.

new
10.

is

The neuter comparative of vtos regularly implies that worse than the old see on Euthyphr. 2 A.
:

el |Ai]

d-yaOa

y*-

Compare Ar. Knights 186 puv
el ^77
/c

e/c

Ka\uv
loc.
,

el Ka.ya.6wv;

pa

roi)s Qtovs,

irovrjpuv

ye and Blaydes in

The idiom

originally

meant
has

unless

by vewrepa you mean dya.6d

which would be a contradiction
Preceded by ovdev
it

in terms, since vcwrepov is KO.K()V.

come
rpLrtiv

to

mean

little

more than

except

good

.

ye 7)077 rnj.epav. unnecessary, as the Athenians counted the interval between two sunsets as one day (Kroschel, referring to Varro ap. Cell. Noct. Att. in 2. 4).
14.
lo-ire pas -ye
:

12.

irpcorjv: see

309 D

x^

s

is

Tri\j/T]Xa<})i]<ras

TOV

(TKijiiroSos.

The

ffKi[j.Trovs

was a low

stool

3

or bed.

According to a Scholiast on Ar. Clouds 254 the word means properly a lame stool (xwX^v Kpa.pj3a.Tiov) and is connected
with
tive
ffKi/j-ird^eiv

= xwAcuVeii

.

^7rn//77\a0w is followed

by

t?ie

accusa
for, e.g.

where
II

it

does not

(as here) contain the idea

of search

in

Rep.
1

360 A

(tiri\pr)\a<p>vTa.

TOV da.KTv\iov).
Sr^/xos

7.

OIVOTJS.
<J)V\T]

Oenoe (probably = the Wine-country) was a

in the

IirTroOouvTts,

near Eleutherae, on the road to Thebes.

The

slave

had endeavoured
Sr/yiios

There was another
to the
19.
0i>\7j

to escape across the frontier into Boeotia. of the same name near Marathon, belonging

AlavTis.
TJXOov.
.

iri8^ 8

For

this sense of fyxo/zat

(

come back
irplv

)

Ileindorf quotes Lysias virep Mamtfeou 4 d\\ c^s TOV Heipaia. KO,Te\deiv irpoTepov irevd airb
<f>u\7?s

-fjWo/uiev
ij/ui.e

TOVS

pais.

So (not a5eX06s) the MSS. The article is not rarely omitted with names denoting relation, as we usually omit See Ku hner s Griechische Gramfather and mother it with 5^ is matik II p. 522. The force of ZTI is late though it was commonly omitted after 6retra and etra so infra 350 D
21.
d8X<|)6s.
. .
:

So
fj.ev

NOTES ON
yap
ry
2 3-

ii

3

roc
/V

eVeiTa
d

:

Symp. 211 A

irp&rov

fj.fi>

del 6v

HireiTa ou rrj

/caXop,

cu crx/^p.

3IOD
217

iroppw TWV VVKTWV.
di\ey6fj.t]v del iroppw
ocrov.

The
So

plural
:

is

idiomatic:
2

cf.

Symp.
/JacnXeu
.

D

TWV VVKTWV

Ar. Clouds

w ZeO

TO xPVIJ a r &v VVKT&V

yueVcu VIJKTCS for
"

midnight

"In

quibus loquendi nas denotant
".

formulis"

remarks Heindorf

VVKTCS horas noctur-

6 VTTVOS dvT]Kv is modelled on Homer (e.g. II. II 71 efj.e Se y\vKvs virvos dviJKev), but Plato gives a different turn to dvrjKev by adding tic TOV Ac6?rou, where ^/c is from , not after (as Stallbaum
24.

thinks).

Note presently that ourw
is

to introduce the apodosis after

participles
26.

especially

common
TTO.VTO.
crol

in Plato: cf. infra

314

c,

326 D.
in

avSpefav.
/cwAtfet

dvdpeios occurs in

much

the

same sense

Meno

8r

D ovdv

rfiXXa

Kal /Ay

diroKafj-vr]
ere

frr&v.
ddiKelf

is

dv5pe?os y emphatic and should therefore be

O.VTOV dvcvpeiv, fdv rts

accented, like
27.

in line 31.
is

dSiKei.
is

often used of a past injury because the
till

injury

regarded as continuing
c.

atonement

is

made

:

see

on

Crito 50

Kal ireiOgs CKCIVOV. eiv ttvrw SiSwS dp^vpiov 30. variation of pronouns cf. Euthyphr. 14 D dXXa /wot X^oj
i]

For the
rts O.VTIJ
e*/cetV<Hs;

vinjpeffla e

<rri

ro?s Oeois

,

a.iTeiv

re

(fiys

auroi)s Kal didovai

j

supra 309 B and infra 318 C. The change is most frequent where the second pronoun is different in case from the first compare
:

Classen on Thuc.
CKCIVOV,
ai>

I

132.

5.

Cobet

ejects the

words

Kal irdOris

but they are supported by the parallel expression of 311
TO,

D
is

/Jitv

etKvr)Tai
*S
:

rj^repa
0>i
:

xp^ara Kal TOVTOIS
Kal
ol

Treidw/jiev

avrov.

31.

Zev Kal

i.e.

&X\oi

6eol.

The exclamation

common
32.

see Blaydes

v TOVTW di\.

on Ar. Plutus i. Cf. 354 E and 356 D

el

ov

tv Toitry yfuv

rjv

TO

eft

TrpdrTeiv.
<}>Xwv.

3IOE

T v tf Te The English idiom would lead us to 33expect o#re T&V -rCiv 0tXwv \ but in Greek the double article is avoided by substituting my friends for my friends property
.

Analogous
XapiTe<r<ru>

is

the usage

known

as comparatio compendiaria, e.g.

Ko/j.at

o/^oiai (II.
.

xvii 51), where

the Graces

is

put for

the

Graces hair

dXX* avrd raura.

See on

ApoL

23 B.

TavTa = 8ta TavTa

is

frequent in Plato and Aristophanes.
37.

OT TO irporepov

eirc8i](xr](rV.

Probably about 445

B.C., if

in

3n

A

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.

81

is 433 432. (See Introd. p. xxxvi. ) Protagoras went to Thurii in 443 B.C. being charged by Pericles to draw up a code of laws for the new colony.

the date of action of the dialogue

KaXXux IirirovCKOv. 41. Callias, son of Hipponicus, be- 31 1 longed to one of the richest families in Athens (infra 337 D ai)r?}s TOV ^yiyrov /ecu 6\(3iu)Ta.Toi> OIKOV rbvfte). His devotion TTjs 7r6Xews
TO>

A

to the

Sophists
-

in general
-

is

remarked upon
TJ
:

in

6s rcrAe/ce xP^fJ a Ta

ffofaffrats TrXetw

Zv/j-iravTes oi aXXot,

Apol. 20 A avfipl KaXXt a

T

liriroviKov (cf. Crat.

larly attached to the

391 B) but he seems to have been particu doctrines of Protagoras see Theaet. 164 E
:

ov

yap

eyj) t
(i.e.

w

Sw/c/xzre?,

ctXXcY

/xaXXoi/

KaXXt aj

6

IiriroviKOV

T&V

tKeivov

Tlpurayopov \6yuv)

tiriTpoiros.

One

of his two sons

(Apol. 20 A), Protarchus, appears as an interlocutor in the Philcbus. In 393 392 Callias was associated with Iphicrates in the command of the Athenian forces at Corinth, and as late as 371 we find him

he spent
42.

It appears that acting as ambassador to Sparta (Xen. Hell, vi 4). all his money and died in actual want (Athenaeus XII 52).
fiTJirw,

to-yaGe.

The MSS have

archetype had
tKeiffe
iufj.fi>,

/j-rj-jruyade,

reading

/ITJTTW

/XTJTTW dyade probably the Cobet rejects by a natural mistake. ye, on the ground that with /ITJTTW ye
:

the Greek idiom does not repeat the verb: but there is no proof that the verb could not be expressed with /^TTW (without 7e).
43. Sevpo |ava(TTwnv els TI^V avXtjv. suggests that e^avaa-TavTes should be read, or
cts rr/j

Herwerden needlessly
etj TTJV a.v\r}v

rejected

:

av\Jiv goes with f^avaaTw/jifv: cf.

e/*

5^ Set iroi fi-avaffTijvai,
:

in

rise

let us Theages 1290. devpo we should translate by here and go out into the court here Classic Greek does not admit
.
:

of rj/Se in such a case

see

Cobet

s

Novae Lectiones

p. 91.

CHAPTER
himself under Protagoras, and liberal education.
i.

III.

Socrates cross-examines Hippocrates as to his purpose in putting
elicits

from him that his object
a.va<jT&vTts

is

dvacrrdvTCs
cf.

(rrCj^v

infra

For els T^V av\T]V. 314 C where CTTICTT fores
d-/i,

after

is

followed by

328 E eireK8iddetedl5ai>: 351 C dtee\d6vTasee\0eiv: Phaedo
104 D tVi TO TOIOVTOV
j;

(pa/jie v,

i]

ivavria IMa. eKeivri rrj

fJ.op<j>fi

t

o.v

TOUTO

ye i] elpyd^ero Euthyd. 281 C OVK e Xctrrw irpdrruv Adrrw Sv c^afjiaprdvoi,
dTrepydfyrai,
de"

ovdeiroT*

av

fXdoi

A. P.

6

82
eXdrrw

NOTES ON
Se a/jLaprdvuv TJTTOV

in 311 A
I

av KO.KUS wpdrTOi and Rep.

336 E:

Phaeclo 59 B: Crito 44 D: Crat. 399

A

B.

311 B

2.

diroTrip(o(jLvos
(cf.

8i<rKoirow.

pd/jnr)

resolution

avdpeta.
Ko.1

above 310 D) as
yvu/j.-r)s,

in Polit.

of strength of will and 259 C irpbs rrjv T??S

^VXTJ^ avvevLv

pi!}/j.-rjv.

the suggestion of Hoenebeek,

would be much
8.

less forcible
el

and exact.
av goes with aireKpivu in line 13.

w(rirp dv

KT\.

The

application of the similes follows in D, and each illustration contains

two subordinate protases, viz. (in B) (i) ct e/cetVy, (2) et TIS ffe r/peTO, and (in c) (i) el dt With e/ceiVois, (2) ft ris ijpeTo. this multiplication of protases Heindorf compares Meno 74 B fj.av6de7rej>6ets
<re

ve is

yap
5r/

TTOV
cyijj

OTL

ovTto<ri

fyet Kepi iravrbs
(.GTL

et

rU
;

<re

avtpoiro TOVTO
avrti}
T)

3 vvv

ZXeyov, ri

cr^ytta,

w Me^wv

el

elires

OTL

(TTpoyyv\6Tr)s, ft aoi elirev airep eyu, irbrepov
fffrlv
rj

ffxfjfJLa
"

err poyyv\6TT)s

ffx^fJ-d

TI
is

;

elres

5?j

irov

av OTL
style

axw&
:

The

reasoning

from analogy 448 B foil.
9.

quite in Socrates

see for example Gorg.

It is unnecessary Hippocrates, the founder of medical science, born about 460 B.C. in Cos, was at the height of his renown about the year 400. He is referred to also in Phaedrus

Iir-iroKpaTii

TOV TWV

AcrKXr^iriaSaiv.

(with Naber) to bracket

IinroKpdTr}.

270 C

(el Liev

odv IwiroKpaTfL ye

ry rwv AffK^jriaowv

dei TL TreidevdaC)

as holding the view that the

apart from ^ constituted a

human body could not be understood The expression TOV TUV Ao /cXijTriaSw^ TOV 6\ov sort of medical degree, since it marked a man as one
<j>v(n^.

of the

and Cnidus.

a recognised school of medicine in Cos sons of Asclepius See Bliimner Griechische Privatalterthiimer p. 354.

3110

15.

IIoXvKXeiTOv

doctor, so Polyclitus
fifth

century B.C. in

As Hippocrates was the leading 4>i8iav. and Phidias were the foremost sculptors of the Greece. Polyclitus is not elsewhere mentioned
according to Pliny (Nat. Hist, xxxiv but Argos was the centre of his school.
:

in Plato (except infra 328 c)

55) he

was born
is

at Sicyon,

Phidias

referred to in

Meno

91

D oWa yap

ai>8pa

eva
T)

HpuTaydpav
re,

TrXet w x/Ttyuara

KTrjffd/j.evov diro

TavTrjs T^S (ro^i as

3>ei5iav

6s

ovTdj irepKpavws /caXa fpya, elpyd^eTO, Kal

aXXous

5^/ca

TU>I>

dvSpiWTO

TTOLUV

and in Hipp. Maior 290 A

D.

21.

tV

impci 8^

Lexicon

Vocum

is explained by Timaeus in his Platonicarum as expressing /j,ev TWV

811 .

etev

<rvyi<aTdde<ris

tifnjfdyuy, ffwatyri Se Trpos TCL /xAXo^ra.
/

According to the testimony
elev

of ancient grammarians the particle

was pronounced

with inter-

in

3n

E

PLATO S PR O TA GORA S.
See note on Apol. 18
E.

83

vocalic aspiration as in raws.

The rough

possibly be due to popular etymology from da 4v, lv being used as in tv uv r65 -fjdTj TUV rpi.wv iraXaurfMTuv Aesch. Eum. 589. In the best MS of the Republic (Paris A) elev is regularly

breathing

may

written,
dt
5?7

and the same orthography

is

is found in B, e.g. Gorg. 466 c. used to introduce the application as in 312 E. See also

note on 357 A infra.
24.
civ jx^v

tiKVT]Tai

Kal TOVTOIS imQwfiev avrdv,
I

sc.

ravra

TfXoOj Tes or dvaXlffKovTfs.
OTroTf.

yap

TIS

6fJ.o\oyfi<reie

leindorf compares Xen. Mem. in 9. TOV /mev &PXOVTOS clvai rd irpoffrarreLV 6 TL
e"v

n

3110

XPV

Troie iv,

TOV 8e dpxouf vov r6 ireiOeffdai, eireSeiKwev

re vyl TOV

/utV eTriaTa/Aevov
i>7)t

apxovTa,

rbi>

5e vavK\r}pov Kal TOVS &\\ovs TOI)S e v rrj

TraiTd? ireidoiJitvovs

r^

TI CTrt/ifXeias Sed/JLevov,
(sc.

Kal TOI)S aXXoi S Trairas, ofs iiricrTa^v^ av avrol riywvTai liriffravdai e?rt/j.fi>

clir^ p.oi, i6V, \ 27. ZwKpare s re Kal IiriroKpaTes. 017?, ehr^ are not rarely used in addressing subjects in the plural. Com- \ pare Ar. Peace 383 enr^ JJLOI TI Tracer uvdpes PI. Euthyd. 283 B The exhortation or fjioi, 077, 2c6/cpaT^s re Kal vfj-eTs ol fiXXoi.
<3

0(?/>e,

:

ei-ire"

<Z

command
however
fiTreTov
30.

is

in general primarily addressed to

one

man

:

contrast
Nitda,

infra

330 B and Lach. 186 E
i.e.

<ri>

5

,

w Act^s
.

KO.I

T)fuv e/carepos.

diXXo ye,

other than the

in accordance with Plato s usage to

name Protagoras It is more 31 make the first question end with
as introducing the

1

E

the

first aKOvo/Jiev,

and regard the ucmep clause

second question

TIpuTayopov aKOvouev ; This second question is rejected by Cobet as spurious, but the punctuation which we have adopted seems to remove the difficulty. The wcnrep clause
rl TOIOVTOV irepl

defines in advance the

meaning of
/3ej3cu ws
r\v

TOLOVTOV

:

for this

and

for the

asyndeton compare Sophist. 258 B

on
e"ya

TO

fj.ri

ov

ecrTl

C iroTepov ovv Set BappovvTa TTJV avTov (pixnv ^x ov \ tiffWtf Tb
yUT/
/j.e

Kal Tb Ka\bv

Ka\bv Kal Tb
/U.T]

ya

/XTJ

fj.ya Kal TO
HCTTI

fjLT)

Ka\bv

/j.7]

Ka\6v, OVTW 8e Kal Tb

ov KaT&, TavTbv yv Te Kal
;

]j.r)

ov, tvdpid/JLOv

TUV TTO\\UV OVTUV

eI5os 2v

Crat. 394

A

B

:

Theaet.

172

&TTOV,

D with Ileindorf s note. See also 330 A uxnrep TO. TOV irpoo-where the same punctuation should be adopted. In line 33
rjKovo/jifv

the MSS read
33.

by mistake

for aKovo/j.ev.

<ro<f>urrqv

ctvai.

On

oofpiffTrjs

see infra, note on 312 C.

y
i

e2Vcu implies that Protagoras may be a sophist only in name. frequently used with verbs of naming: compare Lach. 192 A 6

i

62

84
dj/o/td^ets

NOTES ON
TaxvrijTa elvai.
u>s

111311 E
etev,
0?;,

ws for
36.

elvcu,

$<p-rj.

is

Cobet s suggestion to read ingenious but needless.
ri

avros
VTr

8fc

8i]

irapd TOV rTpamfyopav, sc.
uTro^cuVet
ri
r/yue

a? airoKpivcuo;

312 A

38.

4>aiVV

TI ^fxepas.

pa

is

used, as Heindorf
,

says, de die illuccscentc.

Here

r/^/3as=* something of day

some

daylight
39.

.

cl jiev

TI

2oiKV.
is

Heindorf remarks that Stephanus con

jecture TOVTO ZOIKCV

frequently omitted.
p.t\\fi

needless, the vague indefinite subject being Comp. Crat. 387 D direp TI rots ZuTrpoadev

rpbtrov
41.

b^o\oyov^vov elvai. nva OVK tontey.
els
:

Phaedo 99 E urws
oravrov.
cts

^v

ovv

$

et /cd^w

TOVS

"EXXrjvas

rous

"EXX^ms

goes with

Trap^coi

cf.

Symp. 179 B

"EXX?jj/as.

Young men

ira/)^%eTai eis rous of fashion were fond of looking to Greek, as
iKavrjv fUtf/ivpUuf

opposed

to Athenian, public opinion.

The MSS have

avrbv, but the

use of the third personal reflexive pronoun for the first and second in the singular number does not seem to be certain in Plato and it
:

is

simplest to suppose that
xii.

<r

fell

out after "EXX^ns

:

Schar.z Vol.

vn

p.

44.

ci\X
is
:

d pa

}ii]

ov TOtavTTjv.
all

01)

and

fJL-fj

virtually

perhaps

(originally

goes closely with roiavr^v^ lest as in opa fj.-^ Theaet.
6 Kr^atTTTros rjv
ol
CA--

145 B)

but perhaps after

(&pa) this is not the-kind of learning
(J.T)

which
6

Compare Euthyd. 290 E ctXX apa TUVT diruv and Apol. 25 A dXX &pa /ATJ ot h
etc.

rfj e/c/cX^o-tct,

K\if]ffiaaTal }

dia^deipovcn

TOVS veurtpovs.
all

Meno

89 c

/xr;

TOVTO ov
fjnj 7477

/caXws ufj.o\oyr]cra/jt.v.
in this

In

of these passages

it is

better to take
this use of

way than

as equivalent to Latin

num.
,

From
Myov<ru>

grew up the use of /^irore = perhaps
later, e.g.

Eth. Nic.
]

X

2

H73 a

22

f-^1

frequent in Aristotle and * OT ov TO aiTtov.

31

2

B

46.

ofrvrrtp

Trapct is the

reading of

T B
:

has

oi a irepl.

The

ypa/j.fj.aTiffTO.1

of Athens were Schoolmasters,
(cf.

who

besides teaching

reading and writing

infra

326 D) translated

(epfjL-rjvcveiv)

Homer

and interpreted
Kol or KpiriKoi

They were distinct from the ypajj.jm.aTiwho pursued more scientific literary and grammatical
his yXurrcu.
KiBapiarrjs

studies.
HovcriKiq,

The

and

ypa/jL/nar IOTTJS

and the
irl

TrcuSoTpi/ifys yvfUKurrucfi ,

and

fj.ovat.Krj

between them taught and yv^vaaTiK-f]
Rep.
II

were the two parts of iraidda or
48.

liberal education:

376

E.

T

x.vt]

dXX*

irl

us

o-o^to-rTjs

eVo/xej/os.
rbi>

The

ircuSeuj: cf. 315 A tvl ri-^-Q uavOditei, distinction between professional and
irptTrei)

liberal

(ws

toiwryv Kal rbv t\ev0epov

education

is

fre-

iv 3 i2

D

PLATO S PROTA GORAS.
(see especially

85
I

quently emphasized by Plato

Laws

643 D): his

word

for the latter is
arts

The

Gorg. 485 A, Rep. VI 492 C. are throughout the Republic looked on as pdvavvoi, and

always

iraideta, cf.

unfit for

men whose

souls are free.

CHAPTER
crates to diropia.

IV.
reduces

Socrates continues his cross-examination, and

Hippo
31
2

is

The word Trap^w 3. irapcurxeiv 0pairv<rcu avbpl often used of putting oneself in the hands of a doctor : compare
<ro<{H<rTT].

C

Gorg. 456 B
dt>T)p

(fidpfj.a.KOi

irieiv

rj

Te/uetV

17

KctOcrcu

irapa.axe tv T

larpy.
real or

is

regularly used (mostly in a complimentary sense,

feigned) with

words which denote one
&t>dpes

s

profession, standing or the
,

like, e.g. dvrjp /udp-m, uvrip vo/xeus,

diKaffral

15

D.

For irapaaxw Cobet reads
used the aorist
to

iraptxeiv,

compare Euthyphr. but if MSS can be
:

trusted, Plato

infinitive

with /weXXw tolerably often

see

Schanz Preface OVT d 7.

crya6b>

Symposium ovY el

p. vii.
irpd-y|AaTt.
ir

KO,KU>

So

in Gorgias

520 B

OI

K

7X wP e

"

/
pt(Juf>f<r0a.i

roury Ty

pay pan

(their pupils) 6 avrol

iraidevov<ni>.

pression because ex
sophist:
Trpay/ua;
cf.

uses the most general form of ex hypothesi nothing is yet known as to the infra 330 C ^ SiKonovvvri irpdy/j-d rl fffnv rj ovdcv
oiei
tiffxil/J-ov

Here Socrates

Cases like Crito 53 D OVK

civ

(pave io dai

TO

TOV ZuKpdrovs irpdy/ma; are somewhat
slight
8.

different

and contain a

admixture of contempt
otfiaf

:

see the Editor s note in loc.
:

Hippocrates oi erat cidtvai fj.ij et 5ws he is thus, according to Socrates, in the worst of all states compare

y

eiS^vai.

:

Apol. ch. VI
rance.

foil.

Socrates

now

proceeds to convict him of igno

10. wo-irep Tovvojia Xfyci derives (ro^tcmjs from o-o$6s
i
ao<t>ui>

TWV and

<ro<j>(3v

!iricm]|xova. Hippocrates
(a/uat)
"quasi

(iir)L<TT

sit

6

T&V

(Heindorf, comparing the derivation of "H^atoros in The correct derivation is perhaps Crat. 407 C from iffrwp}. (ro0tcrr7js Kal 6 5c5a<r/caXos ws acxplfav (cf. given by Suidas s.v. ^a>=:make (riixfipwv), but -/fw is very elastic in meaning, and
or^s"
3>cieos

:

<7o>0poj

<ro(f>lfa

may

very well
rt

mean play
TUV

the

<ro06s

.

14.

TWV

<ro<|>v.

Trpos rt
is

<ro(f>u>v

would be more
c

precise,

but the accusative of reference
construction

preferred for brevity.

For the
rl
<ro<j>G>v

Kroschel

compares Theages 125

T&V

S6
0?}j
cro0oi>s

NOTES ON
clvai
roi>s

iv

312 D

masculine.

The

neuter of

<ro06s

rvpavvovs , where however ffotydv is is not here used ironically as. in

Theaet. 157 C
17.

trapaTidr}/j.i e/cdcrrwi
<ro<|>i(rTiis

TUV

o~o(pC)v aTroyetiffavOcu.

6 8

TWV T

o-o<f>u>v

f.TriffTrifjt.uv

after ecm?, but
cro0t0T7?s,

the sense

Heusde suggested can be supplied out of the
<TTIV.

-t(Tr?7S

of
:

according to the derivation of the word just
is

given

the full sense

as

it

were

6 5e O-O^WTTJS rCiv rl vocpuv CQ-TIV

T civ cliroKpivoineOa avrw. There 1 8. the verb to aTroKptvat/u.e6a, as was done by

compare
fl

infra

354 A

et

ipoLp.eda.

<f>aiev

is no need to change Bekker to suit Zpoiro &v and Phaedr. 259 A
:

ovv tdoiev
iroCas

diKalus &v KO.Taye\({)ev.
eiricrTaTT]S.

ep-yao-ias

These words are not of course

part of the imaginary questioner s interrogation, but are spoken by Socrates suggests that Socrates to help out Hippocrates answer.

Hippocrates should say that the sophist is tirHTTaTrjs of some sort of epyaffta, but in order that the answer should come from Hippo

he substitutes for the desired answer (The sophist of what kind of tpyavia? Hippocrates then replies by explaining the epyaaia, viz. TO Trot^trat 5eivw X^yetv. The full grammatical construction would be Trolas epycurlas tTrtcrrciT^s (on
crates himself,
tTTKmtTTjs
:

is)

tGTiv

d-jroKpivai/j-eda

civ

avrt^);

If

we

take this view,

it

is

not

necessary to insert

iffrlv after
is

Note

that cTrio-rdr?;?

(with Hirschig). substituted here for eiriffT /i^v:

e TncrctTT/s

it

is

two words probably he frequently plays on the similarity of form between tTriVra^at ^TTUTTTJ/U?; and eTricrraretj see the Editor s note on eTricrrdri? KO.C liraforrt in the
clear from Crito 47 B that Plato connected the because both contain the syllable -KTT- as in
i<rrwp:
:

Crito

I.e.

19.

TI div

el iroLfxev

w 2wKpaTs;

Hippocrates

is

on the verge

of diropia,

and merely throws out his suggestion eTrtcrrdr^i rod The words eTrtcrrdrr/i \tyetv for what it is worth.

deivbv \eyeiv are strictly speaking a reply to the question of Socrates ?rotas epyacrias ^TrtardTTjs for TOV iroirjaai deivov \tyfiv answers Trolas lpya.<ria,$, and but for the intervening clause (rl av
;
i7roi/ui.ei>

avrbv et^ai;) the

word

eTrio-TaTrjv

would have been

in the

nominative.

Thus explained, the MSS reading need not be changed. The next best view is to read (with Schanz) rl &v euroi/nep O.VTQV
<et>

dvai, a

S<6/cpares,

tirwr&Triv TOV

7rot7?<r

v 3 i3A
23.

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.

87

foil.,

Compare Gorg. 449 E and 451 A wo-TTtp 6 Ki0api<rTTJs KT\. where much the same reasoning is employed to discover ri tan TOVTO rdv OVTUV, irepl ou OVTOI ol Xo-yoi etVtV, ofs ij prjTopiKri xP^ Tai
(Gorg. 451 D).

Rhetoric and Sophistic were regarded by Plato
foil.

as sisters
is

:

cf.

Gorg. 464 B

The

clause ciWe/3 6

KiflaptcrTTjs
:

KT\.

logically the protasis to elev 6 5e dy ao^tcrrTjs KT\.

see

on 311 E
on 311 c 312 E

above.
25.

ctev d 8^

8r]

<ro<fn<mfs.

For

eiej/

and

5e

77

see

above.
27.

8rjXov

on

irepl ovirtp

K<X\

iirurracrdcii.

Stahl

s

emendation
ovirep Kal

(eiriffraffdai for eiriffTarai),

which had occurred
editions read
77

to us independently,

seems to be certain.
tirlffTarcu
;

Most
tf

S^Xo?

on

-rrepi

before S^Xoy (with Heindorf) and giving the words to Socrates, but it is surely more natural to regard them as
inserting

giving Hippocrates reply to Socrates question, in which case drjXov OTI is right. The MS reading e7r<rraTcu gives a non seqiiihir; for the
harpist
ovirfp

makes one
i.

Setvds

Myeiv

irepl

ovwep

KO.I

eTrttrT^^offi

i.e. irepl

Kal

TrlffTaff9ai, not irepl ovirep

Ka.1

tir iffTrj/muv -effriv i.q.
irepl ov ai;r6s re
;

The next

sentence rL dy ian TOVTO,

earlv 6 ao0t(TT7js Kal TOV

/j.adTjTi]v irotei (sc. (Triaraffdat)
:

in

no way invalidates the reading
in

eTrt orctcrflat

it is

everywhere assumed
others

the

Platonic writings that

he

who makes

know
olad
oti ,

has

knowledge himself: see for example Alcib. I in B OVK Xpy TOUS /uAXoi Tas dtddcKfiv OTLOVV avrous irp&rov c^SeVat ; 77 yap oO and ibid. 113 C, 118 C. OVKTI. See below on OVKTI in 321 D. 30.
;

on
TTWJ

CHAPTER
submitting

V.

Socrates points out that Hippocrates is running a grave risk in himself to one of the without knowing Sophists

what
3.

Sophist
TJ l

ji^v

means. T o"w(Aa KT\.
Trpbs 5

For
TTJV

TI

compare Ciito 50 E

TJ

irpos

/ntv

dpa

ffoi

TOV warepa
for the

Trarpida &pa Kal TOVS PO/ZOVJ

forai
el

ffoi;

and

tire fj.fr

r6re pAv

general form of the TOV de deov TO.TTOVTOS

sentence Apol. 28 E ivTavQa de, Meno 94
8.

c

D,
5.

Gorg. 512 A: see the Editor s note on Apol. I.e. TToXXd, av irpu<rKx|/w but 5a in line 4 and Trape/cciXeis in
:

The

effect is to represent the

process of reflection by oneself as prior

to consultation with friends.

Heindorf on Gorg. 514 D quotes a

88
parallel

NOTES ON
from the Theaetetus (144
avras
E)
:

v 313 A
el,

drap

vyv txovroiv
77

rjpfj.6ff6ai 6[j.oiws, irbrepoit

ev6us &v eTrtcrretfo/uej
el
/j.ov<riKbs

&v

(i.e.

should have inquired first)

uv

Compare (with Heindorf) Rep. ix 583 E
vvv dy
d/z</>or^owp
<pa/J,t>

8

elvcu, rr\v

r/truxtav, TOVTO TTOTC

ZffTcti. tv y presently is like iv TOVT^ in 310 D where see d/m<p6Tepa note: Heindorf cites Eur. Iph. T. 1057 /cal ra/uC &v vfAtv iarw r\ For /cat iv y we should at first sight /caXwj ^X iv % nydey eT^ai.

for the Greek idiom is Relative + Anaphoric expect Kdi h O.VT$ pronoun, not Relative + Relative when the two pronouns have the same antecedent and are connected by a conjunction: e.g. Gorg.
:

452 D
elvai

rL eVri

TOVTO d

(prjs

ab

fj.yi<JTov

avToO: see the Editor

s

dyadbv elvai. nal 5r)/j.iovpybv note on Apol. 40 A. Here however
<re

the fact that the relative precedes its antecedent (8 5 irepi TrAdopos irepl dc TOIJTOV) makes the rule inoperative; and there are other exceptions: e.g. Rep. II 374 B /cat TUV &\\uv cvi eKdary wcrayrws &/
8
TrefivKet
e/catrros
/cat
e^>

y

^/xeAXe

rcDi>

&\\wv

dia /Stou

ai)ro

cpyaf6/y.vos

/caAws dwepydfaffOat,

and

Theaet. 192 B /cat 8 olSei /cat 8 atVfldVerat (where however Bonitz rejects the second o, perhaps rightly).

3136
!

14-

Tc3
Toi/Tif} roJ

ci<}>tKojj.va>

fyxKOfifrtp

Heindorfs suggestion rep TOVT<{) ^eVy would convey a somewhat different mcanvo>.

this arrival, the foreigner The presence of d^t/co/xeVy renders the article after rotfry unnecessary: cf. infra 337 E TO There is some contempt in Toi/ry isti (see d/c/)t/3s roOro elSos.

ing, viz.

.

=

note on Apol. 45 A), and

much

scorn in

TT/I/

arfv

^vxyv, repeated

slowly at the end of the clause.
opOpios: the MSS have opOpiov by mistake. 15. construction of this word is found in Laws XI I

The
961

adjectival

B dew 5

8pdpiov
20.

elvcn TOV

<rv\\oyov.
t

Kt * T ne present is regularly used of being ac quainted with a person: e.g. Phaedo 60 A EavOiinrrii yiyvtaydp: Theaet. 144 C dAAa CTKOTTCI el yiyvuffKeis avTov. yiyIn Plato the perfect is generally used of knowing things: vuffKu.
y iYv
"

"

,

<7/cets

e.g.

Apol. 23 B oVrts

ZyvuKev

on
sc.

/crA.,

Euthyphr.
cf.

2

C TOVOVTOV

irpay/Jia,

iyvuK&tU,

OUT
above.

8iiAecu

ovSeirwiroTC,

avTy
is

:

on 313

A

line

9

3130

-22.

w

jxe XXcis

oravriv ttrtTpt ireiv

wrongly rejected by Cobet.

V3I3E
The words
tariv
tftaivei

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
:

89

are to be taken closely with rbv d ffOff^-ffT^v 6 ri TTOT ayvodv that Hippocrates should entrust himself to that

of which he
23.

knows nothing
:

is
i.

the climax of Socrates rebuke.

2oiKV

sc.

elvai,
^ot/ca

e.

be true (not

e/j.t

ayvotiv,

which
it
,

is-

doubtful Greek for

ayi>oeii>).

The

subject

is

simply

as in

Rep.

I

333 c where ZOIKCV
Tv-yxavei
to v

is

similarly for ZOIKW eifcu.
rp<|Tai.

25.

t|/vXT
:

rvyxdvei

uv

is

virtually
eft/cu

cf. Gorg. 468 really is avT$, Tvyx^vft 5 ov KO.KIOV, and note

equivalent

D

oio/j.evos

a^ivov

fywopos is a travelling merchant who the retail dealer or Kairr)\os: see Rep.
iv

on Euthyphr. 4 E. The trades on a larger scale than
II

371

D

7}

ov KOTTT/XOUS

ayopq.,

TOUS

5e

TrXcu^ras

tVi

rds TroXets
rts
7re/>i

fj.irbpov3

,

The same
fj.a6fnj.rn-a.

account of the Sophist as e^Tropos
(Soph. 231 E)
26.
is

TCI TT;S

^I X^s

<{>avTai

given in Soph. 223 C 224 E. -yap ^poi/ye TOIOVTOS TIS.
Socrates.

We

follow Schleier-

macher

in

giving these words to

Turner judiciously

points out that ye in fyoiye is only appropriate if Socrates speaks the words, and that Hippocrates could hardly assent till he knew

what

Tpotprj \pvxfy

meant.

28.

oinos Y*
sale
:

pi

CTTCIIVWV
is

ci.

irwXei

|aTraTTJ<ri.

TrwXai/

is

to

have on
p. 159.

to sell
a7raT?7<7et

For

e

Cobet, Novae Lectiones the MSS have e^aTrar^crT/, but the ist aor.
airooLdocfOai.
yin)

conj.

very doubtful in Plato after OTTWS question Kuhner s Griechische Grammatik and -ei are frequently confused in the MSS.
is

(see

II p.

899),

on the whole and final -y
together

30.

6 fynropos T
i plural,
t

Kal Kairr|\os.

fyiropos re Kal

Kansas

3130

6

and according to strict logic would require a plural is written by attraction instead of the grammatically
&>uTa
:

infra

which
c trreat stress
<^

355 E ra

dvo/j-ara

rb i)v

re

Kal

^
(

fi

r

ovoi^o.

""rTTjuwv.

Tvyxavw has sunk
d>v

to

a mere 3 13

E

61 D,

i

?cessar y to insert

after

eirio-T^fjt.(av,

although
s

at.that nl^taught (we expressed, had only Sooates 5O2 B 3^4
p"

rvyxdvw

(in this sense)
viz.

occurs in Plato

Phaedr. 263 c tfyurrov

this subject (Crat.

d

5t

n

T;

Tvyxdvet

d^s
:

K al

l^rodicvis

e.g. n\ of Prodicus, of wrote eulogies
if

^vei
v

wuv
\

e /ca<rros

OVK avrdpKrjs dXXi
tavr6t>

rvyx^ei TO yvuvai

ibid,

^stance,

not the actual

l n these cases (as

here in the

QO
Protagoras)
it

NOTES ON
is

v 313 E

from

lipography

easy to suppose that the participle has fallen out but in Hipp. Maior (perhaps pseudo- Platonic)
:

300 A and in Laws XI 918 c and Timaeus 61 C the participle cannot be so easily supplied and that the construction without the parti
:

ciple was used in every-day speech appears from Ar. Eccl. Kal T&V dtaTuv ei TIS eOVoi/s Tvyxavei" See Rutherford s

1141

New
s

Phrynichus
45.

p. 342.
TO,

irepl rots cjuXraTois.

0tXrara

is

used here of the soul
TJ/MV

health as in Gorg. 513
TT?S
dvi>a/j.fws

A

<rvv

rots ^iXrdTots

r/

a ipecris

eVrat ravTtjs

TTJS eV TT/ TriXet.

314 A
\

46.

KvpvT)S re Kal Kiv8vvvT)S.

Cobet

rejects re Kal KivdvvevrjS,

but Plato often puts metaphor and interpretation side by side. Compare infra 314 B eV avrfj Ty faxy Xa/Sorra /cat fiadovra (where

Deuschle wrongly rejected
a-rroKplffeis
ei /u

/cat

/iatfoj/ra)

Kal

Ppaxurtpas

Trolei.

0avX6re/)os TOU

Hpa/cXe ovs, 5s

334 D fftivreuve ^tot rds Euthyd. 297 c iro\v yap TTOV oi^x oUs re ty rfj re vcpa
:

%ecr^at, (ro0t(rr/ota oucrr/ /cat 5ta TT]V cro^iav
a.TTOT/ji rjdei rj

aviei<rr],

ei

(jLi

rov \6yov, TroXXas avrl rrjs /mas, /cat KttplcltKf Tivi fireidr] avrbv e\VTret ovrus e/c rou e?r <ro0tcrr7;...8s apiffrepa
/cat
:

e

daKvuv KT\. Lach. 194 C %ei/za^~oyue ois e^ Xo7^ /cat dwopovaiv Theaet. 174 C ei s 0p^ara re :ai iraaa-v airopiav e/uTrtTrrwr. See also note^ on TOUS rwi f^wi raj /SXcurras Sta^^etpo^ras in Euthyj
:

phr. 3 A.

The /caTr^Xos is 49. irapa TOV Kair^Xou Kal IfiTropov so B. and irora put in the foreground as the most usual seller of the article is expressed only once, because the /caTTT/Xos and gfniropos
:
<rtr/a

:

both belong to the same genus
oivoxbov KrX.
KO.L

merchants

:

cf.

Hdt. IV 71 rbv

/mayeipov Kal ITTTTOKO^OV Kal $I.T)KOVOV Kal dyye\ir)ff
is

There

no

sufficient

rov /caTr^Xou

/cat e/miropov

as

is

ground for bracketing the w/jectival done by Schanz, nor for r} $ iv g

rou (with T) and omitting Kairrj\ov /cat e/j-wdpov, as He i.e. other than our own bo^bf beinocv d XXois dyydois ac .

aXXo 76 \ey6fj.evov irepi Hpi>}Tay6pov aKoti iTnrrjv, ytyvdj. be implied that the body is itself an ayyclov (rets avrov. yiy. the notion is not unplatonic, and kindred exof knowing
TI ovofJLa

things:

later philosophy, e.g.
/cat

Marcus Aurel. x sS.thyphr.
TreptTreTrXacryUeVa
:

2

c TQVOVTOV

ra opyavia raOra ra
56-

31413
ei s)

v avrfi rri x|/vX TJ Xapovra KP as in Rep. VII 517 A et TTWS ev T
is

cf.

on 313

A

line

9

243 c Tavrbv TOVTO Trades tl\i)$&

Avrongly rejected by Cobet

v 3 i4C
which
TC Ka
59. CKfivos
77

PLATO S PRO TA GORAS.
TJJ
i/
i

91
on
Ki /3ei
7/s

is

explanatory of iv avry

xi?

^a/3<Wo,

see note

Ki

TOCTOVTOV. Heinclorf quotes Eur. Andr. 80 w0eXetV irapuv, and points out that whereas vewrcpoi wore would deny altogether 77 roO 5ie\t<r6ai dvvafusl the words POU

Woi

<TT

wore

<r

wcrre are less strong "nobis nonnisi iuvenilis quaedam facultas The best MSS of Plato suppetit ad tantam rem diiudicandam read ravrbv, TOIOVTOV, TOVOVTOV, etc. in the great majority of cases
".

rather than Tcu5r6 etc.

Schanz (Preface

to

Laws,

p. vi) thinks

it

In inscriptions of probable that Plato always used the forms in -v. Plato s time rb a.vr6 and rb avr6v occur side by side, but apparently

See Meisterhans only TOIOVTOV, TOVOVTOV. schen Inschriften 2 p. 122.
63.

Grammatik der

Griechi-

IinrCas.

Hippias of Elis was one of the most accom

plished and if we may trust the Platonic writings ostentatious of the Sophists. According to the Ilippias Maior (285 B foil.) he claimed to be at home in all the learning of the day in

Astronomy, Geometry, Arithmetic, Philology, Music, Mythology, History and Archaeology. See Zeller s Philosophic der Griechen
i

4

p.

956

foil.

64.
ol/nat 5e

oljiai 84

Kal
is

Htfi oSos.

Contrast Crat. 402 B Kal npoSiKOv TOV Keiov. Either construction is admissible. Prodicus

3140

of Ceos

repeatedly mentioned in the Platonic writings.

A

fellow-

citizen of the poet

Simonides

(infra

339

E),

he professed like Gorgias

and Hippias to educate young men (Apol. 19 E, Theages 127 E, Rep. x 600 c) and received very large sums in return for his in struction together with the gratitude of his pupils. On one occasion, when in charge of a political mission from Ceos, he is said to have

won

great reputation in the pov\ri at Athens for his conduct of public business, and to have given at the same time private lectures, which were popular and well paid (Hipp. Maior 282 c). He laid
great stress on the importance of, using words in their correct sense (dpdorris 6vofj.dTwv): see infra 337 A, 358 A, and Euthyd. 277 E,

Charm. 163

D, Lach. 197 D; cf. also Phaedr. 267 B; but this was only taught (we are told) in his 50 drachma lecture; the impecunious Socrates had only paid one drachma and was not quite master of

384 B). Socrates is fond of professing himself a pupil of Prodicus, e.g. infra 341 A, Meno 96 D, Charm. 163 D. Prodicus wrote eulogies of Heracles and others (Symp. 177 B) the substance, if not the actual words, of his Apologue of Heracles at
this subject (Crat.
:

92
the cross-roads

NOTES ON

v 314 c

A scholiast is given by Xenophon Mem. II i. 21. on Rep. x 600 C says the Athenians put him to death by hemlock for corrupting the youth, but there is no other authority for this
unlikely story.

Compare

Zeller

I

4

p.

952

foil.

CHAPTER
We

VI.

Socrates and Hippocrates proceed together to Callias house., 8oav TJJJUV Tairra. This idiom seems not to occur elsewhere j.
in Plato.

can hardly supply iroitlv rather TO.VTO. is like doi-wra ravra, an accusative absolute, the singular verb being kept
:

d6i-cu>

as in
P-

5oe raura.
8 54-

See Goodwin

s

Moods and Tenses (new

Edition)

339
2.

irpoOvpw.

The rooms

of a

Greek house opened on the
:

avXtf a passage lodge was situated in it) led into the irpbOvpov or space in front of the main door (au Aetos 6upa or auAa a without 6i pa). Bltimner, Griechische Privatalterthiimer
cloisters
s

surrounding the avX-fj or court (Ovpupeiov, so called because the porter

from the

p. 147

ff.

tTTio-TavTts 8i\-yofi.e9a.

The
to

situation recalls
s

Symp. 175 A

foil.,

where Socrates, on

his

way

Agathon

house,

is

discovered stand

ing wrapt in thought in front of a neighbouring house. OVTWS ri<Hp.ev. oi/rws with the apodosis after participles 5. extremely common in Plato see above on 310 D.
:

is

6. (rravTS. For the dropping of the preposition after eiricrdvT3 see on 311 A. The Bodleian has ecrrd^res, but T o-rd^res: Schanz reads e7rta-rcu>res, Cobet ea-rcores. Tr. we came to a stand and conversed
.

7.

SoKtt ovv
r<

jioi.

o

e/j-bs

priKci TOV
:

common
was

in Plato

Compare Phaeclo 108 D 6 /Si os /not done? \6yov OVK e^apKei: the construction is fairly see on Crito 43 D. To have a eunuch for porter
:

and a mark of wealth they were supposed to be more trustworthy than others and fetched a higher price in the East (Hdt.
rare,

Vin

105).
<xx6e<r0cu.

3140

Kiv8vvvi Present, because the dialogue rated just after it took place (see 309 B), and as Protagoras with Callias, the stream of visitors probably continues. It
8.

is

nar

is still is

not

of the sophists should have made the porter annoyed with the visitors: unless the visitors themselves were Probably therefore ro?s ^otrwati means rots sophists.

quite clear

why

the

number

vi 315

A
:

PLATO
in the porter s
(poiTav
/ecu

S

PROTAGORAS.
cf.

93
full

0-o0t<rrcus

judgment the house was already too
<re

of sophists.
XpTJ v
fltv

implies frequent visitation:

Lach. 181 C
/cai

ovv

Trpdrepov

0oirav CLVT&V Trap

7//.ias

ot/tetoi S

Tjyetcrtfcu.

10.

rpov,

Kopa,

Kpovcrap.v TI^V Ovpav. There was a metal knocker (poireiriffiraffTpov) on the ctuXetos Ovpa. Bliimner Gr. Privatalt.

p. 149.
11.

ov or^oXi] avTui.
I

For

O.VT$
en;,

the master

cf.

infra 315 n,
O.VTGS

Rep.
?<pa

327 B

t
ip6/ji,r)i>

6-jrov

avrbs

and the Pythagorean

ipse dixit
12.

.

a[i<J>oiv

TOIV xpoiv.

So B:

T

has

ra.lv for
is

ro<V.

Cobet

has shewn that the dual feminine of the article
dual masculine
13.
:

the same as the

Variae Lectiones p. 70.
tKpova-afjLev in line 10.

cxpovo}AV, but

Socrates pretends to
of

be somewhat staggered by the rebuff. So Bekker 14. -yKeKXfl(j.e vt]s.
Attic form
is

for

fyKK\etfjt,^t}s

B

:

the

Cobet, Var. Lect. p. 159. 19. avOpwiros. According to Ast, the Greeks sometimes used a.vf)p and tivdpuiros without the article of a definite person "seel ita
/cXet
:

/cX^w not

w

314 E

ut vel contemptionem vel reprehensionem aliquam simul indicarerjt". But in the cases quoted in support of this usage where the word is
in

an oblique case, the meaning

is

quite general like the English
fi.i>5pa:

a

man

,

e.g.

Phaedo 98 B

6pu>

Rep. X 595 C deivbv TWO, \yei$ xal davfj-affrbv ovftev xpu/J-evov Avdpa. ry /uef Soph. Phil. 1228
v<

:

at<rxpa?s

di>dpa

Kal 56Xots e\uv
ovo/j.aa T&v

:

Theaet. 155
Siavolas
T?JJ>

D

6.v

ffci

fj.d\\ov

5
\

avdpuiv

T^S

a.\r]dei.av

it is therefore safer to suppose (with Schanz and most Platonic scholars) that where avfjp and Avdpuiros of the MSS can only be translated by the man the rough breathing should be restored: e.g. infra 315 E and Phaedr. 267 A, 268 c: Rep.
,

I

33i E.
21.

irpo<rT$ov

The ai)X^ was surrounded by cloisters. This irpoo-Tww. is doubtless that on which the passage from the irp66vpov
IlapaXos

opened.
23.

Avri noipos.

The mother

Paralus had once been the wife of Hipponicus, to whom she bare In 320 A as well as in Meno 94 B Callias Plut. Pericl. xxiv 9. Plato remarks that Pericles was unable to teach the art of states
:

of Xanthippus and 3 15

A

manship
vUe

to either of his
(y(vta0r)i>.

two sons:

cf.

Ale.

I

118 E

TU>

HfpiK\tov$

ri\t0iu

They both died

of the

plague.

One

of

94

NOTES ON
:

vi

315 A

the most interesting fragments of Protagoras describes the fortitude of Pericles when his sons died see Appendix II. p. 203, Frag. 3. Charmides, son of the elder Glaucon, was Plato s maternal uncle
:

the dialogue Charmides

is

named

after

him.

He

was

0iX6<ro06s

re

KO.L iravv Troi-r)TLK6$ (Charm. 155 A), and as remarkable for ffu^poavvr) as for personal beauty (ibid. 157 D). He was afterwards one of the Ten, and fell along with Critias at the battle of Munychia in 404 B.C.

Of Philippides and his father Philomelus (Xen. Hell. II 4. 19). and Antimoerus of Mende (on the Avest coast of the peninsula Pallene) nothing further is known. B and T omit ot, which was in TOVTWV 29. serted by Stephanus Heindorf prefers to insert uv after Xeyo/j-tvuv. The MSS reading could only be defended if could be
<|>aivovTO.
:

e<f>a.lvovro

regarded as parenthetical = ws tyaivovTO, like 5o/ce? /j,ot = &s 5o/ce? JU.OL (see on 3140 above), but there seems to be no authority for such a
use of
(paivo/j-ai.

It

and

firriKooi (in

B

is hardly to be supposed that in eiraKoijovTfs below) there is an allusion to an outer circle of

Protagorean students, deemed unworthy of the subtlest teaching of
the master, in spite of Theaet.
serious.
31.
efj

152

c,

where Socrates
is

is

hardly

tKCMTTtov

TWV TroXewv.

The

plural

used as in Theaet.

157 C irapaTidy/iu eKdcrruv rdov

<ro0wj>

air oy ever avQai

and Rep. X

60 1 A xpcfyiar

&TTCL

e/cd(TTWJ>

TUV re-xy&v.

3156

34in 3

\op<$-

The
first.

rows

(crroZxoi)

middle of the

tragic chorus consisted of 15 xP evTa h arranged of 5 each, the leader (/co/)i;0cuos) being in the So here Protagoras occupies the middle of a
cf.

X<>pou

row of 7. With the metaphor and ibid. C A^yw/xei STJ
35.
ip\a|3oi>VTO.

Theaet. 173 B

roi)s
:

TOV yfdrepov

irepl

ruv Kopvtyaluv

Phaedr. 246 E

foil.

period

The MSS have evXapowro, but in the classic (and d-) were always augmented in the past tenses, while See Meisterhans after 300 B.C. yu- does not appear on inscriptions. 2 Or. der Att. Inschr, p. 136.
ev-

CHAPTER
The
i.

VII.
further described.

scene in the house of Callias

is

TOV 8

jitr

clcTvoT]o-a,

ftfnf)

"0|uipos.

Homer Od.
reference
is
is

XI 601

TOV de /ACT

deevbrjaa fiiyv

Hpa.K\r)eir)v.

The

not to be

pressed beyond the words quoted: for there

no special likeness

vii

315 c

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.

95

between

Homer s Heracles (Sewbit irairTaivuv, aid fiaXtovn eot/cws 608) and Plato s Hippias, whose situation as here described is more like that of Minos in Homer ibid. 569 foil. xpv ffe ov ^XTJirrpov ?x ovTa
-

ol

5t IMV d/x0i
"Ai

5i /cas

eipovro &VO.KTO.
"O/ojpos (

e0Ta6res re /car evpvirvXts

Sos 5u).

With
ty-t]

tyr)

as

Homer
3.

said
iv

)

cf.

Meno
tirl

76

D

<rvves

o roi

\tyu,
is

0pdvo>

pciOpwv.

Hippias
6

Hivdapos. depicted as a school-

3150

master
4.

among

his pupils. Epv^jiax^s re "AvSpwv

and

his father

Acumenus were

doctors.

Eryximachus AvBporCwvos. The former delivers one

of the speeches in the Symposium, defining his art as ^TTIOTTJ/X?? TUV TOV (rw/iaroy epwrt/cwj* ?rp6s Tr\rjo /j.ovr)v xai (Symp. 186 c). Phaedrus, son of Pythocles, of the deme of Mu/^iyoOs in the tribe
Ktvi*)crii>

IIcu SioJ

/j,

also appears in the

the dialogue Phaedrus.

Symposium, and gives his name to Andron, son of Androtion (so T here, and
the Apiffriuvos of

both

B and T

in

Gorg. 487 C

B

is

therefore a

mistake) is in the Gorgias described as one of those who shared the ruined men. His son is view of Callicles, that too much
(f>i\offo<j>ia

believed to have been the orator Androtion.

The primary substance which early Greek 7. irepl see Arisphilosophy sought to discover was called by them totle Met. IV 4 p. ioi4b 32 foil. TOVTOV yap TOV rpoirov Kal ruv Qvaci.
<j>u(Ta)s.

\

:

<t>v<ris

1

6i>Tb)v

ra crrotxcrd
ol

(paatv etVcu (fiixTiv, ol ptv irvp, ol d

yyv,

ol d
ol

atpa,

5

tidup, ol 5

&\\o

TI TOIOUTOV

X^o^res,

ol

d

vi.a

TOVTUV,

dt iravra ravra.

Thus (among
their

others) Heraclitus, Anaxagoras,
irepl

and

Empedocles called which gives birth

books

to all else.

(</>i5fi)

^yaews, i.e. on the substance By Plato s time the word had
,

acquired a wider meaning equivalent to de rerum natura Nature and it is in this sense that the word is here used.
,

our

8.

do-TpovojiiKa otTTa.
is

Schanz brackets

da-rpovofjUKd,

but the
(pvaeus.
(sc.

word

meant

to

be taken rather with nereibpuv than with
i

On

Hippias

skill in

astronomy compare Hipp. Minor 367 E ^s
/J.a\\oi>

iiriffT-fi^wv

o?ct

etva.1.

% TUV

a\ye
fi

TdvraXov ye. Od. XI 582 Kal /*V TciJ TaXoi da-eid Prodicus is compared to Tantalus because of his tx VTa wretchedness see Crat. 395 E Kal drex^ws toiKev uvirep av physical
10.
:

TIS

j3ov\6/j.ej>o$

Ta\dvTarov

ovo/u.do ai,

diroKpvTTT6fj.fi>os

dvo/Jucrete Kal
6vofJ.a

ctnoi.

dvr* eKfivov
T]

TavraXoV
.

roi.ovrbv

TL Kal

TOVTUJ TO

TV~)(1]

T^? 07? /J.r]S

96

NOTES ON
ii.

vii

315 D

3150

eiri8r]Hi

\dp apa.

Heindorf

s

correction ^TrtSr^et for eVe-

seems to be necessary, as Prodicus is still in Athens. Just so the presential tenses are used in 314 D Kivdwevei 5 axdetrOai and
5r),uei

infra

line

15

/cardXwu

ireirolriKev.

If the

clause

is

taken as a

parenthetical clause of explanation, there is nothing harsh in the de construction oi/c^/xari TI.VL naturally enough follows on
:
"r\v

h

For yap apa (a somewhat rare combination) Heindorf quotes Rep. IV 438 A Trdvres yap dpa rwv ayaOuv eTTidvuovaLv, Symp.
el(Ti5oi>.

205 B a0e\6^res yap apa (so T:
6t>o/j.d^ofj.ev,

B

has only yap) rov fywr6s

n

e!5os

Laws

III

698 D

a-vvd^/avres

yap apa raj xetpas
:

0-0777-

vevcraiev Trdaav TT\V EperpiKip.

yap dpa always introduces something supposed to be known to the person addressed see 3143 ofytcu 5 Kal
.

Hp^diKOv rbv Ke?oj 1 8. Ilavo-avias

is

known from
in the tribe
Ka\6i>

the

Symposium 180 C
ws
/j.ci>
(f>v<ni>.

foil.
is

The deme
to

Kepa/j.rjs

was

Acamantis.
rrfv

cy$/ut.ai

315 E

re ndyaObv be taken closely with 20. TI^V 8* ovv ISe av iravv KaXos.
8rj

Compare Symp. 174 A
Ka\6i>

ravTa

e/caXXwTrttra/^T/i

iVa

Ka\bs irapd
Ka\6i>

(i.e.

Aydduva)
Stephanus
:

fw.
cf.

no ground for reading Lach. 1 80 E TO, yap ^eipa/aa rdoe There
is

for /caX6s with

5ia\ey6jy.evoi.

22.

scene of the

A-ycUWa. It Symposium

is is

at the poet
laid.

Agathon

s

house that the

From
B.C.,

his speech in that dialogue

194

D

foil,

we

should infer that he had studied under Prodicus to

some purpose.
on the

Born about 447

tragic stage at

an early age:

cf.

Agathon was first Symp. 175 E ^
fTri5o<rii>

successful
5e
77

0-77

(sc.

Ayddwos
fj-dprvai

ao(pia) \a/jurpd re /cat iroXXyv

fyoucra,

76 Trapa

GOV vtov oVros ovrto

ff<p68pa e^Xa/x^e Kal eivpaviis fytvero Trpdyv iv He visited the court of E\\r)vwv ir\eov 7/ Tpiff/j.vplois. Archelaus about 407 B.C. and died probably about 400. That he

TW

was held

in esteem
5
TTOV

by the Athenians appears from Ar. Frogs 83
;

foil.

AydOwv
193
B.

V0

owov

Vr
For

;

airoKiir&v
7rat5t/cd

yu,

or^ercu dyaOos iron/jr^s

Kal irodeivos rots (pi\ois.

Havaavtov compare Symp.
:

the idiom is like our TOUT i|V TO jieipaKiov. So BT 23. The nearest parallels seem to be There was this young man Phaedo 59 B T\V S Kal Krr;crt7r7ros 6 Ilcuaj ietfs and Rep. X 615 D rjffav
.

o

Kal /Siwrai Tt^ey.
T\V

roOr6 re

ST}

(Ast), rovrb r

o$v (Heindorf),
rejects

TOUT 2v$ov

(Schirlitz),
is

have been suggested, while Kroschel
is

the words, but the text

TW

ASeijiavTw.

probably sound. Adimantus son of Cepis

not elsewhere

vni 316 B
named.

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
of Leucolophidas

97
(TTparrj-yos

The son

was afterwards

under

whose policy he supported (Xen. Hell. 14. 21): he was taken prisoner at the battle of Aegospotami, but spared by the He was afterwards put on his trial by Conon on the Spartans.
Alcibiades,

charge, not improbably a true one, of having betrayed the Athenian fleet at this battle see Kock on Ar. Frogs 1512.
:

27.

irdo-(ro<j>os

dviip

teal 0tios.
is

For

avrip

BT

read avqp, but

often ironical: e.g. Euthyd. 271 C waff <ro0oi o 5 crv epurds TTJV aofilav avToiv, dav/u-aaia, w ItpiTWv For dre%j/ws rt6 -ye, ou5 ydi] irpb TOV 6 TI elev ol TrayKpaTiaffTai.
see on 314

E above.

7rd<r<ro0os

the

meaning of dews

cf.

Meno

99 C O^KOVV

aiov

TOIJTOVS

Oeiovs

KctXeif TOVS avdpas,
dou<ni>

otrt^es vovv

/irj

wv irpaTTovvLv Kal Xtyovvi;

%opTes TroXXd, Kal fj.eyd\a Karopwas the deios (in the form
<reios)

favourite Spartan word of praise Socratic circle in Athens.

and was much

affected

by the

CHAPTER

VIII.

After Hippocrates has been introduced to Protagoras, the latter enlarges upon the antiquity of his profession. At the suggestion of Socrates a circle is formed to hear the Sophists discourse. 4. Kpirias the foremost of the Thirty so-called tyrants was re- 3 latecl to Plato on the mother s side Perictione Plato s mother being
:

1

6A

granddaughter of the elder Critias, who was father of Callaeschrus. He is one of the dramatis personae in the Charmides and Timaeus,

and the dialogue Critias is named after him. A Scholiast on the Timaeus 20 A (quoted by Stallbaum) describes him as yew alas KO!
adpds
0tfcrews, TJTTTCTO 5e Kal
(pi\ocr6<p(i}i

avvovaidov, Kal e/caXeiro
i

i 5ia>-

TTJS fjLfv

fv

0iXo0"60ois,

0tX6cro0os 5e kv
s

Sturrats.

For the fragments
II p.

of his
5.

poems
rt,

see

Bergk
aTTO,
ZTI

Poetae Lyrici Graeci 4
8ta6acrd|jLVOL.
TI

279
is

foil.

TI (TfJiiKp

aya /cp arra

the plural of
after

fffjt.iKpbi

and as

<r/MKp6v

diarptyavres would

mean

a

little
little

further delay , so ri fffjdKp arra Biarplij/avTes means after some further delays . The reference in ?ri is to 314 C. ravra in

Kal ravra refers to the causes of the delays,

some
8.

topics of discourse
irpos
:
<T

:

its

antecedent

is

which were, as usual, involved in dLarptyavres.
E,

TOI TJX0o(jLv.
is

Here, as in 314

both

B and T
is

have
very
ff

316 B
/I

n

impossible here, and thisjosejof rot frequent in address: Heindorf refers (inter alia) to Ar. Pint,
for TOI

but TI

noo

TOL

cr

TOI X^-yw,

Kapluv,

A. P.

98
31 6 C
i7oi erat
:

NOTES ON
ot
(JLaXwrT* 5

vin 316 c

dv
1

ytvia-Qa.i.

B and T

read

without dV

see

on Crito

E.

It is

more

likely that &v should

have dropped out after ^dXttrra here than that Plato s usage should have varied with ofyucu and the aorist infinitive referring to the
future:
cf.

infra 353 B

rj ol/m-at

&v Zycoye KaXXurra (pavepbv yevtcrdai,
virtually like

where av

is

in all the MSS.

[xovos ol ei 8eiv

irpos JAOVOVSit

ofet Seiv is

one

verb, diots or the like:

therefore takes the

nom.

(not the ace.)

with 119.

inf.

;

cf.

Demosth. Fals. Leg. 235

evdvs ijyo^fjiijv

& rotfrois
quoted

avrbs

irepieivai

eiv avrCiv Kal yueyaXo^ir^orepos

(fratvecrdai,

by Stallbaum on Crito 50 E. Note that Protagoras here uses the more precise fj.bvos Trpos /JLOVOVS, but above only fjibvLp (316 B) unless (with Cobet and Schanz) we there insert /^6voL before ^vy. e vov For K.a.1 i6vra T reads in 21. oCvSpa Kal lovra KT\. Liebhold suggests KO.TO.\TL>OVTCL. iovra how the margin KanbvTa ever is parallel to %evov and to irddovra a man who is a stranger The whole passage recalls and goes and tries to persuade etc. Apol. 19 E 20 A TOVTUV (viz. Gorgias, Prodicus, Hippias) yap
"y^P
.

l

&cacrros
2e<rTi

o?6s

r

earlv

i&v

et s

eKdffrrjv

TUV irbXewv TOVS vtovs

ols

r&v eaurwv

iro\i.Tu>v

irpoiKa, ^vvdvai.

y

av

Tretfloixrt

ras eitdvuv

vvov<rias

aTroXiTro^ras
<r<f)L<

didovras KOL xdptf

irpo<rcidfrai.

Notice throughout the longwinded

character of Protagoras

speeches: cf. Philostrat. Vit. Soph. I 494 (quoted by Kroschel on 320 c), yvotis de rbv Hpurayopav 6 IlXdrwv
aeiiv&s
fJLev

ep^ve^ovro., virrLa^ovTO,

d

rfj

ffefAvoTrjTi

Kai

TTOV

Kai

[ia.Kpo\oy&Tepov TOV

av^^rpov

r\]v ideav

avrov

3160

31.
will

resent

TO ciraxO^S avrfis. iira&dts like (popriKbv means what hearers bad-taste because (think a burden or ax# os ) as

m

presumptuous
TIS

Kal

-rrepl

Demosth. de Pace 4 rb \tyeiv Trepi uv avrbs dirt avrov oCrws ^oO^at (popriKOV Kai e?rax^es ware
:

cf.

KT\.

TOVS jJ^v iroi-qo-tv. (To06s and its derivatives are often used 32. especially in early writers in connexion with poetry^ e.g. Theognis
19

20 K.6pve

<ro<f>ioiJ.vi$

fttv

t /uot

afppijyls ciriKeiffdia ro?cr5

^Vecrw

,

Pindar Isthm.
TOVS

4.

29

30 /AeXerav 6^

cro^tcrrcus Atos c/cart irpb(rfia\ov

34.

T
an<f>

Op4>e

a Kal Movo-atov = Orpheus and Musaeus
"^

and
fikv

their schools

.

The
yfjuv

yap reXeras

Editors quote Ar. Frogs 1032 foil. Op0ei)s at Moutratios 5 /car^5eie (pbvwv T a7r^x e
)

vin 317 A

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
/cat

99

&-CU(ffiS re vbawv

%p?;(r,uoi/s,

H<rto5os

8e yrjs epyaaias,

6 5 0etos "O/iT/pos aTro TOU wpas, dp6rov3 7r\V ro05 on XPT/OT e5t5ae, Taets, operas, for

n^V

Kal

/cA^os

OTrAtVets
tv

the misplacement of

re

compare Crito 43 B

Too-a^r?; re

dypVTrvia Kal \inrri ctvai.

HpoSiKos- Iccus is mentioned in Laws vin 839 E model of temperance. According to Pausanias, he won in the pentathlum at the Olympic games and afterwards set up as a trainer (yv/jLvaffTris). Herodicus of Selymbria in Thrace combined the professions of the yvfjt-vaa-Tris and iarpds (/uas yvpva<TTiK.r)v He is described in Rep. in 406 A as the inventor of the larpiK-rj). iraidaywyiKT] TUV voff-rj^aTuv larpiK-f] by means of which he tortured first himself (by prolonging his own dying) and afterwards others
36.
"!KKOS

foil,

as a

:

dvffdavaruv
6 vvv 2rt
T?ITTWI>,

UTTO
cov

<ro0t

as els yrjpas d0f/cero (ibid. B).

<ro<j>io"TTJs.

Heindorf reads
living

TJTTOV in

place of
<ro<pi<TTris

but vvv

TI

wv

is

still

and

ovdevos TJTTWV

is

a descriptive qualification.
39.

Lach.
118
Ale.

1

A-ya6oK\T]S nv0oK\i8t]s. Agathocles is mentioned in 80 D as teacher of Damon: according to the Ale. I

316 E

C
I

Pythoclides
(1. c. )

also

taught

Pericles.

A

Scholiast on
r?}s
<re/j.vrjs

the

remarks: Hv6oK\eldr)s

(JLOVCTIKOS r\v

/j.ov<TiKrjs

5t5d<r/caAos,

/cat

ITi;^a76peios, ou ftaOyTTis Aya9oK\r)s, ov Aa/A7rpo/cA?}s

(Ad/x7rpos,

van Prinsterer), ou Ad/xwv.
Plut.
Pericl.
et s

With
6

the sentiment compare
Ad/xwi
^ot/cei/

the imitation in
<j-o0t<TT7js

4.
TTJS

2

5

&Kpos uv
TroAXous

Karadveffdai ntv

rb

fj.ov<nKTJs

6vofJ.a Trpos roi)s

TCUS re xvais ravrats 7rapairTacr(jLaoriv XP 1l <ravTO Com 42. pare Plut. Pericl. I.e. ov fjiriv Z\adei> 6 Ad uco rfj Xi^pa 7rapa/caXi5/x/

/ttart xpw/ifi/os.

43.

Kara TOVTO
VS
/cXTjpol;

clvai.
7?,uets

etvai is tautological as in Isaeus trepl TOV
<jj/j,6cra/J.ev

31

7

A

32

ev iroieiv a\\r)\ovs
:

Kara

fivva^iv

but no other i, Kal A6-yy Kal tpyy, and in the common CKUV elvai instance of the precise phrase /cara TOVTO etvai is quoted. o i -ye iroXXol oi58v alo-0avovTai. 47. Compare Gorg. 474 A
TOUS 5^ 7roXXoi)s
eu)

%a/peti

,

Kal
u>s

fva

eiri\{/ r)(f>liv

eiricrTaftai,

rots
)

5e

TroAAois o^5e StaA^Oyuat.

For

^TTOS etVetj/ (to

be taken with

ouSei

see

on Apol. 17 A. The phrase is used to qualify the comprehension of a word or phrase, generally ovdeis or Trdi/res. r6 ovv cirixap^iAaTOS. B and T read TOV for rb, by a 49. natural error. Heindorf compares Theaet. 144 A TO 701^ evfj-aOij 8vra.

72

ioo
TTpoW av
etj/at

NOTES ON
5ta</>ep6j>Tws

vni 317 A
av i^tb^v yeviadai. KT\.

670; ^iv our

and Rep.
TOVTO
fj,a.Tos
T)

I

331 B TO

7<xp

/j.r)5e

&KOVTO, riva e^airarrjaaL

fdya [dpos
roO
cf.
TOJ>

ets

T&V
a

%p?7/xdTa>j>

KTrjffis

av /t/3 dXXerat.

Here

/cot

eTrtxetpi;-

is

virtual
in

repetition

of

dTroSiSpdovcoi Ta:

raOra
of the

TTpdrrovTa

above

316

C.

The sentence reminds one

to punish the youths not practice observed in Spartan education for stealing but for failing to escape with their booty: Xen. Rep. Laced. 2. 8 enrot 5 dV ovv rts rt 5^ra, direp ro K\eirTLV dyadbv
ev6fju.fr,

TToXAds

TrXyyas

eir^aXe ry aXiffKO/J.^^;

on,

<f>r]fju

ey&,

Kal rdXXa, oaa avQpuiroi diddffKovffi, K0\dov<ri TOV (tr) /caXcDs vireperovvra: compare Rep. I 361 A rov d\iffK6/nfvov de (pav\oi> rjyrjr^ov.

31 7 B

54.

TOVTCOV Tr\v tvavrfav airao-av 686v.

"h.

e.

TTJI/

656*

17

ajraffd effriv evavrla TOIJTWV.

pro rotiruv eadem comparatione quae

or. I 4 eyu For airaaav with an adjective compare (with Kroschel) Xen. Anab. I 5. i fy ij yij TTCOLOV awav 6/AaXes uxrwep OaKarra and the common phrase TTOLV

vocatur compendiaria dici potuit TOVTOIS.
yvw/j-7]i>

Andocid.

TTO\V TT]v fvavTiav TOVTOLS

^%w"

(Kroschel).

TovvavrLov.
56.
<ro(j>io

Ti]S etvai
:

aocpifrt, i.e. vaiSevei

see note on

Kal iraiSeueiv dvOpcoirovs. The (ro^icrr^s 3120 above. Theaet. 167 c (where
6 ao(f)i(TT7]s TOVS
/cat

Socrates

is

speaking for Protagoras)

o6s
"

re

aio

Crebra modestiae formula, bene explicat o*uv 0w elimv. 59. lleindorf Steph., quod ita dico, ut in eo opcm divinam agnoscani on Theaet. 151 B /cat 6etp clirelv, iravv i/cai cDs roTrdfw ols civ
".

<ri/v

avyyei>6fjievoi

OVO.LVTO.
TJ ST]

3I7C

61.

iroXXct 76 ?TT]
(i.e.

elp.1

cv TTJ TC XVT).
/cat

Meno

91 E

ofytai
^rfj

7ap

avTov

TUpwrayopav) aTroOaveiv eyyvs
v rfj

e^oo^KOvra,

yeyo-

VOTCL, Terrapd/coj/Ta 6^

r^x v V

T

^X"y>

*v

Xocro0t ^

and the

like are

ovra. The phrases common.

efrat iv rf}

For the asyndeton Heindorf compares oi ov TLVI roa cnj rfv dcrTreros wf) 7 The nearest parallel to TTO.VTUV (which Cobet avdpuv i]puwv. 3 rejects) after ovdevbs OTOV ov seems to be in Dem. Adv. Lept. ov yap anv OTOV TOVTO ov Treirbvda.Te r&v TTO.VTWV (quoted by
62.

ovSevos OTOV ov.

Horn. Od.

XIV 96

17

7<ip

<$>

Heindorf). diravTwv goes with TUIV Zvoov OVTUV. It seems better to 64. take irepl TOVTWV with {5ov\ecrde than with TOV \byov TroietaOai. other
:

wise

it is

hardly possible to separate TOVTCJV from a.TrdvTwv.

vin 317 E

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
:

101

ort IpaoraC. 6Vi depends v8eia<r0cu Kal KaXXwirCorao-Oai 67. rather on evoei^aadai. than on /oxXXwTriVcurtfcu compare infra 327 A
edidaffKe

Kal

eTreir\riTre
vofJ-i^wv

rbv

yUTj

/caXtos

at XoDj Ta,

and

ibid.

B r&v

SiKaicov Kal

rwv

ovdels

(f>dovel

ovd

aTTOKpVTrrerai wffirep rdov

dXXwj/ Texv-rj/Adruv,
TCUS
tiri.dviJ.lais.

68.

et|iV.

Phaedo 94 D ra /j.ev aireiKovaa, ra oe vovderovaa See also notes on 327 A and 335 E below. but in Plato s time the short form BT read
ei->j/ui.ev,

of the optative plural is regular: see on Apol. 22 E. T oxiv ov eKaXeVanev. See above on 310 A; and for Koticruxriv note on 315 A.
72.
K<x06|jLevoi.

tira-

So

T

:

B

has Ka0i^6/jLvoi, but presently in

3170

317 E both MSS read trvvKad^6/j,e0a. Kal avrol dvTiXapojjLcvoi. This passage is difficult and 74. different views are possible as to the construction and meaning.

The MSS

read Kal avrol re.

If the

MSS reading

is

retained, re

must

be regarded as answering to 5^ in cv e retry (cf. Euthyphr. 3 E), and Kal avrol = etiam ipsi, i.e. even without waiting for servants a harsh explanation both for Kal and avrol. If re is left out (with most of the
also
as
editors, following Heindorf), Kal avrol

means

ourselves

re Kal

difficulty in contrasting avrol with these two, because they also would seem to be included in avrol (iravres rj/iets Kal avrol), but such slight inaccuracies of
is

opposed to Callias and Alcibiades There is still a slight "AX/a/SiaS^s.

in ev 5

rovry KaXXtas

expression are common in actual dialogue, which Plato s style intended to imitate.
7 7.

slight difficulty

erat

KaXXias. Hermann read KpiHas in order to escape the 3 1 7 E remarked on in the preceding note: "sed hospitis Prodicum ut accederet invitare". Kroschel.
dvao-TiitravTes
:

78.
offers

an exact parallel

(if

but dyovre just before. Euthyd. 273 B we follow the reading of the Bodleian MS)
fj-ev

loovres de avrbv 6 re Aiovvcrbdupos Kal 6 ^v6v8Tj/j,os trpCrrov

eiu-

ffrdvre dLe^y^aOtjv tiXX^XotJ
cf.

,

AXX^v Kal

&\\r)i>

airofiXeirovres

et s ^//xSs:

ibid.

273 A
is

et(re\06i>res

TrapieTrarelrrjv

d/x</)w

fi\e\l/avres

els

a\\rj\wi.

The

dual in

and D eyeXaadryv yovv Plato as in Greek

generally

apt to sink into the plural.

102

NOTES ON
CHAPTER
IX.

ix 318

A

Protagoras explains his profession.

It is to teach civil virtue

and

make men good

citizens.

318 A

8.

-yap used like Latin

enim

to introduce a speech (introductory

ydp)

:

9.

see on Apol. 20 E. o TI diropTJ<rTai

iruB&rOai.

For the
"yap

situation

Gorg. 455 C
Zvdov OVTCOV
/cat

D where
fj.a07)Tris

Socrates says &TWS

/cai

compare rvyxwet TIS T&V
TLVO.S

<rov

j3ovX6/xei os yeveffBai,

ws eyu

a^e^bv
ep.ov

wxyotos

aia6dvofji.ai, ot

iVws vlvyyvoivT av

<re

avepecrdai
ri

vir

o$v dvepUTu/JLevos vbfjuaov KO.I UTT eKelvwv Topyia, carat, eav ffoi ffwuf^ev ; irepl rivwv

dvepwraadai"
rrj TroXei

y/uuv,

w

ffVfjfiov\t&tv oloi

re

cffo/j-eda

;

14.

ev rf) vtrrepaCa

TavTa ravra:
7-77

sc. ^crrat coi.

ev (bracketed

by Schanz

after Hirschig) before

varepaig.

means

during

:

cf.

yvaov aTrede^avTO (with Kroschel) Thuc. I 44. I rfj /j.ev irporepq. rovs \6yovs, v 5^ ry varepatq, juerfrpH&rw KT\. and add infra 321 C ev rj ^5ei /cat &vdpwirov eitvai K yrjs. i) eifji.apfdv r) -fi^pa iraprjv,
oi>x

318 B

o K-1! T VYX^ VIS eirio-Tajxevos. rvyxwois (suggested by 19Bekker) would be the usual periodic structure but the indicative is Kroschel compares Gorg. 464 D el dtoi looser and more direct
: :

8iay(i)vle<rdai

7r6repos eTrcu ei.
is
(J.TJ

Notice the usual Socratic implica

tion that virtue
20.

knowledge.
OVTWS.
yap,
Cf.
ya^
<r6

dXXdl

Meno
ye,

infra 331 C.

So
:

/XTJ

^

74
TOI

D

ctXXd

/JLTJ

/J.OL

otfrws

and

ye and the like are often

used without a verb expressed, uxrirep dv belongs to et?rot &v in avrlKa here it is answered by ourw 5-r) in line 33. lines 28 and 32
does not mean for example but goes with /idXa (which
it)
:

intensifies

as if Hippocrates

were

to

change his desire on the spot and
for etc.
airrt /ca /j.d\a is

conceive a desire
cf.

(eiridv/jLri<reiej>)

idiomatic,

Gorg. 469
22.

D

avrlKO. /j,d\a

dew redvdvai, Crat. 384 B aurka /zd\a
as in

eifievai.

vvv V6WO-TC:

nunc nuper

Meno 90

A.

The more

in Theaet. general word is followed by the more specific exactly as 161 C fiarpaxov yvpivov where yvpivos according to a Scholiast is TO eK TOU parpdxov Tratdlov. An obscure sculptor (not painter) of this name Zv|Cirrrov.
23.
is

mentioned in Corp. Inscr. Gr. No. 1229 (quoted by Overbeck, Die Antiken Schriftquellen zur Geschichte cler bildenden Kiinste

ixjiSE
bei

PLATO

S

PROTAGORAS.

103

den Griechen p. 300). The Zeuxippus here mentioned is supposed to be the same as the famous painter Zeuxis of Heraclea (the Greek colony in Italy, most probably) who is mentioned by Plato in Gorg. 453 c, and several times byXenophon (Mem. I 4. 3,
Oecon.
I.e.

10.

p.
B.C.

311
:

424

see Overbeck, 4. 63 rbv Hpa/cXewr??! vov) Zeuxis began to rise into fame probably about he would therefore be still a young man about the date
i,

Symp.

:

foil.

when

this dialogue is

supposed to take place

:

see Introd. p. xxxvi.

Brunn would read

Fick (quoted by of Ze^tTTTros for other similar examples see Fick, Die Griechischen
:

Zet5t5os for ZCI^I TTTTOU here, but according to Sauppe) ZeCis is nothing but a familiar diminutive

-tTTTros in proper names was aristo and could upon occasion be omitted or added without prejudice to personal identity compare Clouds 929

Personennamen

p. xxviii foil.
foil.)

cratic (Ar.

Clouds 62

:

ovxt 5i5deis TOVTOV

Kp6j>os

&i>

with ibid. 1071

<ri>

d el Kpbvnriros,

where
29.

-ITTTTOS

adds mock dignity to Kp6vo$.

OpOa-yopcj,

(iv 184 E)

TW 0-rjpcuw. Orthagoras is said by Athenaeus on the authority of Aristoxenus to have taught Epami-

3180

nondas how to play the flute. avrov but ticelvov in 30 and tKdvq in 32: see on 310 D. 31. eh 6 TL {jeXrluv is here used rather than 6 TI or rl fie\rlwv (as in line
27) to prepare for els dispensed with.
33.
ati\ri<nv

where the preposition could hardly be

oimo

after uxnrep, e.g.
34.
"

Heindorf would write otfrw 5^, which is frequent 328 B: see his note on Phaedo 72 c. npuraYopq. <r\ryyv6|JL6vos gravius hoc quam aol <rvyyev6811"

:

3180
318 E

(j,evo$

Kroschel.
Xco(3wvTcu

See also note on 335
is

A.
iroieiv

43.

here rather KO.K&S

than KaKbv
it

Troieiv,

although

(like KctKou/ryetV, XvpaivofMU
:

and the

like)

unites both
3

meanings

cf.

Rep.

I

335 B

foil.,

and

see

on Euthyphr.

A
--

With the words of Protagoras compare those KaKovpyelv TI]V TTO\LV. of Anytus in Meno 91 C Hpd/cXets, ei)0i7/xet, c3 Sw/cpares, r&v
/j.r}dti>a

/.T^re

otKeiuv

fj.

qre 0iXwi/,

/j.rjT

Q.GTQV

fjirjTe

^vov,

TOiaiJTrj

XdjSot,

ware Trapa

TOIJTOVS eKObvra, Xdj^TrjdTjvai, eirel ovrol

ye

(fiavepd ecrrt Xw/S?; re Kal 8ict(f)6opa

T&V
tls

ffvyyiyvo/m.eviai

.

rds Y^P Te xvas
:

|j.pdXXov<riv

T\vas.

T^XI/CU

is

used of

Arithmetic, Geometry, Solid Geometry and Harmonics in Rep. vn 532 c elsewhere in Plato ai reject generally means the mechanical Here rexvai can only mean arts, e.g. Rep. vi 495 D and vn 522 B.
the subjects taught in schools (ypa^aTiK-ri, \oyicmKri, Kidapto-TiKfy as

104

NOTES ON

ix 318 E

Sauppe remarks, but there seems to be no precise parallel to such a use of the word.
47.
els

Tov

Iirrriav airepXevj/ev
irepl

:

see

on 314

B.

49.

u|3ouXa
TrctAat
ol

OUTOS

yap
rj

apery?
TOI)S

Meno 91 A \tyei irp6s pe on eTridvfj.t TO.\JTT]S TTJS <ro0ias Kal av6pwTTOi rds re oiKlas Kal ras ir6\eis /caXws dioixowi, Kal
TWV
oi.Kfa>v.

The

editors quote

yovfas robs auTtDc depcnrevovai, Kal TroXi ras Kal j-&ovs vTrod^acrdai re Kal aTroTr^ui/ ai eTrlffravrai dtas dvdpbs dya6ov D
:

Euthyd. 273

dpeTTjv
TTdJV

(3

2t6/c/)ares,

olt>/j,eda

ol

w

r elvai wapadovvai /caXXtar dvdpu-

Kal

Tdx<-ffTa.

319 A

54citizens

avSpas dyaQovs iroXCras forms a single expression
are the fyyov of TroXmKr/

r^

n-

good So Ar. Knights 1304
:

56.

4irayyXp.a o cirayye XXojAtu.

eTrayy\\o/j.ai
.

and

its

deriva

tives are often used of sophistic

professions

CHAPTER

X.

Socrates professes to disbelieve that dper-f) can be communicated by teaching. His arguments are twofold: (i) while in matters connected with the arts of building, ship-carpentry, and the like,
the Athenians will listen only to the professional man, in politics they give ear to any and every one (2) Athenian statesmen have not been able to communicate their political virtue to their sons.
:

2.

ei lrep

KKTT|<rai.

Cobet

s

rule

(Mnemos. XI
ponit,

p.

168)

"ubi

praecedit vocalis, semper (Plato)

/c&cT?7/icu
"

ubi

consonans,

best

et ^KT-fjadai KKTTJ<rdat represents the usage of the MSS, but Schanz now writes fKTrjvdat. universally after con sonants. See also Mnem. vin 336. eKrijcrdai is in reality an

promiscue

old

Ionic form

:

it

is

used by Aeschylus Prom. 795 Koivbv

o/j./ji

3196

5.

OVK

%\o>

oirws dirio-Tw.

The MSS reading

OTTWS

ai>

was corrected by Heindorf,

OTTWS &v

with the subjunctive being
:

The subjunctive is deliberative only used in final clauses. B OVK %w tywye O TTWS croi etirw o vo&. Euthyphr.

cf.

n

6.

ov SiSaKTOV
its

whole of
KaK&s
saying
5
is

clause

o#,

nyd
irepl

ov negatives didaKr6v only, fjLiqot the a similar case is Eur. Andr. 586 Spdv ev, diroKreiveiv fila. after verbs of thinking and //.??
jJtTjSe.
:

tolerably

common

in

Plato.

See on Euthyphr. 6 B

6(Ji.o\oyov/j.J>

avruv

p.-r)ov eldevdt.

X3I9D
8.

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
Kal ot oXXot
"EX\T]vS,

105

wcrrrcp

sc.

<j>affi.

Compare 337 D

where Hippias calls Athens TT}S EXXdos avrb TO irpvravelov rrjs a somewhat less favourable judgment is given in Laws I aortas 641 E rrjv irtiXiv airavres T/^UJV "EXXT/i/es inroXa^dvoixnv ws 01X6X076? re
:

fcrri

Kal 7roXtfXo70s, Aa.Ke5aifj.ova 5
rj

Kal Kp^rrjv, rrjv

fj.ev

fipax^oyov,

rrjv 5t iroXvvoiav fj.a\\ov

iro\v\oylav daKovaav.
is

12.

|ATair6fxin>nvovs

to use
I i

/j-erawefj-ireiv

in the sense of

probably middle: Plato does not seem send for (like Thucydides e.g.
:

VI 52. 112. 3 AfJ.vpratov fJLeraTrfj,Trovros rov ev rots eXevi /SaaiX^an The subject is TOI)S TroXtras to be supplied from rr\v Tr6\iv. et al.).
foil.
TJ

Compare Gorg. 455 B
ffu\\oyos
Ti
77
rj

8rav
irepi

irepl vavrrrjyCjv

irepl larpuv aipttfeus rj rrj 7r6Xei &\\ov rivbs 8r)fj.iovpyiKov Zdvovs, a\\o
;

r6re 6 pijTopcKos a v/j.[3ov\eij<rei
Te~)(yi.KijjTa.rov

rbv

5e? alpelcrdat
irepl

remarks that the words

dfj\ov yap OTL ev fr.dffTy aiptaei and Ale. I 107 A C. Kroschel well r&v ot /coSo/i^drwv (which Hirschig

to shew that it is only about the actual buildings that the builders are consulted, "non de necessitate, utilitate, magnitudine", as to which the orators advise: compare Gorg.

wrongly

rejects) are

added

455D17.
KOIV iravu tcaXos
rj

fj

KT\.

Imitated in Ale.
17

I

107 B and C

:

dv re ye a/JUKpbs
TJ

fj.eyas ^,
otf
;

edv re /caXos

dyevvrjs,

TTWJ
oufiev

701^

dXX

atVxp6s, ?TI re yevvalos av re irev^s dv re ir\ovaios rj 6
trepl

ira.pai.vG)v y
,

diolcrei

Adrjvalois, orav

r&v

ev

rfj

Tr6\ei ]8ou-

TTWS

SLV

vyialvoiev,

dXXd ftyroGw larpbv

elvai

rbv

atifj.-

ot ro|6rai. The ro&rai (bowmen) or 2,K6dai (so called 20. from their nationality) or Hevalviot (from one Hewls who according to the Schol. on Ar. Ach. 54 had the chief hand in establishing

them) were the
offending orator
Xoi To6rcu.
21.
:

police.
e.g.

X/cw

was regularly used of removing an
el\Koi>

Ar. Knights 665 Kad*

avrov

ol

irpvrdveis

l|ap<tfVTat.

So

T

(B has e^epuvrai)

:

the present

is

perhaps

due to tense-assimilation to Ke\evbvrwv. the same connexion by Ar. Eccl. 261 ro6rai), edv Ke\ijo~ofji.ev, but no exact
middle has yet been found
ov

The
rj/wets

active atpeiv is used in 5^ 7 rjv aXp&f* (sc. ot

parallel for the use of the
I.

the nearest seems to be Eur.
:

T. 1201

yap

TTOT

av viv
:

r)pdfj.r)v

fidOpuv airo
:

cf.

Ar. Ach. 1140

rrjv dcnrid

ibid. 953. aipov Kal ]8d5tf w TTOI \afiuv irepi ruiv TTJS ircXews 8totKT]<rws. 23.

So B and T, but

in

both

3190

the copyist had doubts as to the text.

It is usual to

drop either r&v

106
or

NOTES ON

x 319 D

Kroschel transposes rcDv and irepL Sauppe retains 5iot/o7<rews : the MSS reading, making irepl govern dioiKrjtredos but this is very harsh, ra TTJS TroXews StotKTjaews is a periphrasis for 17 7r6Xews
8ioiKr}ffis (for

the omission of the article with 7r6Xews

cf.

Polit.

296 E
T&V

TOVTOV

dei

Kal Trepl ravra, TOV opov eZVcu TQV ye dXydiv&TaTov opdrjs
ov 6
s
<ro06s

7r6Xews
ev

5tot/CT7<rews,
:

Kal

ay ados

dvi)p dcoiKifjaeL rb

dpxouev&v)

the city

administration

being contrasted with T&V

Texvy SioiKrjcris. The whole phrase Trepl rCiv rrjs 7r6Xews 5ioi/c?j<rews corresponds to 318 E Kal wept T&V TTJS 7r6Xews, OTTWS ra TT)S 7r6Xews Swarwraros av eiri Kal irpdrreiv Kal \yeiv.
25.

dvio-rdpievos.
elirov,

The audience

sat in the

assembly

:

cf.

Rep.

VI 492 B orav,
-

t-vyKadef6/Jt.VOi. adpooi. TroXXot els eKK\r](rlas

-^eywiri KT\.

Heindorf quotes many cases of the transition from {ia0wv. 29. plural to singular in Plato (e.g. infra 324 B): the change is justified here because in each case the reproach would be addressed to a
single person.
31.
jxi]

TOWV on dXXd

ISia.

See on Apol. 40 D oluai

&i>

^77

310 E

#TI idi&T tjv rivd, dXXd TOV ptyav fiaaiXea, KT\. Plato comments on the 34ovj^ otoi re aXXois irapaSiSovai.
inability of statesmen to teach their sons political sagacity in

Meno
as

93 B

foil.,

citing Themistocles, Aristides, Pericles

and Thucydides

cases in point.

Compare Ale.

I

118 E

foil.

a n-v 8t8a<TKaXwv &\ero. The phrase is used by Plato in 35. cf. infra 324 D, the other passages where he deals with this topic
:

Meno 93 D and 94

A.
a<j>TOi.

320 A
and

38.

vqxovTai wo-irp
is

/^ue(70cu is

propei ly

to graze

,

alicui consecrato (Heindorf) : cf. The Critias 119 D atyeTuv OVTWV rotipuv ev ry rou nocretScDvos lepy. same expression occurs in Rep. VI 498 C orav de \rjyy /aev ij pupr],
<x0eros

said de grege

numini

Tro\tTiKwv de Kal arpareiQiv eKrbs yiyvyTai, Tore

TJdr]

dcp^rovs ve/j-ea-

Here the object of vfaeffdai is virtually the clause edv TTOV ry apery going to and fro by themselves they cf. whatever excellence etc. graze like creatures set apart upon VII 528 A tpdovois /J.TJV ovd dv dXXy d ris TI (for the use of edv) Rep. dtivat-To dw avr&v ovaadai.
6ai Kal

wdev aXXo

Trpdrret^.

:

Idv TrovjavTO|xaTOi jrepirvxwo iv TTJ dperfj. auro//ary (used 39. as in Theaet. 180 C, Polit. 271 D 6 5 ijpov Trepl TOV irdvTa aiiTOwith dpeTrj would make the roFs
fjiaTa ylyvecrdai

avdpuTrois) agreeing

expression

more pointed, and avoid the

slight contradiction involved

xi 320 c

PLATO S PRO TA GORAS.
(since

107

in the expression aur6/xarot TrepirtixbHriv

one cannot spon

taneously fall in with a thing), but ai)r6ywarot is not to be pressed, and should be understood as^eqjuiyalent to dirb roD cwro/xdrou (cf.

323

c).

40.

KXeiviav.

The author
his

of the

First

Alcibiades

makes

Alcibiades himself speak of
dvOpwiros (118 E).
42.
|JL^
8ia<|)0apfj

younger brother as

/j.cui 6/ji.evos

8rj.

d-ft

adds a touch of irony to spare the

feelings of Alcibiades. 43. KaTa0|ivos ev

ch. i)

According to Plutarch (Alcib. Ariphron shared with Pericles the guardianship of Alcibiades.
Ap<j>povo9.

Ariphron was Pericles brother.
45.

direSuKC TOVTOI,

i.e.

Pericles

to

Alcibiades.

Pericles

is

3206

humourously represented as restoring his ward in despair to the and Alcibiades very man who was suspected of corrupting him
:

is

again appeased.

OVT TWV dXXoTpiwv. See Gorg. 515 c foil., where it is 48. argued that Pericles, Cimon and Miltiades made none of their
fellow-citizens better.
51.
a^iov/JL^v
Kti|jnrTO(Jiai.

Stallbaum quotes Thuc.

Ill

58.

i

Kalroi

It is implied that 52. Protagoras originality is not equal to his industiy. The MSS have e^evp-rjK^vai, but in the perfect as in past tenses generally initial ev became yv: see on 3156 above.

ye Ka/j.(j)6f)v ai v/j.as KO.I /jLeTayv&vcu. iroXXwv (i^v TCI 8 avrov er|upT]Kcvcu.

in 328 D. e-rrtSeif-ov. See below on e7rt5eia 3200 irpcrpvTpos vewre pois. Gorg. 527 A rd%a 5 ovv ravra fivdos ffoi SoKei \tyeo-6at p ypads. 8i|X0wv. So BT Cobet requires 17 \6y^ die&\0u,\] 57. TJ

55. 56.

aXX
<os

/

wej>os

w<rire

:

XOY<{>

!>ui

~\uyu}

diee\d<l)v

contrasts with

fj.vdov

X^wv, not with
For the

eTrtSei^w,

|

which belongs

to

both participial clauses.

aorist participle

(where we should expect the present) compare with Sauppe Theaet. 167 D a

CHAPTER XL
(2)

into three sections viz. (i) 320 C Protagoras reply 323 c, 323 C 324 D, (3) 324 E 328 D compare Introduction, p. xi. In the first he is concerned to justify the Athenians for allowing
falls
: :
:

everyone to address them on political questions this he does in the first instance by relating a myth of pre-historic man.

io8
It is
TTJS

NOTES ON
probable that
this

xi 320 c
treatise irepl

myth comes from Protagoras

mentioned in Diog. Laert. IX 55. It does not resemble the other myths of Plato in point of style, and if not actually written by Protagoras, it is at least carefully modelled on his way of writing compare the similar imitations of the style of Agathon in Symp. 194 D foil, and of Prodicus infra 337 A foil. See
ev

dpxfi KaTcurrdo-eus,

:

Introd. p. xxi.

That the

we can
\

see from Prodicus

Sophists taught by means of parables Apologue of Heracles in Xen. Mem. n i.

21

foil.

The

s

stitution of

man

other passages in Plato treating of the primitive con are Polit. 269 C foil., Tim. 42 E foil, and Symp.

In Rep. in 414 c foil, there are also some points of 189 c foil. resemblance to the present story.
i. yap introduces the story see on Apol. r\v -yap ITOTC xpovos. 20 E Xatpe^cDvra yap fore irov. rjv %p6^os was usual in beginning a tale the editors quote Theocr. 8. i TJV xpo^os avlic ey6v KT\.
:
:

3200

OVK ^v. In the Timaeus 42 E foil, the creation -yt vT] takes place after that of gods. The lower animals in the Timaeus arise from the degeneration of the souls of men in later
2.

0VTJTO, Be

of

men

births, every soul
foil.

being

first

born as

man

:

cf.

Here the lower animals
is

for dvijTa 7^77
3.

are created simultaneously with of course not limited to the human race.
ip.apjjivos

Tim. 41 E with 90 E man,
the

XP VOS
as well

jMkv
as

Y

VC/(rft)S

The omission of
(rjKdev

article,

the whole turn of

expression

avrois

Xpbvos),
4.

is somewhat poetic. 0ol YH? 2v8ov so in Tim. 42 E it is the created gods, npt There however it is not said that the d-r)fuovpy6s, who make men. human creatures were made within the earth but compare the
:

:

yevvaiov \j/ev5os of Rep. in. 414 c ycrav 8e (i.e. the citizens of Plato s state) r6re ry dXydeia virb 7775 evrbs TrXarro^ei/ot. The wide-spread
tradition of autochthonous races
to

among

the Greeks no doubt helped

//,<h>

anthropological theories, with which compare 7 Empedocles (ap. Ritter and Preller Hist. Philos. p. 143) ovXcxpve is T e\\ov Symp. 191 C tyevvwv Kal TI^TTOI x^oi os %av Tr/xDTa

produce

such

:

ZTIKTOV

(sc.
.

primitive men) OVK
Polit.

els

d\\rj\ovs dXX

els yijv uxrirep

ol

Temyes

dve^nbaKovro TrdvTes. It is to be noticed that Plato regularly uses evrds (not gvdov) as a preposition ZvSov (so used) is the more poetic word.

and

272

A

c/r

7775

7<zp

:

Compare Tim. 42 E (of the creation of KEpavvvTcu. (i.e. the created gods) TOV a^repov dr]/j.i.ovpy6i>, rov Kbcruov 5aveit,~6fJ,ei>oi fj,6pta TTvpbs Kal 777? vdaros re /ecu dtpos dirb
K
-ytjs

man)

(j.i/j.ov/j,evoi

xi 320 E
<l)s

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
7rd\iv els

109
vvK6\\t>)i
.

diro8o07]<TofJi^a

ravrbv ra

\a/Ji(Bai>6/j,et>a

For

air

and water
is

Fire

substituted here rdov oaa irvpi Kai yrj Kepavvvrai. the rarest and earth the densest of the four elements Prois
:

tagoras theoiy

is

that air

and water are produced by mixing these
cannot mean merely that the

in different proportions, for Kepdvvvrai

elements interchange. to Parmenides Met.
:

the theory attributed by Aristotle b I 5. 986 33 5vo ras curias Kal duo rds dpxas ira\iv ri6rj<n, dep^bv Kai \f/vxpov, olov irvp Kal yfy \eycw. It is noteworthy that Plato himself regards all four elements as differentiated,

Compare

I

although imperfectly, before the creation of the K6ff/m.os by the) dr)/Movpy6s compare Tim. 53 A foil. The chiasmus in yrjs Kal
:

followed by irvpi Kal yfj is part of Protagoras art. 8 a-yciv cu rcl irpos 6. Cf. Rep. in 414 D eireiSi] fyieXXov. eVetSij 5e Traj/TeXcos e&ipyaa fttvoi rjffav Kal i) yrj avrobs ^rrjp o&aa
n-vpos
<|>s

Kal Eiri}j.T]9ei. In Gorg. 523 D Prometheus again appears as the servant of Zeus, commissioned to put a stop to man s foreknowledge of his day of death in Polit. 274 c he is mentioned
.

:

as the giver of fire to mortals. The Hesiodic and Aeschylean form of the legend, in which Prometheus steals the fire, does not appear
in Plato, except at 321 D,

story in

nor is there any hint in his works of the Hesiod about the gift of Pandora the source of human ills to Epimetheus (Works and Days 50 foil.), though it is worth noting that Plato like Hesiod makes the creation of woman posterior
to that of
9.

man

(Tim. 42

B).

The object clause, as usual with VijJ.ai. verbs like TrapaireiaOat. (deprecari) depends on the positive part of llie verb (here alriMTlku) ]:. ai njs- is see on A]x>l. by himsdl
TrapaiTetTdi

avros

:

i

_;

,

without Prometheus aid.
the MSS
as
vel/j.ai>Tos

We follow

Cron and Turner
s 5

in retaining

5t /*ou as against
is

Bekker

e/tou: the antithesis,

Cron remarks,

between- the actions

veifjLavros

and

tirl<TK(\J/ai.

The

point to be noticed is that Afterthonflfct jnvitgs Forethought to\\ ft exchange offices with him: it is Afterthought whose duty it is to
inspect

i

(eincrKe^aadaL

:

cf.

Gorg. 526 C
rot

6

5

MiVws

e7rt<r/co7rcD?>

ii.
ffrtpovs

TO, 8* cxo-OeveoTTepa
roi)s

8.

B and T have

TOI)J

5 dtrdeve-

320 E

5^,

a natural mistake, which can hardly be due to
ls

Plato.
13.

ejnix av ^ TO SvvafJtiv

(rwnipCav.

Plato
els

s

own

style rarely

falls into

verse:

compare Rep. x 621 B

rrjv

yevecnv q.TTovras

no

NOTES ON
:

xi

320 E

The whole passage is full of rare and often poetic uicTTrep dcrrepas. rhythms, words, constructions, and turns of expression e.g. &OTT\OV
ij/ATTiffxev,

trrt]vbv

(pvyriv,

rySe

avT<

(for

avr<^

a\\ri\o(pdopi.(*}v

dia<pvyas
:

eir fipKtae,

eu/xaptav

(as

against ev/mdpetav), and

many more
d"XXots

note also the effort after balance
Svvarois de
eari 5 oh.
/cat
"

and variety

in iicavois ptv d/xOj at

%eijuu>j/a,

/cat^uara

(321 A), rots pkv
opinor,"

K 7775

de

rots de

Summum

says
si

artificium,

Heindorf, "in his imitantis philosophi appareret quid de propria Protagorae dictione superesset". See

Introd. p. xxi.
14.

o-jxiKpoTTjTi
fffjuKpoTTjTa
:

Tj|jnrt<rxv.

The
is

usual construction would re

quire

the
r)d%e

change

balance with a de

perhaps due to the desire for peyeOei, but the same construction occurs
Aesch. Prom. 232
ytvos.

infra in line 21 with d,u0iejWy.

321 A

18.

P.II

TI -yevos dio-rwOciT].
8s trdv

dt<rrt6<ras

yevos:

ibid.

668

Kepavvbi>

e|aiVrwo-oi

Note the emphasis

with which Protagoras asserts the permanence of the genus: cf. infra 321 B ffwrifjpiav ytvei iroplfav. 10. So Schanz with BT the editors generally read cv|xapiav.
T<

:

evfj,dpeiav.

The

older form

is

intentionally used here

:

see above on

line 13.

24.

viroSwv

is

Cobet

s

correction for vwb iroduv of
avvTrodyrov KT\.

B and

T.

See

infra

on 321 C

yvfj.v6v re /cat

321 B

25.

TO. 8e Sepp-ao-iv (rrcpcois

Kal dvaijAOis.
to

After ra 5 the MSS

have been wrongly introduced from line 21. This (the suggestion of Ast, adopted by Schanz and others) seems better than to read for 6pi%iv Kal the words
read 6piQv Kal

The words seem

fputy
31.

Kat.

.

t

ov irdw

Tt=non

satis;

cf.
is

avrbs TT&VV

n yiyvuffKW.

ov

iraw

note on Euthyphr. 2 B the English not quite/, some

o5

times equivalent to not at all by meiosis : the addition of rt.makes the phrase a little less emphatic, iravv oti is quite a different phrase and means altogether not
.

32IC
els

KaravaXwo-as rds 8vvd(j.is. After rds ra a\oya are found in T, but not in B.
32.
36.
e|a.p.\ws

Syi/dytiets,

the words

irdvTWV ^x VTa

:

h^ 6

ixavi^s TOV fiadovs

fyovTa in

Theaet. 194

the genitive after /caXws ^x eiv and the like. 37. -yviAvov re Kal dvviro 8T|TOV Kal ao-rpwrov Kal doirXov. Compare the description of "Epws in Symp. 203 C avwjrbS-rjTos Kal
:

D and

xa;tuu7reT7?s det

wv

/cat

dtcrr/owros.

dvvTrbdTjTov contrasts with

xi 321 E

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
and
justifies

.

in

in 321 B (line 24),

Cobet

s

emendation

for virb

Aristotle (irepl tywv popiuv iv 10, p. 687 a 23) alludes to this passage of the Protagoras : d\X ol \fyovres ws avvaTt)K.tv ou

KdXws

6 avdpWTTos,

a\\a

xelpicrTa. TUIV

tyuv (avviro^rbv re yap avTov
Trpos TTJV
a\Kr)i>),

flval 0acri /ecu yv/j.v6v Kal OVK

Zx VTa OTT\OV

OVK 6p0cJs

ytvrj

cv fl. See above on Iv ry varcpaig. 318 A. All the Qv(]rh, then according to Protagoras issued forth on the same day. Plato thought otherwise see on 320 D line 2.

39.

:

40.

cxHtV

S

:

so
is

Ti

"

0-%6/ie^os

B, sed in marg.
in
this

vitii

nota"

Schanz.

(rxo/xej os

occasionally found

passive

sense,

especially in compounds (Sauppe quotes Soph. 250 D oweo-xVetfa and Isocr. xix cxo^fvov) but the present participle is at least equally well attested here and suits the meaning better : cf.

n

(j>66ri

,

(with Kroschel)
42.
Trpos

Laws

VI 780 B
cro<jnav

VTT& TroXX^s cnropla.? exontvois.
<rvv

Ti]v

cVrtxvov

irvpl.

Aesch. Prom. 252

254 32

ID

Kal vvv <p\oytt}Trbv irvp wTracra. eyw which is 06 ye TroXXas K/JLa6r]ffovTai r^as X OVO? e ^ry^epot, In Polit. 274 C Plato attributes fire to the usual form of the story.
rotcrSe /t^roi
Trvp
cr(f>ii>
a</>

Prometheus, and the arts to Hephaestus and Athena, avv denotes a much closer connexion than ^cerci: it is seldom used by Plato
except in a few adverbial phrases, or in religious uses (like $-vv run Xdptcrt Kal Motf<rcus Laws ill 682 A), or in semi-poetic passages like
the present
46.
:

see

on

otdevl

iV

v$
:

in Crito

48

C.

?<r\v

is

yap wapa ry Ai O. C. 1382. ovKTt means that Prometheus had to draw the line there ; 48. he had been able to steal the fire, but farther he could not go no
doubt because time pressed. The same idiomatic use of OVKTL occurs above in 312 E pa Af, tyy, OVK^TI $x w ff0i X^et^
:

see on &rxere in Apol. 19 A. r)v reminds one of Sophocles A//CT; ^vvedpos Zyvos

obtained

)(

ijd-r]

it

is

extremely
there.
49.

common

in Plato

and

in

Greek generally:

see note

on

Euthyphr. 3 E and Cope on Arist. Rhet.
Ai6s
Kal

A

i.

i354

b

7 referred to

<j>v\aKa

are

Prometheus.
dorf) O$K

Compare Hesiod Theog. 385
86/j.os

no doubt Kpctros and Bi a, as in the 32 foil, (quoted by Heinr^Kva
(sc.

1

E

Kpdros 17^

Elrjv apiSeiKera yeivaro

STI/) TWV
^ir;

^<rr

aTrdvevde At6s

ov5

rts eSprj oi)5

656s O TTTTT/

Keivois

6ebs r]ye novelet
cis

aXX

alel Trap Zrjvl fiapvKTinry

edpdwvrai.

8

TO

TTJS

AOiivds KT\.

Protagoras reverts to the story of

ii2
the theft.

NOTES ON

xi 321 E

poem which he
51.
o~o<pla

Similarly in 346 D below Socrates reverts to a part of the has quoted some time before in 345 c.

fyj/rrvpov Te)(VT]v is Tex^rj
is
o~o<j)La

which works by
/3tou is

irvp,

as frrexvos

in line 42

working by Texy 7)-

322 A
cf.

54.
line 45.

TOV PIOV

81

EirijATjOea.

means of
to

living

as in
:

The words 6V
/cat
I
ere".

ETrt^fle a

mean thanks
%/)eu;^,

Epimetheus

Ar. Clouds 12
TTJS

14 dXX ov ovva^ai Se/Xatos evdeiv daKvo/j-evos
(paTvrjs /cat

virb

Tijs daTravrjs

TWV

5ta rovrovl TOV vlbv,

and
a XX

in
01)

Rep.
5ta

354 A ov

pevTot. /caXws

ye derla/mai, 6Y epavTov,

The words
style.

are rejected

by Schanz
5t

(after

Sauppe),
is

but without reason: the jingle (Upo-p-ridea de
quite in Protagoras
55.

E7ri-yu,7;^^a)

^ Tep Xe^yeTai.
:

Aeschylus relates the punishment but not

the

trial

dvrjro icrt
5//C7JJ/.

9 TO crop yap &vdos, -K0.vri^y v irvpbs tr^Xas, Set ^eots 8ovvat /cX^as wTracrey Toia<r5^ rot d/xaprt as
cf.

Prom.

7

o"0e

CHAPTER

XII.

The myth is continued (322 A 322 D) and used to justify the Athenians for listening to promiscuous political advisers, since ac cording to it all men are endowed with TTO\LTIKT] apery as indeed
all

men

believe, otherwise they

insane the

man who

would not (as they do) regard as does not at least pretend to possess justice and
H-oipas:
is
fj.o

TroXiTi/cr? dperr)
1.

generally.
ipa
is

0ias

|JiT<rxe

dispensation

,

and

refers to

the evTexyos

(ro<f>ia,

which

6eia because derived

from Hephaestus
to

and Athena.
2.

[8ict TIJV

TOV 0eov o-vYYe veiav].

These words are open
:

objection on two grounds.

no

single

god

singular TOV deov is inaccurate has been mentioned as akin to man nor can TOV deov

The

well be taken as
rCov

God

in the monotheistic sense, or as generic for

These

both usages are alien to the whole tone of the myth. might perhaps be got over by reading TOV 6etov = T&V 6e&v, but another difficulty remains. The reference in rty avyyeveiav can only be to 320 D TVTTOVO~IV airra deoi, the creatures
6e&v
difficulties

being regarded as children of their creators as in Tim. 42 E voyffavTes ol TratSes (the created gods) TT\V TOV Trarpos 5taratj>, but there it is
not only

gods
selves

man but all dv-rjTa yevrj that are in this sense akin to why then should not the lower animals also have built them fanes ? As the phrase is at best a bad case of loose thinking

xii

322 c

PLATO S PRO TA GORAS.

113

and inaccurate writing in an otherwise careful and elaborate piece of composition, I have followed Krai and Schanz in rejecting the whole phrase. The words were perhaps an (inaccurate) gloss on For the sentiment which they express see Betas in 6eias nolpas.
the Editor s Introduction to the Euthyphro p. xvi. man alone Betas /j,ert<rxe polpas: see (xovov:

note

in

loc.

Cobet

s
is

fj,6vos

would be more grammatical, but the
T
KT\.

attraction of

fauv
3.

too strong.
tiriyiipu
(3<i)|j.ovs

I8pve<r0ai

Horn. Od. in 48
to

4.

<iirn.ro..

Trp&Tov ptv
:

and

HireiTa

refer

logical
c/c

sequence

rather than temporal

Protagoras follows the

maxim

Aids apxu-

7.

TjvpcTO.

MSS

evpero, but see

on 315 B above.

*
Polit.

9.
TT]S

dirwXXvvTo ouv inro TWV

Qi]pla>v.

Compare
dai/JLOVOS

274 B 3 22 E
air-

yap TOV KKTT]/JL^VOV Kal eTTi/AeXeias, ruv Tro\\(2v a5
avrol
5e

vt/JLOVTOS
6~r)pt(>)V,

T^UaS

airepr]IJUi)6<vTeS

oaa %aXe7ra ras

(ptivets

rjv,

aypi<t)dti>T(t}v,

aadeveis avdpuiroi Kal

a<pv\aKTOi

yeyovdres

diypirdfavTO VTT
14.
ifs

avrwv.
iroXefiiKT].
TroXe/MK-fi
is

|ipos

recognised as a part of
insufficiency of the indi
life

7roXm/oJ in Rep.
15.
<rwto-0ai

n

273

D

foil.

KTI^OVTCS iroXas.
is

The

assigned as the cause of city Rep. II 369 B ylyverai rolvvv TroXts, ws y<^ucu, eireidr) evSe /js TJ/J.UV exaffTos OVK avrdpKtjs dXXd TroXXcui ^ rlv oiet
vidual for his
&\\T)V ir6\tv oiKifeiv
19.
;

own wants

in

ovdefj.iav,

r\

d

os.

alSto TC Kal SCKTiv.
SlKfj
is

The
is

editors cite

Hesiod (Works and

3220

Days
it

192)

5 cv xcpui Kal cu Scbs OVK carat, (of the corrupt),

7^05

ffidripeov,

where man
keeps
fellows

atdus

a part of

&>s

(Euthyphr. 12 c):

w

<f>l\oi,

making them fear the censure of their (Laws I 647 A B); compare Homer Iliad xv 561 foil. dXX^Xous r aid e iff 6 e avtpes &rre, Kal aid& 6fo6 tvi
together by
dv/j.<^,

men

Kara Kparepas
<pevy6j>TUi>

ixr/JLlvas.

alSofdvwv 5 avdpujt ir\oves

<r6oi

ye irefftavrac

Stxi} is here the ap K\^OS ftpwrai o^re TIS dX/ciJ. abstract principle law like Latin ius : for the original meaning of the word see Verrall on Eur. Med. 411.

d

OVT

20. iroXswv KOO-JIOI o-vvaywyoC. The phraseology no less than the rhythm is highly poetical. 21. riva ovv rpoirov. For ovv retained in the indirect the edi v tors cite Symp. 219 D wore o#0 OTTWS ovv 6pyL^otfirjv OTT-Q
elx<>

oW
8

A. P.

H4
irpocrayayolfjiyv

NOTES ON
avrbv
v]inr6pow.

xii
for
oolt)

322 c

Cobet

s

Sw

is

attractive

but unnecessary.
22.

ir6Tpov
in
I

tos

KT\.

"

oratio statim

rectam

transeat"
OTJ

Eleganter omissum 0??, ut obliqua Heindorf, quoting (inter alia)
rbv KOpov yeXdaai re
K
T<2v

Xen. Cyrop.
SaKpvui)]

4.

28 evravda
avrifi

Trp6crdev

Kal

elireiv

dinbvra.

dappeiv ori TropeVrot afidis 6\iyov

Xpovov

we re opdv o~ot ^crrai Kciv fiovXr) dffKapdafjivKTei. Sauppe quotes an exact parallel in 338 B infra elirov ovv ycb STL alffxpov etrj
ppafievrrjv eXe ffdat

ruv \6ycov.

et re

70,^

^ipwv

<TTCLI

KT\.

24.

ds ?x wv
foil.

larpiKtjv

ISiwrcus.

This division of labour takes
cities
:

place as soon as

men

begin to unite in
iroXews-

compare Rep.

II

369 E
^22

D

30-

KTtCveiv

ws

vo<rov

Krelveiv is poetical for the awo-

/cretVet;>*of

prose.
S 319 C ovdtv between OVK dv^x VTai &s
<rv
<J>ps:

32.

A0T]vaioi: without the article as in 319 B and 324 C.

322 E

35.
XOVTO.I.

OVK dve xovTai,

n

(JLaXXov dirodt-

The

antithesis
is

<n>

0]ys

and

ei/c6ro;s

ws ey6 0^t with etV6ro;s.
Q-V (pys,

We

a poor one, since OVK d^x VTat lias t be repeated should expect some word like 0X67075 before ws
ijv is (rvfji-

323 A

37. cf. pov\riv not apery* de 6 6eis rovs v6fji.ovs
"qv

or perhaps OVK CIKOTUS has dropped out after 0??s. Uvai. The antecedent to 8et 8id SIKCUOO-VVTJS
:

Laws

I

632 C (quoted by Heindorf) Kanduv

aira<Tit>

rovrots 0uXa/cas eTTia-r^aet, rous pev (sc.

(pv\aKas) did (ppovrjaews, rovs dc dC d\r)0ovs 56^s I6vras. The phrase did diKcuoffvvrjs levai is equivalent to diKaiav elvac as Sio, (pi\las levai.

to

<pi\ov

elvai.

38.

airavTOS.
:

Schanz reads ^0^x65 on account of

iravri fol
;

lowing

but Plato frequently interchanges OTTOS and
E. It is natural that the
first.

TTOS

see on

Euthyphr. 9
should come
40-

more emphatic form

^ FH clvai
like, in

and the

= alioquin is regular with Set, iroXeis. r\ the preceding clause compare infra 323 c rj
:

/AT?

aj/ot

^v dvQpuTTOis

avrt]
-r/fjitTepos

and 325 A. TOVTOU alrCa:

asyndeton as in 318

A
r<

TOCTOVTOS

& ye

\6yos.

The presence of tos TW O VTI i^YoOvTat. oVrt, as Sauppe 41. remarks, shews that ws depends on reK^piov in line 44 compare diroMoetKTa.1 aoi. infra 324 C ws fikv odv efrc6rws dirooex ovTa
:

3236

54.

Trpo<riroioxi|Jtvov 8iKato<rvvt]v

:

elsewhere in Plato
rji>

TrpoaTroieicr-

6ai takes the infinitive.

Thuc.

I

137. 7 has

\pevddSs irpoa-eTrorf

xiii
c5

323 E

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
:

115
:

dva-yKcuov

ov

need
irepl

cf.

Rep. V 449 C
TO.
0tAwj>

ws apa

not be added, as Heindorf shews 3 2 3 yvvaiKuv re Kai iraiduv iravrl 8rj\ov on

C

Koiva

eVrcu.

CHAPTER
now

XIII.

passes to the second part of his reply (323 c Protagoras 324 D), in which he seeks to prove by two ai-guments that men believe that virtue can be taught: (i) as we hold men responsible
it is clear that we conceive of it as capable of being is in point of fact intended acquired (3230 324 A) ; (2) punishment to teach well-doing (324 A 324 D). ciXXd SiSaKrov. Sauppe (on 322 c) ov r\yovvra.i etvcu 4. to all is inconsistent with remarks that the giving of diKrj and cu

for dSiKla,

<|>v(ri

5u>s

the theory that

What apery can be acquired by teaching. Protagoras no doubt means is that while all men have a part in because they possess dixy and a5c6s, they may be diKcuo<rvvi) (323 A),
TTO\ITIKT]

improved by teaching, but

it

must be allowed that

his

words are

hardly consistent with themselves. See Introduction, p. xix. TO, KaXd Kal rdvavria TOVTOIS. This, the MSS reading, 15.
retained

3230

by Heindorf, and recently by Krai,
14 does not have
is

ravra in line
sentence,

its

think, right. antecedent in the previous
is,

we

but

explained

Protagoras in fact divides
<f>6ffei,

by goods
Kal

TO,

KaXa

Kal

ravavria

TOVTOIS.

into

two

classes, viz. (i)

goods
the

(2)

goods

t

eirt/j.e\etas

dtT/cvjo-ews

Kal didaxys,

and

calls

former

/caXd, the

implied examples being personal beauty, stature

and health.

The
fj.i>

Schanz s rejection of TO. Ka\d is therefore needless. editors mostly read TO, /ca/cd, but (in spite of Ficinus hacc
o<ra

mala eorumqm contraria) this would seem to be precluded by the 8 and 5^ in raOra ^v yap and the contrast cryafld requires that one class of goods shall be set over against another, and-is much weakened if we put evils in the foreground by reading Ta KaKa. Further, TO.VTO. is too remote to be easily taken with ra
:

/ca/cd

in the sense of

these evils
/ca/cd,

,

whereas

if

we

take the pronoun

merely as anticipating TCI, wide for not all /ca/cd, not
:

then the statement becomes too
roirrois,

all

ct7a0d (ravavTla

on

this view)

come
first

to

men

0&rei, as indeed the next clause states.

irdv TO cvavrfov have here the dpTTJs. <rvX.\T]p8T]v hint of the unity of the different vices and (by implication) virtues : compare infra 329 C.
21.

We

82

u6
3 24 A
24.
el

NOTES ON
Y^p 0\is
<re

xm
:

324 A

8i8d|ji.
:

Cf. infra

342 D.

25.
iroTa.iJ.bv

avro

SiScU-ci

fact will

KaffiflrffUFOS

e<p-n

shew you Theaet. 200 E 6 rbv apa 8eletv avr6 the idiom is a fre
:

quent one. ov8ls Y&P Ko\dei KT\. Plato s own theory of punishment 27. so far agrees with this, but goes deeper: see Gorgias 525 A foil. Trpocnj/cet 8e iravTi ry ev TifAwplq OVTL, vir &\\ov 6p6Cos TLfJHi}pov/j.evij}, ?)
(3e\Ttovt

iva aXXoi
rai.
it is

yiyve&dai Kal ovivaffdai rj ira.pa.5eiyfj.aTi. rots d"AX(HS yiyveadai, opuWes irdaxovTa, a, av irdaxv 00/3oi5/uepot j3e\Tiovs ylyvwvis of body Vice (being ignorance) is disease of soul, as
v6<ros
:

the business of the judge to cure the one as of the physician to cure the other: cf. Rep. IX 591 A B and Gorg. 478 D crw^poj/i^ct

yap irov Kal diKacoT^povs iroiel /cat tar/H/cr? ylyverai. Trovrjpias i] diKrj hence (ibid. 480 B foil.) the sinner should go before the judge as readily as the patient to a doctor, and should even accuse his friends.
:

In the ideal

city the

judges are to put to death incurable sinners just

as the doctors will allow incurable patients to die : in 409 E foil. TU)J/ iro\iTwv (rot Tovs fj.ev evcpveis TO, <rw/mra Kal ras ^f%ds depairetiaovcrt, roi)s 5^ IJ.TI, fj.ev /card crw/xa TOIOVTOI, a.irodvrjffKei.v
6<roi td<rov<ri,

TOVS 8

/card Trjv ^I/%TJV KaKotyvets Kal aviaTovs

avTol airoKTcvovaiv.
:

The same

holds good of punishment after death

for

Ardiaeus and

the others in Rep. x 616 A, whose punishment is everlasting (ovx TJKei. ou5 a? rl^ei devpo), are incurable aTexyus irapadeiy/^aTa avypTT)v g.8ov v ei deafj.wTijpiy, TO?S del TUV ddiKuv dcpiKvovT<$

6ed/j,aTa Kal vovdeTri^aTO.

the majority are punished to purge
to choose

them of the more wisely

guilt contracted

upon earth and teach them
time.

their lot of life next

The

remedial view of

punishment is embedded in the genius of the Greek language, as is shewn by the punitive sense of diKaiovv, evtfvveiv. The older and sterner view (dpd<ravTi iradeiv) appears more rarely
<rw<t>povlfav,

in Plato s time.

324 B

29.

T\$lKT\<rtv.

See above on 319 D.

30.

TijxwpeiTai.

The

editors quote Aristotle Rhet.
/c6Xa<ns*

I

10.

r369

b

12 5ta0^pci 5
evend,
e<rrtv,

TLfiwpla Kal
i]

rj

p,ev

yap

/c6Xa<m

TOU irdax VTOS

de

n/awp^a roO TTOIOVVTOS,

iva

diroirXypuOrj.

The

distinction

not invariably observed in Plato, although he generally uses TLuwpeiadai in passages where the gravity of the sin is more
is

insisted upon.

31.

quotes

Laws

ov TOV irap\T]\v06Tos d ye vTjTov OeCt]. Turner (on 324 B) XI 934 A ovx evena. TOV KaKovpytjcrai, dcdovs TTJV diKrjv, ov

xiv 325 A

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
TTOT

117
ov

yap Tb yeyovbs dycv-qTov eVrai
ye irpOLyQtv dytvrfrov
deirj

KT\.

The phrase

yap av TO

represents a common proverbial saying : cf. Simonides Frag. 69 Tb yap yeyevrjfj.ti ov ou/ceV apeKTov eVrai (Sauppe) with Bergk s note, and the impressive application of the 1021 r6 5 eVi ydv dira ireabv saying in Aesch. Ag. 1019
dvdpbs /j^\av alpa ris av iraXw cryKaXe crcur Heindorf (in the present) is rai e KoXa^ofJ-effOa quotes Ar. Wasps 405 vvv eKtlvo vvv e/cetj o Tov^6dv/j.ov tiivrpov evT^Tar 6J.
jrpoirdpoid

38.

KoXdovTai: the middle

:

<^5

CHAPTER
Here begins the
In
this

XIV.

third part of Protagoras reply: 324 E 328 D. chapter he begins to shew that virtue is in point of fact taught to all by shewing that it would be absurd to suppose that it
is

not.
i.

Xoiirii

curopia.

For the omission of the

article

before a

3240

relative clause

(Heindorf suggested the insertion of i) after XOITTT)) dyados Kai /XOWI/CTJS 175 Sauppe quotes Rep. Ill 413 E 0i/Xa avrov
<v

ffj.a.vOavfv.
4.

The

diropia

was raised by Socrates

in

SiSdtTKOucriv.
fiely

Contrast infra 325 B

TO. p.ev

319 D foil. d\\a diddaKOVsaid here

rai TOUS

and

ibid. TOVS wets

dtddcrKovTai, said of the parents
is

as diddffKovcriv (in the usual sense of diSdffKovrai) Meno 94 B. Similarly in Prot. 320 A eiraldevs

and

in

is

used where

we

should expect

eTrcuSei^ero

:

cf. e TratSet craro in

a
7.

8i8curKoX<ov

^xerat.

Meno 93 D. See note on 319 E supra.
Gorg. 523 A dv
ws
dXrjdrj
crt)

ovKTi
Myeiv.

[ivOov clXXd Xoyov.
fyijj

i&v

-fjy^crei

/j.vOov,

ws 670; ofyuu,

de \byov

ydp
for

b vra crot

X^w

<

/iceXXw

13.

8iKaio<ruvti

TO

oo-iov

etvai.

Thus

the

first

time 32 5

A

Protagoras definitely speaks of the virtues in language implying
their unity
15.
:

cf.

323

E.
:

olvSpos aperqv

ai

Spos

is

somewhat

loftier

and more im

pressive than dv6 puirov (cf. Rep. VIII 565 E fiiov dvdpbs d For the sentiment cf. Rep. VI 501 B ^v/n/miyvvvres re Kal
K

T&V

(TTlTrjdcVfJ.dTbjl
f/ccxXecrei

TO a V 5 p

L

K eXoJ

,

171"

fKClVOV TK/J.aip6fJ.l

Ol,

5

iv ro?s avdpuiroi.?

cyyiyvb^vov Oeoeidts re Kal

16.

use of /nerd

p.ra TOVTOU not /*e0 cf. Phaed. 69 A ff.
:

ou, see
(^rj)

on 313 A Kal
\J.QVQV

iv y.

For the
opdbv,

y fKe ifo

TO

vofAiff/Jia

nS
dv9
Kal

NOTES ON
o5 del airavra ravra KaraXXdrreffdai,
(ppovrjffis,

xiv 325 A
Kal rovrov
77

fj.ev

ner a TO I/TO u

J}voijp.evd re /cat

Trnrpaa K6fJi.eva

ry oWt

/cat

dvopeia

KT\.

Kal TraiSa Kal avSpa Kal yvvaiKa 19. nearly equivalent to not only child but etc. : TraiSa is put first as the natural object of "et nos Ko\dfeiv ergo manum ferulae subduximus" (Juv. I 15).
:

21.

answer

(cf.

tnraKovfl is more than obey: the word Crito 43 A) : tr. respond , sc. by

means

to hear

and

becoming

better (as

explained in line 20).

325 B
rriv

22.
i/
t

ws dvfarov OVTO,

diroKrefveiv

:

xV

/ca/co0uets /cat

dvtdrovs avrol diroKrevovo
,

Rep. in 410 A TOVS Kara i, In the next line

O.VTOV in avrov Tre^u/coros is still this

25.

s

6av|xd<rioi

vfryvovTai.

one thing viz. dvdpbs apery. The MSS have ws dav/j-aai^s

in what a strange way are yLyvovTai which could only mean a meaning irrelevant here. The point is that it is produced if good men virtue having been proved to be teach 6av/j.a<TTov

able

teach their sons everything except virtue, dav/mdcrioi (with Kroschel and other editors) seems the simplest of the many emenda tions proposed cf. Euthyd. 305 B dav/^dfftoi eiffiv ol rotoOrot avdpes.
:

The mistake may have
6av/j.a.(rl(s)S

arisen

from the influence of the
0au/Ltacrtws

common
ol
ol

ws.

dya6ol

(cf.

Next best is Hirschig s 328 E OVK elvat dvdpdOTrivrjv

yiyvovrai dyadol
17

tTrifj.\eiav
:

dyadol

cf. Meno yiyvovrai.} or 0avfJ.aat(>)S yiyvovrai ol dyadol dyaOoi dyadol dyadol yiyvovrai and Heindorf s emendation on 326 C below. As to yiyvovrai Saepius a Platone id quod argumentation colli"

dyadol 89 B ol

gitur,

yiyveadai
irarrip

dicitur, ut p.

355 A

(pr)[j.i

v/uv rovrov ourws

yeXoiov rov \6yov yiyveadai orav \eyrjre
6
KIJUV

/cr\.,

Euthyd.

p.

^ovros 298 E OVKOVV
".

&v

o~6s

Kroschel.
28.
TO,

The same
jiV
<x\Xa

^o~riv, uxrre crbs Traryp yiyverai 6 KIJWV use of yiyveadai is common in Aristotle. apa. For the form of the sentence and for
-fj

&pa here and in
29.

Trpos fitv apa. 34 compare note on Crito 50 E 8i8do-KOVTat (but not of course apa) is interrogative so otf

line

:

diddvKovrai in line 34.
30.
<5v.
4<|>

So

BT

:

Heindorf
is

s
t<j>

$

is

adopted by Krai.

e0

wv

(i.e. CTTI

TOIJTUV a) /CT\.
(UTJ

in the case of subjects

have not learnt
whereas ^0
o?s

fj.adov<ri),

the latent

which if they a depending on /madovai:

e0

o?s,

eTrlvruvrai in the previous line is tirl roi^rots ofs (i.e. according to the usual idiom) edv arj eTri<rrwvrai aura. This

use of

^TTI
e?rt

with the genitive
TOU 6a/cri5\ou

is

e\tyofj.ev.

common in Plato, The variety

e.g.

Rep. vil 524 E
is

of expression

not

xv

3 25

D

PLATO S PR OTA GORAS.
iraial following.

119
For the mis

unnatural in view of the dative ro?s

placement of re in 77 re frj/ua see note on 316 D above. ws &TTOS clirciv is to be taken with %v\\r){38r)v which goes 33. almost wholesale subversion of with the verbal noun dvarpoirai means not Kara ff/MKpov, but so as to their house v\\ril35r)j>
,
:

3250

.

embrace everything:
nis

cf.

Rep.

I

344 A

B rvpavvh
a XXd
iracr

77

ov Kara

<r/MKpbv

TaXX6rpia Kal \d6pa Kal
direlv see

(3La

d0aipetrai
<rv\\f]fiT]v

iAXT7/35?/j>,

and Theogfrros

147 fv 5e diKaiovfoy

apery) Vt.

For ws

on 317

A.
-ye

35.

ouo-Ocu

XP 1!

:

a

wa y

f

answering one

s

own

question

:

Crito 53 D, 54 B.

CHAPTER
In
this

XV.

Athenian education
i.

chapter Protagoras shews that the whole scheme of is intended to teach aperr;.
:
o"i,

shewn

i.e. ol ira.i5ev6fj.evoL H^ XP 1 ovirep av that education does not end when school
life.

in 326

D

foil, it is

is left,

but goes on

through
3.

eirciSdv
:

BaTTOv seems not to occur elsewhere
I

in the Platonic
is

writings
after

in Alcib.

105

A

is

eav darrov.

rax^ra

more usual
this

such conjunctions. from De Rep. Laced. 2.
^uj/iwo-tv,

Kroschel quotes an imitation of
I

passage
ti

eTreiSav rdxttrra ot TratSes avrots
<

ra
Kal

\ey6fj.ei>a

evdvs

fj-eit

e-rr

avrois iraidayuyovs
/j.a.dr)<TOf*i>ovs

6epa.Troi>Tas

e 0i<rraa

,

cvdvs

5e

ir^/j.Trov<nv

els

didaaKa\uv

/cat ypd/J-fJ-aTO.

fji.ov<riKT]i>

Kal ra ev Tra\alffTpa.
5.

oirws

after STTWS with

P\TKTTOS: so BT: there is no reason for inserting ws Kroschel and Turner /SefXrwros does not mean better
:

3250

than
6.
fit

all others,

but very good.
"Est

KT\. irap* ^Kao-rov
"

eo ipso tempore quo quidque vel

vel dicitur
8.

Heindorf.
S^Kaiov KT\.

TO

jilv

Sauppe well quotes Ter. Ad. 417
"Hoc

418
laudi

where a father vovderel
est

his son

facito

Hoc
Sat.
I

fugito
4.

Hoc

Hoc

vitio

datur".

Compare Horace
8e
(XT)

- 10.
offiov,

TCI

jiV

iroCci, TCI

but quite general:

this

ra ptv do, that do not
troUi
:

is
.

105 ff. not diKaiov,

Ka\6i>,

5^ of

T is unnecessary; cf. TO the sentence is worth noting
/j.ei>

fj.ev

rb 8
If,

in line 8.
:

The rci5e /UP rd5e The symmetry of
TO
dt,

(a, 6,

a)

first

TO pfv

next r68e

r65e 5^ twice, last rd pev

rd 5, the end recalling the begin

ning. 4dv

Compare note on
jxiv

Kal KO.KOV Kal al(rxpbv in Crito 49 B.
:

CKWV

ireCQ-rjTai

without apodosis: see Goodwin,

Moods

120
and Tenses (1889)

NOTES ON
p. 179.
:

xv 325 D

This idiom occurs more than once in

perhaps a remnant of the days when the conditional particles introduced a main sentence: certainly the Greeks were not conscious of any such ellipse as e5 eei.
it is

Homer

i5Xov is a piece of wood u. wo-irep vXov 8ia<TTpe4>6|Xvov. not necessarily a dead log, as appears from Hdt. Hi 47 elpiowi d-rrb v\ov (of the cotton tree) and other exx. in L. and S. The growing
,

child

is

compared

to a tree

growing up and becoming crooked (note
KaaTTT6fjiei>ov).

warped and the like to victims of vice and vicious education: compare Gorg. 525 A Trdvra <r/coXtd virb Theaet. 173 A fffJUKpoi de Kal OVK 6p6oi rds \{/evdovs Kal dXafrveias.
12.
Toits
V0vvov<riv

the present Sia<rTpe(p6fAevoi> the metaphors crooked ,

Plato frequently applies

irX^YO-^S.

Cf.

Arist.

Adrjv.

TroXir.

Ch.

8

d/AaprdvovTas rjfiOvvev Kvpia ofara TOV

7)^10 vv Kal KoXdfew (of the

Areopagitic council). For evduvew (here passing into the meaning of chastise ) see note on 324 A ovdeis yap KoXdfa. To illustrate

TrX^cus Sauppe quotes the well-known line of Menander
avOpwrros
13.
01)

6 pr) dapels

Trai5eijTai.

els

8i8a(TKaXa)v ir|nrovTS.
for

there

was no regular age
(i.e.

It appears from 326 C that going to school the parents decided in
;

each case.
Ypd/x/tara

Plato ordains (Laws

809 E) that children shall learn reading and writing, ibid. 810 B) from 10 to 13, and
Protagoras description of the aim of

vn

the lyre from 13 to 16. iroXv p.aXXov VKoo-(xCas.

Athenian education agrees with the account of the Akcuos \6yos in the Clouds 961 foil.

325 E

17.

wo-irep

T<$T

:

supra 325 C eTreidav darrov awiy
i.e.

TIS

ra \eyocf.

18.

eirl

TWV pdOpwv:

as they

sit

on the benches:

above

3150.
food:

irapaTi.Oea<ru>

cf.

represents the works of the poets as intellectual Theaet. 157 C TT a par Iffy /ui e/cdoTOM rCov dwoyeijao<pu>j

19.

iroii^Twv

d-yaOwv

:

Homer

especially,

and
E,

also

Theognis,

Phocylides.

Compare Laws vn 810

Hesiod, from which

passage it also appears that extracts were frequently made for committing to memory (eK^avdaveiv).
20.
ava\Katov<riv
:

ywerd

XIVTTT??

yap

-rj

fjiddrjins:

Arist. Pol. VIII

I339
Ill 5

3

28 (quoted by Sauppe).

So Niceratus

in

Xenophon Symp.
tirr) /j,a.6dv.

says that his father fydyKaat ae iravra rd

Q^pov

xv 326
21.

B
8ie

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
o8ot

121
(cf.

means

finished narratives or descriptions

\6y<j>

Si%e\6uv and diegitvai in 320 c). It is to be noted that so far we have not got beyond TTOI TJO-IS \(/i\ri (i.e. unaccompanied by music) lyric
:

poetry begins to be studied when the lyre has been learnt (line 26). 24. 5:Tpa Toiavra: for the phrase see on Apol. 26 A. The accusative (internal) depends on e Trt/teXoDj rcu as in 325 C eVi^eX
irdaav eVt/ie Xeiay and
t7rt,ueXeiV0w
<r(i}(f)!>offui>

Laws

VII 812 E dXXa ravra
is

/mev

6

:

the whole
re
eTTifitXeiav

phrase

equivalent to

Mpav

tjs

TTOIOVVTCU.

Verbs taking the external

object in. the genitive or dative are not precluded from taking the internal object in the accusative.
28.
els TCI KiOapCcrjiaTtt evreCvovres.

eWetVeti/

ei s is

to stretch

3260

into, i.e. to

put into

:

whence

evreiveiv

& KIJK\OV xupiov
A)
;

rpLywvov

to

describe a triangle in a circle

(Meno 87

irepi

yap

TOI

TUV

iroi.rjfji.d-

TUV &v

TreTTotTj/cas
;

fVTeivas TOVS TOV AUTWTTOU \6yovs of adapting to metre
:

(Phaed. 60 D)
learn the
rist

and here of accompanying poems on the lyre the boys poems and tunes (made by the poet) together, while the CithaPlato in the

plays the lyre.
to

Laws
-

vii 812

D

foil,

requires the
is

KL0apl<T/j.aTa

be identical with the tune to which the poem
rrjs \tipas

sung:

5et

rois

<{>06yyois

TrpoaxP^^
rrjs

1-

v

T

KiQapiffTyv Kat TOV
TOIS

Trai5ev6/j.evov, dirodt-dovTas Trp6ffxop8a TO.

(f>6^yfj.ara

5

Tepo<puvia.v
,

KO.I

iroiKi.\ia.v
rrjj>

\vpas,

a\Xa

p.

teto tDj
fj,T]

aXXa

5e TOV

/xeXy5t av ^vvQevTos

7rc ti)rou

Trdi/ra

ra rotaOra

Trpocrfitpew KT\.

pv0p.ovs T Kal dpfj-ovias. pvO/moi times or rhythms (cf. Rep. Ill 399 E foil.), ap^oviai scales (ibid. 398 D foil.). pvd/j,6s and ap^ovia. between them make up ^ovtnK-t] in the narrower sense see Symp.
:

187

A

foil.,

where music
it

is

defined as
since
it

-jrepl

K&V

i-KioT-rnit]

irepl ap/j.oviav

apuoviav Kal pvdpbv e/wrtreconciles 6v and /3apu, irepl

pvd/j.oi

since

reconciles raxi)

and

j3f>a5ij.

29.
Ill

o lKeioverOai. rais

\|n>x.ais

TWV iraiSwv.

401

D

KvpcwTaTTf] ev

/j.ov<TiKfj

Tpo<pri,

OTI. fj.d\iffTa

Sauppe quotes Rep. /caret Suercu eis TO

TTJS

ipvxw

o re pvd/j.bs Kal dp/movia Kal eppw/iev^arara ctTrrerat

30. vpv0|idTpot Kal vapfjLO<TTOTpoi. See Rep. ill 400 C foil., where, after it is shewn that TO evpvOfiov and TO evdpfjioa Tov imply evXoyta, Plato continues (400 D) ev\oyla oipa Kal evap/u-oaTia Kal

eva X n/J OG tiv n Kal
VTroKopi^6fJ.evoi

evpv6fj,la

eurjOeia

dKo\ov9ei,
Tr/v

oi>x

r\v

avoiav

o$<rav

Ka\ov/J.ei>

ws evrjOeiav, dXXa
ijv

ws d\r)0us ed re Kal

KctXws r6 r/6os KaTeaKevacr/ui.tt

didvotav.

122

NOTES ON
:

xv 326 B
the

ls ircuSoTp^pov 34. Protagoras passes to yv/j.va<TTiK fi, second great division of Greek education: Rep. II 376 E.

yvfjwaffTucr] is

Plato asserts that the true object of rfj Siavofa. not to cultivate the body, but to educate the soul to the proper mean between hardness and softness Rep. in 410 C foil. On the soul as the mistress of the body see Phaedo ch. 43.
35.
virr]pT<S(ri
:

3260
to

39-

Heindorf
the

The jxaXio-ra ol |JidXio-Ta 8vva|xcvoi. : it is necessary to the meaning.
word
its

first

/xdAiora

is

due

Most of the

editors

insert

/idXtora not

after

iroiovaw

but after dwdpevoi,

by the presence of /udXto-ra following: but it comes (we think) more naturally after Troiovau*. CK 8i8a(TK<xX(ov d-rraXXa-ywo-iv eK is rejected by Cobet (cf. 42.
explaining
loss
:

Gorg. 514 C

eTreid-rj

r&v

SiSacr/caXaw dTryXXdyrj/uiev): but the phrase

is

just as stereotyped as els SiSacr/cdXajj/, to

which

(in line 40)

it

forms an

appropriate contrast
(in
all

in neither of the

two cases were the Greeks
parlance of an ellipse.
evdfc diredi/>XO/AGU,

probability) conscious in

common
K

Sauppe quotes a fragment of Ar. Banqueters 42 OVK
5pao-/ces e/c

StSacr/cdXov, Plutus 84

HarpoK\^ovs

and

other parallels.
43.

dva\Kaei

(xavOavciv

:

hardly to be taken
for

in the sense that ignorance

was no excuse
After
T)V

literally, but only breaking the laws.

44.

Kara TOVTOVS

TJV.

occur in the MSS the words

/card irapddeiy/jia.
7rapddety/j,a
genda"

"Facile

succurrat cuivis Kara TOIJTOVS

^v

Kaddirep
corri

quamquam

talia

notanda potius quam statim

Most recent editors bracket or reject the says Heindorf. words, which are open to objection on several grounds, that the laws are not an example but a rule of life, and Plato does not use irapddeiy/ma,

ws.

The

precisely in this way, as well as from the harsh omission of suggestion of Sauppe that the words are a gloss on Kara
as

TOIJTOVS

for

3260

by a scribe referring to the illustration which follows has much probability. example 45. YP a 1 HLaTt<rTa ^ see on 7pa/i^tart(7ToO 312 B.
l

46.

viro-ypctyavTes

-ypap.fji.ds TTJ

-ypac^iSi

should be understood of

tracing (by dots or otherwise) the outlines of the lines (ypa/j,/j.al) which form letters. These outlines would be filled up by the pupil : see Bliimner, Griechische Privataltherthiimer p. 315. The usual

view (since Heindorf) has been
lines ruled for

guidance;

"ut

to regard the ypa/m-fjiaL as horizontal pueri in schola directe s. ad lineam

scribere iubentur, ita in vita quae agunt

ad

legis

normam

iis diri-

genda sunt

",

Kroschel.

Such a view

is

however inconsistent with

xv 326 D

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.

123

the meaning of viroypd<pei.v and of fKp^yrjffLS, and (in view of Plato s statements as to the nature of Law) renders the simile inexact.
vTToypdfaiv
in

Plato regularly refers to an outline drawing

(as

vTroTvTrovff6ai to
direpydffa<rdai

moulding in outline Tim. 76 E) and is opposed to and (in Aristotle) to avaypdfaiv, e.g. Rep. VIII 548 C D
i)

OVKOVV
\6y<

avTtj /mev

TroXireta OVTIO yeyovvTa Kal TOtavrrj av TIS

e?7/,

us

ffxnfJLa TToXiret as

viroypaif/avTa

/J.TJ

d/r/H/Sws

direpyda ao dai

did TO e^apKflv fj.ev loelv Kal e/c TTJS viroypaQrjs TOV re StKcuoraroj /ecu TOV aSt/cwraroi and Theaet. 172 E, where a litigant s dvTupoala is a sort of outline drawing wv exros ov prjTeov, but called vTToypcKf)-/!
,

which his speech must simply direpyd(ra<r0ai. v^yelffdai is similarly used, only with the added idea of guiding: e.g. Rep. in 403 D E OVKOVV el TT]v Sidvoiav i/ccu/ws depaireixravres irapaooi^v avTrj rd Trepl TO
a.Kpi(3o\oyei(r6cu, ^/weis 6e offov TOVS TVTTOVS
Qis a.v 7Totoifj.v
TflTre/)
;

v(f>t]yfjo~

at /j.eda

and Laws X 890 C
vo/JiodtTrjs

Bet

raura OUTW

irp6.TTf.iv

diavoov-

&v 6

the simile

is this.

As

point of the child draws his pen between the outlines
vQrjyirj&rjTai ypd(puv.
((
))

The

of the lines forming letters (making e.g.

into

must keep our actions between certain
Plato invariably regards
VO/J.OL

as

outlines, which are the laws. only TVTTOI, within which our actions
TravTaTrcuriv
SLV
:

should
TOVTOVS

fall:

cf.

Rep.
in

II

383 C

i-ywye

TOVS

TVTTOVS

<ru7xwpd>,

Kal ws VO/J.OLS

xpip/ji. rjv

(whence

vop-ovs VTTO-

ypdtpeiv here

and

Laws v 734
dv Trore

api(rTov ov TOVS vdfjiovs iffTlv iffxvfw,
(3a<n\iK6v

OTL vopos OVK
iraffur
&fJia

see also Polit. 294 A foil. TO 8 d\\ dvopa Tbv /xerd (fipovricrews Swatro TO re &PKTTOV Kal TO 5i/caioraE)
P\TI<TTOI>

TOV dKpifius
dvo/AOiOTrjTes

irepCkafiuv TO

eTrirdrretj

.

at

yap

TWV T
for

dvdp&Tiuv Kal T&V irpd^euv
%povov

ovdtv eCxnv dir\ovv
dTro<f>aiveffdai

ev ovdevl Trepl dTrdvT(av Kal eTrl irdvTa Tbv

T&Xjnp

ovd

which reason in the Republic (vi 497 D) there must always be a power above the laws. The explanation which we have given does not disagree with the account of Seneca in his Pueri ad praescriptum discunt. Digiti illorum Epistles XV 2. 51
yvTivovv
"

tenentur et aliena

manu per
I

literarum simulacra
"

ducuntur":

it

is

supported by Quintilian

i.

27

cum vero iam
It is

ductus sequi coeperit,

non
illos

inutile erit eas (sc. literas) tabellae

vchtt sulcos ducatur stilus

".

quam optime insculpi, ut per probable that both these authors

had the present passage in view. It should be noted that ypafaw vopovs was a regular phrase:

compare the image

in

Rep. vi 501 A.

124
49.
s 8e KCU.

NOTES ON
ws for ourcos
is

xv 3260
:

rare in Attic prose
-jrpos

Heindorf
P or de see

quotes (inter alia)
ofj.fj.ara ireinrjyevy

Rep. VII 530 D Kivdweuei us
irpos
evapp.bvi.oi>

acrrpovoiuav

us

$opav uira

Trayijvat..

above on 318

c.

326 E

54.

tion of a magistrate

v0ivcu regularly denotes the putting straight or examina when his office expired. It is not clear whether

Protagoras philological zeal does not cause him to stretch a point in giving to the word a wider signification: but see on evOin ovaiv in 325 D.

CHAPTER
at last

XVI.

comes to the difficulty raised by Socrates in Protagoras 319 E. Virtue having been proved to be teachable, it is only from a lack of natural aptitude that good men s sons sometimes turn out badly compared with men who have never been taifght virtue, even
:

they are good.
pupils.
4.

Protagoras concludes with a manifest bid for
viz. at

^jiirpocrOev

:

324
:

E.
Set elvai drjuiovp-

32 7 A

6.

ovSeva

8tu ISuoreveiv

equivalent to iravras
in apery.

yovs

:

no one must be a layman
tSlScUTKC
Kttl

12.

1Tir\T]TT

TOV

Jll)

KttXtSs

avXovVTtt.
effect

As
Kal

important word, eTreirXyrre has no construction, but is in effect enclitic: see on 317 C
edidaa-Ke is the

on the

ei>deia<rdat.

3276

19-

"

ovv OVTW.

oiV

marks the reversion
from

viz. el pr) olbv

r
:

rjv

Kal rovro KT\.,

\v<rire\ei

to the original protasis, to being
i>6]u.i/j.a

parenthetical

it

therefore seems better to print a colon rather than

a

full

stop after

v6fj.i/j.a.

3270

24.

XXo-yip.os T]iJT]0T).
:

common
27.

Heindorf

cites (inter alia)

Proleptic adjectives with a^avw are Rep. VIII 565 C rovrov rpefpeiv

re Kal av^eiv /Jieyav.
clXX ovv avXiyrcu
-y

av
fail
:

:

7

&v for 700^ was Shilleto

s

con

jecture,

which can hardly
but at
all

to

be

right.

d\\

olv

ye

is

an
ro.

emphatic
ye
TreLvfjif

events

cf.

Gorg. 496
s

D navdavu
KO.V

dXX ovv
seems
to

29.

avrb aviapbv. OVTWS ol ov Kal vvv.

Sauppe

you

vvv

be
so

quite needless : the conclusion is naturally, put as a in the present case, you are to think .
30.

command

TWV

Iv vojiois Kal dvOpwirois.
is

So BT.

avdp&irois in this

emphatic sense

a

little

awkward with

dvdpuirovs

two

lines

below

xvi 327 D
and

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
is

125
is

avdpuirois said seven lines

below of savages (though the word
probably right
nere^i-v
:

qualified in both cases), but the text

cf.

323 C
r??s

dvayKcuov ovdeva
5iKcuo<rtj>i)s) ,

8vTii>

oi>xl

d/uDs

y

TTWS

O-VTTJS

(sc.

17

/AT)

elvai

h

avdpuirois.

Of

the suggested emendations
i>6/j.ois

the most reasonable
0/3W7rois

Kal evv6fjt,ois dvis perhaps Sauppe s ev which he has now given up in favour of the MSS reading. avrov is not emphatic: to be St /ouos is to be a drjfuovpybs 31. E TTJS dpeTrjs ovdeva 8ei iSiureveiv. di.Kaio<rvvr)5, cf. 326
33.
(jtt]T6

HIITC

fJLt]T

|i.T)8l.

/u,T?5^

introduces the climax
Arist. Rhet.
(in
I

:

see 3 2 7

D

note on

otfre

ovdt ye in Apol.
elev
is

190 and Cope on

4. 4.

Presently dXX

used rather than dXX

elcri

spite of effriv
is

in line 33) because the hypothetical nature of the case

more prominent.
clause
35.
(01 is

For the passage of a

relative clause into a

becoming main

d\X

not to be repeated after dXXd) see on- 313 A. It appears not only from Athenaeus etev rives.
<vypio

(v 218 D), but

called

"Aypioi.

from Suidas and others that the play in question was The few fragments of it which remain (see Kock s

Fragmenta I pp. 146 150) give us no indication of the plot or treatment. The probability is that the formed the chorus (compare the names Ne0Acu, Edrpaxoi "Ayptoi
etc.),
"

Comicorum Atticorum

ad quos as we should infer from the words of Plato Athenienses quidam, pauci sine dubio, vitae civilis in sua urbe
"
"

pertaesi ((jucrdvdpwiroi) sicut Pithetaeruset Euelpides,accedebantimprudenter sperantes se inter homines immanes meliorem iustioremque

quam

in civitate sua vitam inventuros esse" (Kock). Plato was perhaps thinking of the same play again in Rep. VI 496 D ucrircp ei s d-rjpLa &i>6puiros otfre vi>a5iKe iv i9&MP ofae //cai/os ch
e/j,Tre(r<Jbi>,
<2v

irao-iv

dypLois OLVT^IV.
:

olot irep ovs ircpvo-tv

so

BT, and

there

is

no

sufficient

reason for

(with Sauppe, after Athenaeus v 218 D) or ot ous irep trepwiv with Schanz. Plato does not always a parallel is quoted from avail himself of the liberty of attraction
altering- the text to oiovs
irtpvaiv
:

Crat. 432 E
36.

iva. /co/uSfl

irepvo^iv.

y TOLOVTOV otbv irep ov 6vofj.d effriv. Athenaeus V 218 D c5i5cix077(raj> de

oi

Aypioi
N

= 421/420 B.C. For the apxovros, i.e. Ol. 89 4 bearing of the date of the *A.ypioi on the question when the dialogue of the Protagoras is assumed to have taken place see Introd. p. xxxvii.
&r
Apiffrlwvos
4>pKpaTi]s.

The fragments

of Pherecrates

a poet of the old
in

comedy who gained his first victory in 438 B.C. are given Comicorum Atticorum Fragmenta I pp. 145209.

Kock

s

126
eirl

NOTES ON
At]vaCa>.

xvi 327 D
(also

The Afyaiov

called
to

\[/j.vai.

and

Atoi

tfo-ov)

was an enclosure sacred

Dionysus on the

south-east slope of the Acropolis.
7rept/3oXos fteyas

AdrjvyaLv, ev

oiKodo/ArjdTJvai, dvo/jLafrvres

Compare Photius s.v. Arjvaiov $ roi)s dy&vas riyov, Trpb TOU rb Oearpov iirl Ayvaiy. The phrase at Lenaeum

seems to have survived even

after all plays were given in the Dionysiac theatre, as by this time they were, and to have been understood as equivalent to at the Lenaean festival (cf. Ar. Ach.

504 oviri Aijval({) T dywv), for which the expressions
(fdiddxdri) els Ar/vaict are

ev Ayvaiois

and
s

more usual
3).

in the didascaliae (see

Muller

Buhnenalterthumer

p.

316 note

The Lenaea took
sc. yev6fjivoi.

place in the

month Gamelion.
38.
to<nrp

ot ev eKLva)

TW
,

)(opu>,

yiyveadai ev
irpodvpui

is

to

come

fj.eda

be in or among to of 314 C is the same idiom.
to
iroi.

fall

among

.

iv T

eyei>6-

So

the MSS.

The

various suggested emendations

Heinrich, fi^avdpwiroL Jacobs, /j.e<Ta.v0pwiroi Lehrs) pro ceed on the supposition that the word is an epithet of the dypioi,

which

is

most improbable:
"

"alii

sunt dyptoi,
if

alii /uLiadvdpwiroi,

neque
"

in ilia sermonis iunctura

regard the uxrirep clause as explaining rols TOIO^TOIS) "scribendum uairep sed olot irep fuit
(sc.

we

(Heindorf).
39.

EvpvpdTw Kal
s.
e-rri

4>pvvwv8cx.

Two

proverbial scoundrels of

real life: see Suidas
virb

vv. Etfptf/Sctros Trovtjpos, dirb rov irenQdevTos
oij
(p-rjaiv
"E0o/)os,

Kpolaov

evo\oylav pera x^^/xdrw^,

dra
eirl

^era^aXo^vov
Adrjvrjffcv
e/c

irpbs

Kvpov
,

r)v

8k E0eo-ios /crX.
<av

^pwuvdas
KaXouai.

T&J>

irovrjpiq. diajBefio rj/j.evui

6s

evos

Kara

TCL He\OTrofvt]<TiaKd

dierpipev

TOIJTOV roi/s

irovripovs

^pwuvdas
:

They

are

frequently mentioned

in

Greek

literature
is

Thesm. 86 1.
cf.
ETrafJi.eij

Blaydes remarks that -uvdas

Blaydes on Ar. a Boeotian termination
see
:

uvSas,

Xapuvdas and the
<f>aivrai

like.

327 E

42.
for eT0

ovSeis

<roi

of the Bodleian.

elvai is Heindorf s emendation elvai. For the asyndeton with uxrirep see above on

311 E.
43.

rfe

8i8do-Ka\os
I

TOV

eXX^vitei-v.

The same
&i>

illustration

occurs in Ale.

in
feVi

A.

328 A
TU>V

48.

TOVTOVS

TS av
and

StSafjeiev repeats rt s

5i5dei.ev

TOI>S

xeiporex^cDv uiets:

ov padiov ol/iai elvai

TOI/TUH>

didd<TKa\oj>

is a variety on cw5 &v els (pavdij, which the ov8 7 av of 44 might lead us to expect would be repeated but the sentence
<f>avT)vai

line
is

a

xvi 328 c

PLATO S PR OTAG ORAS.
This
is

127

slight anacoluthon.
line

better than to take &v of

ovU 7
C.

a? in

44 with
51.

elvai of line 49.

OVTCD 8

apTTJs.

On

ourw

$e see

above note on 318
rare in Plato, e.g.

52.

Kctv el: Kav
el

= Kal

el is

somewhat

Meno
:

72 C Kav
it is

TToXXai Kal TravTodairai claw, ev yen. eldos airacrai txovcriv

extremely

common

in Aristotle.

The

av shews that the idiom

must have arisen from cases where the apodosis contained a verb Such cases with which &v could go, e.g. KOV el dirodvyaKOi, ev fyoi. as Symp. 185 A Kav etrts e^aTrarrjOeir}, KO\T) ij aiTarr), where the verb
after el is in the optative, preserve traces of the origin of the

con

struction.

55.
cf.

6vTj<ra

nva irpos.
etirep o!6s

6vTJ<rat

is

Dobree

s

correction for vorjaai

:

328 B

Rep.
58.
2.

r yv wpbs a.peTT)v ovycrai avOp^irovs. TOV rpoirov TIS irpalews TOV (xicrOou. Aristotle Eth. Nic.
1

X 60 D

IX

n64 a

24 oirep

(f>aal

Kal HpuTaybpajs iroieiV ore
ftffov

701/3

diSa^eiev

adrj-rrore, Ti/mTJcrai.
e\d]j.(3ai>e

rbv /j.a66vTa eK^Xevev

doKei a^ia eirlffraffdai Kal
:

TOGOVTOV.
diroSe SwKtv

This
:

is

more than Plato says

see next note.

60.

but Kared^Kev (gnomic aorist) two lines lower

down.

It is

not necessary to reject aTroSedwKev (with Sauppe and

Schanz) or to read airedwKev (with Kroschel and Krai). airodediOKev is hardly to be explained as a gnomic perfect (Goodwin), certain examples of which are rare, if not unknown, but is to be taken in its
natural sense
is

also

Heindorfs view.

tagoras left account, wore Kal

he has already paid. ..if not etc. this Unless the pupil hacL/to*</ftt advance, Pro the fee to his own conscience and (according to his own
:

if

he

prefers,

:

avT<

doKew

T<$

/jt,a66vTi)

even though
minae.

(if Diogenes

Laertius ix 52

may be trusted)

generally fared better, his fee was 100

If Protagoras made no bad debts, he escapes the censure of Plato in Gorgias 5190, where it is said that, if teachers of diKaioa-uvr] do not receive their fees, it only shews that they have failed to teach

their subject

and deserve no
"

fees.

61.

\0wv
satis est

ls

Upov.
"

Tactis sacris aramve tenentes veteres

3280

iurare

notum

114

XajScb^ els rj]V

Heindorf, quoting Aeschin. in Timarch. Kal 6(j.6cra5 pr) Xa/3etV StDpa eavrov x e ?P a Ta
l^po>

69.

TcSv8.

Protagoras

is

more encouraging than Socrates

in

319

E.

128

NOTES ON
CHAPTER
XVII.

xvn 328 c

Here begins
question
is first

Socrates
raised

criticism
Is

Virtue

of Protagoras speech. The one, or many?

The
con

nexion between

this question and the speech of Protagoras is that if Virtue has a unity in knowledge, it is teachable, otherwise not see Introd. p. xx.
:

3280

i.

eTri8eid}Jievos.
:

7riSeiKvva6ai
e.g.

and

e7rl5eiis are regularly

used

of a Sophistic display
T]fuv

Gorg. 447 A iroXXd yap KO!

/caXa Topyias

6\iyov Trporepov e7re5etaro, Crat. 384 B
eirideiKwiu
is

rrfv TrevTyKovrddpax/J-ov

sometimes used in the same way, e.g. Euthyd. -274 D and infra 347 B: in 320 C above dXX eiridei^ov is in tended to suggest this meaning, which comes out more clearly in
e7rideiu>.

also

eTTiSei^w
3.

two
rl

lines

below.
/ce/cTjX??-

|iv iroXvv \povov goes with ZfiXeirov and ZTI with

fdvos.
8.
<3

ircu AiroXXoScopot)

:

with

mock

solemnity

:

so 335

D w

TTCU

iTnrovlKov,
9.

Rep.

II

368 A

c5

TTcuSes eKeivov rdvdpbs.

lexicographers.
ple
is

wSe in the sense of devpo is noted as a Platonic idiom by the The usage is found in tragedy, but no other exam
cf.

quoted from Plato.
clv9pa>irvi]V

328E
A

12.
(frtiaei

iirifxeXeiav

:

Meno

99 E

dperij

civ

eir]

ovre

OVTC 5i5a/cr6^, dXXa
circKSiSd^cL

deig. /u-otpq.

irapayiyvonevri aivev vov.

15.

^e8i5a|v: see on 311 A.
\6-yous: Kat goes with TOIOIJTOVS

3 29

17.

Tax av Ka^ TOIOUTOVS
,

even such

just such

:

TOVTOV should not be inserted (with Sauppe,

Schanz, Krai) before
20.

rotorfrous.

wo-rrep pi^Xia.

Hermann wished

to read

oi>x

uvirep ftipXla,

since the orators

that like

do make a speech when spoken to but the point is books they do not answer the questions asked, or put ques
:
:

tions themselves, as the true dialectician does

cf.

Phaedr. 275
faypcKpiq,.

D

deiv&v

ydp
ra

TTOV

TOUT

^x.et ypafir/,

Kal ws

dX^^ws

OJJ-OLOV

/cat

yap

eKeivrjs

aiyq..

%Kyova e crTTj/ce p.ev ws fciWa, edv 8 dvtpr) TL, crejjiv&s irdvv ravrbv d Kal ol \6yoi 56^ais pkv av ws TI (ppovovvras avrotis
infra 347

\tyeiv, edv 8t rt fyy

idvov ravrbv dei
ed<Tw/j.ev,

:

cTretSr;

TWV Xeyo^vwv {3ov\6fJi,vos fj-adelv, ev TL arj/m-aivei E and Hipp. Min. 365 D rbv /j.v Kal dduvarov eiravepfodai, rlirore vo&v raura eiroitjae
Ofj.T)pot>
:

rd ^17.
22.

similar objection applies to laws (quoted above on 326 D).
wcrirep TCI

A

see Polit. 294

A

\aXKia.

The MSS have

%aX/fe?a, but (as

Kro-

xvii 329 B

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
A

129

XaX/ceia
23.
in

schel points out) in Crat. 430 would mean smithies .

d
:

TI

jiaKpov r\\ti Ka ^ diroreiva

aTroretVet is

used absolutely as

Gorg. 458 B Kal vvv fous irbppu aTrorevov^ev. Compare Euthyd. 300 B OTO.V ovv \l6ovs \eyr]S Kal v\a Kal ffidypia, ov ffiyuv
Z<j>ij,

O$KOVV a ye Iy6,

Trap{pxo/J.ai. iv

ro?s

x aAKet

ls

(MSS.

dXXd

(pdeyyd/j.eva Kal jSoawra

^yiarov ra

ai.S rjpia

\tyei.

86\i\ov KaraTtCvovo-i TOV Xd-yov. 8o\ixov is the reading of T, but (i) the adjective 5oXtx<5s seems to be exclusively poetic, the word surviving in Plato s time only in the form 56Xtxos for 5oXt25.

B and
X^s

5/xfyios (cf.

for the

change of accent

and the

like):

(2) 5oXi%^s

K&KIJ by /ecu ?/, $a?5pos by (f>ai5pfc ^oO \6yov would be a rare construction,

though not without parallels, e.g. TroXXrji TT?$ x^P as i n Xen. Cyrop. Ill 2. 2 and T??y /xaptX^s o-ux^in Ar. Ach. 350 a^tifxaw T^S e^5at:

povias of Apol. 41 c

is

difierent:

(3)

which we have had, a long speech other hand 56Xtxos TOV \6yov, the suggestion of Stephanus, is strongly supported by 335 E where Socrates compares Protagoras, because he
plays the
Iffriv

the expressive simile sounds very weak. On the
after

p-fjrup

and not the
el

dialectician, to a 5oXt%65/)o/ios

:

vvv 5

wffTTcp
77

av

deoi6

/J.QV

Kpiffuvi
Tip
T]

T<

I/uLepaiq

Spo/Aft

aKfj.dfovTi

T&V 5oXt%o5/36yucoj

T&v

T)/j.epo5p&[ji.uv

diaOelv re Kal

metaphor, such as Plut. Phoc. 23. 3 KctXcGs $77 77/365 rb ffrddiov, rbv 8 d6\ixoi> TOV TToiXtfj-ov 0oj3oO//ai ; Epicrates in Kock s Com. Att. Frag. Vol. II
i,

and the editors quote a number of

parallels to the

p. 283 eVei 5 TUV EXXijvwi

56Xtx oj/ ro
eT^a^

s

freffiv

7^77

Tptx

i
>

Ar. Clouds 430

pe \tyeiv cKarbv
\a\t<TTepa,

ffTadiocffiv

apurrov
1.

and Frogs
p.

91 TrXetv

77

ffTadii>3

Eupolis (Kock
dpofirj^

Pericles) oTro re TrapAflot 5

uairep ayadol

281) (of K 5^/ca TroSwj/ rjpec

c.

I

\tyuv

TOI)S pTjropas. Dropping the sporting metaphor we may say The SoXixos was 24 spin out a league of verbiage against you cf. Pind. Ol. VTaSia, the VTaSiov being covered 12 times both ways
. :
I"

33-

27.
editors

The MSS read aura, which most recent s avrci 8-qXou change to avro with Stephanus, regarding the idiom as
ai>T6

3293

analogous to that in 324 A avTo ae dtdd^et, but in this idiomatic the verb is generally, if not always, in the future. use of avT6
irov \tyti in

different, since in

Ar. Eq. 204 and the cases quoted by Blaydes in loc. are each case avT6 has a definite antecedent expressed. ws avrd 677X01 is simply as things themselves i.e. as facts shew :
the reference
is

to the speech

which Protagoras has

just delivered.

A. P.

9

130
Compare

NOTES ON
Arist. Pol. IV 12. I33i a 21 5rj\ov ws

xvn 329
avra
ec

B

Trpo/cctXetrcu /crX.

and (with Heindorf) Xen. Cyr. VI i. 7 ou/c oZ5a /tei/ Zyuye, OTTOU aura rd fyya deiKvvai TO Kpdricrrov.
31.
i

ri Set

(JLOi

airoKpCvaio roSe.

The

optative follows o-fUKpov TWOS
^xotyiu

djjA irdvr fyeti as virtually

equivalent to iravr av

(Hein

dorf).
32.

d lrep aXXw

TO>

The
:

fulness of expression

dvOpwirwv im8oi|r}v av, Kal (rol ireiOofuu. is no doubt intentional Socrates politely
:

dwells upon his compliment. The objections to the syntax are two fold (i) av with the optative in protasis (2) direp (in clauses of this Cases of the potential optative in the kind) with its verb expressed.
;

protasis are given

by Goodwin

MT.

p. 192 (e.g.

Xen. Mem. 15.36?
ye
<pv\d^aadai

ye

fji,i>)5

dovXov aKpaTrj 5ecu
;)
:

/0

&v, TTWS OVK &%iov OLVTOV

TOIOVTOV yeveaOai

for

(faep with verb expressed
(fiatrji

Heindorf

cites

Meno
v d
IJ.au.

98 B d\\ direp

TL d XXo

ovv Kal TOVTO eKeivwv deirjv

av etefrcu (6\lya 5 dj av uv olda. Socrates vvv 8

<pait]i>)

ireireiff

(hardly serious) in 328 E is not inconsistent with Treidoi^v &v, since he at once qualifies his assent by ir\r)v afJUKpbv ri poi efj.iroduv
it is

:

sufficiently represented

here by

/ecu

crol

Treidofj.ai.

We

therefore
:

agree with Heindorf, Wayte, and Turner in retaining the MSS reading other editors mostly read either eiirep dXXy ry dvdp&Truv Tretdoil^t\v

av Kal
35.

(rot,

or drop
:

treidolfje^v

av and retain Kal

crol ireldofj-ai.

329 C

^Xt-yes yelp

3220

diKatocrvvr]

and

ai Sws

are looked on as

two

distinct virtues.

36.

iroXXaxov: 324

325 A

:

cf,

323 A and E.

CHAPTER
Socrates
is

XVIII.
(i) that

elicits

from Protagoras

while Virtue as a whole

one, the single virtues differ from each other and form the whole like the parts of the face: that it is possible to possess one virtue
all
:

without possessing

and

that in all there are five virtues, justice,

is greatest temperance, holiness, bravery, wisdom, of which the last that the virtues differ from each other not only (2) A) (329

0330

:

in themselves, but in their bvvaius (330
is just,

A

330 B);

(3) that justice

and holiness holy (330 B
till

330

E).

The

refutation of Pro-

tagoras does not begin

3290

4-

irpoorwirov
:

:

irpoauirov
i/^X 7? in
els

the next chapter. is treated as an abstract conception

parts efface
rpe<perai
:

cf.

3130

KaTn]\os

TU>V

ayuyl/J.wv

<2v

a<p

\jsvxn

Rep. IV 435 C

QavKov ye aC

ovcw/^a

t/jnreTrTWKafj,ev irepl

xviii 33
eiVe

A

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
rpia etdy TO.VTO. iv avrrj ctre
/z??.

131
In Aristotelian
Ileinclorf

%a Ta

language, the face is dvo/j.oiofj.epey. so the MSS and 7. dXXrjXwv Kdl TOU oXov
: :

(who

suggests &\\r)\uv re Kal TOU o\ov) recent editors mostly omit either TO. eTepa TUV fTepuv should be d\\rj\wv or rd frepa TUV erepuv.

taken quite generally, TUV tTepwv (and thus, by implication, rd eTepa) having its meaning defined by the clause d\\-/i\uv Kal TOU 6\ov. rd frepa TUV fTepuv could be dropped without injury to the sense, but
hardly
TO.
d\\r]\wi>i

without dXXTjXwi Plato would have written ovoiv
Kal TOV o\ov: cf.
jmopia OVK ZcrTtv
:

TO ^Tepov TOV eTepov
r?}s dpeTijs
ola. TO.

TO ^Tepov

olov

330 A dp ovv ourw r6 eTtpov (not ra

ir.

Xftv,

E, 331 A, 331 D, 349 B, 359 A. oiXXo. V-oplw ^eraXa/x^aj/etj/, ^uer^neTadiowai and the like take an accusative of the part as well

eTepa)

and so 330

neTaXap.pdvov<riv

329 E

as a genitive

of the whole.
:
J

fj.eTa\a/j.pdveiv fwpiov
f-iopiov

=

l

lo

receive a

part of a whole
part
.

/ieraXa ii/3aj>aj

=

(

to receive a part of a

14.

Kal

U>ITJS

dvSpttof io-tv a8iKOi 8e: cf. Laws I 630 R 7rt(rr6j /mh ydp CTdaeaiv OVK av TTOTC ytvoiTO avev ^v^irda^ dpeTrjs. 5ia~
6t>

5

e3

Kal

fj.axofJ.evoi

Tupratos TUV

fj.i<r0o<t>6pui>

e^Ao^rcj awoQrfiffKCiv iv ry TroX^cy w? elal Trd/uTroXXot, uv ol TrXetcrrot yiyvovd<ppovffTaToi

rat Opaaets Kal adtKoi Kal vfipiffTal Kal
15.

ax^^ov diravTiov.

Kal ravra
SLKatoffvv>j

only
17.

and dvopeia have not yet been named and ffu^poa^vr] and See Introd. p. xxxiv.
:

for cro$i a

6<ri6r7js.

Kal

jxe -yio-Tov

^

:
<ro<|>a

Protagoras speaks as a

0-o</>rr7?j,

330 A

glorifying his profession.
1

8.

r6

5^, TO, d

dXXo, TO 8^ dXXo equivalent to TO etc. without preceding TO fj-fv, TO.
:

fj.ev

a\\o r6
t

5^ d XXo.

^v

etc. is

a frequent
?

idiom.

Crat. 399

A TroXXd/cis
olfj.ai

lTrefj.iSd\\ofJ.ei

ypd/j.fj.aTa t
oijTe
et s
3>dffiv

rd 5

et-aipovfjiei>.

Soph. O. T. 1229
fj.i^

ydp

O\JT av"IffTpof

av vtyai Kadap~
(pavet /ca/cd.

Trjvde Trjv

aTeyyv

ocra Kevdei, TO, 5

ai/nV

TO

0ws

20.

wo-irtp

rd TOU

irpoo-wirov

:

we have

placed

the

mark of

The sentence interrogation before uvirep: see on #XXo 76 in 311 E. wcnrep rd TOV TrpoG&irov OVK fffTiv 6<p6a\fj.6s olov rd wra thus corre
$Tepov olov TO tTepov.
in the

sponds exactly to ap ovv OVTW Kal rd r^s d/)er^y fj.6pia OVK For rd TOV Trpovdinrov followed by

CCTTIV
its

TO

parts

same case compare

infra

349 A tKe?vaTa

pevTa

5t

and

Theaet. 151 A ols oTav TTO.\LV eXOufft. edicts fj.ev dTroKt*)\vei For the asyndeton regular in explanatory and vai, (vlots 5^ e^t. ampliative clauses see note on Apol. 22 A.
<rvvei-

92

I

32
27

NOTES ON
ft^* OUTCOS,
&J>TJ,

xvui 330 B

^"O

B

OL/TWS, ^77.

The

So T: B has only dXX* ?Xi, w 2wKpaT6Slonger form of answer is more suited to Protagoras
irpd-yH-a
C,

style.

330 C

32.

11

SiKcuoonuvii

rL

cKppocnjvrjv TL /caXets;

332

358 D.

Compare infra 332 A Plato frequently begins a train
<TTIV.

of reasoning in this way. so T KaX i[i.oi 34.
:

:

B

has Kal

/not.

Kal

C/JLOI

seems slightly
efj,oi

better than

Acd/xoi,

as forming a

more

effective

balance to

piv

in the last line.
35.
<S

ITpcoTa-yopa TC Kal SwKpares: but

e/x^

re Kal at as

Greek

Protagoras is addressed first on the principle seniores priores and honoris causa; contrast 311 D, and compare 353 A

usage requires.

(Kroschel).
i irTOV

where see note.
<rKe\j/u/j.eda

with the
virtue

D enre yuot, w Sw/cpar^s re /cat The dual gives prominence to the notion in The connexion of this part of the argument (line 31). in 330 A rest is this 330 B it is said that no one part of
:

contrast 311

:

is olov

premise):

rb Prepay, e.g. that dtKcuoavvr) is not olov oo^rrjs (major here it is said that diKaioativrj is diKaiov, 6ai6rr]s Satoi*
:

(minor premise)

from which the conclusion
is

(in the

next chapter)

is

drawn

that

5tK(tLocnji>i>]

not

o<rioj>

}

nor

6<rt6r??s

St /ccuop.

This stage
unmeaning"

of the argument is therefore neither as Grote (quoted by Turner) asserts.

"tautological

nor

3300
330 E

47.

olov ctvoeriov etvai

TJ

otov
:

o<riov.

Notice the identification

of the
49.

not

ocriov

cv<j>TJp.i,

cLvdpuiroi in

below on 331 A. avOpwire. to (Lvdpuire is somewhat brusque so w 314 D above. avOpwire without c3 would border on rude
with avfxnov
<5

see

:

ness: e.g. Gorg. 518 C
ou5fj>

icrws

&v o$v TjyavdKTfLS,
eixprj/j.ci. is

e

ffoi.

ZXefov, ar^pWTre,

eTrcu eis irepi

yv/j.i>affTiKTjs.

surprise, real or feigned: e.g.
eu0?; uei,
y

w

2w/c/)ares),

Rep. I Gorg. 469 A, Euthyd. 301 A.

frequent to express shocked 329 C, Meno 91 B ( Hpd/cXets,

CHAPTER

XIX.

Socrates endeavours to refute Protagoras and to shew that Justice and Holiness are identical. If o0-t6r7?s is not olov SiKaiofffoi], nor
olov offibrrjs, it will follow (says Socrates) that
6o-t<5r^s

is

and
is

diKaioo~tivr) OLVOVLOV.

This

is

absurd, and therefore

6cri6r?js

5tKaiov
is

and

diKatoavvr) is

6<rioi>.

Protagoras will only admit that

there

a certain likeness between the two virtues.

xix 33i B
4.

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
B and T
omit the
article,

133
which can

TO, TTJS dptTTJs [Aopiou

hardly be dispensed with since the assertion was made not of parts of virtue, but of the i.e. all the parts: see 330 A ap otv OUTW Kal TO,
rrjs dperijs /J.6pia OVK ZVTLV rb erepov olov TO erepov
;

77

S^Xa
cf.

drj

on
II

OUTWS fX

l

*T\. ,
ws.

OVTWS
365 D
IJ.T]

ware
fj,ti>

for

us would be more usual:

Rep.

e

uv ra

irel<TO/j.ev ,

ra de

/3ta<r6fJ.eda,

u>s

irXeoveKrovvres b iKi]v

di56vai.
fj,r)8ev

Perhaps the ws of Phaedo 108 E
avrrj belv /jufre dfyos KT\. is the
.

ireweiffpat.

(Jifv

same

in

kind

:

cf.

ws irp&rov the old
natural in

English
ii

so as

Here

otfrws

ws with the infinitive

is

view of TOIOVTOV
12.
o-ii

olov in the vicinity:
<ros

330 C and D.
asperity: I expected better

:

notice the

mock

331 A

things of you.
1

6.

OVK apa

(TTV:

the interrogation begins here

and

apa. is

illative.

So far we are entitled to go, but in contrary and the contradictory are confused, as is frequently the case in Plato s dialogues: see note on Euthyphr. 7 A 6tofj.iffts, where are cited Alcib. n 138 D foil., Rep. iv 437 c:
17.

oXV

olov

|xii

oViov.

rb bt

dv6<n.ov

(line 18) the

add Phileb. 48 B

foil, where tfrOovos is said to be joy at a friend s misfortune because envy of a friend s success implies joy at his illluck (cf. ibid. 50 A), and Euthyd. 276 B OVKOVV el /j-r] d^a^e?s;
<ro(pol,

was not unaware of the rules of logic in this matter 202 A), but the tendency of Greek thought and (see Symp. 201 E life was not to rest content with negations ; whence words like dcw^eXTfc, acquired a positive significance, and Solon could enact (K6r)valuv TroXireJa Ch. 8 ad fin.) 5s &v ffTacriafrvcrrjs TT?S
TTO.VV ye,

-Plato

a.<pQovos

TroXews
TToXcws

/xrj

TiOrjrai TO. 6ir\a /*r]8

/J.e6

erepwv, OLTI^OV dvtu Kal r^s

Part of the argument in the next chapter see on 332 A line 3. suffers from the same flaw
utrexei-v.
:

M

dSiKOv dpa: Heindorf s emendation for dXXct blKaiov &pa, the reading of the best MSS, which rb o avbciov proves to be wrong and shews how to correct. Heindorf s correction was after
18.

d\V

wards confirmed by a Paris MS. apa expressed (the words are equivalent
before rb dt see on 330
22.

is

illative.

For rb t^v un
fj.ev

to

dXXa rb

aSt/cov

apa)

A
,

aXXo, TO 5

cTXXo.
:

on

is

because

not

that

see note

on

line

24 below.

33 1 ^
:

23.

8tK<u6rr]s

OO-IOTT|TI.

Socrates gives the words the same

termination to suggest their closer likeness ( justness to holiness) Si/caior?7S is found also in Gorg. 508 A as a balance to

134

NOTES ON
it

xix
the

3316
TTOIOTT/J

Plato was fond of this suffix and coined by

word

Theaet. 182 A.
24.

Kal ndXiorra irdvTcov

olov

8iKcuo<ruvt].

Kroschel objects

to the emphasis,

and
is

If 6 rt in line 22

doubt the genuineness of this clause. translated as because and not as that , the
inclines to
TO.VTO.

difficulty disappears.

av raOrcc in line 22 thus
offiorys dtnaiov (lines

that 5iKaioavvr)

is

oviov

and

20

means simply 21), which is

the meaning also assigned to ravra av raCra by Protagoras in his Socrates (for Protagoras) will reply that reply (line 27 foil.).
diKaiocrvvi] is

oviov

and
is

ocrtorT/s

diKaiov for
OO-IOTTJS

two main reasons:
this

(i)

because
insist

diKai6rrjs

the same as

he does not much

insists

on or because SIKCUOTJJS is 6 TI 6/uoioraroj ocrior^n this he on more: (2) because diKaicxrvvt] is olov 6cridr??s and offtoTys olov this he insists on most of all (fj-dXiffra iravruv), and with SiKaioavvT]
B. it expressly refutes Protagoras assertion in 330 A the other hand if 6 rt is translated as that Kroschel s objections can hardly be got over viz. that -fjroi ravrdv biKouoativri is not the

reason, because

On

,

as Socrates reply on his own behalf; that the words are ignored both by Protagoras in his reply and by Socrates himself in 333 B ; and that the emphasis of judXtcrra iravTwv is strained and unnatural.

same

331 C

28.
elva.i

aTrXouv:

opposed to dXXd

ri

poi doKel ev

aury

5id(popov

Plato uses air\ovv, as opposed to 8ur\ovv, diafiopov, avvderov, ireir\ey^vov, troiKiXov and the like, of that which is uni
in 29.

form, simple, true without any difference or qualifications

:

Bonitz in

Hermes n
32.

(1867) p. 307
(ioi: see
i

foil.

n-i]

on

^77 otfrws in

318

B.
cf.

33.

TO

|3ov\ei
/icdXtcrra

TOVTO

t\ty\t<rQa.i,
<rv/m[3aivei

infra

333 C TOV yap
/cai

\6yov Zyuye

e^erd^w,

fj-evroi

iVws

e/ne

TOV

epuTuvra KO.L TOV aTTOKpi.v6fj.evov duces a quotation.
34.

eerdfc<r0cu.

Here

TO, as often, intro

TO 8

ejie

TC Kal

<r^

TOVTO

Xe\<o

:

TOVTO

(cf.

line 33)

belongs

to the TO 5

e/tt^

re Kal ai
.

and not

to

X^yw

in the usual sense of rouro

X^yw

I

mean

this

33 1 D

TO -yap XCVKOV TW n Xavi. Anaxagoras went so far as to say that snow was black (because it is still water, though congealed) 128 note b. Kilter and Preller
38.
:

39. 44.

oiTT)

:

an old emendation

for 6

fj.rj.

331 E
is

47-

TttvTa: the parts of the face. KOLV TCLVV <rp.iKpov ^\T1 T oV lov

-

This ( tne MSS reading)
is

successfully defended

by Kroschel.

The emphasis

on the

first

xx 332 A
like
if

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
(

135
some likeness

part of the sentence

it is

not right to call what has

any more than to call what has some unlikeness unlike even the likeness be very small ), to which accordingly /ecu/ trdvv cfjuKpov
tfjuoco"

%Xy T0
of rd

reverts

:

compare Socrates
ofj.oiov

reply,

which says nothing
editors (except

dvofjioiov,

in the next sentence. either reject TO
77

The German

Cron and Kroschel)
or read TO
dv6fj.oiov

(Schanz, Sauppe, Bertram), TO opoiov (Heindorf) or reject altogether the

words ov5 ra

d.vbp.oibv TI

fx VTa

dv6/j.oia (Krai).

CHAPTER
ness, Socrates

XX.
justice

Without establishing more surely the identity of

and

holi

seeks to prove the identity of temperance and wisdom, and begins to discuss the relation between temperance and

now

justice.

The proof that temperance and wisdom
follows
:
d<f>po<rvvr)

are the

same

is

briefly as
:

is

the opposite of

<ro0ta,

and also of
<ro<pla

ffu<f)po(rvvr}

but a thing can have but one opposite: therefore It is admitted at once that avvrj are identical.
are opposites
:

and

<ru<ppo-

a.<ppo<yiivrj

and

<ro<f>ia

some

the proof that d^poavvr) is tvavrlov is of length and (as well as the assertion that a thing can have but
cru<ppoa-iji>ri

one opposite) assumes the identity of the contrary and contradictory.

The
as
is

natural from

usual sense of d^poauvr) (intellectual folly) and the meaning its derivation (as the opposite of ffw^poffuvrj) are also natural to one who holds that vice is ignorance identified, and
is

the whole argument
i.
d<j>pooi3vqv

unnecessarily spun out.

TI KoXcts.

See above on 330

c.

33 2
au>$>povtiV)

3.

irorepov 8

orav.
(i)

Here begins the proof
ct>0eA//uws

that aufypovuvt} is

tvavrlov dfipoavvr].

TO 6p9us and

irp6.TTet.v is

and

ff<jj<j)po<rvvr)

is

that

irpaTTav is ferred that
or (as
site
is

cl0/)<Ws

by which one crucppovei: (2) TO and ou crutypovtiv from which -jrpdTTii>
:

fj.r)

6p6us
is

it

in

d<j>p6vws

worked

the opposite of o-wfipovus irpaTTeiv, out at inordinate length) that dtfrpoavvr) is the oppo
irpdTTeiv
is
6p0u>s

(2)

of vuQpoffvvr). In equating /J.TJ with atypovus irpaTTeiv in Socrates again confounds contradictory and contrary: see on
6.

33i A.
TJ
:

rovvavrfov.
the MSS have
in

So Stallbaum,
77

after

Heindorfs

77

rovvavTiov
faulty

TTpaTTeiv

because because

it

no way

TovvavTiov ZirpaTTov, which corresponds to the answer
el
is

is

both

<ru<j>povv

and
it

d

with the imperfect

here unsuitable.

In

rj

Towavrlov

136
will

NOTES ON
:

xx 332 A

tween eutypovtiv and

be observed that Socrates already allows no middle position be its opposite see above on line 3.
<j>p

332 C

tries to prove that a thing can have but one ivavrlov. This is true only if we confine tvavrlov to the meaning of contradictorily opposite throughout, e.g. if we are always content merely to assert that the tvavrlov of /caXoV is

19.

*>TJ.

From

here to line 27 Socrates

KO\OV as soon as we say that its tvavrlov is o.lo~xpov we have given to the thing two opposites (one of them multiform) since ^77 is not alffxpov but may be anything in the whole world except
fj.7]
:

Ka\bt>

/oaAoj/.

This part of the argument

lecting the difference

332 D
I

27.

330

E,

is therefore also vitiated by neg between contrary and contradictory terms. dvaXo-yurwueGa of reckoning up and reflecting as in Rep. X 618 c.

3334-

viro

(7-wc}>poo-vvTiS

viro
d<f>po<ri5vT]s.

This has not been

admitted in so
biro ffu(ppoavvr)$

many
and
:

words, but with
a<ppo<rvi>ris:

o-wfipoo-vvr}

and
cf.

dfipovvvr) for

VTTO

332 B line 12:

C line 18.

332 E

40. 44.
rlov efrcu

fy.irpo<r6v 332 A. TO does not belong to
:

e

>

but to the clause

v tvl /j-ovov evav-

cf.

TO

ei

(3ov\i TOVTO in 331 C.

e/cVoj refers to Chapter
his

XVIII.

333 A

49.

ov

ircivv fAOvcriKws

(ruvapnoTTOvoriv.
43"

"In

lenem agrov
".

nosco Sophistae irrisionem, qui supra
filov

(326 B)

"Trdtra

TOV avdpuTTov e&pv0fdtu

re Kal evap/m.oo Tla.s

deltrdai,

dixisset

Heindorf.

333 B

52

*

T^W Se
in
line 51

[xi].

B

reads

gestion of Heindorf s, adopted
fj.t>vov

and

<ro(pla

favour of TrAe/w.

If TrAe/ocrt^
s style.

T TrXefoo-i TrXci w is a sug by most editors. The nominatives ev and aufipoavvr] in 53 are strongly in is retained, it must be regarded as a
ir\eio<Tii
,

:

blemish in Plato
59.

rd Xonrd.

If (JiKcuoo w ^^ofnor???

and

<Tw0pocri?j 97

= cro0ta

it

remains to identify either diKcuovvvr) or ocrtorTjs with either or ffofylo. in order to prove the identity of these four virtues.
begins to prove that oTtd8iK6i: 60.
8<.Ka.iov{>v

(rw<ppo<rfor}

Socrates

r)

=
<rw<j)po<Tvvri.

on
,

(cf.

infra 333 D,
I

and Farm. 155

E) is equi

valent to Kara TOVTO o
TOV ^afJ.apTavovTa

cf.

Rep.

340 D

e?ret CH/T/KU la.Tpbv

KaKels au

e^a^aprdvet ; 6 Ti the relative and 6 rt the conjunction shade into one another here. There is much to be said for Cron s view that the words should

irepl roi)s

Ka^vovra.? /car

avTO TOVTO

6

be written alike

:

see on Apology,
-yc
<J>cwn,v.

Appendix
I

II. p. 123.
foil.,

333 C

62.

iroXXoC

In Rep.

348 B

Thrasymachus

xxi 333 D

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
is

137

asserts that d5t/a a

also Polus in Gorg. 469 B foil.

that dSiKta

is

KaXw and texvph: compare Notice that Protagoras own opinion not compatible with ffutypovvvr} makes for the iden
evpov\la, dper??,

tification of diKaioffuvr)

and

ffu^poffdvrj.

TOV TWV iroXXwv: on account of the ruv here, Heindorf wished to insert ol before iro\\ol in line 62, but such a view could
65.

hardly be said to be held by the majority:
XwrireXetv
X6-yets
fj-tva,
fj.lv

cf.

Rep.
TJ

I

348 E

e/

yap

TTJV dftiidav trl&effo,

Kaidav

/HCJ/TOI

alaxp^v

o.\nb U/J.Q-

drat c&nrep aXXoi Ttixfy, eixofj-ev ov TI \tyeiv /caret, ra ropitfAs Sauppe points out, the article TWV refers only \tyovTt* KT\. With the situation compare Rep. to the above-mentioned iro\\oL
VII 527 E
foil.
<r/c67ret

otv avT66ev trpbs wortpovs 8ia\4yet, $ ou 7rp6s
iroiet

ovdertpovs dXXa ffavrou ZveKO. rb (dyiffTOV civ aXXy 6i rt s TI dvvatro air avruv fjLrjv ou5
66.

TOUS

\dyW9,

(frdovo is

6va<rdai.

&T o3v

ti re

:

see

on Apol. 34

E.

CHAPTER

XXI.

Before Socrates has completed his proof that (rufipoavvr) and diKaioavvri are identical, Protagoras takes occasion to deliver an

though carefully constructed harangue on dyadd. Cf. Phaedr. 236 D iravaai Trpos p.e xaXXwTrt- 333 D w ^ dvayKavw (re \eyeiv so also rpv^dv, ffx^ov yap ^x 6/j,Vos cf. Euthyphr. II E ^TretSrj 5e /uoi 8o/fets %vfj.7rporpixfidv, O.VTOS
irrelevant
i.

^KoXXwir^tTO.

tiru>v

:

<rv

<rot

6v/j,r](roiJ.ai,

where see note.
Protagoras has already disclaimed this view in 333 B. Hirschig suggested 6 TI ddiKovviv, but see on
:

6.
8.

&rr.

on
<v

cL8iKov<riv

333

B. 9.

Schanz

rejects the words, but

without sufficient reason.

ev is here primarily of success, irpaTTOvcriv dSiKovvrts. and /ca/cws of failure, but the collocation of eS irpdrreiv with ddiKelv is

intended to suggest that the view which Protagoras is defending Plato frequently makes use of the double sense (as paradox. should call
it
:

is

a

we
and

but see on Euthyphr. 3 A) of cv Trpdrreiv, e&
life is

$r)v

the like, to imply that the virtuous
I

the

happy one

:

e.g. Alcib.

116 B

foil.:

Rep.

I

353 E

foil.:

Charm. 172 A, 173 D: compare
proceeds to
6.

Euthyd. 281

c.

Socrates 10. Xfyeis ovv crya0a. definition of eu in eS TrpdrreLV.
11.
w<j>

elucidate

the

Xi}Aa rots dvOpwirots:
etj/ac T

Xen. Mem. IV

8 aXXo 5 dV TI

rb

138
dya66v 379 B r/
ecmi>

NOTES ON
ory av
&(f>e\i[j.ov

xxi 333 D
^(ptj.

u^eAi/uoi/

17;

doKei
val.

/u.ot,

Plato Rep.

II

5^;

TO dyadov;

333 E

aY a)Vt * v Ka ^ irapaTTa\6ai. The martial metaphor in the dywidv is carried on by Traparerdxtfat, which is the MSS reading, and means literally to be set in array cf. Thuc. iv 43. 3 ovTOi yap TT a par er ay pe v 01 -ffffo-v &rxarot. For the metaphorical
J

5

desiderative

,

use

399 B ev Tracrt TOVTOIS Trctparercry/^i wj Kal Kaprepovvrty rvx^f- The whole clause describes the outward demeanour of Protagoras, which causes Socrates to fear an imminent
cf.

Rep.

Ill

TWS

d^vvovfj.evo\}

personal conflict. Kock s TrapaTerdo-dat, accepted by Schanz, does not suit, since irapaTtTdvdai means to be tired, worn out e.g. Euthyd. 303 B Kal ye\ui>T Kal KpoTOvi>T...6\tyov 7raperd07?<rai cf. Ar.
,
,

334 A

Clouds 313. It is noteworthy that ffwreray^vus and (r^rera^j wj are frequently found as variants in Platonic MSS. The argument is here broken off, and not 20. ovSajxws, &{ni.
If Socrates had continued, Pro (in its present form) again resumed. tagoras would doubtless have asserted that what is ci^eAi/uoi for man isfar/itwdyadov. The argument has therefore been: (rufipoveiv, it
is said, is d5i/ce?v.

But

aw(f)poveiv

= ev

(^povelv

= eD

(3ov\ve<r6cu.

if (but

only accompanies ei /3oi/Acc. In other words c50e\t/ua Trpdrreiv = ddiKew is the stage which we have reached a thesis which it is the object of the Republic and of a large
if) cC irpdrreiv (i.e. w0eAiyua Trpdrretv)

part of the Gorgias to refute. iroXXd oIS a. The speech which follows

may be from some
fiir

work by Protagoras (so der Philosophic V 2, p.

recently Zeller in the Archiv
177),

Geschichte

perhaps his irepi apeTwv, mentioned by Diog. Laert. IX 8. 55 (since apery is a general word for excellence). Zeller points out that just as the notion true was conceived by

Protagoras (in his TTO.VTWV ^rpov dvBpwiros) as relative, so here the * notion good is represented as relative and varying with that to

which
21.

it is

relative.
w<j>\ijxa:

civOpwirois p^v
:

dvOpuirois

^v
:

has no antithesis

were the antitheses expressed in full, the sentence would be very cumbrous, running somewhat as follows ywye TroAAa oIS a rd fJLkv aj/w0eA?? tffri, Kal ffiTiafjt,vpla, rots S d AAots dvdpwirois
expressed
< > <

fj.ti>

^ots Kal

>

0im>ts

u></>eAi/xa

,

TO,

5^ ye

<u>0eAi/*a

TO?S dvdpuirocs, rots 5^

aAAots

dya>0eA^>

.

For

fj.tv

KaTaye\a<rOTJvai

in

Euthyphr.

without a balancing clause see on TO /j.ev rd without 3 C, and on 330 A above for
Be"

a preceding rd
olov
/XTJ

p.ev.

d^w0eA^

is

hurtful

,

as frequently

:

see above on

oVtov in 331 A.

With Protagoras

classification of

w

xxi 334 C
dvu<j>e\T)ovde

PLATO S PROTA GORAS.

itf

ovxi

TJTOI

dyadov y terlv

TI TWV OVTWV, 5 Tepa compare Gorg. 467 E ap ovv eanv TOIJTUV otfre dyadov otfre rj Kaabv 17 fierai>

KO.K.OV

(where see Thompson s note) and infra 351 D. ovSevC Schanz follows Naber in reading ovSe vi against the MSS both here and in Euthyd. 302 c. The plural would be more individuals is denied of appropriate here, but what is denied of all
24.
:

the species, and the dative plural of ovdels seems to lack authority. Heindorf suggests el 6 irdvTa diro XXvo-iv. cl 8 eOt Xois 28. ^Xeis the indicative being generally used in this phrase, e.g. Alcib.
I

334 B

122 B

el 5

au

^0As
II

els

TT\OVTOVS aTro/SX^at KrX.
p.

a.lffXW0di)l dv

eirl o-avrcp:

but

Goodwin MT.
Kivdvveveiv,

188

500 quotes a precisely similar

example from Thuc.
edt\oifj.ei>

el {mOv/dy. fj.S.\\ov rj irovuv /AeXeVy 39. 5 KO.ITOI Trepiylyverai ijfjuv KT\. In both ex

future. amples the present in the apodosis contains a reference to the S iraVKaKOV. Theophr. Hist. Plant. IV 16. 5 iro\ep.iov 4 30.
>VTO
-

yap

STJ

Kal TOVTO (sc. rb e\ai.ov} Trctov
TUJ>

Ka.1

ZXaiov

e lnxe ovo i ro?$ UTTO-

\ei/J.(J.a<n

QvofJifvoi*

d<r

pifav l(rxvei Se fj.a\\ov TO ZXaiov iv rots vtois Kal apri 6 are pa yap /crX.
eve"

rais Opi|lv
foil,

a Arist. irepl tywv yev^ae^ V 5. 78s 30 dvOpwirov. says that a mixture of oil and water is a remedy against grey

hairs.

34.
36.

VTav0a, ravrov.

i.e.

ev T($ avdpuirq.

This form, not ravrb, of the neuter of almost regular in Plato see on 3148. 38. n&Xei, sc. 6 dffOfvwv see on 319 D.
: :

6 auras is

3340

39.
fj.i(r6bi>

ocrov jJiovov
Trjs
<f>v\a,K7)s

just

enough

to

.

Cf.

Rep.

Ill

416 E

Se ^eaflcu

TOCTOVTOV, ovov /UTjre irepiclvai ai ro?s...ju^re evdeiv.
^Tr^crra/tat

Theaet. 161 B ^70; 5^ ovdev
trap irtpov
ffo<j)ov

Tr\ov

Tr\r)v /3pax^os,

o<rov

\6yov

\apdv

KCLI
-

dirodti;a.<r0a.i

(JieTpiws.

The nausea is of course that felt TT)V Svcrxep^^v-^o^ 015 by a sick person at the smell of food so far there is therefore no reason for holding pwuv to be corrupt and reading XVIJLUV (as Kroschel formerly read), still less evKpw&v with Bergk. But it is
:

not clear
to

how

oil

could thus prevent nausea, nor does there seem
It is

be any parallel among the ancients to such a statement.
that the ancients (like

known
cooking

many modern

use butter (see Blumner seems rather to point to the use of some kind of fragrant oil sprinkled on the food after it was

much

as

we

peoples) used oil in s Privataltherthumer

p. 228), but the present passage

cooked.

The Greeks were

at all events not unfamiliar

with the use

140

NOTES ON

xxi 334 c

of scents in banqueting: see Xen. Symp. n 2 foil. Kroschel thinks Plato is making fun of Protagoras by putting into his mouth the word
1

pivQv pro TTiKpuv vel

xv

^

v

but this view will hardly

command

assent.

CHAPTER
this

XXII.
In

This and the next three chapters form a kind of interlude.

chapter Socrates, protesting against Protagoras long replies, remembers an engagement and is about to go, and Callias beseeches

him

to stay.

334 D

KCU Ppax^rcpas iroCci. Hirschig would reject the words, but they explain the metaphor in (ruVre/Ape: see on 314 A Kvptvys re
Kal Kivdvvevrjs.
15fj.oi

n.

334 E

oVa

}iol
civ

8oKt.

Compare Gorg. 461 D
;

rl dt; OVK

eeVr<u

\eyeiv offocra
19.

/SouXw/Aat

Kal av ppa\ea.
wi>

Sauppe

cites

Gorg.

4490

Kal

yap a 5

Kal

TOVTO %v t&Tiv

(f>r)/j.t,

/AT/S&

TOVTOV

fj.T]v

Bet, c3

Topyla

a av iv fipaxvTtpots e/xoO TO. aura dirciv. Kal fj.ot C7rl5eiii> avrov TOVTOV iroLTjcrai, TTJS
8

(3paxv\oyLas,

/maKpohoyias
B.

dvavOis:

cf.

also

Gorg. 461
is

D and

Phaedr. 267

335 A

24

S 6

avTiXe -ywv

OVTW
II

SicXc^ofJi^v.

Asyndeton

frequent

in such sentences: cf.
iroiri<TaL/j.ev

Rep.

359 B (cited by Heindorf)
etr

d

roiwde
KT\.

ry
E.

diavoia,

56vTes c^ovcriav

^TraKO\ov6^(raifJi^v

See on 311

26. rye vero npcora-yopov ovojia. With e ycVero Kroschel reads A^yero 6Vo/xa) cf. y\.pol. 20 D ri
6
f/ctot

os>ofj.a

(for

which
TOVTO
is

TTOT

^CTTIV

treirolrjKe rb re ovofia Kal TTJV 5ta/3oA?7y: ylyveadai
TrotetV.

the

the sentence generally cf. Euthyphr. 4 E 5 A where Euthyphro says obotv yap av fj,ov 6 0eAos eiy, w TfivOvfipiw TUV TTO\\UV av6p<J}7ruv, ci 2c6/fpare?, ovdt rip av see note in loc. for more parallels. yui/ KT\.
usual passive to
d<.a<ptpoi

With

:

27.

OVK

TJp<rV

Kal

OVK

t06\^(Toi.

The combination

of in
is

dicative
fairly

and optative

in the

same sentence
p. 261

in indirect speech

common: Goodwin MT.

670.
ofrV,

335 B
oGv

3- i]yio ci(Xvos. Heindorf may be dispensed with after
3$
T<

conjectures 7]y^<Tafj.vos a short parenthesis.

but

335 C

^ H-o-KRa

oiy Kal TOI)S 0avXo7-drovs

Tavra aSvvaros. Meno 94 B iVa 5^ /AT; 6\iyovs AOrivaluv aSvvaTOVS yeyovfrai TOVTO TO
478 A
t<p

frpay/m-a:

Rep.

VI

trfpy

apa %Tep6v Tt

xxii 335 E
40.
I

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
-y^Y

141
see note

va o-uvovo-ta
el

VTO

For
oioi

this construction

on Crito 44 D

yap

T

elvai

iva

oloi

r

oj<f>e\ov

rjaav.

A

secondary tense of the indicative is found with IVa and OTTWS on a wish which can no (without &v) in final clauses dependent
fulfilled,

longer be

Goodwin MT.
Tcs
ets

p.

120

or on the apodosis to an impossible protasis 333. The idiom is frequent in Plato and
:

sometimes corrupted by scribes
tyvXdTTO/J.ev
ri]i>

e.g.

Meno

89 B

rjfj.eTs

av Trapa\ap6veirtidT]

Iva.

wdds

a.vroi>s

ditydeipcv,

dXX

afaKoivro

i)\iKlai>,

xpri<ri/ji.oi

ylyvoiVTO rcuy

we should

read

a<f>iKovTo

and

iyiyvovro.

where perhaps See Cobet s Variae LecTr6\e<riv

tiones pp. 102, 359.
47. Tppvos. The ordinary clothing of an Athenian consisted of a WTUV, or shirt, with a ina.Ti.ov or short mantle worn above it. The rplfiuv was a short cloak of coarse material worn by the

3350

Spartans and sometimes by the Laconisers in other states to take an d wdriov. It was the ordinary garment the place of both x 17 of Socrates (Symp. 219 B), and was afterwards much affected by the
"^"

more
13).

ascetic philosophers, such as the Cynics (Diog. Laert. vi
Its

i.

use was supposed to be a mark of sturdy simplicity and austerity of manners. ovS* av The two parts of ovdeis are sometimes v6s. 50.

separated by av or a preposition, often with the effect (as here) of increasing the emphasis by making oi)5^ = ne quidem, cf. infra

on 343 D
53.

ovftt irpbs tva.

\6yov.
:

w

irai

IiriroviKOv

see

ardp Sauppe compares Rep.

n

on 328 D above. With ad p.h 367 E Kal ty& aKofoas del fj.tv Srj
Adct/m.di

Tty (frvffiv TOU re T\avK<*)vo$ Kal TOV T&re TTO.VV ye rjffdrjv.
54.

TOV

7)yd/m.rii> ,

arap

o$v Kal

The
<}>iXo<ro<}>iav.

original
its

meaning of the word
,

0i\o<ro0t

a

was

love of knowledge for

knowledge being specified. Herod. I 30 ws (piXotro^uv
Xa/cfas) the

own sake no particular kind The verb 0\oo-o0c?^ is first found
II

of
in

yrjv TTO\\TJV deupir)s tivenev

eTre\-f)\vda<i.

In the present passage (as in Thuc.

40

0iXo<ro0oC/iej

avev

/j.a~

word

retains its original wider
;

knowledge in general the more restricted meaning of

meaning, viz. love of but side by side with this in Plato it has
Philosophy
,

e.g.

Rep. VI 496 A

The wider meaning
Theology the
57.
Kp<r<ovi.

is

also

found in Aristotle, where he calls
(irpuTT)
<pi\ocro<t>la),

Highest Study

and elsewhere.

Criso of Himera, a famous

<rTadio5p&/ui.os }

won 335 E

142

NOTES ON
B.C.).

xxii 335 E

Olymp. 83, 84, and 85 (448, 444, and His chastity during his prime as an athlete is mentioned in Laws vui 840 A. dpofj.fi: aKfj-dfrvTi is rejected by some editors, but 5/)Oyue? should be taken with Ifj-epaiy and O-K/JLO-^OVTI. with
three times at Olympia, viz.

440

cTre<r6at: to keep up with Criso, the runner of Himera, when he was in his prime presumably at the assumed date of this dialogue he was past his aKfj.rj.

58. do\ixoSpo/^oi elalv 8o\i)^o8pd|xwv says the scholiast see on 329 A.
: :

ol

rbv SoXixov rp^ovres,

t]fj.po8po (jiwv. Heindorf quotes Livyxxxi 24. 4 "Hemerodromos vocant Graeci ingens die uno cursu emetientes spatium". Such was Phidippides; see Hdt. VI 105 Tj/u.epoSpofj. rjv re /cat TOUTO
yueXeru>j>ra.

59.

SiaOeiv T

Kal

6ir<r0ai.

diacf.

in

compounds frequently
is

denotes competition: for diadem
dK/j.dovTos Kal ra%iVrou
(

Theaet. 148 C efra Siadtwv TOV

7?TT?j0??s.

As

the emphasis

on

keep up with
cf.

)

diadfw re Kal

Treff0ai is

equivalent to

fireffOai:

note on 317 C evdei^aadai Kal KaXXuiriaacrdai, where

is (so to speak) enclitic as dia6di> re Kal is English "Some must be talked over by the hour before they could reach the humblest decision, which they only left the office to return again (ten minutes later) and rescind"].

Kal

Ka\\WTrl(ra<T6ai.

proclitic [cf. the

336A
348

63.

crvYKaOtivcu

:

intransitive
:

as

in

Rep.

vui 563 A

ot

5

ytpovres ZvyKaOitvTes TO?S j^ois

A

^roi/x6s
(sc.

el/Jii

so TTCI/^XW for irap^x^ fyavrbv infra cot Trapexfti a7roKpiv6/uievo$ cf. also CKelvol re
:

dirtKpv\f/ai>

tavrots)

Thuc. V 65.

5.

The omission
making

of the reflexive

pronoun

is

a well-recognised

way

of

transitive verbs into

intransitive.

336 B
et

68.
Kalpia.

X w pfe"In

Soph. O. C. 808 XWptJ r& T
5i %a,

diretv TroXXa Kal

ra

talibus locis

separationem, sed Kroschel. The usage
platform oratory.
70.

xwpt s etc. non ut vulgo, seiunctionem diversitatem et oppositionem significant".
frequent in Plato,
like our colloquial

is

d-rj^yopdi

is

contionari

opas.

Almost

don

t

used parenthetically and without interrogative force)
belongs in
parallels
ftirep

you know (when the dXXa
:

strict

logic

to

5t /cata

SOKCI

\yav.

Heindorf quotes
at>

&<pe\r](raL[j.ei>

from Aristophanes e.g. Peace 330 331 OVK ri dXX bpar\ O^TTW Tr^iravaBe.
<re.

6px^o-l^e6\

Where 6ps

or opare stand in this way as the first word of a sentence, editors generally regard the usage as interrogative, e.g. Eur. Orest. 581 6/a?s;

05i

<rcr^a>s

aXo^ov ov

xxin 336 D
72.

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
So
ffol

143
crot.

Kdl
crot,

<ru.

the original hand
is

in

T B
:

has Kal

If

we

read Kal

the construction

OTTWJ f3ov\Tai Kal

a^Cov avT$ re eetj>ai dia\eye<j6ai. f^dvat KT\., but Protagoras has nowhere asked
:

that Socrates should be permitted to converse as he likes

quite the

contrary.

With av the

construction
i.e.

is

Kal

at>

diKaia

So/ceis

\eyeiv

and your demand that Protagoras should converse as you wish likewise seems fair. Protagoras asked to be allowed to use his own style in 335 A: Socrates requested
a$i.&v dia\^yeffdat, OTTWS

av KT\.

that Protagoras should converse as Socrates wished in 334 D, 335 c, 335 E. Alcibiades defence of Socrates in the next chapter seems
also to

imply the reading ah here.
re
is

The

only objection to this

view

lies in

the position of re after avry:

we should

expect

it

to

follow Hpti)ray6pas.

however frequently misplaced (see above on 316 D). croi can only be retained if we either (i) take Kal ffoi which is barely possible, or (2) as altogether independent of O.$LUV
regard Plato as guilty of inaccurate writing.

CHAPTER

XXIII.

Alcibiades defends Socrates, and together with Critias and Prodicus hopes that the conversation will be continued. The jingle is intentional : ov KaXws Xe -yas, KaXXia. i.
(i5

Handsome
names of
Riddell
s

is

that

handsome

says.

Plato loves to play upon the
:

his interlocutors (w

Digest of Idioms,
2 E,

Xyore IlwXe in Gorg. 467 B) see 323, and cf. the Editor s notes on

Euthyphr.
6.

4 E, 5

C.

Xo-yov re Souvai Kal Se ijaaOou. follow Sovvai : see on 316 D.
ir.

We

should expect re to

336 C

eKKpovwv.

"Vox

ducta a pugilatu, cuius proprium

Kpotietv

de

rep. IV p. 422 B ov8
Trpoa(j>epb[J.evov

et

t^dy

virofatiyovTi (T

TTWCTT?)

rov irp5-

repov aid

avacrTpt(j)Oi>Ta

Kpoveiv

etc."

Heindorf.

The

simple verb is used metaphorically in Theaet. 154 E of beating arguments with arguments -75^7 SLV 0-weX0<Wes <TO$IOTI/CWS els fj-dx^v
roiaiJT^v dXXTyXwv TOI;S \6yovs ro?s X670is expovofjiev,

and the com
idea
is

pound

in

Phaedr. 228 E

e/c/c^/cpov/ccis ^te

tXwtdos.

Here the

of

beating
diKf]v is

off,

staving off by force, i.e. here by fuucpnjyopfal used by Demosthenes of staving off a trial by o-

and the
J

like.

5-

^X
is

Tl

<n

t

l->ut

what

.

The idiom

(as if ov

\fy<j

OTI,
OTI,

3360

omiilo quod}

tolerably

common

in Plato, e.g.

Gorg. 450 E

oi>x

144
Ty
pritJ.a.Ti
oi>x

NOTES ON
OUTWJ
etTres,

xxm
avrtt).

336 D

Theaet. 157 B rb

5*

elvai iravTaxMev e^aipe-

rfov,
1

STL y^tls

^wy/cdcr/ie^a

%/3?}<7#cu

336 E

XP 1! Y&P KT^- sa id apologetically. 21. The MSS read and presently cjuXoviKos. It is however clear that the word comes from and not from and pet/cos (in which case the form would be
7.
<t>L\6veiKos

<rv/j.(pi\o-

<pi\o-

<iXo-

Schanz has found only two traces of the original spelling with iota in Plato s MSS (A, B, T) viz. in Laws xi 935 B where Paris A has dpicrreiwv irepi ^iXopt/oJa-?;, and Alcib. I 122 C
:

compare and the like).
:

<t>i\OKfpdr)s,

<pi\oKv5ris,

but

<j>i\6Tifj,os,

0tX65oos,

where

(fxXovtKlav

appears as a correction for

<f>i\ovetKiai>

in T.

We

might in consequence be tempted to suppose that Plato himself wrote 0iX6m/cos through the influence of a false etymology, were it not that the derivation from V[KT] alone suits the meaning, and that
in more than one passage he shews himself conscious of the con nexion of the word with VIKIJ, notably in Rep. IX 586 c rl 5^; irepl rb Ov/Aoeides ovx, ^repa. TOIO.VTO. avdyKr) yiyveadcu, 5s avro TOVTO
8u>

17

0^6i^y dia 0iXor 1/J.lav
5ia
8vffKO\ia.t>,

r)

j3i<}

6ia (pi\oviK.la.v

(<pi\o-

A)

rj

6vjn<^

7rX^cr uoi
/

7jj

riyw^s re /cat W/o/s Ka.1

8iu>K(n>

dVeu

\oyi<r/mov

re Kal vou\
is

Compare

also ib. 581 A-B.

The orthography

an old subject of dispute (see Stallbaum on Rep. VIII 545 A): Schanz (Preface to Vol. VI p. x)
of this
<}>i\6t>iKos.

word

declares himself, after a full discussion, for

337 A

an

make his remarks which was his leading subject The of instruction: see Euthyd. 277 E and cf. above on 3140. distinctions drawn by Prodicus are on the whole sound if somewhat
25.

6 IIpoSiKos

&j>iv

Prodicus contrives to

eTr/5eits

on

6pdorr]s

oj Oyudrcof,

wiredrawn and pedantic. The carefully balanced
finds a parallel in the story of Heracles in

style of the speech
i.

Xenophon Mem. n
and
uros are

21

foil.:

28.

compare especially KOIVOVS aKpoards
5li<aia

31

33.
Kou>6s

I arovs.
:

found as

epithets of d/cpoar^s in the orators

yovros vcrepov

Cor. 7 rb. rov \eevvol K&s TrpoGde&rai Kal irapaffx^v eavrbv taov Kal
e.g.

Dem. De

KOivbv d/J.QorepoLS aKpoar-rjv

ovru

rrji>

didyvuffiv troi-fiaerai irepl irdvruv,
Ka.1

and Andoc.

in Alcib.

7 dto/Jiai 8

vn&v, r&v ~\6yuv foovs

KOWOVS

yfuv firiffrdras yevfoOai (Heindorf). TW [xiv TT\^OV KT\. 31.
<ro<j>a)Tp<o

rpiKy and not

iffbrt}^ dpiO/myriKr)
:

(Gorg. 508 A) portion to their merit.

In other words iff6rrj3 yewpeshould be observed by the audience the regard paid to the speakers should be in pro

xxiv 337 c
34.
is

PLATO S PR OTA GORAS.
mv
epiiv.
Cicero
s
"

145

djjKJuo-pTi

translation of this sentence

337 B

Nunc a vobis, preserved by Priscian (Nobbe s Cicero, p. 1313): a Protagora et Socrate (It g. o Protagora et Socrates), postulo, ut de isto concedatis alter alteri, et inter Vos de huiuscemodi rebus controversemini,
39.

non

concertetis

".

cv8oKijJioiT6

Kal OVK

Traivoi<T0e.

Heindorf suggests that
:

dXX OVK should be written
is

for Kal OVK, or Kal omitted

but KCU

is

occasionally used in this way.
41.
fj.iif
<xvv

diraTtjs

opposed

to irapa

doav

\l/vdo/u.vuv

:

euo/a*

implies that he with

whom

one

evdoKifJi.fi is

sincere,

iv

\6yy

as opposed to irapa TCUS \f/vxau suggests Shakespeare s "Mouthhonour, breath, which the poor heart would fain deny, but dare

not

".

44.

v(J>paCv0-9ai

is

connected
:

by Prodicus
yap
77X01

with

<f>p6vr]<rt$

337 C

((j)povrj<rews

^TaKa^avovTo.}

for

a fantastic derivation of
Travrl

the

kindred

eix^poffvvr) see

Crat. 419

D

6 rt airo TOV eD

TO?S Trpdy/J.ao i TT]V

(Tvvrjv, TO

ye

8iKaioi>

^vxw onw

vfj.<f>tp(r6ai.

TOVTO

Xa/3e TO 8vofj.a, eixfiepo-

8e avTb Ka\ov/j.ev ev^poffvfrjv.
5t>//3etro

Compare
e/y
-x.

Arist.

Top.

II 6,

p.

H2 b

22 UpbdiKos

rds ijdovas
of this

a P av

Kal

Tfp\f/u>

Kal eiKppoavvfjv.

conformed
45.

to the rule laid
8iavoC<j
:

The Greek usage down by Prodicus.

word hardly

avrfj TTJ
in

as

ai)r<p

avTy T$

(rw/ttart

avTy is by itself, i.e. without the body, is without the mind. i)dv is introduced

to give the derivation of -rjdccdat.

CHAPTER
an umpire
style.

XXIV.

Hippias, anxious for a compromise, proposes the selection of in a speech marked by his characteristic doctrines and

If we may judge from this speech, Hippias must have been devoted to metaphor: e.g. Tvpavvos, irpVTavelov in D, wcrTrep VTTO in E, and in 338 A e ^etVcu Kal %aXacrcu raj Vtas, KaXwy
ovpla ((pevTa, Tre\ayos \6ywv, aTTOKpv\f/avTa yrjv,
tiv,
fj.^<rov

TI

pa(3dovxov

and irpvTavw.

Zeller (Archiv

fiir

Geschichte der

Philosophic
author.
2.

V

2, p.

may have come from some book
aireS^avTo means simply

175) thinks that the opening part of the speech of which Hippias was himself the

assented

:

cf.

Theaet. 162 E.

A. P,

10

i

46
5.
i]|J.ds

NOTES ON
is

xxiv 337 c
"

Heindorf

s

correction for

vfj.ds:
1.

uti

mox

y^Sis ovv
".

etc.,

neque video cur

se a ceteris h.

segreget Hippias
(f>v<ris

and VO/JLOS ov VOJAW. The opposition between or their repre frequently appears attributed to different sophists sentatives in the Platonic dialogues: the historical Hippias was a
6.
<}>v<ri

leading champion of
vb/Jios is

(pv<ris

(see Introd. p. xxii.).

Usually however

represented as a convention binding
0i;<ris

men

together into friend

(whose teaching is that might is right) as responsible for ship and the enmity of man to man in the savage state: e.g. Rep. II 358 D
foil.,

like

is

Gorg. 482 D foil. From the natural principle of Like to here deduced something like the Stoic doctrine of the kin

ship between wise men.

TO ^tip 6p.oiov TW 6|xoib>: Gorg. 510 B 0i Xos ytiot do/ce? e /cacrros e/cdary eTvat ws olbv re /xdXurra, ovirep oi irdXcuol re KO.I cro0oi \tyov<rii , The proverb appears in the 6 6/toibs r bpoltj): Laws iv 716 C.

most various forms in Greek
cos alfl

literature

from

Homer

(Od.

xvn
c.

218

TOV o/iotov &yet 0eos ws rov b^oiov] downwards. examples of its use in Plato see Stallbaum on Gorg.

For more
1.

337 D

7-

Tvipavvos

Pia^erac.

Hippias

has

in

view the

lines

of

Pindar quoted in Gorg. 484 B vofjios 6 TTO.VTWV /3a0-iAet>s Ovaruv re Acat ddavdruv (Lyei diKaiuv TO /3tcu6rarop vweprdrg. %et/)/ /crX.
12.

irpVTaviov

TTJS

<rotj>ias.

The prytaneum

(like the

temple
It

of Vesta at

Rome) was
E<rr/a,

the religious centre of a Greek

TroAts.

in whose honour fire was always kept burning, was sacred to and contained what was called the Common Hearth of the city: The see Frazer in Journal of Philology, Vol. XIV pp. 145 172. editors refer to Athenaeus v 187 D rr\v AQyvaluv iroKiv, TO Trjs

EXXdSos
5 iv

/j,ov<reiov,

^v

6

/ze>

IItV5a/)os

EXXd5os

^pet(Tywa

&/>?/,

Qovi\vdi5-r]5

ry els EvpLirLdTjv e-mypd^fJiaTi EXXd5os aTiav Kal Trpuravetoj r&v EXXyvuv.
17.
crvjxpTJvai

EXXd5a,

6

d

Ilvdtos

337 E
i>irb

wo-irep

viro

8iatTt]Tu)V

i](xwv

o-i)}ipi|3at6vTwv.

0"u/a/3atVw
:

forms a passive to (ri yu./3t/3d^ci; as Trdcr^etj to Tfoielv, whence is regular in the sense see note on Apol. 17 A. <ruyu/3t^dfw
:

of bringing together, effecting an arrangement between compare (with Sauppe) Thuc. II 29. 8 ^vve^L^aiye 6e Kal T&V HepSiKKav rois

Note that w&v has no preposition with it this is A6r]vaiois. frequent (but not universal) in similes where wa-irep and a preposition precede the object compared, and the effect is almost to make the
simile

an

identification: if

comes

first,

on the other hand the object the preposition must be expressed twice.

compared

Compare

xxiv 338 A
Theaet.

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
TOI>

147

* v eKacrrots dpxovTas S 170 A uffirep irpbs deovs ^X iv (which might have been irpbs roi)s iv CKUJTOIS apxovTas uvirep TT/OOS 0eous Zx iv ) an d see notes on Crito 46 c, Euthyphr. 2 c.

20.

Xfav: with ^relv

:

Kara fipaxv as in Gorg. 449 B

ciXX

338 A

e#e X?/o-oj/ /caret

fipaxv TO

fpuT&iJ.evov diroKpiveaOai.

21.

<j>ivai

Kal xaXdtrai
VTTO

rds tjvias rots
TOV \OyOV

XO-YOIS.
Ka.0a.ircp

For the
dxaXtfof

metaphor Kroschel compares Laws in 701 C
KKT-t]^VOV TO
23.
TJp.lv:
ffT6fJ,a,

($1$

<f)p6/ULCl>OV

KT\.

so most editions:

BT

have

V/MI>,

which can hardly
".

be

right, as Ilippias is at this

"Pro

VIMV dici potuit
irdlvTa
,

<roi,

24.

KaXwv

moment addressing Socrates alone. sed V/MV recte explicari nequit Kroschel. CKTeivavra. TrapoL/j.ta iirl rviv Traa^ wpoOvfua^

Xpw^j/wi
sail

metaphor means
:

This nautical says a Scholiast (quoted by Sauppe). to stretch out every reefing rope and so set all /rciXws does not refer to the sheet, which is TTOVS. /a;/etV, fffttiv,
eK\veiv are also found with /cciXwv in

ffi&

cu, tyitvai,

much

the

same

sense.

For the asyndeton oupta e(j)c vTa: see on avyKO.Oe iva.i 336 A. before these words Heindorf compares Euthyphr. 4 c <rvvdr](ras TOVS
ir65as Kal
rets

x

P a s ct^ToG, icara/SaXwj

e/j

raQpov

rivd, ir^fj-rra devpo

dvdpa
firl

/crX.

25.

TO

TToXi)

abound

Sauppe aptly refers to Symp. 210 D TT^X 01705 rerpa/i/i^fos TOV KaXoO. Similar metaphors in Plato IK T^S TpiKVula.s e.g. Euthyd. 293 A <Tw(rai -tywcis
irt

XaYOS TWV Xo -ywv.
:

TOV \6yov, Rep.
CK<f>vy6vTi
v\>v

V 472 A

fcrws

ydp OVK

olffda. 6 rt fioyis

/J.QI

rto

dvo Kv/j.aTe
tira.yeis

TO psyivTOV Kal xaXeTrwraroj

r^s r/5U U/x(as

KT\.

diroKpv\}/avTa
musarces"

:

like Virgil s
ill

"protinus

aerias

Phaeacum abscondi-

(Aen.
iv

291):

cf.

the use of KO.TOLOVU in Callimachus

Epigr. 2

17X101

X^o"x?7

/careSwra/xei

and

Virgil s imitation

"saepe

ego longos Cantando puerum memini

me

condere

soles"

(Eel. IX

5026.
H<TOV

TI

T|JLiv.

T/^fj.viv

bobv like secare
fj.vpiai

vlam

is

a natural
1

metaphor.
tipyTai Kal
TL Te/j.e ii

Cf. Pindar Isthm. VI 22
(TX e
:

^/caro.uTreooi iv

PV K^\evOoi PI. Laws Kaddnep bdol T^T^fivTai KaO as ITQV KT\.
Tiva b5bv re/telX

fj-tjvd Zpywv KaX&v VII 803 E r6 yti^j/ TWV TVTTWV

5

TT

Here

yu.ecroi

=

/j,ea"r)v

ws ouv

irotT]<raT

Kai ira0a-0.

ws (so

B

:

T

has

tis)

is

best
u>s

understood as for

otfrws

a rare usage, except after a preceding
it is

or

uWe/3 as

in

326 D, but

found in Thuc.

ill 37. 5

(with o$v and a

IO

2

148
form of
TTOLelv

NOTES ON
Trot^crare

xxiv 338 A

For

ireide<r0e,

as here) ws ovv xp^l Ka ^ 77/^5 woiovvras Trapaiveiv. the MSS read Trot^ere, which is very harsh before and is probably a mistake for Troika-are, due to the influence

of the
is
d>

common construction of OTTWS with 2nd person Fut. Ind. It however possible that this use of the future as well as the use of s for ourws was characteristic of Hippias style.

27. papSovxov irpvTaviv. pa/35oOxos, e TrttrraT^s and /3pa/3ei>r??s are said of umpires or presidents at games: /m/SSo^xovs dwe TOVS for eTna-rdr??? K/nras rou ay&vos, says the schol. on Ar. Peace 733
:

cf.

Laws

XII 949

A

yvfWlKGat re Kal iirwiKuv aQXiov ewiffTdras Kal

Ppa(3tas.

prince.

irpvTav^ is an old word with lofty associations for ruler or Cron thinks Hippias made this proposal with a view to be chosen President himself he was probably still sitting on his Bpbvos,
:

cf-

3386

3i5 B, 317 D. TO |ATpiov 28.

[JiifJKos:

fvp-rjKfrcu ^0?;

w

Phaedr. 267 B avrbs

(sc.

6

ITp65t/cos)

Set

Aoywj rixvriv

deiv 5e ovre fj.aKpuv o^Ve /3/oax^w,

dXAa

fAtrpluv.

CHAPTER XXV.
Socrates protests against appointing an umpire, and in order that the conversation may go on is willing that Protagoras should become
the interrogator.
2.
c|x^

YC

-

The others assent, Protagoras reluctantly. The MSS read re not ye: ye is due to Heindorf.
is

The

position of re
D), e.g.

usually explained as due to displacement (see
"nam

elicit Socrates; omnes lau(omnes) orabant ut praesidem but KaXXt as can hardly be coupled in this way with an deligerem If re is right it must be taken (with Turner) as unexpressed iravres. coupling the whole clause c^t 6 KaXX/as OVK $77 dfirjcrew with Kal

on 316

by Kroschel

haec

dabant meque
"

et Callias retinebat et

:

eXeV0cu ifttovTo eVwraTTji

338 C

9.

a\X<x

ST| like

Crito 54 A.
like) is less
ii.

The

this is possible, but strikes us as harsh. at cnim introduces a possible objection: see on fuller form of the comparative (/SeXrioj a and the
:

common
<&aldpe,

in Plato than the contracted.

W<TTC.

duvacrdcu,

u

Heindorf cites (inter alia) Phaedr. 169 D rb ph c!We dyuvurTijv re Xeoj yeveffOai. The insertion
infinitive after
it

ddw Q.TOV increases the emphasis appear more than a mere auxiliary notion. Badham s conjecture dSiWrop 6V V/MV iVre deserves mention for its For Hpwraybpov see above note on 318 D, ingenuity.
of
oj<rre

with the usual

of dSiWrop by

making

xxvi 339 A
TO
r6
1 7.
-y*

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
H-ov
is

149

vS^v

8ia4>lpi.

Gorg. 458

D

r6

y

e/xdj>

ovdev

7 e^p
p.i]

el

frequent in Plato for quantum ad me attinet. POV\TCU. For the asyndeton see above on 330 A.
(iJv

28.

irdvv

OVK TJOeXev: oik
.

tfdeXcv is virtually
is

one word: 338 E

was very reluctant The phrase see on ov Trdvv TI in 321 B above.

quite different from ou trdvv;

CHAPTER
i

XXVI.

Here begins an episode (lasting down to the end of Chapter xxxi ), in which Protagoras cross-examines Socrates upon a poem of Simonides. For the bearing of this episode on the general subject of the dialogue see Introduction p. xxv. foil.: and for the dif
ferent restorations of the
3.

poem Appendix
clvcu.

I.

Trepl eirwv

8ivov

tir&v

is

verses

.

As

education in

poetry formed part of the usual curriculum at Athens, it was natural for the Sophists to pose as poetical critics, and Sauppe gives a num ber of references to shew that they did so it will suffice to quote
:

Isocrates
t

Panath.

18 d-rravrriffavTes ydp rivts
77

/xoi

r&v

us fv

rep AvJtcty (rvyKa6e6fj.evoi rptis

T^rrapes T

iravra.
/cat

<f)affK6vTUv

clSfrai

SiaX^yotj/ro irept
TroiTjcrecos

r^y

H<n65ov

Kal TTJS

0/j.ripov

KT\.

:

compare

347 A, where Hippias says he has a speech ready on the poem, and Hipp. Minor 363 C foil. KO! a\\a TroXXa Kal Travrodaira
infra
T]iMV tiridtdetKTai
/cat irepl

troiyruiv re

aXXwv

Kal Trepl O/ti$p0v

Pro

tagoras appears as a critic of poetry in Arist. Poet. 19, p. 15 ff. (where he censures Homer 6n ev-xfadai ol6/j.ei>os
aei8e ded ) and in Soph. El. 14, p. i73 19 ff. The popularity of such discussions as the present may be inferred from the well-known scene between Euripides and Aeschylus in the
fiiruv
l

b

p.rjv(.v

Frogs 1119
9.
(vvvdri)

foil.
:

vvv 8ia\-YO|A0a
dicXcyo/jieda.
,

so

B and T:

the editors mostly read vvv
at this present
,

5rj
,

339 A-

vvv does not

mean

moment

on the present occasion but simply now translate about the same subject as you and
i.e.

= iv

rfj

vvv avvovata

.

I are

now

about the subject of our present discussion.
is

A

discussing discussion which
,

(cf. 338 E and 338 D) ought not to be spoken of as past. We have in fact in vvv dia\ey6fj.e6a an indi cation that the subject of the dialogue is the same throughout see,

has never been finished (see on 334 A) and

to

be resumed

tireidav t/cavcDs epwrrjar}, TrdXiv duaeiv \6yov,

:

150

NOTES ON

xxvi 339 A

Introd. p. xix. foil, vvv in Kal 8i] Kal vvv (line 8) is simply in the present and introduces the application of the general statement con. tained in i^oD^cu \6yov Sovvai: cf. Apol. 17 D 18 A ovv av

case

w<nrep

/cat 5?)

Kal vvv.

10. irepi dperqs. According to Diog. Laert. IX 8. 55, Pro tagoras wrote a book having the title irepl dperuv. 12. It is a saying of Simonides of Ceos 2ifJLwv8ris. (circ. 556

468 B.C.) that forms the text on which the discussion in the first book of the Republic is based see Rep. I 331 D foil. Plato seems also to allude to him in two other places, viz. Rep. n 365 c tireiS!) rb Kal rdv d\d6eiav jStarat Kal doKelv, tus 5?7\o0cr/ JJ.OL ol Kvptov evdai/uovlas KT\. and Rep. VI 489 B ov yap fyet (pvcnv rot s cro(f)ovs ^?rt rds TrXovffiwv Ovpas levai d\\ 6 TOVTO KOfj.^evydfj.evo i
:

ffO(f>ol t

e^eucraro (compare Arist. Rhet.

II 16.

SKoirav.

The Scopadae were
in Thessaly.

a i3pi 8 ff. with Cope s note). a ruling family at Crannon

Simonides seems to have frequently and wrote poems in their honour the most famous is that referred to by Cicero de Or. n 352 353. is here more than 14. morally good: it includes bodily 339 B and external as well as internal well-being whence x P ff iV T Ka l

and Pharsalus

been

their guest,

:

<vy<x0ov

:

well as vby. see also note on 344 B line 4 below. The notion of external well-being belonged to the word from very early times see Grote Vol. ill p. 45 note 3: good and bad are applied in
TToal as
"to

:

wealth as contrasted with poverty nobility Theognis and Solon with low birth strength with weakness conservative and oligar
chical politics as opposed to
classical times in the political
innovation".

This sense survived in
KctAos Kayados, e.g.

meaning of

Xen.

Rep. vin 569 A. 16. Simonides avails himself of a Pythagorean TCTpa-ywvov. notion among the Pythagoreans the number 4 was sacred, as see Ritter and Preller 7 The being the first square number 54.
Hell,
ii 3.

12, PI.

:

:

expression rerpciywj os avrip became afterwards almost proverbial for a perfect man: Sauppe refers to Arist. Rhet. ill n. i4n b 27
ofoi

TOV dyadbv dvdpa
19.

<pdvai

elvai

Kal iravu

jioi

|j.ffJL\t]Kos.
it

same

is

implied of Hippias,
KttXws T

ydp reXeia. and 347 A, where the would seem that the poem was thought
Terpdyuvov
/.t</>w

d

From

this

to be difficult.
22.
&)>T]V

eycl*

is

generally accepted.

B

Kal op0w5. This, Bergk has tyijv eyu re /cat
6/s<?cTs:

s

emendation,
^(p;p

T

tyuye

xxvi 340 A
28.

PLATO S PR O TAGORAS.

151

p^uercu

ve |ATai. tV/^Xe ws belongs to dp^hov and poetic for vo/uifcrai: cf. (with Sauppe) Soph. O. R. 1080 The story is (Schol. to Plato l-yiffi e/j-avTov trcuda TTJS TVXW vtinuv.
(j.|AXeo>s

339 C

is

Hipp. Maior 304 E quoted by Sauppe) that Pittacus, when ruler of
Mitylene, on hearing of Periander
s

rapid conversion into a tyrant, sat

and begged to be released of his rule, assigning as his reason ws xa\irbv ea6\bv fyijitej at. The Scholiast adds that Solon when he heard the remark capped it with x a X f7r T& Ka\d. Pittacus is mentioned side by side with Bias and Simonides as one
at
altar
<*

down

an

of the

Kal /zcu-aptoi dVfyfs in Rep. I 335 E. 33 35. 6|jioXo-yio-0<H ojioXo-yav. The middle is said of things, and the active of persons, according to the general rule. 38. dXi-yov 8 TOV iroiTfuaTos els TO irpoo-0v: these words as
<ro0ot

339

well as Tr/HHoVros TOV $07*0x05 in 339 C are in favour of the supposition that some verses are wanting between &vev \j/6yov TCTvyntvov and
ovdt
fj.oL
e/^eX/u>s
:

see
:

App.

I p. 198.

44.

TO irpoTepov
0opi>pov

adverbial.

45.

-Trapo-)(v
(cf.

Kal

^iraivov.

^o pi /3os

denotes

only

noise

,

tumult
is

Kal ttranvov

Rep. VI 492 C dopvfiov TOV \f/6yov Kal ciralvov): needed to shew that the noise was favourable. So

supra 334 C dfedopv^ffav us cv \cyoi.
cf.

With Trap^x flv this sense the phrase 7ra/^x ftJ/ T^Xwra in Gorg. 473 E and Theaet. 174 c. For the metaphor 47. wo-jreptl viro <xYa0ov TTUKTOV irXTj-yt^S.
e yd) fitv otiv
u<nrep

m

339 E

TrX^cts VTTO TOV Xo 7oi Socrates describes the effect of Protagoras questions fKcifj.^ d ^wi/os. on himself in words which recall the descriptions of his own dialectic
in its effect

compare Euthyd. 303 A

on others: compare
T

e.g.

Meno 80 A
So

foil.
:

48.
in

<TKOTw0T]v

Kal elXiYvkura.

BT

the second

hand

T

corrects to IKiyylaaa.

in Preface to Vol. vil p. v)

According to Suidas (quoted by Schanz the Greeks wrote flXiyyiu, but t\iyyos.

somewhat less frequent than IXiyyiu. on 309 A. B and T have tKytvijTat fyyforjTai is Ilein50. tyytvr\Ta.i dorf s correction, now found in a Vienna MS (Krai s i) cf. Phaedo
In Plato
49.
s

MSS el\iyyi&
-y

is

ws

6

aXr]0T]
:

:

see

:

:

86 E iva xpbvw
53.
fjitvToi is

eyyevo/J-frov pov\V<rd^8a T[ epovfj.ev.
TroXfTi]s.

o-os

IVTOI
.

lulis in

Ceos was
<r6s

their native place.

surely

Notice the emphasis on
is

and compare at

in

lines 54

and

59.

54. ov

irapaKaXctv

future:

cf.

Theaet. 183
(ri)

D aXXa

fioi

doKu
;

340 A

irclae<T0ai

avry:

Phaedr. 228 C So^eis

oOSa.uws

^ue

aty-naeiv

153
*

NOTES ON
therefore I think

xxvi 340 A
assistance
.

tr.
(rt

/

will call

you

to

my

iy& and

are

contrasted in view of the illustration which

is

abc^
:

to

follow.

& <nrp KT\. ciWep corresponds to Ka.1 eyd in line 59 as, according to Homer, Scamander called on Simois, so look you, For wWep used in this way see above note I call upon you.
:
&j>tj

on 330

A.

The

other editors take

5o/c<3

otV

yd>

7rapa/caXe?i>

at

and, regarding irapa.Ka.\tiv as a present, print a full stop after o xcD/^ei in the quotation but (i) there is a certain awkwardness in the repetition I think I am summoning you and

with the

uffirep clause,

:

so look you,
finish

I

am summoning you
tK-rrtpvy

;

(2)

with cxunev, but

in
(j>i\e

1.

60 belongs to

the quotation does not it also a

point which

is against separating ffx&fJ-w from the KafflyvrjTe In the view which we have taken a fresh start following clause. in the begins with uffirep, after which the actual summons follows

present drdp
55.
&{>T]

/cat

ey&

ere

Trapa/caXcD.

"Opipos.

Iliad

XXI 305

foil.

ov5& ^Ka/j-avSp

rb 8v

/xe vos

dXX

%TI jwaXXoi

x^ eTO D^Xifawi
eKTrtptrei.

Si/^epri

Se
^?rei

$t Xe
&<rrv

K.o.alyvfire t

cQivQS avtyos a^brepoi Trep (rx^ev,

fj.tya TLpid/aoio dVa/cros

This

^/CTr^pcret

explains

the occurrence of tKircpay in line 60, although (as Heindorf shews) the same metaphor is occasionally found in tragedy (but hardly in vir dr^s e/CTre7r6/)^7;/xat rdXas. prose), e.g. Trach. 1104 TV<P\TJS
59.

drap

:

cf.

supra 335 D.
culture
,

61.

[xovcriKTJs

as

often; here not without some
6vo/ji.dTuv OP^OTTJS,

sarcasm, in reference to Prodicus

exemplified in
eirLdv^tv of
:

337

A
62.

foil.
Pov\<r0<u

3403

-Tri0v[utv.
is

jSoi^Xecr^at

is

of will

:

desire.

The

distinction

generally well

marked

in Plato

see note

on Apol. 25 c and compare Cope on Arist. Rhet. II 19. 9. Prodicus does not touch on this example in his speech in 337, but it is quite
in Plato s
1

way to select a fresh example (compare Theaet. 147 A B, 66 E by the side of 159 c, 169 A B), which may in this case be We should supposed to come from Prodicus lectures (cf. 341 A).
:

words expect the article to be repeated with tinOviJ.fLv, as the two are to be distinguished (cf. infra in line 67 rb ycvtadai /cat TO clvai) but the article is sometimes dropped with the second of two words even when the words are contrasted, e.g. Euthyphr. 9 c r6 oaiov
Kal
(it-

Here the

effect

of
all

its

omission

is

perhaps to suggest that

the two notions are after

more

like than different.

xxvi 340 D
67.
y V
"(J

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
ai
ctvai.

153

The

distinction

though long ago recog

nised by the philosophers was not always present in ordinary speech otherwise (as Kroschel points out) Protagoras censure of
:

Simonides would be too absurd, and Socrates pretended bewilder ment out of place. But that Simonides in this poem drew a
distinction

between yevtedai and dvcu
see

is

certain

:

whether
later
is

it

was

the

same
:

distinction as Socrates himself

draws

another

question
73.

on

ycvbfievov 5

aSuvarov in 344 B.
:

TO aurov.

B and T here have rb atrdv, which Schanz retains 34 C
and once or twice
in Plato s

the form occurs on inscriptions
v,

MSS

:

Schanz Vol.
74.

xn

p. vii.

J!XeYV,

TO xa\irov
,

yevlcrOai.
is

So Heindorf.

t\eyfi>

is

said

,

not

meant

and the sentence

isolated in the last sentence, viz. r6 goes with the whole clause x a ^ 1r t\eyt> (said), dXX aXXo. yevtvQai e<r6\6v ; the emphasis is on yevfoOai: for which reason
bi>

intended to prove what that Pittacus ofl rb avrbv ectimp

rb ^/iywej/cu in the next line (for rb
It
is

fyi/xei

cu

i<rd\bv

xaXeTrov) suffices.
\6ye(i>)

unnecessary to read (with Schanz and Kroschel)

Xa\Tr6v, rb yevtcrdai effd\6v, or ZXeyc with Sauppe.
79.

^Xc^^j

ywtffOa.1

<rd\6v

IIpoSiKos o8c Kal aXXot iroXXoC.

Socrates dissociates himself

from the others, because he is about to give a different solution of Simonides apparently contradictory statements (in 344 B foil.).
80.

Ho-fo8ov: in

Works and Days 289

foil,

rrjs

5

dperrjs
OI/JLOS

340 D

tSpwrct 6eol irpoirdpoideit Wt]Kav adavaroi
ts

/wKpos 5^ Kal opdios

els &Kpov itcrjTai, ptjidiTj iirrfv 5 This passage was very famous in xaXcTr^ trep antiquity: Plato cites it again in Rep. II 364 C, Laws IV 718 E.

avrrjv Kal

Tpyxfo rb irptSrov
ov<ra.

5-rjireiTa irtXei,

Hesiod
good.

in effect says

it

is difficult

to to

become good, but easy
Hesiod
s

to

be

Simonides himself

(Bergk) 5^ fj.iv dcuv xwpov 0.7^0^
taoTTTOv,

&m
y

verses in Frag. 58 rts X6-yos rav aptrav vakiv 5f<ra^jSdrots e?rt irtrpats, vvv
refers
a/j.<p^Treiv,

ovd diravrdi |SXe0dpo(s Ovaruv
iKyral T
ts

/J.T]

daK0v/jLos idpws Zvdodfv /m6\ri

axpov

avdpelas.

84.
/cT?}cr0cu,

KTTJo-0ai

:

to

be

but

cf.

349 E.

taken with p^ CdiTjv. B and T read For the form see above on 319 A.

154

NOTES ON
CHAPTER
XXVII.

xxvn 340

E

340 E

After some dialectical skirmishing, Socrates volunteers to give a continuous exposition of the poem. Socrates is thinking of the Iwjjievos |J.e?ov T vocrr][ia -rroiw. 7.

proverb Kaxbv
9.

KO.KIJJ

Idffdai.

The poet is not of course Hesiod but Socrates nowhere said that in censuring Fittacus Simonides implies that it is easy to keep virtue i.e. to be virtuous
iroii\TOv
KTTJ<r0ai.

Simonides.

,

:

the quotation from Hesiod was put in the mouth of Prodicus and At the same time Protagoras might fairly aXXoi TroXXoi (340 c).

turn Socrates
if
it

fallacies (see
it

Simonides said

was

on 331 A) against himself and say that not difficult to be virtuous, he meant that

was easy
13.

to

be

so.

KivSweiJci -yap rot: the art of Prodicus (Socrates means) can lay as good claims to antiquity as yours: cf. 316 D. 0fa TIS ctvat irdXai. Kroschel s reading etVcu Kal TraXcud 14.

would somewhat change the meaning, which is has long been an divine because practised by poets and the like, cf. Rep. art divine I 331 E dXXa fj.evTOL 2i/woj>5?7 ye ov padiov a.iri(rTeiv crones yap Kal In ^rot curd Zt/xcoj iSoi there Oelos avrip supra 315 E and note.
:

is

an allusion to 316 D.
17.

34 1 A
e.g.

ovx. wcrirep

-y, sc.
oi)x

ft/xt.

The idiom

is

frequent in Plato,
Kal ets

Symp. 179 E
|ia0T]Tt]s.

wo-Trep

AxiXX&t

irl^<ro.v

Socrates calls himself a disciple of Prodicus also in

Crat. 384 B,
19.

Meno 96

D,

TO

x a^
on 351

ir

v TOVTO.

Charm. 163 D. r6 marks

x^

671"^

as a quotation:

see above
ii.

c.

dXX* wcrircp KT\.
I

The

application of the illustration follows
xaXe7r6^
viroXajuipdvovcriv,

in 341 B line 28 foil.

crws o$v KCU rb

where
rivd

see note.

341 B
is

23-

npwTa^opas

<roc|>os

Kal Scivos

I<TTIV.

The
:

?}

d XXoj

cf. note on neglected, and Hpurayopas takes us back to at The collocation cro06s Kal e>5f/acr0cu Kal /faXXwTricracr^ai in 317 C.

Setvos is tolerably frequent in ironical characterizations, e.g.

Theaet.

173 B Seivoi re Kal
24.

lpT
:

yeyovbres, ws otovrai. explains vovGerei : whence the Asyndeton explica(rotpol

iivitm

see

on 335 A above.

xxvu 34i D
25.

PLATO S PR TAG ORAS.
KO.KOV
8eu>6v
<TTIV.

155

TO Y&P 8fivov

Prodicus canon
is

on the derivation of

from

3&>s

which rests not borne out by Greek
is

usage, except to this extent, that

when a man

called deivos,

it

is

generally implied that he is more clever than good. Genitives of exclamation 26. 8i.vov irXovrou KT\.

in

the

Tlatonic dialogues are generally (as Turner remarks) preceded by

an interjection,

e.g.

and
is

ibid,

w

H6<reidoi>

Euthyd. 303 A detvw \6yuv.
:

Tri TTTra^

w Hpa/cXets /caXoO \6yov Here of course the exclamation
point
is

left

out

as

irrelevant

the only relevant

the use of

28.

<rs

ouv

K<xl

expect OI/TW Kal rb
clause (341

x^ rov to
Kal
:

TO x.aXcirdv. Sauppe remarks that we should introduce the apodosis to the
is

u>We/>

A

line 21):

however enough
:

to

shew

that

we

have reached the application olv is introduced on account of the parenthesis from rb yap lewov to KO.KOV oVros and ftrws marks the
suggestion as only tentative.
32.
:
<{>VT]V

dialect

as often, e.g.
dirdtv.

Fhaedo 62 A

Kal o Ktfirjs

frrw Zfvs,

%<p

t]i

TT)

avrov

<puvrj

in

KaKov, 33. view of c and D

Prodicus enters into the
it

2<}>r|.

spirit

would be absurd

to take this seriously

of the joke: see
:

341 C

note on ciXXa iraifav in
39.
TCI

D below.
:

cf. supra 340 A and infra op0ws Suupetv 358 A Ti}v 5 Hpod iKov rovoe dtalpeviv TUV ovofj-druv irapai.Tovfj.aL. Prodicus pretends to regard Simonides (cf. 341 A) as a teacher like

6v6p.aTa

himself of dvo/jidruv
OLTC

dtalpe<ris.

Aeo-ptos wv:
/)e<rts

had he been
its

Ketby,

he would have learnt

ovofjidTwv 5tai

forsooth in
(3apf3apb>:

natural home.

40.

tv cjxuvT)

a malicious exaggeration inspired by
editors suppose that Socrates
is

the odium pliilologicum. d\\a. iraitw. 49.

The

here

34 ID

turning the tables on Prodicus, who it is supposed meant his criticism seriously, but the tone of the passage seems to imply that Prodicus is in league with Socrates to make fun of Protagoras, who is repre sented throughout the whole dialogue as lacking all sense of humour.

would not be wit, but sheer buffoonery in Plato to represent Prodicus as seriously believing that Simonides had censured Pittacus It is bad to be good for having said
It
:

.

SOKCW is not pleonastic after Kal crow 8oKtv diroirapcurOai. think fit a very idiomatic use, cf. Aesch. Ag. oi/icu but means
1

6 OTO.V 5

adSeiv

77

pivvpeffffai

5o/cw.

See Classical Review

iij

156
p.

NOTES ON
where

xxvn 341 D
illustrates this

148,

Mr

Arthur Sidgwick discusses and

usage.

341 E

54.

which
caOXbv
elra

is

ov STJTTOV TOVTO \ X YV. ov drjirov goes with \tyuv, meaning not saying , and TOVTO is explained by KUKOV

For the asyndeton see on 335 A: and for the use of Z/j./j.ei cu. compare 311 A and Symp. 200 A iroTepov tx^v cttfrd ou eTridv/j.eT re KO.I ep$, eira eVi^f/ie? re /cat ep$, r/ OVK x uv TOVTO y^P a S- Heindorf reads TOVTO TO ytpas as in 344 C 55. but may be regarded as predicative and going closely with
>

:

7<fy>as

d-rrtveifjie,

so that TOVTO

TOVTO balance each other.
TI<TU>

Sauppe compares
ol 6eoi.

Symp. 179 C
56.

vapid/j.^TOLS 5?j

Zdovav

TOVTO yepas

ciKoXao-Tov

ov8an<ws

Kiov.

This seems to be the

earliest

passage making allusion to the sobriety and uprightness of the

970

Ceans, to which, perhaps, Aristophanes sarcastically alludes in Frogs In Laws I 638 B (quoted by Sauppe) (ov X?oy, dXXd Ketos). Plato cites the subjugation of the Ceans by the Athenians as a proof

that victory does not always favour the

more virtuous

side.

Strabo
IGTI,

(x 486) quotes from
Quvia.

Menander the

lines Ka\bv r6 Ket wj

vbu.i}jibv

6

fir]

saying that

and explains them by a Cean law required those above the age of 60 to take
dvvdfievos ffiv /caXws ov ft /ca/cws

hemlock so
others.

as to

make

their country s

produce
338
B.

suffice to feed the

342 A
cf.

60.

6 o-v Xe yeis TOUTO refers to
5r)

irepl tir&v

E.

For the idiom

the usual TO abv

TOVTO, e.g.

Symp. 221

CHAPTER

XXVIII.

Socrates introduces his exposition of the poem with a paradoxical theory that Sparta is the oldest home of philosophers. The wise men of old accordingly expressed their wisdom in pithy Laconic

and such a saying is that of Pittacus. Simonides, as a rival craftsman, wrote this entire poem to overthrow that saying. This chapter is intended as a kind of counterblast to Protagoras
sayings,

claim on behalf of
as in
it

In general tone as well cro^tcm/ci? in 316 D foil. of the particular statements it is elaborately ironical but should be remembered that Plato thought highly in many respects

many

:

of the Cretan and Spartan constitutions and borrowed

much from

them
3.

in constructing his ideal city.
<{>iXo(ro4>ici

ydp KT\.

Compare 316 D
/crX.

eycb 5

T

xxvin 342 c

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
.
:

157

The genitive belongs TWV EXXrf vtov : among the Greeks 4. rather to kv Kpr/rr] re Kal A.a.Kdai/j.ovi than to irXelffrr] cf. Thuc. II 18. i 6 5 ffrparbs Similarly in dfiiKero rrjs Arnicas es OtVoT??.
7775 ^ACC?, 7775

belongs to

e/cet

rather than to TrXetcrTot

:

there

would

seem to be no exact parallel For the meaning of together.
6.

to justify us in taking TrXetoroi 7775
<ro0i<rra

see

on 312

c.

ejjapvoDvTai Kai

<rxil|AaTiovT(H.

(rx^/xar^ea-^ai of
aXXoi/s ws
et Stbs

posing
ecrx^/ww

342 B

as in Soph. 268

A

dyvoei ravra d irpos

TOI)J

riarcu.
9.
ofls

common enough,
-

viz. in 316 D. The attraction is 2X.Y TOVS X^yets raj <rx^ets irepl re e.g. Crito 48 C as 5
:

<ro(|>i(rTds

<ri>

ayaXaxrews xP rllJ aT(jJV KCU 56^s
1 2.

/crX.

and

infra

359 D.

So B and the second hand in hand omits the words (so Schanz, Kroschel and Krai).
r-qv
<ro<j>av.

T

:

the

first

13.

TOUS

Xa.KvovTas.
aTrajres

The

editors refer to Ar. Birds 1281
eK6/u,wv,
fj.ed
rj

eXaKWj o/xdvow
tffWK.pa.rwv
ira.Ka.ffi.

tivdpuiroi

r6re,

eTrcivuv,

Ippviruv,

and Demosth. Kara I\6vuvos 34

Kal XaKUvifreiv 0acrt Kal Tplfiwva. S

x ovcrt
:

The

Laconisers in Athens were tolerably numerous
KpijTiKirj

Plato himself

(Rep. vin 544 c) places r; in merit to his ideal city.
14.

re Kal AaKuviKT] TroXire^a nearest

ol [kkv WTO, T
rlJov

Kara-yvvvTai

:

thanks, of course, to boxing
(i.e. TWJ/
"

:

cf.

Gorg. 515 E
ravra,

TO. tjjra

KareayoTuv

\aKwv L^OVTWV) aKoueis

w

2w/c/>aTes,
".

and Martial Vii

32. 5

at iuvenes aliosfracta colit

aure magister
15.

l|xtivTas

irepuiX^TTOVTai.

The

ifj-wTes

were thongs of 34 2
boxing
:

leather

bound round the knuckles

for greater efficacy in

The caesties, being loaded with balls of 685. lead, was a much more brutal instrument (Virg. Aen. v 404 405). short cloaks in imitation of the Tpi(3ui> 1 6. Ppax^cis avapoXas
Horn. Iliad
:

xxm

see on 335 D). &va{lo\f) (here almost concrete) and ava[3d\\effdai were said of the i/mriov, to wear which
(the national Spartan dress
:

rightly

and
not

like a
CTT

gentleman was

eirl

175

E),

dpta-repd (Ar. Birds 1567

5eia dva[3d\\effdai (Theaet. 1568, a passage which

seems decisive
Suidas
(s.v.

against

dfa/3aXXei

\eyov<riv)

we may

From reading e7rt5e |ta in this phrase). dfa/SaXXea^ai 5 TO 1/j.driov, ov Trepif3d\\effOat infer that dvo/SoX?? refers not to the throwing back

of the

i/xariov

back over the
left to right)

over the shoulder (since in point of fact it was thrown left shoulder) but to pulling it round the back (from
left

before throwing the end over the

shoulder in front.

158
ws
811

NOTES ON
Kparouvras
cf.
is
"quasi

xxvin 342 c
superent"
I

vero

his

(Kroschel).

For the construction
tty&ctay

(with Kroschel) Rep.

345 E otk eWoe?s
u>s

OTL ovdfis e#eXet apxeiv CKUV,
<rofdi>rii>

dXXa /miadbv airovaw, ovxi avroiffiv K TOV dpx^iv dXXa TO?S dpxo/J.^ois ; Madvig s

Gk

Syntax
20.
iv

p. 168.

VT]Xcuras.

Heindorf quotes (inter alia) Ar. Birds 1012 AoKcdtUfMOU ^vr/\aTovvTai and Plut. Lye. 27. 6 roi)$ ITT otrdevi xpy^WW K a Trctpeicrpeoiras et s rr/v
Tr6\ii>

dinj\awv
/XT;

(sc.

Av/coC/ryos),
/XI/XT/TCU
fj.a\\oi>

oi x,

ws QovKvdidv)*
/cai

(ll

39)

5e5tws
</>77<ri,

T?7S

TroXiret as
t

^eVw/ rat
O TTWS
yu-7/

?rp6s

dpeTrjv
Ka/coO

TI
rti/os

\pi]<n^ov

fKfj.adu<nv

dXXa.

5t5acrA aXot

inrap^u-

civ.

The
23.

reasons assigned by Plutarch are no
Plut.
/cai /cai

doubt the true

ones.
ouSc va
ecoo-iv

cgicvai.

Lye.

27.

5

oi)5

a.Tro5r)fj.eiv

cduKe (Aujrovpyos) rots /SovXo^rotS
fjO-rj

ir\avacrdai &VIKO. avitdyovTas
7ro\iTevfjt,aTwv diafiopav,

not

yui^^ara /3iW aTratSe^rwi

dXXa
foil,

Kat TOI)S dOpoi^ofjt,evovs etc. (see last note).

In

Laws

XII 950 c

(quoted by Sauppe) Plato lays
regulations as to
d7ro8rjfj,ia.

down

similar though less stringent

342 D
for

ov8 KprJTS. There seems to be no other authority this statement, but (as Sauppe remarks) the resemblance between
24.
worirep
is

the Cretan and Spartan institutions
27.
ciXXcl teal

well
in

known.
Sparta held a position of

YWCUKCS.

Women

much

greater

power and

influence than in the rest of Greece, partly

at least in

consequence of their superior education, physical and otherwise: cf. Arist. Pol. II 9. 1269^ 32 ?roXXa 5ty/fe?ro i^d TUV

yvvaiKuv liri TTJS dpx^s avruiv (sc. ruv Aa/ceSat^oWw^) and see Grote Heindorf remarks that wise and pregnant Vol. II p. 383 foil.
sayings
AO.KO.LV&V

by Spartan women (such as are given e.g. the famous T&KVOV,
aTro<j>deyfjt.aTa t

in
TJ

pseudo-Plutarch
77

s

TO.V

tirl

ras)

were

probably already current in Plato
30.
l

s

time.

-yelp

Xi

6vp7]<ra.

342

33.

V {3aXev

pf\\i.a.

Compare 324 A. The aorist o-vveorTpajAfAe vov.
:

is

like

be

hold

"!

he has thrown in

it

expresses rapidity by representing the

action as Ho sooner begun than over.
dlatrav TrpotfraTTri

The idiom
ill

is

very frequent in
de rts
ct</ry

Plato: Turner refers to Stallbaum on Rep.
fj.iKpa.v

406 D eav

TO.XV clTrev OTL ov (T^oX^

KO.fJ.vfLV.

With
itself

(Tvve<TTpafj.fji.ei>ov

compare
is

Arist. Rhet. II 24. i4Oi a 5 o-wecrrpa^/ieVws

dntiv

:

the metaphor
(cf.

for a spring

Arist.

apparently from an animal gathering Hist. Anim. IX 48. 63 i a 27

xxvin 343 A

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
and Plato Rep.
I

159

eavTous (pepovrai u&irep Toj-evfjia favTov uffirep dijptov rJKev ify/ms).
i<$

336 B

34.

w<nrtp

8eivos aKOVTWTTTJs.

With
a.v

the metaphor compare TO aKoveiv

Theaet. 165
fjuaQofpopos
a.v
i>

D

Kal

aXXa

fj.vpia

a eXXoxwi dv 7reXra(rri/c6s dvrjp
e/i/3aXw^
ets

\6yois epopfvos OVK aj

ijXeyxfv
pr),

tTT^xuv

KOLI

tets /crX., ibid.

180

A aXX

&v

nvd

TI

wcrTrfp

K

(paperpas
35.

pr]/j(,aTi(rKia

atVty^iarwSr/ dvcuriruvTes

irai86s pufilv

P\T(W.

The phrase

is

awoTO^e6ovffiv. almost proverbial

:

see on Crito 49 B Traiduv ovdv diafpepovres. 39. <})0YY<r9ai here of an impressive (almost mystic) utterance,
)

as often

in Greek, e.g.

Ar. Clouds 315

avrai al

41. @a\TJs 6 MiXtjcrios KT\, This list of the seven wise men is 343 remarkable as excluding Periander, who was canonized later (Diog. Plato refused to allow that a tyrant could be truly Laert. I 13).
ero0os

A

(Rep. ix 587 D) or even
:

(in

the true sense of the term)

see Rep. I 336 A ol/j-ai avrb (sc. the view that justice is doing good to friends and evil to enemies) Ilepidvdpov elvca ?} TWOS &\\ov UepSiKKOV rj Etp&v rj IfffJOfvlov TOV Qrifialov

powerful

-fj

son (the least known of the seven) figures as early as Hipponax (Frag. 45, quoted by Sauppe) Kal Mtfo-wv bv ftiroXXwvdvdwci di dpuv auQpovtffTaTov irwruv. According to a tradition preserved in

My

Diogenes Laertius I 106 the Pythian priestess being asked by Anacharsis to say if there was any man wiser than himself replied
irevKa\l/j.r}(ri
:

Chen
Tivd

in Laconia,

and a

but another account placed his birthplace in third (reading Hreto^ nva (frrj/j-i for Olralou

in the oracle) in Etea, which was variously placed in (prj/j.1 Laconia and in Crete. Sauppe remarks that the presence of Aa*edai/Aovios with XtXaw seems to shew that Plato did not regard Laconia as My son s birthplace, but favoured the view which made

him a

native of

Chenae by Mount Oeta.

Thaks

(flor. circ.

585 B.C.,

the eclipse of which year he is said to have predicted) is mentioned in two other passages in. Plato (in neither of which is his philo sophical teaching that the dpx^ is vSup referred to), once as an

author of useful inventions (Rep. x 600 A), and once as the hero of an anecdote illustrating the philosopher s want of worldly wisdom Pittactis (flor. circ. 612 B.C.) and Bias of Priene (Theaet. 174 A).
in Ionia (contemporary with or earlier than

Hipponax, who

refers to

160
him

NOTES ON
-fj

xxvm

343 A

in Diog. Laert. I 84) are mentioned together again in Rep. I T&V aotyuv re /cat nanapluv nv 335 E BtWra 17 HiTTaKov Clcobulns of Lindus in Rhodes and Chilon of Sparta (both dvdpwv. about the beginning of the 6th century B.C.) are not again referred to
a\\oi>

by Plato.

The
\vith

for

traditions relating to the wise men and many of the aphorisms which they are credited are given in Diog. Laert. I 22 122 the authorities for their lives, and for their sayings, see Mullach s
:

n pp. 203234. This passage of the apparently the earliest in which seven are named together, probably contributed in large measure to the canonization of the wise men.
Fragmenta
Philos. Grace,

Protagoras,

44.

Plato

may

AaKeSaifJiovios Heindorf would read 6 Aa/ce5cu/z6f toy, but well have said a Lacedaemonian, Chilon
:

.

48.

clpTjpcva* OVTOI.
is

The
TTJV

how one
(as

to learn

avrdv
OVTOI

o~o<pia.v

sentence beginning with ourot shews roiavr^v ovvav the asyndeton
:

Heindorf observes) resembles that
like.

after fffi^elov 6V, T6K/j.rjpiov

5<:

and the
jmdQoi

Here

/cal

KT\.

is

so far

removed from

/cal K.O.TO.-

ovffav that we might have expected OVTOI yap Kal or (as Kroschel reads) on for OVTOI, but the emphatic OVTOI. (parallel to

OVTOL in line

44 above) renders the explanatory particle unnecessary.
correction elprj^a a for
:

Hermann

s

elpr)fj.eva

adopted by Sauppe

first-fruits for dirapx n (line 49) coming gives a wrong meaning after Kal KOIVQ $-vve\66i Tes, in marked antithesis to e/cdcrry eipr](j,&a,

cannot
to

mean merely the sayings of each individual as it mean if d is read, d being then in apposition to
s pri/ACLTa

will

have

Krai

^pa^a

d^io/ji.v rjfji.ovevTa

<cr/co7rtDj

e/cd<rTy

a OVTOI KT\.
likely that
Kotvrj
I

suffers
o-ATOTTtDv

from the same
dveOeo-av.
T<$

fault,

besides that

it

is

very un

should have fallen out.

vvt\6o vTS

The

editors cite Pausanias
ivrlv

X

24.

eV

5

ry Trpovdy
ets fiiov
t

tv

AcX0ot$ yeypafi^va
ol

avOpuirois

OVTOI ovv

6V5pes

dcpiKo/j-tvoi es
/cat

AeX0oi)s a

ry A7r6XXwf

TO, d56/u.eva

Tvudc aavrbv

MT/Sev dyav.

The same

explanation of the presence of these maxims on the temple at Delphi meets us in other authors ; but in each case the author is obviously borrowing the story from Plato. PJato states that these two maxims

were the cream of the wisdom of the wise men it would be hardly too much to say that upon them the whole structure of Greek ethical philosophy was based. For the construction, and for the practice of
:

thus dedicating

wisdom

to a god,

Kroschel aptly quotes Diog. Laert.

xxix 343 D
IX 6 (W0?7/ce r6
TT/S

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
Hpd/cXen-os) 5 avrb
(sc.

161
pifiKlov) eis

(sc.

rd

TrepJ

<i;<rewj

AprtfjLidos lepbv.

52.
style

TOU

81)

gvcKd TavTci

Xy;
:

Plato frequently enlivens his
alia)
OULTLOV

343 B

by such self-interrogations Sauppe quotes (inter 457 E TOV dy freKa \tyu ravra; Apol. 40 B TL ovv
53.

Gorg.
di>ai

TWV -iraXcuwv
is

TTJS

<f>tX<xro<J>as.

T&V Tra\aiuv

in

this

em

phatic place suggests the contrast with Protagoras and the vedrepoi

whose rpdnos
54.

fj.aKpo\oyla.

Kal

8-q

KaC marks the application to the present case
Kal
8r)

:

cf.

Apo!. 18 A (Zffircp ovv o.v KT\. Ka06 X.oi: cf. 344 c. 57.

Kal vvv.

Sauppe quotes Theocr. 22. 115 (of Polydeuces overcoming Amycus) Ai6s vi6s dvSpa Ka0fi\i>. TOVTOV veKa, i.e. TOU v5oKi/j.ii> ^e/ca. Toury in roi/ry 60. iripov\etw is rotfry ry pri/mart with the construction cf. Rep. IV
d5-r)<pdyoj>
l-

343 C

:

443 B
342
B.

evOtis

ap\6nevoi

rrjs 7r6Xecos

oii<tfcit>

and see Stallbaum on Rep.
6 ^eos

I

61.

KoXov<rai.
Ko\oveu>

Hdt. VII

10. 5

0iX&i yap

T& U7rep^x oj/ra

iravra

(Sauppe).

CHAPTER
first

XXIX.
it

Socrates develops his theory of the poem and applies two lines, not without much sophistry.
3.

to the

[xaviKov.

Notice
:

the

extreme

dogmatism

of
5).

Socrates,

suggesting a weak case cf. ovdt irpbs tva. \6yov (line ov8i irpds va \6-yov: see on 335 D. irpbs \6yov 5.
ev\6yd)s
is

= etfXoyov or 343 D

frequent in Plato: see on 351 E. 6. lv (ii] TIS viroXdpi] KT\. The natural interpretation of the While it is diffi l*jiv (since it follows aya66v, not yevtaBai) is this.
cult

yevtadai

truly good,
is

it is

dper-fi.

The
:

antithesis

implied
c.

yet possible to reach a fair standard of if not actually expressed in the

sequel
8.

see 345

D and 346

Compare
a fresh

Introd. p. xxvii.
start is

Xe -yovros TOV IIiTTaKov:

made, to explain

elimv but \tyeiv in line 8 the past tense is used because is about to put Simonides meaning in the form of an actual address in past time to Pittacus.
10.
:

Socrates

11.

ws dXrjOws to be taken with xaX 671

"^

ivriv
is

:

(line 23).

Here again Socrates

interpretation

opposed

see infra 344 A to the

A. P.

II

1

62

NOTES ON

xxix 343 D
dXa^ws
rov.
in

natural sense of the passage, according to which

the

poem
TT\V

goes with dyadbv, and has nothing to do with

x^
is

343 E

12.

irl

TOVTO)

Tqv

dXt]0a<xv.

rovTip

T

dyaOf, and
it is

14.

eurj0s

Si|Awv8ov.
#/HOTOS.
is

As
in

well might Socrates say
technical

to use the
15.

word

vireppardv

used

its

Heindorf quotes Long, de Sublim. 22 fonv
ij

d

grammatical sense. (sc. rd uTrep^ara)

vo-rjffeuv

K TOU KO.T a.KO\ov6iav KeKivrj^vrj rd^ts Kal oiovei

tvaywvlov Trd6ov$ dX7?#&rraTos.
1

6.

vimirovTa.
(a

There
its

is

no need

to explain vTreurbvTa here as

interpreting
virenrfiv is
first

sense for which no

used hei e in

regular sense

as in Ar.

Wasps 54

55

^P e

exact parallel is quoted). to say before to say vvv KaTel-trw rots 6ea.Tcu$ rbv \6yov,
,

6\iy drd

virenr&v Trp&Tov

a.tiro tcrt.v

radi.

The meaning

is: if

we

would

arrive at Simonides

d\a0&>s

meaning, we must regard the adverb as transposed, and speak the words of Pittacus first (virei:

TTOVTO. rb TOV IIiTTa/coO) i.e. instead of saying avdp dyaObv /u^ dXa^^ws yevtadcu xctXeTroi first, and quoting Pittacus saying after wards, we should begin with "xa\eirbv a6\6v ^fjievai (line 19 elwovra,

avdpwtroi, xdXeirbv eff6\bv fyi/iepcu), and make dv8p dyo.6bv etc. follow as Simonides answer (lines 20 23), putting dXa^^ws last. ovTWffl ITOJS shews that vTrenrbvTa is to be explained in the sequel

w

viz.

iSairep av to dXa^ws in line 23. dirbvTO.: see on 330 A. Note the pre clirovra: i.q. rbv cision in the use of the tenses (dirovTa, but airoKpivb^evov).

from

19.

^v

344 A

21.

ov -yap etvai
77

OUT 01

d(plKTOLL CtXXd doKCl

5^ is frequent in contained in the 23.

dX\d ycve o-Oai ^v. Compare Crito 43 D ^kv fJ.01 T]$-IV KT\. fJLV without following a clause introduced by dXXd, the antithesis being
"vel

OVTW

<f>a(vT<u.

preceding negative clause. After 0cu percu the MSS have TO:

expungendum
7T/30S

vel in TOI

mutandum hoc
Appendix
I.

TO

"

says Heindorf.

For

\6yov see on 351 E.

25.

ra

erriovTa: see

p. 198.

344 B

30.

TVTTOV.

Socrates criticism of the

poem
/XT;

so far has been 6V
aKpi[3ftas elpTjffdai.

dKpifieias: cf.

Rep. II 414 A ws ev rtjiri}}, See also note on bTroypd^avTes ypa/j-/j,ds TTJ
31.

61

ypa<pi5t

in

326 D above.
:

iravros fidXXov

is

frequent in Plato for assuredly

cf.

Crito

49

B.

xxx 344

B

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.

163

CHAPTER XXX.
Socrates expounds the next section of the poem in accordance with his theory of the purport of the whole and finds therein his own
ill doing comes from want of knowledge. |iTa TOVTO SieXBwv. This sentence is somewhat difficult. TOVTO means from dvdp dyadbv to dvev \{/6yov TCTvy^tvov. The

doctrine that
i.

reference in 6\lya SieXduv must be to the verses omitted between

TCTvyn&ov and ovdt
the sentence

/J.OL

e/^eX^ws
yevb^evov

etc.
5

The

logical object of X^yei

is

(in line 4)

diafitveiv etc.,

which

is

Socrates

paraphrase of ovdt fioi ^ueX^ws etc., but the grammatical object begins with STL yevfoOat the stress being, as often happens, thrown While it is truly difficult to become a good upon the 5^ clause
:

man
/j.ev

(albeit possible for

some length of

time), to continue in that

state after

you have become good and to be a good man etc. yeveaOai dvSpa dyadbv etc. is not, as Socrates says, fj,eTa TOVTO, but his

desire to

expound the

TVTTOV TOV o\ov of the

poem throughout

(did

iravTbs TOV fapaTos) leads

him

to begin at the beginning, even at the
in conversational style.

cost of

an error not unnatural
Xt -yot \6-yov
as

See Appen
i.e.

dix

I.

p. 196.
i
:

S civ

if

he were making a speech
fj.4v,

,

not a

poem.
3.

The speech
otov re
[JL^VTOI

begins at yevfodai

for OTI here introduces

oratio recta.
ir
-ye
:

xpovov riva.
still

These words do not give

they to be assigned (with Bonghi) to the poem itself, for [as Aars remarks Das Gedicht des Simonides in Platons Protagoras (1888) p. 12 note 3] it is implied by Socrates in 343 D foil, that ptv in yevfodai p.tv has no expressed
the gist of the lost lines
less are

antithesis:

they are educed by Socrates
Cf. infra 346

himself from

E irdvTas 8
dt.a.Xafie ii

tiro.

Ivy pi Kal

Sei
v,

v

T(^

K&I>

\yovra) ocrrts
Kal
0iX<S.

OLKUV 5

Zanv

oOs

eyu

tircuvui

The

likeliest

supposition is that of Blass that the lost verses contained a further elaboration of the idea in dyadbv dXadtws.

gist

Socrates correctly apprehends the yevopcvov 8...<{8vvaTov. of Simonides objection to the saying of Pittacus, although Simonides himself no doubt read more into the ^u/iei/cu of Pittacus
4.
it

than Pittacus intended
to denote a

to express.

permanent
OTI
/UTJ

state,

in dvSpa 5 OVK

ov

Simonides here takes ^^evai and yevtedcu as not permanent, although KO.KOV ^/xe^at he himself uses Zjj.iJ.tvai more
II

2

1

64

NOTES ON

xxx 344

B

It is however most improbable loosely: see infra on 344 E line 27. that Simonides meant by yevtadai to become , i.e. * to be made , as

Socrates everywhere implies by ayaObv p,h yevtadai dXa^ws he meant only that a man should prove himself truly good i.e. quit him like a perfect man compare Hdt. vn 224 Aeuvidt)? TriTrrei avrip Sans yw6fji.evos apurros, Xen. Anab. IV i. 26 epurav d rts avrwv The usage is thoroughly idiomatic. avrjp dya6bs eWXoi yweedcu.
:

avSp"

,

:

?(TTIJ>

344 C

7.

dXXd 0os

civ |x6vos

-y

p a s-

Plato Symp. 204
&rrt yap.

A

6euv

of/dels

0tXoro0e?
8.

o5

eTTidvfj.ei

(ro06s yevtadai

see below on 344 E line 30. rev 8 KtC\itvov ov. For the repetition LV dXXa ?rp6s compare (with Sauppe) Gorg. 521 E otf irpbs

av8pa
14.

8*

OVK &TTI

KaOeXij

:

12

ov TOV K(|ivov

"x.&P

^yw

344D

TO /3Ar iffrov, ov irpbs rb rjStffTov. ovra TTOT^ KaGe Xot. TTOT^ goes with /ca^Aot as with /cara15.
jSdXoi in line 13. 19.

as in

Meno 90 D
YX W P
irap*
T(JOV

Kal larpov ravra ravra. ravra raura is virtually adverbial OVKOVV Kal irepl avX-rjacus Kal rCjv a\\wv ra aura

20.

^

KaKw
;

Simonides said
21.

fyijaevcu

Socrates says yevtadai, although yev&rSai. see on E (line 27) below.

d XXov

TTOITJTOV.

Xenophon Mem.
eaQ\&v jjv yap
/ca/cos,

I
1

2.

20 paprvpei
diSd^eai

8

Kal

Troir)T&i>

o re

\tyuv

air

<?6\a

ty 5e KaKOLffi

ffiifji^lffyrf^,

ctTroXeis
/j.ev

Kal rbv ebvra v6ov

,

Kal 6
.

\tyuv
first

avrap

dvijp

dyad&s TOT

^XXore 5

^(7^X6s

The

of these quotations is known (see Meno 95 D) to be from Theognis, so that it seems clear that the second must be from some other
poet.
It is difficult to resist the
/ca/c6s,

line intended a7a06s,

and

(crd\6s to

impression that the author of this have a political sense, and
aristocrat s life in times of

was alluding
civil

to the ups

and downs of an
5e
/ca/coi

dissension:

compare Theognis 1109
oi

mo

Ktipv

,

oi

irpo<r6

ayadoi vvv a3 KaKoL,

irplv

vuv dyadot

rt s

Kev raOr

aWx otT

eeop&v; Euripides Hecuba 595 foil, (quoted by Cron) pointedly contradicts the sentiment of this line (as interpreted by
Socrate?) avdpuiroi 5 del 6 ^v Trovrjpbs ou8v aXXo tr\T)V /ca/coy, 6 5 ovde (rvfupopas viro (alluding to Simonides poem) f<r9\6s,
(fitiffiv

e<rd\6s

5te00etp

,

aXXct xp^crros ecrr
(ro4>cv

dei.

344 E

Kal d-yaOdv. ev/jir]x avo s is identified cvpixavov Kal with dyaffos by means of the middle step cro06s cro0ta being dyaOov because it is one of the virtues. See on CTTICTTCIT?? /cat i-rratovTi in
25.
:
r<

Crito 47 B.

xxx 345 A
26.

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
feVri
JIT]

165
had con and 4), he would

OVK

ov KttKov 2fi|Avcu.

If Simonides
yeveffis

sistently

carried

out the distinction between
(in part rightly: see

ov<rta

attributed to

him

on 344 B

line

have used

yevtcrOai, not e^^evai. here.

Socrates throughout interprets
(apparently) did

fyfievai as equivalent to yevfffOai in this part of the

of his previous distinction see on 344 B.
<TTV

:

but so

poem, in spite Simonides
:

TO 8* KT\. rb 8e whereas in point of fact is very 28. Notice how Socrates reverts frequent in Plato: see on Apol. 23 A. see note on 346 D and Appendix I. to the beginning of the poem
:

p. 196.

29.

(8uvo,Tov 8c) eo-0X6v.

There

is

rejecting (with

most of the

editors) ca6\6v

not sufficient ground for its position is a trille
:

awkward, but not more, since dvvarov
after yeveaOai.

5t

is

parenthetical, the \ukv

Swarov
30.

5t,

being balanced by 5^ in tfj.fj.evai 5e. Heindorf reads iffd\bv 5 f/ui.aevai with slight MS authority.

irpoas (J^v yap ev KT\. yap is probably due to Plato, who represents this sentence as adducing a reason for e/j.fj.evai 5e ddvvarov if he has prospered the see Appendix I. p. 199. irpafas e8 is
:

:

whole sentiment

is

the converse of avSpa 8 OVK eari

/XT;

ov Kaxbv

Zfj.fj.evai

and is characteristic of the ordinary Greek moral code: cf. Homer Od. XVlll 136 137 rotos yap v6os earlv iiri xdoviwv avdp&Trwv olov The view that affliction tir yfj.ap ayrjcrt irarrip dvdp&v re dewv re.
involves moral degeneracy appears in the transition of meaning in the common Tro^pos and /^ox^pos from afflicted to depraved
:

view that

brings virtue is involved in the usual equivo see on Crito 47 E cation on e8 TrpaTTeut fare well and do well and Euthyphr. 3 A. After Ka/cds 5 el /ccuctDs, is to be understood
prosperity
:

32.

TS

ovv

els ypap-iJiaTa
is

KT\.

In order to read into Simonides 345 A

the doctrine that virtue
assigns to irpd^as ed in than faring well.
36.

knowledge and vice ignorance, Socrates the poem the meaning of acting well, rather
sc.

KO.KOS 8

KdKwg,

7rpdas

:

a free rendering of Ka/cos 5

d

Kd/cws of the

poem, which Krai (following Ast) reads here against
i.e.
el

the MSS.
40.

KdKois irpd|avTS,

KaK&s
is

irpdaifj.ei>,
:

as the

words of

the

poem shew.

Socrates

reasoning

to

become a bad doctor
:

by practising badly, you must first have been a good doctor for if you cannot become a doctor by practising badly, obviously you

T

66

NOTES ON
The argument
is
:

xxx 345 A
as fallacious as
it is

cannot become a bad doctor.

it assumes that KO.KOS iarpbs is a twofold notion, and ingenious more than larp os, whereas it is a single notion and less. It would be more in conformity with experience to say that the iSiwTTjs does

become by

practising badly a Ka/c6$ larpos.

345 B

This sentence (necessary as crTpT]0T]vai. the converse of the statement in 345 A that good action comes from knowledge) is introduced as an explanation of vwo XP VOV KT\.,
45.
CIVTT] -yap JJLOVTJ

because XP ol/os
47.

>

TOVOS,

vo<ros,

fxeXXei

-yeveo-Oai.

etc. produce ^rKTr^/x?;? See on 312 C above.

o-rtprja-is.

345 C

SiareXovvra d-ya06v explains ayadov more precisely: cf. ei /ecu elvau avdpa ayaQov, ry diaTeXelv without a participle seems not to be elsewhere found in
50.

344 B

yevo/JLevov 6e diaptveLv eV TcujTy

Plato, though
52.
eirl

it

occurs in Thucydides and others.
"

irXeurrov
is

:

diutissitne,

ut

e?ri

TroXi)

saepe significat
oi 6eoi
(pi\u<riv:

diu
ol

".

Kal

also

not

and

,

and balances

oOs

8u>

6eo<pi\ets

are also dpiOToi.

CHAPTER
The
rest of the

XXXI.
the theory that

poem

is

now expounded and
it.

no

man
u5s

sins willingly discovered in

3.

8t]Xot (sc. flpfj^va) is
ffrj/Jiai

used as in Soph. Ant. 242

577X0?? 5

TI
6.

ui

KO.KOV.

KVav

goes proleptically with noipav aluvos.

8.

iravd|xa)|jLOv

varov.

avOpwirov in apposition to TO /X.TJ yeveedai SvKroschel compares Simonid. Amorg. Trd/uiTrav 5 ayuw/^os
a/o?/Hos (Frag. 4).

o^ rts ou5

evpvcSovs ocroi
Kapirbv
2dovcrii>,
"

\6ovos.
Ill

Horn. Iliad VI 142 ppor&v
14.

ot

apovpys

Hor. Od.

10

"quicumque

terrae

munere
for

vescimur

(Heindorf).
eirC 0* vjxiv

3450
the

10.

vpwv diraYyeXew
It

:

after

Bergk
(in

s

emendation
to

^Treifl

v/juv

of the MSS, which
199.

cannot be

made

scan

:

see

Appendix
<pr]<rlv

I. p.

might be possible

view especially of

no part of the poem, were it not for 346 D where it must be part. cirL tf VJMV is the most probable of the many emendations proposed and accounts by far the most easily for the reading of the MSS. e-rrt is to be taken with
in the next line) to regard ^retra here as

evpuv,

and re

is

like the quasi-gnomic re in

Homer,

e.g. II.
"

I

218

6s

KC 0eois e7ri7re0?7Tcu, yudXa T

K\VQV

ai/roD.

Translate

trust

me,

xxxi 346 B

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
".

167

I will tell you when I ve found your man , says he V/MV (a kind of ethic dative) does not belong so much to ciTrcryyeX^co as to What Simonides himself wrote was no doubt tirl T $muv (availing
<j>fvpwv.

himself of the Aeolic form as in the next line)
Attic as ewL 6
vfui>,

;

this Plato put in

from which to

frretfl

vfjuv

the step

was

easy.

Sauppe
happy.
ii.

s CTTI ST) fjuv

evpuv and Kroschel

s

etrd OVTIV evpuv are hardly

v
<|>T]<ri

yap covers the
13.
vtiv 6s

first

applies only to sentence.

the last line:

the

former

<pr}<rl

iravras OO-TIS: so infra in line 18 wore TOUTOVS
dt>

tirai<pdt>ai

and

in line 25 5s

aj>

TOIJTUV

:

see also note on 319 D.

15.

dvcryKxi 8
oiKei>

ovSt

0ol jxaxovTai.

Proverbial

:

cf.

Laws

vii
0ebs

818 B

6 rbv dtbv irpurov irapot/j.iaadfj.ei os
<f>avfi

elirciv

ws ov8

dvdynr] pr) irore

/iax^/xej/os.

memnon
K.a.1

in II.

XIX 86 eyu
iJs.
:

8

OVK ai rt6s

Aars quotes the words of Aga et /u, d\Xd Zeys /cat Motpa
offTi.s

ye pcxpoiTis Epti
19.

os

civ

KWV
:

iroif)

but eKwv

UpSrj

without &v above, as

often in poetry
21.

Goodwin MT.
TWV
<ro<|>(Sv

p. 208,

540.

ovSels

CKOvra

|ap.apTavetv.

The

ductrine

that no one sins willingly

a corollary of the view that vice is only ignorance is characteristic of the ethical teaching both of Socrates and Plato (compare note on 324 A and on Euthyphr. 2 c), but not of
all

Greek

sages,

and
it

it is

only by the most perverse sophistry that

Socrates here reads

into Simonides, ignoring entirely the

words

dvdyKri 5 ovdt deal /j-axovrai. Kal 8r) KCU: see on 343 B above. 25.
28.
29.
in the

345 E
tiraiveiv

KaXov

Kct-yaOov

:

Kal eTraiveTT]v.

on Apol. 2 D. The words 0tXetV /cat
see
1

which follow

MSS were ejected by Heindorf. Sauppe remarks that from 3 46 A 30. pjTt pa r\ irarepa aXXoKorov. Homer onwards /A^T^/O generally comes first in such enumerations

an interesting survival, perhaps, of the greater importance assigned dXX6/coro eccentric as in to the mother in primitive Greece. (

Rep. vi 487 D) from d XXos
T/)67ros, rjdos, 6pyri)

(in

its

sinister sense)

and

/c6ros

(i.q.

31.
36.

i]|

according to Phrynichus (quoted by Kroschel). 51 c. irarpfSa: see Crito 50 E
:

2ri [xdXXov

not =/j,a\\ov

f)

/car

dlai>,

but

as

is

presently

explained because they cannot avoid
.

add voluntary feuds
s

to those

which they

38.

ctva-yKcUcus

:

Heusde

correction for dvdyKaus of MSS.

346 3

1

68
i

NOTES ON
ava-yKa^o-Oai.
trial as
is

xxxi 346 B
is

Plato

probably thinking of
dvayKdfcvOai

Socrates after his
are constrained
41.

he depicts him

in the Crito.

of course passive.

irapajivOcicrBcu, like mulcere, as often.
"deformis

Sauppe quotes Hor.
alloquiis".

Epod. Xin 18
43.
etc.

aegrimoniae dulcibus
:

believed that he had praised civa\Kat6|j.vos r\yi]<ra.TO Plato deals a sly thrust at Simonides notorious avarice, as Pindar (quoted by Sauppe) does in Isthm. II 6 d Moura yap
ov (piXoKepdr/s TTW r6r
:

r\v

ovd epydris.
life

contain the sting for the Nic. i 3. io96 a 5).

of the

x/"?/

The words aXX dvayi<a6/j.evos tum r7 fc is jSicuos (Ar. Eth.
"
<

?

346 C

48.

fyioi-y

capKi

KT\.

See Appendix

I.

pp. 196

foil,

for the

arrangement of this part of the poem. The MSS read y ovfjvei. TTO\IV, which 50. -y* ovTjo-friroXiv. G. Hermann emended to r dv-rjaiiroXiv, Bergk to 6vaaiiro\iv.
51.

ov

|AT]v:

so the MSS,

and

so,

Simonides can hardly have written
see

this,

most probably, Plato; but which will not scan
;

Appendix
53.

I.

p.

199.
<jnX.o|icop.os

ov

-yelp tljju

of the
elfil

poem

(before fyoiy

ectp/c6t: cf. ov
:

probably belongs to an earlier part did ravrd ere 1/^70;, 6 rt

<f>i\6\l/oyos

Y V mistake due
55.
rj\iOiwv
:

^a
to

in line 47)
is

see

Appendix

I.

p. 199.

Stephanas correction

for

yved\a

of the MSS, a

supposing that direipuv (not from

d-rreipos)

went with

58.

belongs to yev0\a. iravra TOI KaXa (le jxiKTai sums up the whole moral teach
it

3460

ing of the poem. Kal ov t^-no KT\. 63.

Socrates recapitulates part of the
:

poem

by way of interpreting the final text see note on rb 5 iffriv yevtadai KT\. in 344 E above and Appendix I. p. 196. TOVTOV -y* ^vKa: hoc spectetur s. requiratur, TO iravd65. eZvai" Heindorf: cf. Phaed. 85 B dXXa TOVTOV y ^ve/ca
"si

Te xp^ fal tpwTav 6 TL dv povXyvde. The sense is if I must wait for perfection before beginning to praise, I shall never praise
:

anyone.

346 E

69.
71.

o>s

irpos UITTCIKOV
i.e.

Xfyw

:

not serious, of course, nor true.

SiaXa(3eiv:

tuate

.

The
14
TO.

i4O7

b

a division, pause , virtually punc editors compare the use of diaffrigai in Ar. Rhet. in 5. ydp Hpa/cXe/rou 3ia0r/cu tpyov did TO adyXov elvcu ovs
see

make

iroTepLj) Trpocr/cetrat.

72.

aKwv 8

?<TTIV

:

on 344

B.

xxxn 347 D
74.
GT\.V

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
o-<f>68pa

169
ov

vvv 8i

-yap.

and note
\tyew.

in loc.

Here

dia

Compare Apol. 38 B vvv 5 ravra sums up the clause

yap 347

A

ff<j>68pa

yap

CHAPTER

XXXII.

The original question is now resumed, Socrates expressing himself disparagingly on poetical criticism. With some reluctance Protagoras consents to submit himself again to Socrates interroga
tory.
6.

&TTI |xevTOi Kal

jj,ol

KT\.

Imitated in Hipp. Maior 286 A

where

yap fj.oi irepi says avyKi/j,evos Kal dXXcos ev 5ict/cei/x/os rots
Hippias
in his recent exposition,

&m

dj>6/xa(ri.

avr&v -rrdyKaXos \6yos Like Socrates

Hippias looks upon poetical criticism as
e7ri5eici/xej os in

a legitimate field for the exercise of sophistry and wit.
7.

tiri8i:

see

on
:

9.

wp.oX<ryil<raTT]v

in 338 D,

328 D. 347 B where however the terms of the

agreement are somewhat more stringent. 15. irepl jiv jo"(xdTv wurw^v. Heindorf quotes Ale. 11130 347 C tdcravres ovv irepi avr&v aKoirovffLV oTrbrepa crwoicrei irpd^acriv.
1

8.

down

Kal -yap SOKCI JAOI KT\. This passage (from rb irepl iroiirjffews to Kav irdvv TroXi)^ olvov 7riW>) is quoted by Athenaeus III 51.

is here animadverting on Xenoph on s and 9. 3 foil.) both a flute-girl and a the words rots ffv/j-Trocriois rots TUV (fiavXuv /ecu dancing-girl appear ayopaiuv avd puir uv would contain a very pretty hit at Xenophon, if the evidence for the allusion were more complete. There is a similar

It is doubtful

whether Plato

Symposium,

in

which
:

(2.

i

passage in the
yvvai.^. rats

Symposium
:

of Plato (i76E)
ai>,

el<rr)yovfj.ai

TTJV fj.v

apn

clffe\6ov(rav avXrjrpida ^cupeii

av\ov<rav

eavrrj

97

av

^3oi)\7;rat rats

&ov this passage Athenaeus (xi 112) cites in support of his theory of a literary rivalry between Plato and Xenophon. like the Latin circwnforanei, 20. dyopdios, vel ut d-yopaCwv
"

:

critici

veteres volunt, aybpaios, est 6 iv dyopq. Tedpa/uL^vos, s. qui totos dies forum conterit, quern dyopds TrepiTpifj,fj.a Comicus appellat,
vilis

et

ex ima
el Kal

plebe
6pa<rvs

homo, Aristoph. Eqq.
:

181

orir)

Ka

dyopas

214

ret

5

ctXXa

<roi

irpdaea Ti

ytyovas KaK&s, dyopaios d" Heindorf. "run rijxas iroiovo-t rds av\T]Tp(8as up the price of 3 rb yap ffiravtov Heindorf Tfyuoi Euthyd. 304 B. flute-players
(fruvT] /j-iapd,

23.

:

4.7

D

"

:

aptly quotes Xen.
p,^v dTi/Jt-drepov

De

Vect. IV 10 XP Vff L v &Tav iro\v Trapa^avy avrb
Trote?.

yiyverai, TO 5^ dpyvpiov Tt/xiwrepov

170
27.

NOTES ON
in

xxxii 347 D

hand

T

Kai ircircuScvjxevoi. So Athenaeus (ill 51) and the second B and T read irewaLdev^voi. Schanz brackets ireiraL:

dev/j-tvoi,

but vwb diraidevalas in line 23
I Sois

is

in its favour.

OVK av

avv
rots

av\r)Tpi<ri

t|/a\Tpas. Compare Theaet. 173 D detirva Kai K&/J.OI, ovdt ovap Trpdrrfiv TrpoowTaTcu aurots (i.e.

cos

dX-ridus

0iAo<r60ois).

347 E

32.

Kav
:

irdvv
see

iroXvv

olvov

TTIOMTIV

:

like

Socrates in

the

In Laws I 637 B foil. Plato 220 A, 223 c. argues that wine properly used is the means of teaching self-control, since the man who will be when drunk will a fortiori be

Symposium

<r6(t>pwi>

eu<f)puv

when
lav

sober:

cf. ibid. II

673 E

foil.

that in different society the fjL^v suggests \&v KT\. same would not be the case an antithesis which is already ex pressed in 347 C D. Compare Apol. 17 B et i*.v yap TOVTO \{yov<rw,
33.
6/j.o\oyoif}v

av #ywye ov Kara rotirovs elvai prjTUp.

For

AajScoj/rcu cf.

(with Sauppe)
oi ev
(j)L\offo<f)ia

Symp. 218 A vov
Xo70i).
dvpe<r0ai

if/vxys

/j.r)

d(pvous orav \dj3uvrai (sc.

35.

OVTC
:

eira-yojievoi

T:
: ,

for the sentiment see

on
A.

329 A above
ewdye<rdai

for o#re

re

on 309 B
for

for aurots after
e.g.

wv on 313

is

the regular

word
:

cite

Rep.

II

364 C pdpTvpas
restored

TTotrfTas

38.

eirdyovTai. o dSwarovcriv
:

Heindorf
40.
TroXXoi

it

was 5, not in B and T, has since been found in a Vienna MS.
:

by

<riv

the subject

is

supplied from dvSpuv

oloiirep THJLUV oi

(fracriv

etvai.
:

348 A
and

43. in

KaTa0|Xvovs for the asyndeton see on 330 A. Both here Tim. 59 c Kararideffdai is not used in the sense of laying

aside for good, but rather (as generally) putting away to be resumed again. Putting the poets on their shelves would give the effect of

the Greek.
47.
irape xciv
teal
t
:

see

on vvyKaOeivai
TO/Cra

in

336

A

above.

348 B

53.

vvv

:

as before 336 B.
(i^v
<ruvi8(3|iv.

56.

va

TOVT<O

Symp. 193 E
irepl

el

/JI.TJ

Zw/c/oarei re /cat

Aydduvi
<rvv-

deivois

oucrt

ra
I

tpwrt/cd.

In

e/xaury

dyady

etvai

with myself that I

am good

goes with by the convenient
fj.avT<

am

conscious

fiction

which

Cases where the separates the observing ego from the observed. dative is not a reflexive pronoun are later in development and
presuppose only knowledge about, not
the object.

knowledge

along

with,

xxxin 348 D
"y*

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
:

171

B has uio-re /-tot T ws 7 e/-toi (sic). There is 348 C S 58. |ioi. no occasion for the emphatic form of the pronoun. v Ti need not be accompanied 60. TWV aXXwv (rxtSov TI. by Travres: compare Phaedo 59 C #XXos 5e TIS irapTJv crxeSoi ri
<jxe$

;

ofytat

Touroi

s

TrapayevtffOai.

61.

irporptiru
e.g.

No other example of the aorist middle of quoted from any Attic author, but ^rpa-jro/ut. rjv is common, Apol. 21 B fji6yis TTO.VV iri fjjnjcru airroO ToiavTrjv riva e rpairpovrpdirtTo.
is
.

7TO/X7JJ

62.

K^\evv: the imperfect of

this verb is

used in narrative

style for the aorist.

CHAPTER
whether the

XXXIII.

After a prefatory compliment to Protagoras, Socrates again asks five virtues are only different names for one thing or

differ in reality
5.

from one another.
TO.

Tov"Op.T]pov

TO goes with the whole quotation to which

TL is in

predicative apposition (cf. rl TOVTO \^yeis and the like), I i.e. I think that what Homer says etc. is something literally Schanz brackets rbv think there is sense in what Homer says
,
.

"O/Ji-rjpov,

so as to

make

the articular clause the subject to \tyeiv as in

The Ar. Knights 334, but there is no occasion for the change. quotation had become almost proverbial (cf. Symp. 174 D, Ale. II 140 A) for "Two heads are better than one": it is from Iliad x
224
ff.

where Diomedes says
OTTTTWS

:

<rtiv

re
5

5tf

tpxofitvo), ical re irpb 6
irtp

rov
ol

ev6rjffv,

K^pdos

77

/Jiovvos

et

re
)

voriffy,

d\\d re

5^ re /x^rts. fipaaffiav re v6os XeTrrr;

Leaf

(in loc.

explains

tp-xofJ-tvu

as a pendent accusative
II.

and

for the order of

words

in irpb 6 rou cites

V 219
8.

^Trl

v<ji

Toj5 dvdpl.
<rtiv

it is

dvo ep^o/x^oj) i.e. ourws ZX OVT * (viz. eviroptoTcpoi hardly necessary to read OI/TWS TTWS or to change TTWS into OI;TWS
l<r|i.V,
;

3480

as Heindorf suggests.
10.

avr^Ka irepuciv

cvrv^tj.

deliberative

subjunctives
others.
s

eagerness

:

the change to

cTriSet^rat and /Se/Sataxr^Tat MSS would imply too much ^TriSe^erat and /Se/Jcucio-ercu is adopted

The

of

the

by Sauppe and

This mistake
cf.

(or the reverse) is tolerably
/3e/3cuu>-

frequent in Plato

Gorg. 489 A (/Je/Saiwo-w/xcu T, BT), 510 A (dSi/CTjcraj^ei/ BT). B), 505 E TOVTOV refers to the following clause introduced by 12.
MSS,
(7roi?7<ratycej>
5h>K<x

172
s.

NOTES ON
Heindorf
refers to his note
(rot o-jrep dfj.oi.
fiov\6fj.ei>os

xxxin 348 D
d

on Phaedo 102 D X^yw
is

ro05

56cu

348 E
349 A

21.

WCTTC Kal KT\.

The

reference

to 3 16

D

foil,

ical

does not

go with &\\uv but with the whole sentence (as Sauppe points out). 22. viroio]pvd|Xvos having had yourself heralded as a
sophist
:

compare Aeschin.

in Ctes. 41

&\\oi dt rives viroKrjpv^d-

The force of UTTO- is dweXevBtpovs. probably the same as in virei-jrov see note on 343 E. Notice the effect of the double <reavT6v (both of them after a natural pause) veavrbv VTTOK-rjpv^d^evos aeavrbv dirttprjvas the -avrov is brought
[Aevoi TOVS avrCjv olK^ras
d(f>if<ra.v

:

:

:

out so strongly as to suggest that Protagoras or Master.
25.

is

the only true AVTOS

(iwrOov

tfpvvcrOai

:

328

B,

where however

it is

not said that

The Homeric word apwadai Protagoras was the first to take a fee. is occasionally used by prose writers in the phrase luadbv apvvadat
:

28.

Kiva
-^v

TO,

p^v

rd

8e

:

see above

on 330

A.

349 B 349 C

30.

8

To8 329 c

foil.
%Ka<rToi>

42.

^Ka<rra

attracted for

:

so Rep.

vm

546 C

evos eKdffTW, i.e.

45.
Troiovfj.a.1

lacking each of them one*. viroXo yov rCBcfJiai. inro\oyov Ti6ffj,ai like viro\oyov ovSev set (Lach. 189 B) and vTroXoyi^o/uiai (Apol. 28 B) is to
<roi

down

against

,

per contra

,

whence object

as here.

CHAPTER XXXIV.
Protagoras gives up what he had contended for before, and contents himself with saying that courage alone is quite different

from

its sister

virtues.

knowledge

in

a cumbrous proof,

Socrates endeavours to identify courage and against the validity of which
antithesis to ptv
^Trl evi

Protagoras rightly protests.

3490

2.
<:<pT]<r0a

(topia o$v
(TV

|iev.

The

was already expressed
B.

in

OVK dvonaTa
far as

elvcu

349

Protagoras therefore yields to Socrates they have yet gone, and takes his stand on the only virtue the relation of which to the others has not yet been see on 333 c and D and Introd. p. xiv. discussed
4.
i]

8fc

dvSptio, KT\.

arguments so
:

9.
II 49),

aKoXao-TOTCiTovs

avSptioTttTovs

8:
:

like

Otho

(Tac. Hist.

apropos of whose death Merivale quotes the lines of Byron, which well illustrate the sentiment of Plato

xxxiv 349 E
"And

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
strange to say, the sons of pleasure, revelled beyond measure

They who have

In beauty, wassail, wine and treasure, Die calm, and calmer oft than he Whose heritage was misery".

The extreme difference (cf. between courage and the other virtues is brought out by representing those most lacking in the other virtues below in 3598 as sometimes supremely brave beyond all others
ro.
dv8pioT<xTovs

8c

Sia<f>p6vT6>s.

irdvv

wo\v

SicKptpov in line 5)

:

the

5ta0ep<Wo;s is

omitted as unnecessary in a recapitulation.

Sauppe

quotes Tim. 23 C rj vvv A6r}vai(i)v ovffa TTO\IS dpiffTTj irp6s re TOV Tr6\/j.ov Kal Kara iravra evvofJLWTdTT) 5ta0ep6^Ttos compare also
:

Gorg. 487 B o.lffx^vTr)poTep(a fJ-d\\ov TOV dtovTos. Various suggestions have been proposed, but the text is sound. 6 11. "Hac sistendi formula aut monetur, qui rectam ?x. &*!

349 E

viam ingressus
12.

est, ut

caveat, ut hie et Gorg. 460 A, aut revocatur,

qui a recta aberravit, ut Prot. 349
iroTtpov TOVS dvSpcfovs

Wohlrab on Theaet. 186 B. 6appa\ovs KT\. Socrates proceeds
D".
:

by reasoning thus: (i) OappdXtoi (349 A line 19
without
eiriffT-fi^

dvdpeioi are 0appa\^oi: (2) eiriffT-fip-ov^ are

he infers that
dvdpeia.

<ro<f>ol

350 B line 28) (3) none who are QappaXtoi are dvdpe ioi (350 B line 28 line 33). From this is (i.e. e lriaTrifji.oves) are dvdpe ioi, i.e. that
<ro(fila.

The reasoning
(it

is

far

from cogent.

In the

first

place,

we
two

have to assume
classes

is

nowhere

stated) that OappaXtoi contains

and no more, viz. 6appa\toi with knowledge, and 0appa\{oi without knowledge the assumption would be (to Socrates) a natural one, since (according to
:

the
foil.)
<TT

reasoning
every one
are

in

Chapter xix
is

who

not

^TTI-

^jfj.ci}v

is dvfiTLffT fj[j.i>}v.

Now

as

dvdpeioi

6appa\oi
it

and no

dveiria Trifj.oves (in the class dappa-

A&u) are dvdpeioi,
dvdpeioi are

follows that

eTTi<TTr)/j.ove$,

but even
is

then the conclusion of Socrates
not warranted
are
di>dpe"ioi,

that eVio-TT^iopes

since dvdpeioi

may

be only a part of
Socrates
sciously

eiri<rTri/j.oves.

consciously or uncon covers his erroneous reasoning by another fallacy

when

174

NOTES ON

xxxiv 349 E
:

about to draw his conclusion in 350 B lines 34 and 38
note.
Kd-l i ras y, ^4 1 13. be quiescent) but they put
>T

where see

:

i

e>

tne y not on ly nav e Odppos (which

may

it

into action.
I TTJS
:

In

levat

Protagoras con

trives to give the derivation of

Sauppe
I

refers to the Scholiast

on Ar. Clouds 444

frr/s.

t

ra/x6$, drcuS^s, Kai di
TTJS

Trpayndruv. dvdpews 0pacrvs in Ar. Clouds
14.
4>e*p

is

coupled with

in

avr&v xwp&v T&V Symp. 203 D and with
df}

I.e.

8tj

KT\.

This section (from

to

(is

<t>epe

oUv re
proof

fj.a\iffTa in line

prepare the way of the third proposition (see on line 12) in 350 B

19) is intended to

for the
:

see note on
a<t>pwv

line 32,

and compare Laches 192
is

C,

KapTepr)<ris

not dvdpeia

is

introduced in

where the proof that much the same way
:

crx^Sbv

ydp

TI
1

oWa

on r&v

irdvv

Ka\uv Trpay^aTuv
:

rjye i

<rti

dvdpeiav elvai.

6.

el [MI [Jicuvo[iai

Y

as I

m

a sane man.

This and similar

phrases are frequent in Plato, e.g. Euthyd. 283 E, Rep. B olda el /XT/ /cco06s y el/ni. /K7] d5i/cw ye), Gorg. 511
17.

X 608 D (d

TO

^v

TI

TO 8^

TI.
fj-ev

quotes Phileb. 13 C rds

See on Euthyphr. 12 A. Kroschel elval rtvas aya6a$ ySoi ds, ras 5^

Tivas

/ca/ctis.

350 A

This and the next example are given also in Sauppe thinks that the object of such diving (an art in which the Greeks were very expert see Thuc. iv 26. 8) may have been to clean the wells and the like.
20.
Ko\v}i.ptoo-iv.
foil.

Lach. 193 B

:

24.

TVS

8e ir*\Tas

?XOVTS
T[.

-

27.

avTol iavTwv

The notion

See Introduction, p. xxxvi. than is expressed twice:

see note on Crito 44 C Kai rot rls av olo^l(av efy Tcttfr^s rj ooKelv KT\., and cf. infra 350 E and (with Sauppe) Hdt. VIII 86

56a

eyevovro

/^a/cpy aftelvoves

350 B

32.
it is),

alo-\pov |JtVTav
is

avrol eiovTwif rj Trp&s Ey/SotTj. dv8pa and if alcrxp&v, not dper-/) (which
:

since all dperr)

Ka\6i>

(349 E).
etvai
^trrt

Compare Lach. 182 c

17

dt

ye dvSpela uuoXoyelTO Ka\6v Meno 88 B olov dvdpeia, el /ULTJ
TL

<f>p6vr]ffis

and with the general sentiment i) dvdpeia d\\ olov Odppos
orav 5e
ai>v

o$x Srav nev avev vov dapprj

avdptoiros, /JXaTrrercu,

vtp,

used in referring to an 34. Xl-ycis : the present is idiomatically in Apol. see on o-rrep earlier part of a discussion not yet ended With \tyeis followed by an accusative in this sense compare 21 A.
:

Xyw

Symp. 199 E
ovdevos
-f)

TTfipw

677

Kai TOV

"Epwra

elire iv

6

"Epws

/30>s

eorlv

Ti 6s;

xxxiv 350 D

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
:

175

This Protagoras did not say, hut ovx\ TOVS For this reason see 349 E. only that oi dvSpeloi are OappaXeoi Sauppe and others reject TOVS before 6appa\eovs, and in favour of but inasmuch as this urge the reply of Protagoras (Kal vvv ye)

OappaXe ovs ctvai.

:

(i)

OVKOVV OVTOI

fj.aiv6fj.ev 01

<J>alvovTat

seems to be intended to be
elvai,

incompatible with TOVS dvdpeLovs ovyi
SvTes

(2)

dappaXeuTaroi Si

dvdpetoraroi in line 38 clearly implies that dappaKeoi. are conceived of as dvdpetoi. (no less than avdpeloi as 6appa\eoi), we must, if we regard the argument as a whole, retain the MSS reading.

Protagoras Kal vvv ye is an unwary admission he does not at first catch the difference between oi dvdpetoi elffiv oi OappaXeoi and oi dvSpeloi elffi 6appa\eoi, and Socrates avails himself of his opponent s
:

slip to

hasten to his conclusion

which but

for this misrepresentation
(

could only be expressed as dvdpeioi are
ffocpoi

<ro<f>ol

= ^TriffTr)fj.oves),

not

are dvdpeioi: see on 349 E and 350 D. IKCI, i.e. in the case of Odppos based on 37.

<ro$/a,

illustrated in
:

3500

oSrot KT\. but Sauppe (after Schone) reads ot need not go closely with OVTOI (which is resumptive) oi any more than ot OUTW BappaXeot ovres with the preceding OVTOI. There is a kind of chiasmus in the order ofrroc ol &appa\eoi )( oi

350 A.

<ro0u>Taroi,

<ro0u>raTot

brave are bold

Protagoras sees now that All All bold are brave , and not equivalent to rectifies his Kal vvv ye by pointing out that he originally said only but he confines his attention to this point, All brave are bold
40.

ov KO.X.WS

nvi|xovvis KT\.

is

:

without touching on the fundamental flaws in Socrates

argument

from 349 E to 350
43.
44.

B.

wiAoXo ^Tjo-a in 349 E.

contrast to Kal

So B and T. In rdre there is perhaps a latent vvv ye of line 35. Protagoras is correcting his recent had you asked me then (viz. at 349 E), I should have answered slip roGro has inferior MSS authority. rightly.
TOT
rjpov.

TOVS 8i avSpetovs ws ov 0appa\loi io-v. The ov after ws is 45. ov dappaXeoi elcrlv, due to a confusion between (i) TOVS 5e dvdpeiovs ovSafJ-ov eTredei^as and (2) oi 5 dvdpetoi us 0appa\eoi elffiv, TO e/j.6v
u>s

3500

6fj.o\oyr)fj.a,

ov5a/j.ov KT\.

The

insertion of ov

is

the

more natural

because after verbs of refuting and the like the object clause gives what is maintained and not what is refuted, whence \eyxtw us ov,
dvTiKeyetv ws ov etc.
49.

Kal kv TOVTW

ofot

KT\.

Protagoras ignores Socrates third

176

NOTES ON
is

xxxiv 350 D
that Odppos without

proposition in 350 B (28 33), where it is not dvdpela see next note.
.

shewn

52.

irpwrov

ji^v

yo-p KT\.,

i.e.

you might as well argue

(i)

oi

are dvvarol, (2) ol eTTio-nyytcoj esare dvvaroi, therefore oi tiriGT t}v PlThis would only be correct if for (i) we substituted /j.ovs are To make Protagoras picture of Socrates oi dwaroi are foxvpoi.
t<rx

argument complete, we should have
without
TriffTrifji.T]

to

add
is

(3)

none who are SvvaroL

are Icrx^poi

but this

not true, whereas Socrates

is. The completed picture therefore fails to repre sent correctly Socrates reasoning in each of its steps, but none the less are Protagoras objections strictly relevant, and indeed fatal to

third proposition

Socrates conclusion as expressed in 350 C (37 Socrates makes no reply.

40),

and that

is

why
in

35

1

A

62.
effect
:

diro

mo"nf(ju]S

n)v 8vva|uv KT\.

Protagoras says

soul.

and dvdpela of the 5iW/s and Icrxw are of the body, dfoafus may come from knowledge (as when one has learnt how
0dp<ros
:

to wrestle

supra 350

E), or

from madness or rage

(as in the feats
:

of

such men inspired with the thirst for vengeance have no real physical strength or lax^s as it is presently denned, but from natural excel themselves by virtue of SiW/xts). lax"? comes

madmen,

or

men

constitution

(0i5<m)

in the widest sense).

substituted for

and proper nurture of the body (by gymnastics may result from art (T^X^ is Similarly ^TTIO-T?^ in view of the illustrations in 350 A), from
6dp<ros
:

dv5peia rage or madness (as when Empedocles leapt into Etna) comes from the native character and proper nurture of the soul (cf.

Rep.
(Lv,

Ill

410 D rb
et /c6s).

6v/j.oeids

r^j ^crews

opd&s

fj.v

rpatytv avftpeiov

civ etrj,
cuj

/j,a\\ov 5 iirt.Ta.dtv TOV dtovrot ffK\f}pbv re Kai %a\e7rov ylyvotr

TO

CHAPTER XXXV.
Here Socrates, taking a fresh start, endeavours to make Prota Protagoras goras assent to the doctrine that pleasure is good. He allows that wherever desires to have the question examined.
knowledge
to
is

present,

it

must

rule,

but this

is

inconsistent with the

view that one can

examine

this

It is agreed popular view, in case the inquiry should throw light

know

the better and do the worse.

on the
ethical

relation

between courage and the

rest of virtue.

On

the

doctrine of this and the

following chapters see Introd.

xxxv 35 1 E
4. ev ffiv
6.
:

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
dviwjxevos
T].

177

e5

rjv el

There

is

the usual ambiguity in
all

351 B

on 344 E above. OVK v av o-oi SOKCI.
see

editors (except Heindorf) retain.

The MSS have 5o/eot, which The meaning required is:

the

would

he not, think you, have lived well?
2/j.oiye sc. doKet),

not

(to which Protagoras replies would you not think he has lived well? and

SoKei is as necessary here as in ap
ei

fay above.

The idiom
0/Xws
5w5e/ea

is

ovv ooKet 001 avdpuiros av ev ffv attested by abundant examples, e.g.
/J.QI

Ar. Plut. 380
ava\u<ras

/ecu fJ.Tjv

y
:

av

5o/cetj, vrj

TOVS Oeovs, rpeis

fj.vds

\oyi<ra(r0ai

Wasps 1404
<ru<ppovelv

KdKrjs y\d)TTrjS irodev Ilvpovs irplaio
it is

1405 ei vi) At avrl TTJS av /xot doKels in Plato
:

extremely frequent, e.g. Rep. I 335 B irdvv i, Ale. I 105 C et au aoi eiVoi
/,

^v
B,

ovv OVTUS av poi
/J.OL

OVK av av

doKeis

Gorg. 514

E, cf.

Euthyd. 294
is

B,
:

306
it

Gorg. 522 A, and

infra 357 A.

The
I.e.

corruption

natural

occurs also in the MSS

of Ar.

Wasps
t-y"

in E.

I mean not I say cf. infra line 25 Y^P ^Y w i Socrates puts his question in a different form inviting an affirmative answer. After ijdta in the next line Heindorf would

u.

:

>e>

:

35 1 C

insert
12.
et TI

ra r^a, but the subject is easily supplied. TI a\Xo. So B and the first hand in T. ji-q
i!

The

clause
/cct0

<XXo

defines negatively the
it

meaning of

/caret

TOVTO, as

6

i]5^a tarlv

defined

positively.

misunderstanding: its use in kind: see above on 319 D.

^ deprecates or forbids the possible the idiomatic w on the same
is

in

hand

in

T) would
till

(with the second be to beg the whole question that step is not
el ^17

To

read

n

reached
20.

353 D.
u>0e

&TTI |iV a KrX. See on avOpuTrois fj.ev Xt,ua in 334 A. 28. lav fxv irpos Xo-yov KrX. Trpbs \6yov does not (except per accident) mean relevant but is equivalent to ev\oyov compare the phrases /J.era \6yov, Kara \6yov, and, for the use of wpos, irpos
:

35 T D 35 IE

like. So in 343 D, 344 A. Here the explained by the clause /ecu r6 avrb ayaObv. TO ffK{/j./j,a is quite different from cr/c^is it is not the inquiry itself, but the proposition to be inquired into, viz. that Pleasure is good
opyrjv,
Trpbs
is

fiiav

and the

meaning

further

:

:

if this
it,

proposition

if

not,

we

reasonable, says Protagoras, we shall accept shall dispute it. The sentiment does not deserve the
is
it,

scorn which Heindorf pours upon
irpbs \byov, ane/Afta

if
.

only

we

catch the force of

and

ct/i0ic /3?7T?7(ro/xei

r

33.

SIKCUOS

<rv.

Plato very

frequently

omits

the

copula

A. P.

12

178
tariv
:

NOTES ON
el

xxxv
:

35 IE

and foptv more

rarely

:

elvai

often

-r\v

rarely

:

parts of

the conjunctive and optative very rarely. tationes Platonicae 31 35.

Schanz, Novae

Commen-

KctTapx^S
Cf.

:

a lofty
:

word

religious associations

(here used with a touch of irony) with the middle is used of beginning a sacrifice.
r^xi?

Symp. 177 E dXXa
rbv
"Epwra
TJ

dyady /carapx^rw

<t>cu5pos

Kai tyKW/Jna-

frw
35 2 A

and

ibid.
TI.

36.

irpos

aXXo

176 A. It is not of course implied that vylcia
6

is

an tpyov
(rufj-aTos

<rw/Aaros,

i.e.

something

aw/m

Zpya would be different kinds
is

Examples of dpydfcrai. of bodily labour. 77 -rrpbs

vyteiav KT\.

equivalent to TTWS 2x ei %
iri<TTrifJir)v
;

T^
:

5

vyleiav KT\.

:

cf.

infra

352 B TTWJ ^x ets ^pbs rd irpoo-toirov Kal rds 37.

X"P

a S aKpas

the rest being covered

by

not hand here (otherwise xpas the tips of the fingers), but the arm, as in Homer s fiacre (Od. xi in}.
clothes.

x^P

is

AKpas would be
<pl\as

irepl

xelpe

39.

!iri<nc6|ra>|uu.

The word

is

apt here, as

it is

often used of a

medical inspection: compare Phaedo 117 E
ret ffK^\rj.
ei s

tireaKoirei rois TroSas Kal

With

AaKedai/mova t\6wv

the whole passage compare Theaet. 162 A apa K&V (LXXovs Oeibpevos irpbs ras TraXaiVr/sas allots
&i>

yvjjivovs, friovs

0ai/Xous, a^ros

yu.7/

dvTeirideiKfiJval rb eldos

irap-

airoduo/Jievos

;

41.

352 B
to

44.
47.

A. 0acra[ivos with the usual asyndeton: see on 330 Kal TOVTO: Kai refers to 351
:

CD.

word was afterwards selected by the Stoics T]Y|AOVu<6v denote TO KvpiuTarov TTJS ^vxfy, & y at 0apra<rtat Kai at op/J-al
:

this

yivovrai (Diog. Laert. VII 159).
48.
S irepl

TOIOVTOV avrou OVTOS
C7rwrTTJp.iis
cw

:

see

on 337

E.

352 C
last

53-

Tep^ TTJS

o-irep irepf: see

the reference in the

note.

Aristotle

alludes

to

this

H45 b
56.

23 deivbv yap
Trepi\i<eiv

eTriffrrj/m-rj^

fr ofays,

passage in Eth. Nic. vn 3 ws faro ^iWKpdrys, a\\o TI

Kpareiv Kal

avrbv ucnrep dvSpciTrodov.
jrq

edvircp -yiYVtoo-Kt]

dv

Kparr]0T]vai: a frequent

theme

in

Plato, e.g.

contain
chapter.
58.

Meno 77 B ff., Gorg. 466 D if., two passages which much in common with the discussion in this and the next
TI

a dv

r\

:

the reading of Stephanus

:

B

has ^ a

TJ

:

T
As

77

av

i).

61.

Goodwin altrxpov (J.11 ov\L himself Protagoras must exalt

MT.
<roc}>la.

p.

327

817.

a

xxxvi 353 c
64.

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
-y*

179

KaXws
Y
Yv

(TV

Xcywv:
TCI

sc.
<j>jis

TOVTO, to be supplied from

3520

66.

l<

""

KOVTa S
:

pe XTio-Ta OUK eGe Xeiv irpovrreiv:
sequor".

"video

meliora proboque

deteriora
i]8ova>v

inverted 353 A is virtually within viro TWV 75. t]Trd<r0at commas. With Kal ou the sentence which started as a relative clause becomes independent: see note on 313 A.
82.

TI Be
Tt

o TL
TI/JUV,

OLV TUX.WCTI
/ia/cctpte

TOVTO Xe -yovcnv
,

;

Compare
7roA\u>j>

Crito

44 C d\\d
fj.t\ei
;

c3

Kp^rco?
TL

OVTLO T??S

T&V

and 44 D

TrotoOcri 5

TOVTO 6

&v T^^UCTL

(sc.

CHAPTER XXXVI.
Although pleasures are sometimes called evil and pains good, in such cases their consequences which are intended to be so called at the time itself all pain is evil, and all pleasure good.
it

is

:

The argument proceeds by
ijTTw elvai

these stages:
:

First, the

TWV

i]oovCjv is

explained (353 c)

next,

it

is

meaning of shewn that

pleasures are called evil when they bring pain in their train or loss of pleasure, not because they are pleasant themselves (353 c 354 A),

and that pains are called good because they bring pleasure in their train or escape from pain, not because they are painful themselves
(354

A

(354 c

354 c ) J therefore pleasure in itself is good, and pain evil E )- The rest of the chapter forms an introduction to the
<

chapter which follows. X IV is more humble than X^yo^uej 3.
Y<>H

the idea

is

used to

353 C

call
4.

till

you said
Xey
(e.g.

it
:

was wrong.
!

Socrates bespeaks like a herald. Attention Ar. Peace 551) was the usual way of beginning a proclamation at Athens. Compare Apol. 20 D, 32 A, Theaet. 201 D.
8rj

aKovT

d/couere

6.

ciXXo TI.

This, the shorter form of this particle of interroga
for

tion, is

probably not a deliberate abbreviation
TOVTO dXyOts
<TTii>

dXXo

rt

fj.

Thus
isn
t

&\\o
it ?,

TL

=

ttiis

is

true

anything else?

i.e.

the words being thrown in parenthetically like nicht
ev TOIO~S

wahr and

n est ce pas.
would lead us to expect an enumera The effect of only examples are given. in the following cases that the Greek may be brought out by With this punctuation it is needless to often for example etc.
7.

olov: Tolcrde
it is,

tion of the cases: as

write (as Kroschel does) Toio?cr5e for Totirde.

12

2

i8o
9.

NOTES ON
y t y vc* <rKOVTs
crot, t5
,

xxxvi 353 c
7<z/>

5oKe?

on irovTjpd <mv: compare Meno 77 c 77 M^PCOP, yLyvuffKUv ra Kaita OTL /ca/cd tvrw 6/xws tiriQvfjLeiv
on 328 A above. av KaKa ifv. So the MSS: most recent
etrj.

O.VT&V

yudXtcrra.

35 3D

1

6.

KOLV ct: see note

17.

ojiws

8*

editors

(except Krai) read

The
:

imperfect

is

used because the answer
evil just

No

is

expected and desired

would they be
:

because they

See Goodwin MT. p. 190 503. give us pleasure? Certainly not. Schleiermacher wrongly rejected ot after 6yctws the apodotic 5^ is
frequent after oVtwy, ujcrai/rws, OVTU and the like. o TI (xaOovra iroiei KT\. So the MSS. 1 8.
tions have

A variety

of

emenda

been proposed for ^adovra, such as anaprovTa (Schleier macher, followed by Heindorf), a/JLadaLvovra (Orelli), Trapovra (Her mann), TradovTa. (Sauppe and others), while Kroschel doubts the
entire passage yv
biryovv,

saying

"Totus

autem locus

ita

comparaIt

tus

est ut

de eius emendatione desperandum esse

videatur".

would be natural to regard this particular passage as corrupt if this were an isolated example of the idiom in question but not to mention other authors it occurs also in the following passages of Plato: Apol. 36 B ri #io s et/u ira6e?v 17 aTrortcrai, o TI [AaOuv ev T$ V ~nyov ftiff) o$x TlffV xiQ Euthyd. 283 E ei p.*r) dypoucorepov fy etVetj
: : ,

elirov &v, ffol ei s

/ce^aX^, o TI /ta^wv
dlKCUOTepOV
&J>

e/j-ov

KaTa^evdet KT\.

:

ibid.

299 A TTOXU

fJi^VTOl

Haduv
speech

<ro(povs

uteis oiJrws

tyvvev.

T&V V^TCpOV TTOLT^pO. TVTTTOLfU, O TL In each of these cases the MSS

reading /Mtdwv

(not

iraduv)
in

TL /maduv is

used

should be retained. In the direct an impatient question: T fAaduv TOVTO

is whatever made you think of doing this ? (e.g. Ar. Clouds 1506, Wasps 251, Ach. 826): cf. the idiom T^ \7jpels x wjS in which Ti depends on ^x wj/ ( see Kuhner Gr. Gr. II p. 624). rt fj,aduv becomes in the indirect 6 TL paOuv, but in every case in which this
etrotrjcras

phrase occurs in Plato o

TL LW.OWV
is

means not

why

but

because

.

The

transition in
otos,
ocros,

meaning

sometimes explained as parallel to the
:

use of

that 6 TL

fjia.d<Jbv

the Apol. Appendix II. p. 123). haps possible 6 TL paduv is an impatient o TL just as TL /J.a6uv is an impatient Ti but as OTL and o TL are in reality the same word (see on 333 B), and OTL means because , 6 TI /j,adwv comes also to mean because
:

= oTi TOVTO fj.adwv (see my edition of

ws etc. for OTL roiouros, 0x4 TOCTOUTOS, OTL otfrws, so but a simpler explanation is per

in

Similarly, (impatiently), the original interrogative force being lost. sentences like X^/oets ?xo/, the interrogation is dropped, and

xxxvi 354 E

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
"
>

181

the participle alone survives, conveying the same sense of blame or which is probably the form of sen impatience as in ri X-rjpe is ^x w Here ^adovra is of course the tence in which this idiom originated.

suppose) the original force of the participle is idiom, there is nothing harsh in finding it in agreement with a neuter subject. OVKOVV irdXtv av IpoCjwOa. There is no sufficient reason 31.
plur.
:

nom.

if

(as

we

no longer

felt in this

354 A

for

changing av to a5 or for omitting av av points forward to the apodosis in line 37 (pa iev av and is just as idiomatic as dv in ucrirep
:

av

el,

e.g. in 311

B above.,
yu[JLvda-ta

33.
eldos

otov

dyaOov, ev
5

larpevffl s
u>0eXe?j>

KT\. Rep. II 357 c rptrov 5 6/395 TI TO yv/j-vd^eadai, Kal TO Ka^vovTa iaTpefaadai Kal TaOra yap eirlirova (pa?fj.ev av, re Kal 6 tfXXos xP rJfJ aTLff fJ-^

rd TC

$

-

>

r)/J.as,

Kal

avTa

fttv

eavT&v

Zvetca OVK av 8eai/*e9a fyeu/,

T&V 67

ylyvcTat d?r avruv. \apiv Kal TUV a\\wv Arist. Eth. Nic. X 7. ii7/ h 9 ovSeh yap rols 0-rpo.rda.s. 34. irapacrKevdfei Tr6\euov cupetrat r6 7roXe/xe?v TOV iro\/Jieiv ZvfKa, iro\e/j.lovs 0iXoi>s do^ai yap av TravreXcGs /xtai06i os TIS clvai, ft
fj.iadwv TC
6<ra
oi>5

TO?>S

WOIO ITO,
35.

Iva.

fjia-xai-

xal

<povoi

yiyvoiVTO.

Kavo-oSv re

XifjioKTOViwv.

KaKa o5e eipyaaTai

avrjp (sc. 6 tarpos)

Gorg. 521 E TroXXa vfjias Kal T^fivwv re Kal K&WV, Kal
says Stallbaum)
is

ia\va.\.v(j)v Kal Trviywv
di\}/7jv

7ri/fp6rara
("

Trw/xara 5t5oi)s Kal TTCIVTJV Kal
Hungcrkur",
Ill

avayKa^wv.

\i/j.oKTovia

part of the fUKpa SiaiTa of Rep.
42.

406 D.

cf.

not aXXuv iroXew. 354 ^ aXXwv ap\a: dominions over others D aiTLOv a/ma fjikv e\evOepias avTois rots avdpuirois, d/ma Gorg. 452

TOV a\\b)v apx^-v ev TTJ avrov ?r6Xet e/cdtrry. Heindorf s conjecture besides ) is not necessary, in view of Gorg. 514 A (quoted (i.e. by Sauppe) ?} xjo^ara TroXXa \a/j.[3dviv rj dpx nv TLVWV 77 a\\t]v
8

dXXat

8vva/j.cv

TJVTIVOVV.

45.

rA.os.
is

The

philosophical sense of this
:

action
Kal
ffol

beginning to appear in Plato
OVTU),

ffvvdoKel

r^Xos
is

elvai

word as an end of compare Gorg. 499 E apa airafftav ruv irpdj-ewv rb
for

ay ad 6 v
46.

KT\.

dXX ^
ws
:

i]8ovds

Stephanus emendation
is

dXX

ijoovds.

354 C

49.

d-yo-Oov
cf.

ov: the copula

attracted to the predicate, as
elvai

regularly

infra

359 D Tb

TJTTW

eavTov

-rjvptdr)

66.

et

[j.

dv^poi<r0:

expect.

Socrates apostrophises the Avdpuwoi. as

without the Qalyv av which we should if they stood before

354E

182
him
;

NOTES ON
the
<f)alf}v

xxxvi 354 E
what Socrates says to
a7ro5eets means

&v tywye of line 68
see on 310
is

is

part of

the avdpuTroi.
70.
all
6VTOVT<>:

D

above.

Trao-cu at

the proofs that pleasure
71.

good and pain
(as

evil.

dvaOeVOcu suggests
is

often)

parison which 487 B c.

worked up

into a simile

draughts-playing: a com by Plato in Rep. VI

355 A

T KetK v #XXo TI. B and have tf before &\\o TI by a *l 73 natural mistake it is corrected in by a later hand.
:

T

T

79.

avOpcoiros: so the MSS, but 6 tivdpuiros in line 82.
1

Kroschel

refers to the variation in 32

D

Avdpuirov
E.

TO; avdpiJoTry

dvdp&iru)

avdpwTTOs,

355 B

should of course expect \tyyre, but the second part of a logically subordinate clause in Greek tends
8i
to

Compare infra 355 xal avGis av Xc -yeTe.

We
:

become an independent

clause

see

on 313 A.

CHAPTER

XXXVII.

The meaning of the phrase to be overcome by pleasure is now explained in conformity with the results of the last chapter. the common saying that If we substitute good for pleasure
,

we do

evil,

knowing
evil
c).

it

to

be

evil,

becomes

knowing it be overcome by good is shewn choosing of greater evil in place of lesser good (D E).
good (355 B
substituting

we do

because overcome by pleasure , to be evil, because overcome by
to be the Similarly,

To

pleasure for good,
it

we have

the sentiment

we do
,

pleasure,

knowing

to be pleasure, because

overcome by pleasure

and here also to be overcome by pleasure is to choose in place of lesser pleasures greater pains (355 D 356 A). No doubt in this case the pleasures are present and the pains remote, but we make
allowance for this in our process of weighing pleasures and pains Near and Tar c). against themselves and one another (356 A have the same bewildering effect on the eyes when we look at size

and number
be some

:

but there the arts of measurement and of arithmetic

resolve our perplexity (356 c
art or

357 A). In like manner there must knowledge whose function it is to settle the value of near and far etc. in their application to more and less In other words rb ydwrjs rjTTciffdai is due to pleasure and pain.
,

ignorance (357 A
2.

357 E).
djJia.
&jj.a is

xpw|u0Q,

due to a correction

in

one

inferior MS,

xxxvii 355 D

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
:

183
&pa.

approved by Cobet and Kroschel
:

BT

have xp^f^ 6 ^

-

If

we

read xpc6,ue0a apa, there are difficulties serious enough to suggest an error in the reading (r) the position of apa is to say the least most

unusual: no example
the usual sense

is

conditional clause in this
(si forte)

quoted of apa coming at the end of a way (2) is apa to be taken with tav in
:

or as inferential?

The

inferential

mean

ing strikes us as somewhat farfetched, and the other is both in appropriate here and impossible from the position of the particle. On the other hand a /ua is almost necessary to the sense: without
dV*a,

the words

tav

/MTJ

xpuptQa- would

not

Socrates

use

all

procedure four names.
is

in the following discussion, in

correctly describe which he does
together,

But as he does not use them

his

procedure

accurately described

by the addition of d /xa to

iroiei:
is

OVTCO ourw is explained by on yiyvuffKW avra The thesis of the many us lay it down and say etc. With the style of reasoning stated in order to be demolished.
7.

0[ievoi
let

:

which follows compare Gorg. 499 A B where (as a reductio ad absurdum of the view that pleasure is good and pain evil) it is argued that in that case the bad man would be just as bad and just as good as the good man since he feels just as much pain and pleasure
as the other:
fi

see also Ale.
va.1.

I

u6A
8^,

ap

o$v Kal y ayadbv na\6v,

d

KdKbv

alffxpb" }

rty apa
KaKTjv

v TO) TroA^uy rots cplXois fio^dtLav

\ty(t)v

KaXr/v

[j.ev

eli>cu,

ovdtv

dia<pep6vTUS

\tyfis

rj

e

7r/30<ret7rej

avrrjv dyadijv iitv,

KaK^v
antithesis
is

11.

viro [ikv i]8ovT]S.
8rj
:

The

not expressed by a
in

fjutv

355 c

clause but in e/caVy
12. sition to
i.e.
nTXti<j>v

TOU 070^00 below.
is
-rjSov-fi

the subject
avrl T^S

&\\o ovoua.

i)8ovTJs

and rd aya96v is means in place of

appo

pleasure,

pleasure. in you , 1.6. not before your tribunal , but 4v vjuv The idea is of a conflict between the inside you, in your souls.
19.
:

the

name

good and have been
his

evil in the
tv

soul before

you do the

evil,

tv vfuv

might

avry, but the

vfipHrrris

now

selects his interlocutors as

thus

The subtle reasoning which follows may be put do evil, knowing it to be evil, because we are overcome by good. But since that which we do is evil the good which overcomes is less worthy than the evil in us which it overcomes. to be Less worthy (to overcome) means that there is less of it
examples.
:

We

:

overcome by good

is

therefore to choose less

good than

evil.

The

184
argument
lies in
is

NOTES ON
substituting
:

xxxvn 355 D

the flaw extraordinarily ingenious but hardly sound it was not the evil in us the evil in us for us
,

who were overcome by good. See also Introd. The usual way of taking ev vfjuv as before your tribunal or (cf. Gorg. 464 D) makes the false step much more serious
but

we

p. xxix.

the like
since
it

substitutes not
23.
literally
ctvdfjid

the evil in us
CCTTIV
is

but simply the evil for us Ta-yaOd TWV KO.KWV should be translated
.

the good

Greek
is

as in English

is

unworthy of the bad somewhat strained
1

.

The

expression

in

in order to correspond
I

to OVK d^iwv

above

(line
I

9)

:

but after

all

am unworthy
.
,

of you

much

the

same

as

am

less

worthy than you

The Greeks can
too good for
:

even use Avd&os in the sense of more worthy than
e.g.

Soph. Philoct. 1009.
24.

rd p.v

jA<o

fl

:

i- e -

when

TO,

o-fJu-Kporepa,

then rdyaOd are dvd&a

rCov KOLK&V

KaKd are net fa and rd dyaOd rd are araict
:

K<tKd

TUIV

dyaOwv, when TO, dyadd are Similarly with TrXciw and eXarrw.

(J-eifa,

and rd KaKd
in

ajmiKporepa.

It

must be borne

mind

that

dtos does not here denote moral, but rather physical strength or value good is dvd^tov KO.KOV, because it is smaller or less numerous.
:

355 E

2 5-

i&* fa* T

-

8*

&CITTW

fl.

See on 330 A.

infra 356 D. and the like. This the MSS reading is un Kal TS fiXXi] civctijia. 33356 A doubtedly right. Plato coins the word dvaia for unworthiness to complete the parallel with D above: cf. lines 19 23 OVK dlwv

|A6TaXdpp.v, i.e. let us change pleasant and painful and apply them to etc.
28.
eiri

and take the names

Compare

follows 6v6fJ,ara as in rlSeff&cu ovo^a

e-jri

rax.

Kard T de dvd%id ecrri rdyaOd TWV KOLKWV KT\. Phaedo 105 E Plato coins dvdprios, in 106 A ddep/mos (rightly accepted, in spite of MS authority, by editors) and &\J/VKTOS we think rightly accepted (see MSS, but Wyttenbach s dfaxpos is by some editors) as pointed and convenient negatives to a/moj,
OVTWV viKav
L

Similarly in

Cicero s translation "quae igitur potest esse indig6epfj.6s, \pvxpfanitas voluptatis ad molestiam, nisi in magnitudine aut in longitudine alterius utrius posita?" (Nobbe s Cicero, p. 1313) shews that dva^ia

was read

in his time

:

so in Ficinus

"

quae vero

alia inest

ad dolorem

quam excessus inter se atque defectus?" The word di>aia hardly took root in Greek, though occasionally found in the writings of the Stoics, whose regular word for this notion is
indignitas voluptati
ct7rat a.
i]5ovrj is

ydovrj (now found to be the reading of some MSS) due to Heindorf.

for

xxxvn 356
35.

c

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
eo-rC
:

185

Tcun-a 8

as

d

tarl rb pelfa

ylyveffBai, but the

Sauppe remarks, words are
Kal TTWS

we

should expect ravra
said as
if for

Kal rls

a\\T]
TO.

dvala

KT\.

had been written
rj

AXXws avagia

TO. r/8^a irpbs
;

Xinrypd,
37.

aXX

uTTp(3d\\oi>ra
:

aXX^Xwi Kal eXXeiirovra

this case is not given above (D E) jxdXXov Kai TJTTOV because the notion of intensity is more applicable to pleasure (and cf. Phileb. 24 A foil, with 27 E pain) than to good (and evil)
:

Kal \VTrr) Tracts
val,
ru>v

x eTOV
,

>

7?

T & v T0 f^d\\6v re Kal yrrov

Sej(OfJ^v<

rb /xctXXoi

(3

Saw/jares.

el

-yap Tts

\

Y<H.

So

far

we have reached

this point.

To
:

be

overcome by pleasure is to choose in place of lesser pleasures greater But here the element of time comes in a man pains and the like.
might
38.
fairly say

yes, but the pleasures are ncno, the pains remote.

Socrates tries to shew that this makes no real difference.

r6 irapaxptjua i]8t). When we are overcome by pleasure, the pleasant, not the painful: therefore the contrast is between the present pleasure and the remote consequences, whether pleasure or pain. For this reason it would be wrong to supply Kal \vrrrjpuv

we do

after ^5tf.

41.
ap*
oftv

dXX

wo-irep d-ya66s to-rdvai KT\.

ov TO nerpciv Kal dpiO/j.iv Kal iffT&vai fiorjOciai
tv

Compare Rep. X 602 D 356 B x a P ^ a rarai
"

i

wpos avrd f(f>a.vrjaav, Cocre ^rj (Lp^eiv r] t\arrov TJ tr\ov rj fiaptirepov Kr\.
:

y/uuv rb (pawbuevov pei^ov

Kal TO lyyvs KT\. in order that a near pleasure might 42. count for more than a remote.
44.
eciv
-rjfj.

jiV -yap
ii

i^Se a

KT\.
ovd

Compare Laws V 733 B
aipovfJieOa ovre (3ov\6/j(.e9a,

-rjSovriv

f3ov\6fJi9a

elvat, \6-mjv 8
rjdovTJs

rb 5

avrl fj.v
\6Trrjv

ov fiov\6/J.f0a, X^TTTJS 5^ a\\a.rreffdai /3oiX6/j.era

Se

AaTTW

ftclforoi

rjdovrjs

jSovXo/uieOa,

Tjdovrjv

5^

era fj.eiovos
47.

XI^TTTJS

ou (3ov\6fjt.e9a KT\.

lav re

TO.

lyyvs KT\.

When

once you have equated
till

near

and

then) your final choice is not affected by the question of proximity in time. Theoretically, no doubt, this is right but no_man is so ayaObs lardvai as to weigh
far
:

(see last note), then (but not

tyyts and Trappcj correctly drink for to-morrow we

;

can only be weighed aright on the supposition that man is immortal and will live hereafter under the same moral laws as rule us here but of immortality there is no hint in this dialogue.
die".

whence the saying Near and

"

Let us eat and

far

:

49.

Tavra:

i.e.

rd

r)8ta.

i86
53.
in
frre:

NOTES ON
Two

xxxvn 356 c

the notion of time readily passes into that of cause as

quoniam and cum.
54.
<j>avTcu

vjuv KT\.

which irax^a and

(fiuval yueydXcu

examples are given (i) size of (according to the Greek and Roman
:

way of viewing sound) are special varieties, (2) number, i.e. TO, TroXXd. The specific varieties waxfa. and /xeydXcu are not dealt with in the sequel. With what follows compare (besides Rep. x 602 D
<pwvai

cited above) Euthyphr.

7 B foil,

and Ale.

I

126 C

foil.,

and with

the present passage Phileb. 42 A and Rep. vn 523 C 524 c. The resolution by the intellect of such contradictory sense-perceptions
is

made
57.

the basis of

Plato

s

scheme of higher education

in the

Republic.
al
1 H- !

l <rat is

Heindorf

s

correction for foot.
ijdta irpdrTO/j-ev.

3560

59fj-riK-rj)

10 !

irpa-rmv: as we
:

Trpdrreiv (with
A.

is

explained by \ap[3dveiv
r\
TJ

see above

on 314
xxxii.
is

6 1.
62.

p,TpiynKT] rf\vi\.
T|

See Introd. p.
8vva[us.

TOV

<j>aLvo[JLvov

$

omitted in

B and

T.

The power
63.

of that which appears is its power to affect us. eirXciva Kal liroCei KT\. &v is not to be supplied. Plato

is

The imperfect is idiomatic for reverting to the illustration in c. * causes us, as we saw, to wander etc. (viz. because TO, avra f^ey^drj
seem
to us both pet fa

philosophic imperfect
\<*)p-r)ff6jj.fda,

6

it is what Goodwin calls the titeivo Kal compare Crito 47 D T$ ntv SiKaiij} jSArioi/ tylyvero (becomes as we saw),

and eXdrrw):
:

5ia<J>6epov[Ji.ev

T$

8

ddiKif)

diru\\VTO.

By adding

/cat

cv rats

irpdecrii>

(r/j.iKpuv

Plato treats his hypothesis that e5 irpdrretv is to select (AeydXa. ^KTJ as a fact he does so also in &v ewoL-rjae KT\. i.e. would have made ,
:

viz. if

we had made

use of

it,

but

we

did not.

If the hypothesis

treated as a hypothesis, we should have had &v tirotei (and not av iirolt]ffe) to correspond to what would then have been &v

were

still

357 A

(expressed or understood) iir\ava Kal tiroiei. /cdrw (Theaet. 195 c) and avw Kal K area avw re Kal Kara), (Gorg. 495 A) are other forms of this proverbial phrase. In Gorg. 451 B foil. dptd/m.i/jTiK ri is said to be 79. dpiO^TjTiKT).

aw

Tvyxdvti ovra
dpid/j,r]TiK^
is
TJ

a science concerned with r6 apriov re Kal irtpirrbv, oaa e/cdrepa whereas the function which is here assigned to
:

there given

apid iJ.r)TiKT]

AoytOTtK?} ?X

Kal rb irepiTTov

a\\r]\a TTWS Zx

l

ra ptv &\\a KaQdtrep ij r6 re apTiov T ^ avrb ydp 5ta0^pet 5e TOCTOUTOV, on Kal irpbs aura Kal irpbs Tr^Qovs (cf. lines 73 fT. rd TrXeov TO ^\arrov T}
to
\oyi.<jTiKi)
:

l

e<TTiv

""^

xxxvn 357 D
atrb
Si.

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
r t

187
^rur/toTTe?

irpbs
KO.I

eavrb
eirel

rb crepov
77

-rrpbs

rb Zrepov)
tirciS))

rb

irepirrov

rb (Lprtov

\oyicmKr].

etV

8* 8tf.

The MSS

read

5<f,

but after

etei>

Plato regularly uses 5 Sr/ in coming to the application of a train of reasoning or illustrations compare 31-2 E elev 6 8 STJ cro0i<rTr?s irepl
:

rlvos Sfivbv iroiei \tyeiv

;

and 311 D

elev

irapa d

drj

Hpuraybpav

KT\.

90.

l<rav9is

<TK\j/ojJi9a.

Siebeck,

who

asserts

(Zur Chrono-

357 B

logie der Platonischen Dialogen p. 121 foil.) that this and similar formulas were intended by Plato to be a distinct promise of future

dialogues (if not a reference to a later part of the same dialogue) finds here a reference to Politicus 283 D foil., where the measuring art is discussed and described as the /3a(riXi/c77 r^vy.
93.
96.
TIVIKO. T]p.eis
:
&J>O,T

J)jio\o-yov|JLv

:

352 B

foil.

35 7 c

original tfpeade has to be repeated in consequence of the introduction of this independent clause. 98. ^pccrta: in 353 A.
in 352 D.
etirare but dirarov in 353 A: otherwise there is no 35 70 101. change in the quotation. B and T have eiTrere, but Stobaeus (who cites from TOCOVTOV in 357 B to fjieyiffTi) 357 E in his Florilegium)
:

The

reads

etirare.

eiTrere is

not Attic, but this

According to Rutherford (New Phrynichus p. 219) is doubtful, if any faith can be placed in
irpoo-Oev.

MS

authority.

107.

ifs

TO

This

the reading of the best MSS

has

been unjustly rejected in favour of eis rb irp6a6ev ; but els rb irpbadev can hardly be justified here. Sauppe refers to 339 D 6X1701 5 TOV TTony/xaros ets rb irpoe\duv, where however d$ rb irpbffdev
Trp6<r0et>

goes with Trpoe\di!)i>, and in all the cases which he quotes there is a verb containing the idea of progress to go with the phrase, and so in TnuKva (where Ar. Knights 751 d\X ^s TO Trp6<rde xpT] irapeiv es probably we should read irapitv for irapetv as in Ach. 43 irdpir e j Where there is no such verb (which is very rarely the rb Trpbffdev).
rrp>

case) the phrase

means

with a view to what

lies in front

,

e.g.

Alcib.

132 B OVKOVV rocrovrov plv r\\uv eis rb irpoffdev Treirtpavrai. It need hardly be said that the phrase cannot mean simply fyiOn the other hand ijs seems to be just what is needed : irpoadev.
I

the construction in

full

would be

KO! ov

/j.6voj>

eTrto-n^s
infra

dXXa
or i

Kai

(raijrTfjs rijs

tiri<rrri}Ji,r)$

fjierptjriKrj

(sc.

<rri

:

rb trpbvdev tri for the omission of tori after ori
IvSetq.) r]v
:

cf.

359 D aireSdxO n &pri

tin adtvarov)

and from

lack, not

merely of

1

88

NOTES ON
.

xxxvn 357 D

knowledge, but of the knowledge which you have further admitted above to be measuring knowledge The attraction of the relative extends to /xer/^n/c?? also in spite of 6 rt compare Apol. 37 B &v eD
:

old

STL

KaKuv &VTUV for TOVTWV a eS

with the participle as in Gorg. 481 E

35 7 E

in.
fj-eyiffTt)

afiaQia r\ fie-yumi SiKaiws av \tyoiro d/J.adia
:

6Vra (on being used on Apol. I.e.). compare Laws ill 689 A n j o$v ij
old
:

on

/ca/ca,

see note

;

Tatiryv TT^V

8ia<pwviav

\fofi)S
1
ffx<^

re
)

/ecu rjdovTJs ?r/)6s rrjj

/faro,

\6yov 56av d^adLav
ecrri

(j)T)/J.i

elVcu TTJV

T lv

fjLeylffnrjv 6Y,

on

rod Tr\-^0ovs

r^s ^t%^s.
fire:

113.

OVT

avroC: the verb hangs
oi

we should

expect Plato

to continue otire

Stephanus thought irpoo-tpxeffde had fallen out after avroi, Madvig tre, while Kroschel It seems probable that the text is suggests oi/ r e0otrare afoot. The two corrupt at all events no parallel has yet been adduced.
:

v^repoi

-rrcudes

fyxovrai KT\.

cases quoted
TT/JUS
Ti/j<.66eoi>

by Sauppe (Dem. wpos "A(po(3ov 54 and pseudo-Dem. 52) are more than doubtful in respect of their text,
it) is not according to the MSS. Madvig s but the future seems out of place perhaps yre
:

which

(as

Sauppe quotes

fre is simplest,

should be read.
115.

os ov SiSaKTOV OVTOS

:

i.e.

TOV

pi] ijdovrjs rirraaOai.

CHAPTER
Socrates begins to

XXXVIII.

apply the results of the previous discussion to the subject of his dispute with Protagoras. Pleasure is good and pain evil, and no one willingly encounters

what he believes therefore no one

to be evil.

But

fear

is

the expectation of evil

:

will willingly encounter

358A

3.

w

Iiriria re

Kal IIpo8iK.

what he fears. Here and in 358 E and 359 A
-o>.

c3

has dropped out in the MSS after preceding The effect of its omission would be to render the address unduly abrupt. So the MSS. Sauppe s i]fuv is not necessary, vfjuv 4. vp.iv.

means

all

three sophists
viz.

:

but the speaking,

in

and 6 \6yos is not the discussion as a whole, answer (cf. dovvai Kal 6Vfa<70cu X67o^).
:

Throughout this chapter all the Sophists reply in the next Socrates makes use of their united admissions to destroy Protagoras alone. TWV ovofxartov see note on 3140. 9. 8icupe<riv
:

358 B

10.

etre oiroGtv

xal

oirtos

6vo[ia>v.

This mode of address

insinuates that Prodicus
in a similar

way.

was a dews dvrjp, since a God was addressed See Crat. 400 E uWe/o ev rats eux a s vb(j.os eo~Tiv
*

xxxvin 358 c
ij/juv
etfxe<r0cu,

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
birbOev

189

o tnvts re Kal

x a ^P
,

vcri- v

6vo/Jia6/j.evoi and

compare Euthyd. 288 A
ei0
STT-TI

6av/jui<rid

ye \tyer

w

dvdpes Qovpiot, etre

Xu

cnrodev Kal O TTT? -^aiperov 6vo/j.a6fj.evoi

x^ p 6

5 dvo/j.dui>,

TOVTO ovbpafr.
r

A

and Symp. 212 C on Kal similar effect is produced
since there
Oelov

Symp. 176 c by the words Sw/cpdr?? 5 ecupu) X67ou, was a proverb TO delov e cupw \6yov cf. Rep. VI 492 E
in
:

^VTOI

Kara
to

ri]v irapoLp-Lav elatpcD/ze^

X670U.

The multitude

of epithets given

gods is best illustrated by such a hymn as the Homeric Hymn to Ares line i foil. Apes UTrep/iei^ra, /3 pta dp/tare, x/w<reo7r??X77, 6fipi./J.66vfj,f,
0^pa<77rt,
7roXt0-<r6e,

x a ^- KOKOP
:

"

v<J

r^

KT ^-

In

t^ e multitude

of

names the suppliant hopes
12.

to include the acceptable one.

irpos o POV\O[JLCU

emphatic with a view to

my

meaning

)( irpos 6 6vo/j.dfa.
eirl TOVTOV. This usage can only be on the analogy of rj iiri 14. 2dp5ewi/ 656s and the like actions are looked on as ways leading to a goal or destination or rAos cf. supra 354 c and D. To take the words
:

:

(with Sauppe) as

wrong meaning
its

end,

it

is

in this domain would give a the moral character of an art being determined by The expression is Ka\6v only if it aims at the end. in the case of this
:

however very
aira.ffa.1

I once thought that curious, and perhaps unique. might conceal some present participle such as cfyowrcu agreeing with 7rpdets but the occurrence of cbrdo-as below in 359 E
:

shews airavcu to be probably genuine here.
Pleasure, the end,
is

The

reasoning
all actions

is this.

aiming end are Ka\al, and therefore good (as usual ci^^Xt/xos is but a * synonym for good ) therefore as no one willingly selects evil
good, pain
:

evil

consequently

at the

:

no one willingly does the worse (i.e. selects evil As it is with 7r/>d$ that actions) when he might act better. bravery and cowardice are concerned it is necessary for Plato to establish that no one willingly seeks the worse is true of individual
rather than

good

acts as well as of ultimate ends.
15. dp ov KO.XCH. The words Kal ux^Xt^oi which follow ov KaXal in the MSS are rightly rejected because they anticipate the identification in the next line.
1

8.

TJ
77

a

iroict,

Kal Svvarci

is

Heindorf

s

emendation of the

corrupt

a eVotei

/cat

duvarai of the MSS.

The phrases rjTruv CLVTOV and 20. TJTTO) elvai avrov KT\. Kpeirrwv eavrov are here substituted for rjTTWf rrjs rjdovTJs and Kpeirruv T?)S Compare the discussions in Rep. iv 430 E foil, and
T;5oj>7js.

35 ^C

Laws

I

626 E

foil.,

where

/cpeiVrw

and

TJTTW etvcu eavroD are inter-

190

NOTES ON

xxxvm

358 c

conversely.

preted as the victory of the better part in us over the worse and As the worse part is the part which seeks r/So^, i.e. TO
eiridv/AyTiKSv, the identification is just.

3580

31.

KaXeire Tt Scos.

Heindorf s emendation
KO.KOV

for /caXeire dtos of

the MSS.
33.

See note on 330 c above.
irpocrSoKiav rivol
:

a

common

definition

:

cf.

Lach.

358 E

198 B 6Vos yap elvai TrpoadoKiav /xAXojTos /co/coO. 06/3os in Laws I 644 C is defined as expectation before pain (TT/JO \virrjs eX?r/s). Sc os, 8 otf. Prodicus distinction is just, though often 36.
<}>6pos

dropped
danger
6Vos the
(17

in practice

:

in 06/3os

Trapaim /ca
2 B,

irrbfjai.3,

says

the physical agitation due to present Ammonius) is the leading idea , in

apprehension of
1

evil to

come

{/ca/coO virbvoLo).

See note on
difference.

Euthyphr.
37.

where Plato implicitly recognises the
:

dXXct rdSe
there
is

sc. d unfit pei.
,

ovdtv diafapei does not of course
it

mean

no difference

but

doesn

t

matter

.

CHAPTER XXXIX.
It is

Socrates
ijSovrjs

here proved that courage is wisdom. first reverts to the point at which the discussion on
:

next, Protagoras asserts that began (359 A c) and 8ei\oL are willing to encounter opposite things, but Socrates shews that both encounter what they take to be 0appa\ta, i.e., so far, the same things (359 c E). Protagoras thereupon
ijTTdffdai

avSpeToi

objects that dvdpe ioi will encounter e.g. war, while 5ei\ot will not. Socrates replies by shewing that if cowards do not willingly enter

upon war, the reason
while brave
reverse
is

is

their ignorance (359

E

360

A).

In general,
well, the

men
is

fear

and

feel

courage honourably,

i.e.

true of cowards,
it

owing

to their ignorance (360

A

360
KOI

B).

And

since

through 5ei\ta that
deiXot

men

are 8ei\ot, and

we have
/mr)

shewn that men are
deivuv,

through

dfj-adla

TUV

Seivuv
is

cowardice

is

viz. Sewuiv re KO.I

yU,r?

ignorance, and consequently bravery deivwv (360 B 360 E).
foil.

wisdom,

359 A
35 9 B

5-

TOT

:

330 A
:

9.

TO vo-Tpov
Kal
I

349

D

foil.

18. 19.

npojxip: 349 E.

ras v

,

&j>T].

The

eyd

in the next line is the usual

2(prjv recapitulation stops here. said I of narrated dialogue.

359 C
cf.

22.

irl

T:

so MSS: the second

hand

in

B

reads

eirl

riva,

but

infra line 2 7

where the question

is

repeated with

eirl rt.

For the

xxxix 360 E
common
58 C
25.

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
wpaxd^vra ;

191

passage from singular to plural the editors compare Phaedo
Sciva

rl TJV TO. XexfleVro, Kal
:

the MSS read SeiXd by mistake, and so in 360 C below 8ei\uv three times for dcivuv.

^\-ys TOIS Xo-yois see on 342 B. TO TJTTW ctjxaQia ovcra. The only proof given that 33. eim8ii we encounter evils believing them to be evils was the phrase ^ TTW see on elvai ijdovTJs (for which TJTTW elvai cavrov is here substituted
30.
tv ots orv
:
:

359

358

c).

We
px ercu

have demolished

means
ovdels

dfj-aOia,

and we

proof by shewing that the phrase therefore infer that iiri a Seiva TjycTrai clvai
this

(Sctvd

34.
39.
for

T|vpl6T).

avTLKa
:

:

being a subdivision of KaKa). but see on 315 B. evped-rj and so "veluti, ne longe hinc abeam" (Kroschel)

The MSS have

:

359 E

example

40.

a very frequent use in Plato. KaXov ov KrX. Compare 349 E. -iroTtpov

42.
53.

^irpo(T0v
KctXXiov

:

358

B.

T.

The MSS

read Ka\6v

re.

Stephanus made the 360 A

necessary change. Kdl ol SeiXol Kai ot Qpacrtls Kal ol p.aiv6|JL6Voi. In 350 n 58. foil, those who are 6appa\toi without ^Trto-n^uT; are called /mu^ecoi

3608

by an expressive metaphor. Here the /iatv6yu,evot which is suggested, but no more by the fj.aiv6/j,voi in 350 B are treated as a distinct the word is to be understood of literal madmen like Ajax in class the play of Sophocles. The word panels has an evil connotation
:

as in

Laws

I

630 B
:

Opcureis Kal adiKot Ka.1 u/3ptcrTcu Kal a^porltfraroc

O"x;e56v

Plato could not have said 6appa\toi here since It 0appa\toi throughout the dialogue is applied also to dvdpeioi.
aTravTtw
to reject (with Krai) both Kal ol Opaaets and Kal ol we than only Kal ol Opavfts with Sauppe and Schanz should then as throughout this chapter have only one negative to dvopctoi, viz. dciXol, but we may allow some latitude of expression
fi.cuv6fji.cv 01
:

would be better

to Socrates,

and Kal

after OVKOVV is slightly in favour of
ot Sei\ol,

that other classes follow

though
:

it

may go

supposing with the whole
A.

sentence.
69.
75.
77.
ejreveuo-cv
:

Protagoras dies hard
see

see

on Euthyphr. 8
layaQe,

360 C

ovT
avros

T:

on 309

B.

3600
aurbs
Kal

ire pavov.

Gorg. 506 C Xye,
tlvat.

81.

4>iXoviKiv

r6

[i

For the orthography of
<PL\OVIKCIV

<f>i\oviKiv

360 E

see note

on 336 E above.

Apparently

is

not elsewhere

192

NOTES ON
:

xxxix 360 E
is

used in Plato with the accusative, but the construction

a natural

one and occurs in Thucydides

in

Rep.

I

338 A

we have

TrpcxreTroie tTo

CHAPTER

XI,

Socrates points out that while Protagoras theory would point to the conclusion that virtue is not teachable, he himself in trying to

prove that virtue

is

Thus

the interlocutors have as

knowledge goes near to maintaining that it is. it were changed places. The dialogue
:

ends with mutual compliments.
4.

CUITO

ij

dpTi]

itself.
fffrlv
"aur6

Compare
(per
se)

Crat. 411

virtue itself, literally virtue, the thing D ei 5t /SotfXei, avrb TJ vbf)<ns TOV vtov
eiri.ffT^p.f)v

eats:

Theaet. 146 E yvuvai

avro 6

rl TTQT

<rrlv

:

substantivis et adiectivis adiunctum rei alicuius
",

naturam

ac vim per se et universe spectatam significat This use says Ast. of avTos furnished Plato (as in avTodvdpwiros and the like) with a convenient way of denoting his Ideas, but here of course avrb

does not denote the Idea but

is

ipsum as opposed

to ret irepl rijs

3616

14.
ffTr)(j.r)

to

iravTa xP Tl|JLaTa: exaggeration as if Socrates held CTTIbe the dpxn of the universe and said eTrtar??/^ -KO.VTO. as
irvp iravra.

Heraclitus might say
19.

oXov
cites

:

i.e.

77

dpen)
:

Sauppe

Meno

79 B

^ou

361 C
27

22.

eoiKev o-irevSovTt

the gender is like avr6 in line 4. SerjOevros 6\ov direlv TTJV dper^v. a frequent usage in Plato see on Apol.
:

A

ZoiKev

yap

StaTretpw/i^y.
:

24.

avw KCITW
eijeX&iv

see on 356

D above.

a slight hint of military metaphor : fare forth against virtue also to see what she is , also attack the
27.
errC.

There
cf.

is

question what

is

virtue

:

Rep.
:

II

374 A

8 (ffTparoiredov)

ee\dbi>

V

5tayu,axe?Tcu row tiriovffLV cf. the similar use ot ttvai ewl in Rep. 473 C TT avrb drj, TJV 5 ^7w, el/At 6 rijj jj.eyi(TTij) TrpoffeLKa^o^ev

Here e^- is appropriate, because the first campaign is as it KV/J.O.TI. were ended (raOra 5ieeA0<Was) it is moreover natural to retain it, on account of the tendency noted on 311 A. A later hand in T has eX0etV, but the MSS reading is unobjectionable, nor is there any need
:

to

read

5t\deiv or 8teeA0et*
cf.

TTJV

aper-fiv

as

For the sentiment

Meno

100 B rb

5

aacfres wept

Kroschel suggests. avrou

XL 362 A

PLATO S PROTAGORAS.
J

193

T6re, OTO.V Trplv (gTivt Tpbirip rots dvOpuTrois Trapaytyvfrai aperij, 7rp6re-

pof

e7rtxap?J<7w/xej

avro Kad

O.VT&

28.

eirurK&l/aorBai irepl

avrov

TJTV ri TTOT eftm^ apery. Siebeck (in the treatise cited on
:

p.

187) here

and

in 361

E

d<rav6is

Si^uey

finds

a promise of

the

Meno and
29.
JMJ

the Gorgias.
:

iroXXdxis

ne forte, as often in Plato.

What

often

happens may happen
*ut saepe
32.
fit
.

in a future case: so Lucretius uses

saepe for

ITpo(x-q0vs
:

irpo|i.ti0ov(j.6vos.

frequent in Plato
35.
38.
K<XT

see Riddell
viz.

s

Puns on proper names are 323. Digest of Idioms

3610

348 C ff., 320 B. on 3096. 36 IE wv VTvyx^va>: a somewhat rare attraction, since in the 41. unattracted form the relative would be in the dative and not in the

dp\a s,

otlrc

T:

see

accusative case:
KO.I

compare Theaet. 144 A uv
ireirXrialaKa

5r?

TrwTrore evtrvxov

iravv

TroXXots
cites also

ovStva

TTW

ycr66fMtjv

KT\.,

where

Wohlrab

Gorg. 509 A.

42. TTjXiKovTwv: Socrates the Protagoras.
47.

was about 36

at the

date of action of

&HV:
TU>

335

C.
:

362 A
see

KaXXuj. 174 A raCra
fw.

KaXw

on 336 B above.
Ivo.

For icaXy
(viz.

cf.

dr)

e/caXXajTrtcra/^Tji

KO\&S irapa Ka\bv
/caX6$

Symp. Agathon)
cites

Sauppe reminds us of the use of Ar. Ach. 143 fv Tolffi rolxois
and the famous
(Xen. Hell,
Kpirtq. TOUT
3. 56).

on

vases,

and also

typa<f>

Ad-rjvaioi /caXot

(of Sitalces)

&TTW

r<$

/caXcp

of the dying

Theramenes

n

A. P.

13

APPENDIX
ON THE POEM
THE
forth
difficulties

I.

OF SIMONIDES.

of this of

many pages

poem are well known, and have called comment 1 The restoration proposed by
.

Schneidewin has met with most favour, and is printed in most texts of the Protagoras, not because it is thought to be certain,
It

but as the nearest approach to certainty of which the case admits. may be at once allowed that no restoration can claim to represent

with certainty just what Simonides wrote in the order in which it was written. Plato is seldom careful to make his quotations accurate,

and the perverse exposition of the meaning of this particular poem is hardly calculated to increase our confidence in his verbal accuracy here. Nevertheless, Plato is our sole authority for the poem in
will be the most probable every metrical requirement, involves the fewest changes in the text and sequence of the poem as it stands in

question,

and consequently that restoration
it

which, while
Plato.

satisfies

The words apparently quoted from the poem, as they occur in the Bodleian manuscript, are according to Schanz as follows (we note obvious corrections at the foot of the page).
339
B.

&v8pa? dyaObv p.v

dXa^ws

3
yev<rdai x,a\eTrbi>
%e/3<r

Te

/ecu

1 On p. 20 of his fourth edition of the Protagoras, Sauppe enumerates the discussions on the subject down to 1884. The most important contribution since that year is Das Gedicht des Simonides in Platons Protagoras, von J. Aars, Christiania, 1888. Aars s restoration has received the approval of Peppmiiller (in the Berliner Philologische Wochenschrift for 1890, p. 174 foil,) and others: and there now seems to be some prospect of finality in the criticism of the poem.

In his program (Das Simonideische Gedicht in Platons Protagoras und die Versuche dasselbe zu reconstruiren, Graz 1889) Schwenk follows Aars in every
essential point. * oivSp.

APPENDIX
0e6s S^ /x6vos Tovro 3

I.

195
oro<pov

339 C. otf&V fj,oi e/xjiceX^ws TO HirrdKiov* p^uercu Kalroi 2 prjfj,vov x a ^ irov 0dro ead\bv 2fj.fj.evai
341 E.
tx<-

trapd

yp&*
ov KaKbv
fyt/xe^cu ov

344
344 345 345

C.

avdpa 5

4

oik

5
<TTii>

pr]

av

E.
C.
C.

7rpdas

)uj>

7&p
TTOT

eD Tras
/cai
&pt<rrol

^?ri TrXeto
TotfveKi>

roi 5

elcnv oOj

ch>

oi ^eoi

0iXw<riv

otf

e7w rd

/i^ yevtffdcu

dwarbv St^/uevos

^av 6 ^s &irpa.KTOv A?rt5a
evpveSovs
ocroi

fj-oipav

aluvos /SaX^w
d.Trayy\(>)

napirbv aivij/j,e6a x^ovbs ZireLd bfuv (vpuv
7
^Tralvrj/j.tv

345 D.

Trdvras 5

Kal 0iX^w e/cwi

oVris

avdyicr) 8

346

C.

\iv
<f>L\6fJ,d}/J>os

Hfj-otye s

^apKef

ovdt Beol fj.dxovrai 6s &V ytt^ /ca/c6s
d.vf]p

77

[Atjd

Ayav

aTrdXa/xi OS

ei Sws

5LKav vyiijs
i]\i.dL(i}v

ov

pJt]v

^ytb ^(a^ffo^ai ov

TUV yap

aireipwv

yved\a 9

irdvra rot

ydp elfj.1 Ka\a roial T

In 346 D E part of the poem is paraphrased and repeated in the words ou ^rcD Travafj-wfAov avdpwirov evpvedovs offoi xapirbv alvvfj.0a
X0oi>6s,

tTreiQ

vfjuv

evp&v aTrayye\u

oi<rre

TOVTOV
fj,Tr)dv

y

^e/co ovotva
Troirj,

^Trcuj/e cro/Acu,

dXXd

fj-oi

e%apKi av
GK&V

17

/macros

Kal

KaKov

ws 670;

Trdvras 0tX^w Kal

tTralvrjfJU

fiaris fySri fj.yo tv alcrxpbv-

The only words whose
are

place in the
clfjt,i

poem

is

somewhat doubtful

^017 ^ap/cet and ou 7dp both by Bergk and Blass, but
Plato, since
8ia ravrd ve
p.oi
\J/tyb),

0tX6^uw/ttos.

They

are excluded

it

is

not likely that they come from

^ap/cet occurs also in the final recapitulation, and ov OTI elfj.1 (pi\b\J/oyos is said (346 c) as well as ov

7ap
avev

eifj.i

0tX6/xw/wos.
eirL

016? re

fj.tt>Tot

\f/6yov

10 Bonghi (quoted by Aars ) assigns the words nvd in 344 B to a place in the poem after ye xpovov Tcrvy^vov it is however tolerably clear that they come
:

from Socrates, who
Schneidewin
s 11

is

merely developing the latent antithesis in
is

restoration

as follows:

dyadbv
re Kal

fj.tv

dXa^^ws yevtcrdat
Kal
vbq>

rroffl

rerpdyuvov avev

\{sbyov

(Desunt quinque versus.)
1

8
8

ntTraKeiop TOVT .

i (i.e.
*

8

.

Vind. suppl. Phil. gr. 7) rightly. 6 5 Kevedv i, rightly. tori.
^

onfa-iVoAii/ after 10 p. 8, note i.

y

Bergk

:

Hermann ovrjo-tVoAic. u In his Delectus poesis Graecorum,

9

yeve6\a.

p. 379.

132

196

APPENDIX
fj.01

I.

ov8

e /up-eXews

rb

Kairot

<ro(f>ov

Trapa

Geos
8v

$LJ>

fj.6vos

TOVT fy 01 7^pas* dvdpa 5 OVK
<rvfj.(f>opd

cm

^

ov Kanbv

aj>

a/ia^ai/os

Ka6\r].

ITpa^ais 7ctp ed iras avyp dyad6s,
/ca/c6s

5

el

/ca/co)s,

/cai

&p(.(TTOl,

Tofa K

6eol

(f>i\&<TU>.

"EfMOiy

c^ap/cet
/AT]

8s

S.i

/ca/cos

17

aTraXciyUi os et Sws

r

dvrjcriiroXiv

ditto.?,

vyiys dfrjp.

ou yap ^w 0t\6 u.WyU.os. TWV 7ap d\i6i(*)v direip iroLvra rot Ka\d roiffl T aiaxpa
/

}

O^ TTOT
,

6*70?

r6

^trj

yevtadai dvvarbv

Kevedv

es

dirpaKrov eXiriSa /moipav at cD^os
alvtifJ-eda

dvOpwirov, etipveSovs 6Vot Kapirbv

5

tiralvqiu

/cat

6 crrts ^pS?;

5

There is little probability in this arrangement. Schneidewin altogether neglects the evident metrical resemblance between the T cu crxpa /XT) /i^/xt/crai 1 and the words from ^017 tgapKei to
rot<r

other sections of the poem.

But the obvious and indeed

fatal

objection to Schneidewin s restoration is that he makes a wide departure from the order of the words as they come in Plato, placing the fyoiy e^apitei KT\. of 346 C before the rofW/cej/ OL^TTOT ^70) of

345 C. That Socrates reverts in 346 D to rotiveKfv OUTTOT eyu KT\. is no reason for placing these words in the last part of the poem, any more than we should place the words "Av5p dyadbv fj,tv dXadtus KT\. after dvdpa 5 OVK KT\. because Socrates reverts to them in 344 E.
<m

A man who
may

professes to be giving a continuous exposition of a poem revert to the middle of it when he has come to the end, in order
1

See the restoration below on

p. 198.

APPENDIX
to illustrate the sentiment with

I.

197

which the poem concludes, but it would be the superfluity of naughtiness to put the end of the poem into the middle, which is what Schneidewin makes Socrates do. If 01) 777-0; KT\. in 346 D were in reality the conclusion of the poem, we ought to frame our Srpo07j /3 out of these very words, and not from TotivtKev OVTTOT y& KT\. We should then have to omit the words
dvdyKq. 5 ovdt Qeoi paxovrcu, because they are not found in 346 D E, but it is beyond question that these words are part of Simonides

poem.

It is tolerably certain that in

lation of part of the argument, presented as a

346 D we have but a recapitu commentary on the

concluding text
ethical

iravra. rot

/caXa KT\.,

which sums up the whole

This is practically admitted by teaching of the poem. Schneidewin himself when he writes his final strophe not as it
it 1 Bergk arranges the poem

appears in 346 D, but as

stands in 345 C D. in three complete strophes.

His resto

ration has the merit of recognising the similarity in rhythm between Schneidewin s Epode and the other parts of the poem : several of his
It may however be emendations are also in all probability right 2 doubted whether he does well in altogether excluding from the poem the words fyory tapKet and ov yap efyu <pi\6fj,wfj.os, and he deserts
.

the Platonic order even more ruthlessly than Schneidewin when he 3 places 6s &v ?j /ca/cos /XT; /X^/UKTGU directly after &vev \j/6yov rervybesides that Plato clearly indicates by the words trpoiovTos rov /j.tvov,
ei s TO trpbaOev TrpoeXOwv $07taros (339 C), 6\lyov (339 D), 5i\6i!)v (344 that there is a lacuna after rervy^vov.
B)>

and 6\lya

Blass 4 agrees with Bergk in regarding the

poem

as a sequence of

In the first strophes, but discovers four of these in place of three. strophe Blass s arrangement agrees with that of Schneidewin : in the
second, he supposes the two first verses to be lost, and the rest to contain 6s &v r? /ca/c6s KT\. down to roioL T al<rxpd /J.TJ /z^tu/mu the
:

third consists of ovdt

/J.OL

^uyueX^cos

TOVS

/ce

Oeol 0t\tD(rt^: the fourth

and

last

extends from rotiveKev

fj.dxovTa.1.

otf TTOT tyv to dvayK-g 5 ou5 0eoi This arrangement (which further agrees with that of

Bergk in rejecting ^017 ^a/>*et and ov yap dfu ^iXo/tw/xos) upsets even more completely than either of the others the sequence of the

poem
be
1

as

it is

given by Plato, and for that reason

is

most unlikely to

right.

8
*

Poetae Lyr. Graeci 4 in p. 384 ff. Bergk s emendation for JU.TJ In the Rheinisches Museum for 1872,
,
.

2

See the footnotes on

p. 195.

p.

326

ff.

198

APPENDIX L
.

The only arrangement which faithfully adheres to the Platonic order of citation is that of Aars, in the treatise referred to already 1

STROPHE
1.
"Avdp

i.

dyadbv ptv dXatf^ws yevtffdcu xaXeTroV,
"foal

2.

x

P ff ^v Te K(d

Ko.1

voy

TTpdyb)voi>,

dVeu ^oyov rcrvy-

ptvov.

Verses

37 are wanting.
2.

STROPHE
1.

OtfoV

/J.0i

^u/xeX^ws rd IIiTrd/cetoj vfyerai,

2.

KaLroL

(700ou

irapd

fj.6vos

TOUT ^%oi ytpas

avdpa 5

oi)/c

^CTTI

/*?;

ou

4.
5. 6.
7.

Kax6s 5
/cat

et Ka/ecDs

<Tts>,

TO TrXeurroj dtpiaroi,

TOI/J

/ce

^eol

STROPHE
1.
Toffj/e/ccj
otf

3.

TTOT ^70? T^

^ yevfoOcu Swarbv
0tX^w,

2.

Si^yue^os Keve&v Is atrpaKTOv tXirtda poipav aluvos /SaX^w,
Trai/d/iw/AOV avdpuirov, evpveSovs 6Vot Kapirbv
e?rt

3. 4.
5.

5

a/j./j,i^

evpuv a.Trayye\w.

Ildi Tas 8
e/ccbi

Tratvr)/Ji.i /cat

6.
7.

6 crTts epS?;

fj.r)8fr

alvxpfo

dvdyKT} 5

STROPHE
i
.

4.

Wanting.
8s

2.
3.

-- ^_^^_^ [0$^ e ^
a? ^
/ca/c6s

^(j, 0tX6/iw/ios ]

^5

&yav aTrdXa^os,
[AW ^70;

e/5ws

7

4.
5.

i^ytTys avfip,
fj,<ap.-f]ffo

oi>5

/j.r]

6.
7.

airelpwv

TrdvTa Tot /caXd,

To?(rt

T

This restoration seems to us on the whole the most probable.
In line 4 of Strophe 2 Plato no doubt wrote SP &v (the MSS reading) for 6V, using the more common construction in defiance of metre,
1

p. 194, note i.

APPENDIX
just as

/.

199

in line 5 yap after fj.fr is due to the desire to shew the sequence of thought. In lines 6 and 7 of the same Strophe Plato omits some monosyllable after Ka/cws, perhaps rts or TI or au Hermann s view that Kat of the next line should be written in line
:

6,

and

line 7

be made into

TovTrLirXeiarov apiaroi KT\.,

is

perhaps

less

probable. For line 7 we should prefer as nearer to the words of Plato KOLTTL Tr\t<TTov &pi(TToi KT\. In the third Strophe we prefer eiri r tffj.fj.iv for the reasons given in the note upon the passage on p. 166.

In the
KCIKOS

last
-g:

Strophe

6s

&v $

/ca/r6s is

Bergk

s

emendation

for 5s to

/AT?

here again Plato substitutes the
poetic, with
J

commoner idiom

for the

rarer

and more
yij 5

Birds 694
KOIKES

ov8 d^p

oi>8

ovpavbs
77

which we may compare Aristophanes It is however more likely TJV.
*a/c6s
is

that Simonides wrote 6s av
,1*77x6

KT\., for this

idiom

nyr &yav aTrdXa/xvos, i.e. /iTjre seldom found with fj,r)St or ovdt:

Jebb on Sophocles Philoctetes 771. To take fj.r)5t for d\\d ^77 would give a wrong meaning, as can be seen from the paraphrase in 346 D dXXd IJ.OL efapKel &v y fie(7os Kal fj,r]dev Kaifbv iroty. It seems
see

better too, in this line, to take elSus
(sc.

y

6vrjfflTro\iv

StKav vyLTjs avfjp

and print colons before ddws and after avfjp. In line 4 ovd The fj.iv is Bergk s restoration for vrfv of the MSS. Aars to OVK elfi tyu 01X6^0^*0$ (in line position assigned by
forus) together,
i*.-f)

2)

is

only
ae

tentative,

but

it

is

slightly

TCLVTO.

if>eyd)

on
is

elfd

<f>i\6\f/oyos

supported by coming before ^017

otf

dia

Qapnei
first

in 346 c.

There

nothing in Plato to indicate that the

line

(with part of the second) is wanting in Strophe 4, but neither is there anything to prove the reverse, and (since the poem is not in
entire, five verses being omitted in the first Strophe) it is much more reasonable to assume an omission here than violently to distort the sequence of the poem as quoted by

any case preserved

Plato.

Whether the poem
tyKu/Jiiov,

is
is

to

be ranked as an

ySrj

tiriviicos,

an

or

a ffK6\iov

until the

poem

has

first

a question which should not be raised been restored from the quotations in the

Protagoras. correct, the
it is

If the restoration given

above

is

poem cannot be

classed as an epinikion

even approximately an encomium
:

not likely to be, since no one is praised. There is no reason whatever for identifying it with the famous encomium referred to by

and

Blass holds that the poem was a scolion, Quintilian (xi i. n). this is by far the most probable view, but no certainty .is attain With the exception of the lacunae which we able on the point.

200
have noted, the poem
prove that
:

APPENDIX

/.

is most probably complete, for Socrates is Simonides attacks Pittacus throughout the whole poem see 345 D OVTU a(j>6dpa Ka.1 di 6 Xou roO pcr/xaros ^7reepXercu ry TOV HLTTO.KOV p^/icm and 343 C, 344 B. We add a translation of the poem, incorporating the few changes

trying to

which we have made

in

Aars

s restoration.

STROPHE
It is

i.

hard to quit you like a truly good man, in hands and and mind foursquare, fashioned without blame.
1

feet

truly

(The five lost vv. may have further elaborated the meaning of good ).

STROPHE
Nor do
I

2.

deem
it

the
:

word of
it

Pittacus well said, wise

though

hard, god alone belongs that meed a hopeless calamity overthrow him.
:

he was that spake

is

he said

to

be noble.

To

a

man

cannot but prove evil, if Every man if he has fared

well

is

good,

evil, if

ill

:

and

for

the most part best are they

whom

the gods love.

STROPHE
Therefore never will
I cast

3.

portion of life vainly upon a bootless hope, seeking what cannot come to be, an all-blameless man, of us who take the fruit of the broad earth when I find him,

away

my

:

I praise and love all them that willingly look you, you shall hear. do nothing base against necessity even gods do not contend.
:

STROPHE
[I love not fault-finding]
:

4.

:

enough

for

me if one be not evil nor
:

exceeding violent yea sound is the man who knoweth justice, benefactress of cities nor will I find fault with him for the tribe
:

of fools

is infinite.

Surely

all is fair

wherein

is

no alloy of

foul.

The easy-going morality of the poem is in harmony with what we know both of the life and poetry of Simonides he was ever a genial and courtly man, anxious to make the most of life, dwelling
:
"

with flowers like the bee, seeking yellow honey

"

(Sim. Frag. 47).

APPENDIX

II.

PROTAGORAS LIFE AND WORKS.

WE give the life of Protagoras as recorded by Diogenes
(ix 50
56)

Laertius
(in the

and add the fragments of
s

his

works, according

main) to Frei

arrangement

1
.

BIOS IIPflTArOPOT.
Hp(i}Tay6pas
TIKOIS,

Aprfj.uvos
5s Kal

17,

us

M.aiavdptov,

AfidvjplT rjs,

Ka6d

A7roXX65wpos Kal Acivuv ev II epHpaK\eidr]s 6 HOVTIKOS tv
<p-rj<riv

TOIS Trepi v6u.uv,

Qovpiois v6/j.ovs
<f>rja-l

ypd^at

(prjvlv

avTOv

us 5

EvTroXts fr KoXa^t, Tijt os*
"Evdoit

yap,

yv

etTTi

Hpurayopas

6 Trjios.

KeTos X67ons avayivucrKOVTes ypavlfrvTO HXdruv kv ry Upoiraybpa fiaptxpwvov elvai rbv IIp65i.Koi>. 6 TLpwray&pas ^fjLOKpLrov. e/caXetr6 re So0/a, us Kovffe S
oCros Kal
Ilp65t/fos

6

Kal
dtrj(pfjffi

<pt]<rl

<J>ajSa>ptVos

eV TravToSaTrrj IffTopia.

Kal Trpwroj

(j)rj

dvo \6yovs elvai

irepl

TrpcDros

irpdy ^taros dvTiKeifj^vovs aXX^Xocs* oh Kal aXXa Kal rfpZarb TTOU TOVTOV rbv TOUTO Trpa^as. T&V \ikv OVTUV ws ^ort Ildi TWj xpT/ywdrwj/ /j-trpov avdpwiros
Travros

rw^
elvai

5

OVK &VTWV ws

ou/c

^<TTtJ

.

?Xe7^ re
(ptjalv

^5^
oft*

eli/ai

^xV

Trapa ras

aiff9ri<TiS

(Kadd Kal
Kal

HXdrwv
ws

tv

Qeair^rw) Kal iravr
TOV Tpbirov
elcriv

d\r]6T].
oi)/c

aXXa^ou 5^ TOVTOV
otid
tf
d<rlv

tfp^aTO

Ilepi [jv

de&v
rcb

?x w eiSfrai KW\uovTa eiSfrai,
Sid TavT7]v d
TT)v

r

(1577X6x775

TroXXa yap Kal ^Spa%us uv 6 /Sios TOV
%e(3\r)dr) irpbs
Trj dyopg., VTTO KrjpvKi

o$6

us

dp~)(T)v

TOV

<Tvyypdfj.fj.aTos

Kal TO. ^tjSXt
Trap
fji.vds
1

avTov KaT^Kavcrav ev

^KaffTov

TUV KeKT-rj^vuv.

OVTOS

irp&Tos

fj.i<rdbi>

ZKUTOV

Kal irp&TOS u^pt) xpbvov diupicre Kal /catpou
p.

ovvapw t&OeT
fully given.

Quuestiones Protagoreae,

176

foil.,

where the references are

202
Kal

APPENDIX

II.
TT

\bywv dy&vas

edero, Kal cro$0yiara rots

pay uaroXoy oven
/cal

yaye

\dov
oSros

Kal TTJV didvoiav d0eis Trpds ro&Vo/ua 5ieX^%#?7 yevos r&v epLcrriK&v tyevvrjaev iva Kal Tfycwv
Hp(t)ray6pr)s r
/cai

rb vvv eirnroirepl

(f)t]<rl

avrov,

etri/uuKTOs epi^e^evai eu e/5c6s.

r6 Zw/cpart/cd? e!5os rcDv \6ywv TT/JWTOS ^Kivrjae. Kal rbv oi)/c ZCTTIV avri\6yov rbv ireLp^^evov dwodeiKvueiv
a>s

Trpwros Kal
TrpwToj
/car^Set^e

5te/Xe/crat,

/ca#c
rets

^^at IlXdrw^
6<reis

^

T&vdv8ififj,(.
ci s
<j>f)(riv

ras

TT/J^S

^Trixetp^creis,

Apre/itSwpos 6 5taXe/cn/c6s
Ka\ov/j,vr)v Tti\f)v,

^
rd,

ry

717)6$

^LptiaiTrirov.

Kal irpiSros TTJV
evpev,
yd/)

^0

^s
Trepi
/cai

(froprla

fiaa Td

ov(ru>,

us

(pijffiv

Apto-rorA^s

ej*

ry

TratSe^as

0op/xo06/>os
1

^,
els

ws

/cai

E7ri/coi;p6s TTOU

^<rL

TOVTOV rbv rpbtrov e T6v X6*yo
,

-fjpdrj

irpbs

^-q^Kpirov,

irpujros
5^,
ets
,

rtrrapa
5trjyr]<nv,

4vTO\7jv

ol

lirrd

rayye\lav,
AX/ct5dju,as 5^

eu;a>X7jj

^X^criv,
<prjcrL

ofis

/cai

r^rrapas X6yous

<f>d(rt,v,

airb(pa(nv,

^pturT/crtv,

Trpoaayopevffiv.

dv^yvw rbv
1
"

irepl

6eG)v,

ou

r^

irpGorov 5^ rwv X6ywj caurou dpxyv avw rraped^eda dvtyvii) 8
aJs rives,

A.Q-f)vri<nv

ev rrj Evpiiridov olKia

ij,

tv

5

ev

Au/ce/y,

/Aadyrov ryv (puvrjv avry xp?J(ravTOS
5

ry MeyaK\eidov aXXoi Apxaybpov rov

6eo56rou.
KOffiwv.

Kart]y6pr)<re

ai)roC IIi/^oSwpos IIoXu^Xoi; 2, els TWJ/ rerpa<f>t]ffiv.

ApiaTOT^Xrjs 5 Ei/aflXop
b~e

ean
irdXrjs.

ret crw^ 6/tej

a awroO

(3ifi\ta rdde.

T^x vrl

epiffTiK&v.

Hepl

Hepl rCov

fjLadrj/ndruv.
rijs

Hepl

Tro\irelas.

Ilepi dperuv.
Ilept
rcD?

Hepl
6p6Cjs

ev

dpxy

/caratrrdcrews.

Hepl 0tXori/u as. Ilepi rcDv ej a Sou.
IIpo<rra/cri/c6s.

ou/c

roiis

avdpuirois

Trpaffcrofj-evuv.
/u^j

AI /CT; L7r^p
yeypa(f>e

AvriXoyt&v 8vo. Kal raura 8e Kal H\druv eis avrbv 5id\oyov.
fj,i(r6ov.

aiJr^j

rd
aOi

/3t/3X^a.

8e $tX6%opos, TrX^oi/ros a^roO es St/ceXtai

,

riji

j

/cara-

Kal TOVTO alvlrreaOai ^pnrLSrjv ev
Acard rr)v odbv reXevrrjffai avrbv,
/3tw<ravra

ry

I^toi

i.

^tot 5

ert] irpbs

ra evevfjKovra
re<r<rap6,Kovra

A7ToXX65wpos 5^

<p-rj<nv

e^So^KOVTa,

(rofiicrrevcrai

de

Kal aK/Jidfciv Kara TTJV TerdpTTjv Kal dydoTjKOO r rjv Kal eis rovrov ovrus x ov
i)/j.>v

OXu/XTrtdSa.

fan

i

Kal

creO,

"E/c

Tror

ws ap Adrjveuv e"K\vov, Ilpuraybpy, i&v Ka6 68bv irpecfivs e&v edaves.
(j>driv
<re

Et Xero ^dp IlaXXdSos aarv
2

<f>vyeiv

K^/cpo?ros 7r6Xts*

dXXd

<ri)

pev

irov

(frtiyes,

H\ovrea

S

OVK tyvyes.

Fortasse scribendum

"ETTI^

AOW: v. Arist. Pol. Ath. 29.

APPENDIX
\tyerai 8e TTOT avTbv airaiTOvvra rcV
ticdvov

II.
Etia0\ov T
elirelv,
<rv,

203

(Ju<T0bv

ehrcWos,

ctXX

ovd^Tru

viKt\v
/xe

vevlKvjKa,

aXX

eyu

fiev S,v viK-f]ffw OTC

(yu

evlK-t]<ra

\a^eiv

25

4av 5e

on tnV
/cai

yeyove 5e Kal ttXXos Ilpwra^pas,
/e

aa"Tpo\6yos, els

6V

Kal rpiros trrwt /cds

FRAGMENTS.
A.
I
.

Physical. TT&VTWV

%pr)[J.&T(i)V fJ-trpOV
cos

AvdpiOTTOS

TUP
r)

fJukv

OVTWV WS

^(TTt,
s.

TtD?

5

OUK OVTUV
:

ou/c

0Ti (from

A\rideia

irepl

TOV oVros

Kara/SciXXoi Tes
2.
TroXXcx,

irepl
TCI

see PI. Theaet. 152 A). [j.kv deGiv OVK ^x w elStvcu otfd

cos

eWy

ol^

cos

OVK elatv

7<p

KwXvovTd tUtevoi
Trepl

T]

T

d8T]\6TT)5 Kal /Spa^us cov 6 filos

TOV avdp&TTov (from

From
survive.

Protagoras

Qe&v ap. D. L. IX 51). Ai Sou no fragments seem to Trepi rco^

&

B.

Ethical.

Of the
3.

Trepi apeTuiv
\)ttd)v

there

seem

to

be no fragments.
Ka\u>v,

T&V yap
i

verjviwv

ovrwv Kal

eV

(5/crcb

5e TCUS

TrdcrTjcrt ij/j.tp-rjo
175

a.irodav6vT(j)V frjTrevdtus dv^T\Tj.

evdiijs

TroXXoi

(ZvrjTO

KaTa

Tra<rav

y^p-riv
TTCIS

els efarOTfliijp

yap e?%ero, e^ Kal avudwiyv Kal
ewvTov trevdea
Kal ecouroD
l

Tty ev Totai TroXXoicn 86ai
eppu)fj.{t>(j}S

.

yap

Tls

/J.LV

bp&v

TO.

(frepovTa

fj.eya\b(f>pova

re Kal avdpeiov
v TottncrSe

^56/cei elvat

Kpelffffb),

Kapra

e^Scos

TTJV

ewvrov

irpaynatn

dfj,r]xavLr)v

(from (?) irepl Consol. ad Apoll.

TWV OVK

dpduis rots avdpwTrois irpaa(rop.evwv ap. Plut.

F. The subject is the fortitude 33. 118 E of Pericles on hearing of the death of his two sons, Paralus and

Xanthippus).

The
(ix 55)-

irepl

<pi\OTi(j.las

is

known

only from Diogenes

catalogue

C.

Political.

Of the
4.
Trjs ev

irepl TroXiTcLas

nothing (so
KTelveiv

far as is

known)
?r6Xecos

survives.
(?) irepl

yv yap Trore xpbvos

ws

v6<rov

(from

dpxv

/carcwrcitrews ap. PI. Prot.

3200

322 D).

D.

Grammatical.

Of
remains.

the

?rep2 dpOoetrelas

(mentioned in PI. Phaedr. 267 c) nothing

1 The Ionic is as it appears in Plutarch. Following the example of Frei, have not written the other fragments in Ionic.

we

204
E.
5.

APPENDIX
Rhetorical.
(?)

IL

duo \6yoi ehl

ire pi

TTCWTOS irpdy^aros

di>TiKei[J(.i>oi

Xois (from the avrikoyi&v dvo ap.
6.

D. L. IX
troieiv

51).
Te~xyi] tptffTiK&v

rbv rfnd) \byov KpeLrTw

(from the

ap.

Arist. Rhet.

n

24, p.

1402 a 23).
"

The

SI/CT;

virep

purdov (D. L. IX 55) and the

rerum illustrium
"

nunc communes appellantur have apparently left no trace.
disputationes, quae

loci

(Cic. Brut. 46)

F.
7.

Various.
0i5crews /coi

daKr/aeM

dida<rKa\la.

deirai, KO! dirb

^TTJTOS 5e

dpZafdvovs del pa.v66.vew (from the fieyas \6yos probably identical see Cramer Anecdot. Paris. I p. 171). with the UpoaraKTiKds
:

/iTjre

elvat p-fjTe re-xyW & vev peXe Trjs [IIpWTa.y6pas \e7e] 1 fj.e\^rr)v &vev r^x" 7?? (perhaps from the same, ap. Stob. Flor.
8.

^5^

29. 80).

J.

Another fragment, probably from the same work, is quoted by Gildermeister and F. Biicheler from a Syriac translation of
s wepl dovofa-ews

Plutarch

[Rhein. Mus. vol. xxvii (1872) p. 526].

The

original perhaps ran : ov fiXaffrdvei Traidela ev 9.

TT;

^v%^, eav

fj,r)

rts

ets

fivdbv

Of
the

the

irepl /uLaOrj/ndruv,

and the

irepl

rex^v

(of

irepl TrdX-rjs

was a
s

part) nothing (so far as is certainly

which perhaps known)

survives.

Gomperz

the

Defence of Medicine

2 ingenious and learned attempt to prove that which under the title of irepl T^VT/S

3 appears in the collection of Hippocratean works was written by and belongs to the treatise irepl re"xyCiv has not, as yet, Protagoras

commended
1

itself to critics

4
.

2

Compare Gomperz
Littre, vi
i

in

Wien: Philosophisch-Historische
3 4

(cited in the next note), p. n. Reprinted from the Sitzungsberichte der Kais. Akademie der Wissenschaft Classe, Band cxx.
27.

See Wellmann

in the

Archiv fur Geschichte der Philosophic, v

p. 97 foil.

INDICES TO
The
I.

THE NOTES.

references are to pages.

ENGLISH INDEX.
Autochthonous races 108
Bias 151, 159
Callias 81, 101 Ceans, virtue of 156 Ceos 151

Accusative, internal 121

Adimantus

96, 97 Adjective, proleptic 124, 166

Agathocles 99 Agathon 96 Alcibiades, defends Socrates 143 Anacoluthon 126 Analogy, reasoning from 82

Andron 95
Antimoerus 94
Antithesis 109, 114, 138, 161, 163, 170, 172, 183 Aorist, expressing rapidity 158
infinitive

Charmides 94 Chiasmus 109, 175
Chilo 160 Cicero s translation of the Prota
goras 145 City life, cause of 113

with /uAXw 85,

Cleobulus

1

60

166

Clinias 107

Apodosis 119, 181 Ariphron 107
Article, dual feminine of, 93
,,
^

Comparatio

introducing

quotation
1

134. 153. J54, I7
,,

,,

omission of 79, 106, 108, 114, 117, 152, 182 repetition of, avoided 80

Asyndeton

83, 100, 114, 126, 131, 140, 147, 149, 152, 154, 156, 160, 170, 178

compendiaria 80, too Contrary and contradictory con fused 133, 135, 136 Copula, omission of 177, 187 Creation of man 108 Cretan constitution, admired by Plato 156, 157 resemblance ,, ,, of to Spartan 158 Criso 141
Critias 97

Athens 105
Attraction 187, 193 of accusative 157 ,, ,, copula to predicate 181

Dual 132
,,

followed by plural 101

Augment

,, plural 172 94, 107, 113, 191

Education, age of commencing 120

206

INDICES TO THE NOTES.
Emendations,
6avfj.d<noi

Education, aim of Athenian 119 in Sparta 100 ,, ,, place of poetry in
,,

for dav-

118
TL

5^os for

190
professional
eral

and

lib

84

Elements
,,

differentiated before creation of /c6cryttos 109 used in creation of

re for Kare 191 inserted /idXiora
Kd\\i6i>
\6i>

122
dvTJaat

for

voijo-ai

man
Emendations,
ai
1

108
foai

127
for
foai
07T77

for 5 for

fj/fj

134

86

7r\el(t)

ir\eio<nv

dXX adtKov &pa for dXXd dlKaiov &pa dXX r, ijSovds for dXX r]8ovds 181
,,

136
TT OLTj ff

are for

Trot?;-

148 rcwrbv for TO
153

o-cre

CU^P
7TO-

7

av for yovv 124

VTToS&V for U7TO
5cD?
1

10
for
*

168
for SetXd 191 doKei for 5oKoc 177

dewd

2

for

129 tyytvyrai for 6*7^vrjrai.

efpcu for
el TTdTe

eW
for

151

Epimetheus 109 Eryximachus 95 Eunuchs as porters 92 Eurybatus 126 Experts, advice of asked 105
Fallacious reasoning 166, 173, 175, 176, 183 Fees, Protagoras mode of tak ing 127

126
e for ere

^
tirl

187 ye for 148
187 6

^/t^

re

for
1

Genitive of exclamation 155 ,, partitive 157

66

Goods, two classes

of,

distin

96
for ^TT-

guished 115 Gorgias, allusion to the 193
87
re

150
a &v 178
rovvavrlov for
et
97

Herodicus 99 Hesiod 99, 153 Hiatus 79
Hippias 91, 95
,,

lover of

metaphor 145

rotivavriov

Hippocrates 78
ft&v

for u//as

yfuv for 147 future for delibera
tive subjunctive

u^

135 146

82

Homer

99,

152

171

Iccus 99 Inaccuracies of expression 101

/.

ENGLISH INDEX.
optative

207

Indicative
,,

following
,,

102,139
subjunctive 182 secondary tense of,
in final clauses 141
lulis

Oil, use of in cookery 139 Optative followed by indicative
,,

102, 139 following
125, 130

indicative

,,

Orpheus 98
Orthagoras 103

151
relation

Learner and teacher, between 78 Lenaeum 126
Matriarchy, 167
possible

Paralos 93
Participle, aorist instead of pre

trace

of

sent 107 Pausanias 96 Periander 151
Pericles 93 Phaedrus 95

Meno, allusion to the 193 Metaphor followed by interpre tation 90, 140
from
,,

Pherecrates 125 Phidias 82
Philippides 94

battle-field

138

,,

boxing 143, 151

,,
,,

,,
,,
,,
,,

campaign 192
chase 76

Philomelus 94 Phrynondas 126
Pindar, Hippias alludes to 146 Pittacus 151, 159 Plural followed by singular 106,
1
,,

,, ,,

crooked tree

1

20

,,

,,
,,

crouching ani mal 158 cutting 147
destruction
of
city 152 driving 147 giddiness 151 javelin throw ing 159 race-course 129

66

,,

,,

,, ,,

following singular 191 Politicus, reference to the 187 Polyclitus 82 Primitive man, constitution of
1

,,
,,

08

,,

,,

,,
,,

Prodicus 91, 95, 144, 153 imitation of 108 ,, makes fun of Prota ,,
goras 155

,,

sailing 147
,,

sea 147 theatre 94 ,, ,, use of by Hippias 145 ,, Greek 165 Morality,
,,

Prometheus 109
giver of
fire

to

men

in

Musaeus 98

Myson 159 Myth from Trepl TT/J
I

Pronoun, anaphoric 88 omission of ,,
,,

after relative

reflexive

v

dpxH Kara-

O8

142, 147, 170 relative for anaphoric

Name,

proper, use of for pro
143, 193

noun 103 Names, play upon
part of negative verb 109

88 Pronouns, variation of 80, 103 Protagoras, imitation of 108
,,

author of irepldperuv

Object dependent on positive

compound

138, 150 Protases, multiplication of 82 Proverbial expressions 150, 167, 171, 186

Oenoe 79

Punishment, theory of 116

208

INDICES TO THE NOTES.
Tense, imperfect 179
,, ,,
,,

Pythoclides 99
Relative clause passing into main clause 125, 170 Repetition of word 164

,,

for aor. 171 so-called phi

losophic
1 ,,

86

Scopas 150 Simonides 150
,,

where answer no is ex
pected
1

80

as teacher of dvo/uLdruv

diaipeffis 155 avarice of 168 Socrates spokesman of company 102
,,

precision in use of 162 ,, present for past 174 Tense-assimilation 105
,,

Thales 159
Titles of dialogues 75

Solon 151
Sophist as educator 100
,, ,, ,,

Unity of vices 115
,, ,,

poetical critic 149

virtues 115, 117

teaches by parables 108 Soul, mistress of body 122 Sparta, boxing at 157 dress in 157 foreign travel forbidden
at 158
,,

Verb, omitted 188
preposition dropped in re petition of 8 1 quasi-enclitic use of 101,

,,

home
156

of

philosophers

124, 142, 154 Virtue identified with knowledge 163,

167

ej/77\aericu

from 158

in 158 ,. Statesmen unable to teach their sons and fellow citizens 106,

women

Wisdom, beauty of 77 Wise men, seven 159
,,
,,

assemble

-

at

107
Style, falls into verse 109
,, ,,

Delphi

1

60

maximsofi6o
Plato 184

poetic no, 113 Subject, omission of 170 ,, supplied from kindred word 105 Symmetry of sentence 119
,,

Words coined by
allusion to 169

Xenophon s Symposium, possible

Zeuxippus 103
Tantalus 95
Zeuxis 103

//.

GREEK INDEX.

209

II.

GREEK INDEX.
134
145 147 129 cannot be taught 104 can ,, ,, 115 1 86
dpfj,ovlai
i

77

dy

150 dyyelov 90
a(>6s

127 consent

deivai

116

69 125 "Aypioi aywviav 138
dyopcuos
1

d5iKi of past injury 80 dSiWros with object 140
del
fj.fr...

121

drdp 141
/cat
SI KT;

drdp 152
113
avXrjrpldes 170 i for example

aldus re
dicrrovv

no

=

191

179 dXXa $77 148 dXX 77 77 dXX^Xwi Kal TOV 6 Xoy 131 #\Xo ri 179 dXX6/foros 167 aXXw^ dpx a ^ 181
dfj.adia

d/fouere 5^

fj.d\a
<re

102 5i5d^et 116 106
109,
1 1 6,

ai)r6s

76,

125,

129,

45.
ai>T6s

=

19* ihe master
1

93

&(peros

06
135

191

dfj.adia [AeylcrTr]

188

Av anticipating apodosis 181 omitted in MSS. 98 ,,
,,

with optative in protasis 130
157
1

152

36

148 140
7d/) introductory

a 184 ios 184
182
dvdpeia 80, 172 fT. dveu d7rdr?7S 145 dvTjp 85, 117 dvyp dyaOos iroXlTrjs 104 avdpwiros 125

102, 108

7ap apa 96
yevff6ai 163
yevtffdai
)(

elvai

153,

163, 165

yiyveadcu 118, 140 ylyvevdai v 126
yiyvdiXTKb)

88

93
1 1

ypa/j.fj.aTi<rTaL

84

8

106
identified

yv/j.vdffia 181 122

with

not
5^ apodotic 5 5^ 83

132

180

no
1

re Kal /cdrco
eX?js

86

5etX6s 190
5eti 6i

ff.

138 1 60
1

derived from 5^os 155

Sf os

190

100,

14

devpo 8 1

A. P.

210
8r)

INDICES TO THE NOTES,
89
^j/= during evavrlov 136
102,
1

ironical 107

8rj\ovv

66
142
142 112
i r

8r]/j,r)yopeiv

in

did in did Sia

=

compounds
thanks to

^

X67<^

145
elvai

8iKaio<njvi>is

8ta TTJV

4 TOV deov avyyeveiav 112
le"vai

^i>

ro^ry
i/iri/

80

^p

8ia\a(3eiv

168 without participle 166 97 (t)S 173
117,
it 8

183 ev8et.KTi.K65 75

^Sop
ei/e/ca

?y.

evr6s

108

168,

evTelveiv els

171 121

121

ecu pecr0cu 105 ee\9ew eiri 192
89,

132 133
Ai6s
5o/cei
<pv\aKal

192
ai

in

104

eirayeadai. 170
6TraKoveu>

5o/ce?i>

without us 92 155 5oXt%65po uos 142 86\ixov KaTaTeivovffi TOV \6yov 129 56%av raura 92 1 76 S^ parenthetical 165
/xoi
/

-94

<?-rraxOr)S

98
darrov 119

eTretSdi

113 ?7T77 149 eTTTjKOOI. 94 e7r 189
^?ri

^Tretra

TrXetaro^

166

e iri.8eiKv6vai
1
i5s
e.i

69 185
fj.alvofj.al

107 tirLSe iKwcrdai 128
c Tridv/j.e ii

/A?)

ye 174
187

e7ri<T/co7retV

152 1 78
86,

elev

82
eirei

148
121

elw
elfj.1

5^

5??

in
ere pa rotaOra

d\iyyiai>

v. i\iyyiai> 151 short form of optative plural of 101
)(

^n

yevtadai 153 with verbs of naming 83 & TV T^XJ/T? 100 dirt addressing plural subjects 83 eiVep with verb expressed 130 ei s TO irpbaQtv 187 etVau^tj <TKe\{/6fj,eda 187 eZra 156 ^K St^acr/cdXwi d,7raXXa.7?}z cu 122
eli/at

elvai

167 e5 TrpdTTeiv 137 evf3ov\ia 104 evSoKLfJ-ecv 145
fj,a\\ov
evOijveiv
evfj-apta

elvai

120,
v.

124

ev/mdpeia

no

evpv6fj,6Tepoi

Kal

121
ii>

132

e/cacrrot

94
143
iep6v

exet

175
iv

145 omitted 114 c0 cSi/ 118 173
1

veaOai.

06
174 178
ff.

\aioi>

hurtful to plants 139
et s

127

^ 87,

114,
1

151
TTOLVTWV

rjye/j.ovtK6v

76

//.
i]56 as

GREEK INDEX.
161
KTlVll>

211

i]fji.p65po/jios

derivation of ydevdcu 145 142
1

08
avrov 189

elvai
,,

174 114 76 170

,,

TWV T]dovQv 179
157
\a/j.(3dveii>

OappaXtos 173 Oelos 97 6vr)Ta ytvr) 108
Opacrijs

tv

90
156, 177

X^eii/ 153, 147
X{cu>

191

\i/j.oKTovia

1

8

1

dpbvos 95
fyicts

163
v

107

157

103

144 144
lardvai 185
fj-atvecrdai.

154
(j.aKpo\oyta,

176 174
v. Kadifrffdcu

191 of

Protagoras

98,

132, 140

wavTuv 134
101
17
j>

without following 5^ 138,

ew 161
/cai

162
166, 172,

76, 128, 155,

ii7

introducing applica
tion 161
*cai

c/iot
fj.-rjv

132

/cai
:ai

oi)/c

76 145
v.
KO.I
(rol

Kal

ffv

Ka.Kbv /ca/cy laffdai.
KaAXa>7T/fecr0cu

143 154

184 105 86, 187 148 after verbs of saying fj.r) 104 thinking ,, deprecatory 177
/j.Ta\aij(.pdveii>

131,

and

137

,,
/J.-/J

=

/caX6s 96,
/cai/

174,

193

Kd/JLTTTCffBaL
e^

127,

IO7 180
77

fj.i) fj.ri

perhaps 84 134 OVTWS without verb 102
/moi

oi/xl

178

105

/LITJ fjLT]

90
Kara jSpax^

TToXXd/as 193 roLvvv tin 1 06

H7
122

fcara TrapaSayjua /card roOro eTi at

99

178
170
181
KKTT)<r6ai
,

negatives whole clause 104 introducing climax 125 186 126
fj-Oipa
1

apvvadai. 12

172

v. eKTTJ

104,

153

fj.6voi>

113

imperfect of 171

/movos irpbs /JL6vovs
/uoucri/CT/

98

96
Kida.plfffJ.aTa

152
1

121

KXijw not

tfXeico

93

vtfj.effdai

06
nocturnae 80

144
117

149

212

INDICES TO THE NOTES.
TrapatTeiadat with object 109
Trapa/caXelV, future

151

158 119

Trapa/j.vde ia-dai

1

68

120
vvov(rta

99 138

between

learner

and

85
Tras after ouSets 6 crrts ou

teacher 78
6

100

97
84
TC
1

13^

without preceding 6 162
179
1

^iv

1

86
147
oi/co5o/x,?7 u,ctTWJ
/

.V

TtDv

6
01

n

105

/JiaO&v

80

a^,01
5eu>

oiei

Opcpta 98 8

146
151

125 dyadoL 120 113 TroXews dtOLKrjffLS 105 TToXirt/crj apery 112
l

TrpeffjS^repos

107
162,

151
155, 188
birbdev Kal OTTOJS 188

irpbOvpov 92 wp6s X670J 161, 7rp6s o-^ rot 97
Trpoa"iroiei(r6ai.

177

104
/SArtcTTOS 119

114

parenthetical 142

93 130
171

dvo^aruv 90, 144 78 132 ff. 139 6 (TTis without av 167 I 36, 137 i33.
6p66Tr)$
Sa^iJs
"

146 148

89
148
pv6/j.ot

ou negatives single ou irdvv TL ou fj.hr oi 76

no

word 104

121

<ri)

ouSe^s

139
)

,, parts of, separated 141 ovdtv diafapet 190

172 177 79 drra 97

o^/c

ed\eiv 149
o-6s

OVK^Tl III oSi/ in indirect 113
,,

emphatic 151
ff.

0-00/a 135

marks regression 7 7,

124, 155

derivation of 85

oure re 77, 170, 193 ouYw 183 with apodosis 80, 92 ,, 5iJ v. oflrw 5^ 103 ovx OTI 143 154
O#TO>

154
crvyKaOeivai 142
crvfji.(3atveu
t

passive of

feiv
truV
<ri)>

in
^e

146
elireiv

100

159
S

170
Ti
I

1 1

8

7

l

166
/u.SXXoi

157
162 135
fF.

//
TO,
TO.

GREEK INDEX.
191
V.

213

115 119 Tairrd raura 164 raOra 5td raDra 80 ravrbv rather than mdr6gi, 139 re misplaced 99, 119, 143, 148

(f)l\6viKOS

144

141
J

9

(fiotrdv
01/o-ts

93 95
)(
v6/j.os

rAos 181
Terpdywvos 1 50 r^ctt 103 rl ovv ov 78 iroteiv 169 lffBai 6 r y fJi6v 149

=

fj,eyd\ai

146 186
155
151

dialect

Ta

/caXd,

n

128
165

in point of fact TO 5^ TO fj.fr TL rb 8 TL 174 r6 ?ra/)a%p77yu,a ^StJ 185 TO irpbrepov 151 TO (TOP 5r? TOUTO 156 T6^ rCjv TroXXcDi 137

94
142

w omitted in MSS. 188 w dvOpuire 132
(3
cS

ZeO
?ra?

/cai

ro^6rai 105 T6Te ^fpou 175 TOVTO ytpas 156

^eoi 80 ATroXXoSwpou 128

141

, c55e

89 without participle 89
i/

162
vfuv
1

devpo 128 ws for oiiTws 124, 147 ,, uicTTe 133 ,, with accusative participle ,,
t

88

cus

158 dvayKcuov 115
^TTOS elireiv

118 162 virfpfioLrbv 162 ii7r6 diminutive 76, 84
virctKOvetv

ws

99,

119

vTrenrelv

ws 7e ws ou
in S
u>a-7rep

76, 151 after verbs of contradict:

75

viroypd\f/cu

ypa/j./ids
1

rrj

with

122
72
,,

a preposition similes 146
I3i>

in

with asyndeton 83, 126,
152

159
1

wcrre with ddtivaTov

148

68

137

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EDUCATIONAL SCIENCE.
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A Manual of School Hygiene Thoughts on Education

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Thring

The Making of Character Tractate on Education On Stimulus Theory and Practice of Teaching

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History of the Greeks History of the Expansion of the British Empire (1500 1902) An Outline History of the British

A Short A Short

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