PINEAPPLE (ANANAS COMOSCUS) FRUIT EXTRACT AS AN ADDITIVE INGREDIENT IN MAKING LOTION

An Investigatory Project Presented to: Ms. Juliet G. Balos Saint Louis College High School

In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirement in Research II

By: Escoto, Adrian N. Viloria, Maruel Cabańog. Charisma Pascua, Kay Mae L. Rivera, Arlene Lea P.

January 11, 2011

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Nowadays, people have developed a habit of looking presentable to others. Thus, bursting the production in the field of cosmetics arose. Products that are advertised come in their own unique way. But little did the people know that most of these commercially produced products have harmful chemicals that may danger not only to them but also to the environment. The enzymes in pineapple like bromelain, which breaks down protein, thus be used as a marinade and tenderizer for meat, are being utilize in this research makes our skin elastic, hydrated, and free from damaged cells as mentioned earlier. Thus, it helps us achieve a clear and glowing complexion. The enzymes in pineapples also fight freeradical damage and can reduce age spots and fine lines. The researcher tries to provide an introduction in enhancing cosmetic products by using fruit extracts that are cheaper and can provide the community a living with minimal cost and effort. Statement of the Problem This study will test the acceptability of using pineapple fruit extract as an additive ingredient in making lotion considering the fact that the extract made from pineapples has a variety of positive effects on the skin and promotes skin elasticity while removing dead damaged skin,

3 while improving hydration and moisture and promoting a more elastic and clear looking skin. 1. What is the level of acceptability of pineapple extract as an additive ingredient in making lotion in terms of: a. moisturizing effect; b. fragrance; and c. viscosity ? 2. Which of the formulations yield the best lotion in terms of: a. moisturizing effect; b. fragrance; and c. viscosity ? Hypotheses and Assumption 1. The level of acceptability of pineapple extract as an additive ingredient is making lotion in terms of: a. moisturizing effect is least acceptable; b. fragrance is not acceptable and c. viscosity is least acceptable. 2. There is no formulation that can yield the best lotion in terms of moisturizing effect, fragrance, and viscosity. Scope and Delimitation This study is limited only on determining the acceptability of pineapple fruit as an additive ingredient in making lotion. It does not

conducting and proving its acceptability will surely reduce the cost of lotions. It considers different factors which led to the result of the study. La Union. very short and have stout stem. This study provides basic process and experiences necessary for anyone desiring to extend possible measures of making a lotion that is more beneficial without the expense thus making the product useful by either utilizing it or selling it to satisfy aesthetic needs and create profit. Significance of the Study Studying possibilities of producing cheaper yet very useful and beneficial lotion provide the researchers an opportunity to develop value of resourcefulness and become environmental – friendly in a way. . Bacnotan. They are with different sexes. Forty-five respondents are to be randomly selected by the researches. fragrance and viscosity of the lotion to be made. ages and occupation. Pineapple is a terrestrial herb. Poblacion. Thus. The factors being included in the study relating to the acceptability of pineapple fruit extract are the moisturizing effect. The researchers also made sure that they have no relationship with the respondents. This study will be conducted at Sitio Paratong.4 involve comparison between the commercial lotion and the lotion made up of pineapple.

Emulsifying Wax. This study can also provide a livelihood that is simple yet potentially profitable.a cosmetic emulsifying ingredient used primarily in manufacturing creams. lotions. It is mainly esters of fatty acids and various long chain alcohols. flavoring.5 This study can provide the learners to become keener in seeing a new perspective in thing therefore developing values and desirable habit. or other substance -acquired through the process of distillation Lotion .is the common name for an edible tropical plant and also its fruit Extract.a substance made by a part of a raw material. -a concentrated preparation of the essential constituents of a food. Moisturizing effect . and other beauty products Beeswax. Definition of Terms Pineapple.it is a natural wax produced in the bee hive of honey bees of the genus Apis and can be used as a substitute for emulsifying wax.aroma: a distinctive odor that is pleasant .the ability to make the skin moist Fragrance .any of various cosmetic preparations that are applied to the skin for cosmetic or medical reason.

a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear stress or tensile stress .6 Viscosity .

Lotions for the face often vary in thickness or viscosity.Chapter 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents a brief literature and study on the effectiveness of Pineapple (Ananas Comoscus) fruit extract as an additive ingredient in making a moisturizing lotion. There are. As such. wrinkles. Body lotion is a product that can be used from the neck down to the toes. face lotion is often more delicate than formulas for skin on the rest of the body. . water and emulsifying wax) that are intended to offer added benefits to the skin. which is skin that has some oily patches and some dry patches. A lotion might help to correct uneven tone in the skin or help to balance combination skin. Lotion or emulsion is a skin care product that is used to soothe dry skin and is sometimes formulated with ingredients (mainly oil. and various forms of sun damage. There are some lotions that are meant to help manage acne on the face. depending on whether they are meant to be worn during the day or at night. There are also many emollients for the face that are made with ingredients that help to reverse or fight the signs of aging such as fine lines. Face lotion also is sometimes formulated to address skin issues specific to the face or most commonly targeted on the facial skin. also emollients that are meant to be used specifically on the face. however. Day moisturizers and lotions are almost always lighter and less viscous than night lotions.

This physical incompatibility of water and oils can be overcome by agitating the water and oil mix. pregnancy.8 Lotions for the body might be used to address the kinds of skin issues that crop up on the legs. belly. However there is one way to stabilize emulsion and that is through the use of an emulsifying agent. A lotion may include ingredients that are meant to help fade and heal stretch marks that may be the result of rapid growth. Lotion consists of primarily oil and water which are naturally incompatible. Agitation disperses the molecules. body lotion often includes sun block as a way to prevent sun damage to the skin. back. EMULSIFYING AGENTS Emulsifying agents are substances that help water and oils bind together. arms. . and generates an emulsion. and so on. Like face lotion. Many people who are serious about protecting their skin from sun damage wear body and face lotions with sun block on a daily basis. However. emulsions made by simply agitating water and oil will is just temporary because water is denser than oil. it will sink to the bottom while the oil will float on top. or weight fluctuation. and allow it to prepare stable emulsions where water and oils do not separate or substances that are soluble in both fat and water and enable fat to be uniformly dispersed in water as an emulsion.

EMULSIFYING COMPOUNDS AND E-WAXES . Each differs from its source. effect and usage. these exhibit considerable variation in emulsifying properties. natural emulsifying agents from animal source the examples include gelatin.9 There are several classifications of emulsifying agents: Natural emulsifying agents from vegetable sources which consist of agents which are carbohydrates and include gums and mucilaginous substances. type A gelatin (Cationic) is generally used for preparing emulsion while type B gelatin is used for emulsions of pH 8 and above lecithin and cholesterol present in egg yolk also act as emulsifying agent. semi-synthetic polysaccharides Includes mainly cellulose derivatives like sodium carboxy methyl cellulose. hydroxyl propyl cellulose and methyl cellulose and synthetic emulsifying agents contains surface active agents which act by getting adsorbed at the oil water interface in such a way that the hydrophilic polar groups are oriented towards water and lipophillic non polar groups are oriented towards oil. egg yolk and wool fat (anhydrous lanolin). thus forming a stable film. Since these substances are of variable chemical composition. They act as primary emulsifying agents as well as secondary emulsifying agents. They are anionic in nature and produce emulsions.

The plant grows about 3 feet (90 cm) tall and bears 30 to 40 stiff. The four common parts are: the slips. the crowns-the leafy growth on top of the pineapple. sword-shaped leaves clustered very tightly around a thick. emulsifying compounds are widely used. fleshy stem. The fruit is thought to have washed ashore from ships that met the terrible fate of destructive storms. or other such perils of the sea. to prepare stable emulsions that do not separate. and the ratoons that are located on the roots. and several are considered or feared to be possible sources of irritation and sensitisation reactions.10 Often referred to as "e-wax". both in the cosmetic and in the food industry. PINEAPPLE Pineapples are usually grown by propagation. The vast majority of commonly available emulsifying compounds include a significant portion of petrochemical materials (fossil hydrocarbons). a disease caused by a deficiency of Vitamin C. they are grown by replanting a part of themselves. Pineapples are thought to have gotten their start in the Caribbean Islands from Spanish shipwrecks. which are located on the stem below the fruit. so they carried pineapples whenever it was possible. The Spanish explorers knew that eating pineapple helped to prevent scurvy. Virtually all emulsifying compounds and e-waxes are blends of chemically prepared substances. That is. . the suckers that start at the leaves.

also has a strong anti-inflammatory action and has a positive effect. hexagonal fruits that together constitute the pineapple.11 The leaves are often jagged at the edges. As the flowers mature. Howlett. This may help to explain why results of at least two clinical trials suggest that the enzyme can help to improve the symptoms of angina and thrombophlebitis. The result of the application of AHAs is a thinner corneal layer. from on a flower stem several inches long. located in the axis of red or green bracts. These active principles are responsible for its moisturizing and anti-ageing action. generally lavender. There is also . Flowers. and also have a antifungal and purifying effect on the skin. As well as thinning the blood. In studies it was also shown that bromelain. interfering with the growth of malignant cells and tumors. bromelain also thins mucus. (Freeman S. which improves its elasticity and flexibility regardless of the degree of skin hydration. small.sugars and a-hydroxy-acids (AHA) as well as enzymes. Ohio State University. Bromelain is a natural anticoagulant that works by breaking down the blood-clotting protein fibrin. they become fleshy and the ovaries fuse to form the multiple. and thus may be of benefit to asthmatics and people suffering from chronic bronchitis. The ahydroxy-acids (AHA) are a group of organic acids that work on the corneal layer and reduce the cohesion of the corneocytes. contained in pineapples. Americana) Pineapple fruit has some active principles with important effect on skin .

However. Results of one study also found evidence to suggest that it can help to improve the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. 100% of participants given antibiotics in combination with bromelain and another enzyme called trypsin were cured of their infection. and penicillin. There has also been some suggestion that bromelain has anticancer properties. Bromelain has potent anti-inflammatory properties and therefore may be useful in promoting the healing of minor muscle injuries such as sprains and strains. Bromelain aids digestion by enhancing the effects of the digestive enzymes trypsin and pepin. The enzyme may also enhance the effect of the antibiotics amoxicillin. Bromelain supplements often contain a plant pigment called quercetin. if either is caused by a deficiency of digestive enzymes. although this has not been proven. and thus may improve immune function. whether or not the enzyme would be beneficial to immunocompromised people has not been established clinically. . In a study of people with urinary tract infections. erythromycin. compared with just 46% who received antibiotics alone. penicillamine. When applied topically it may help to speed wound healing. It can also help to prevent heartburn by ease diarrhea. Several recent studies have linked chronic inflammation to cancer. thus any anti-cancer action of bromelain could be due to it anti-inflammatory properties.12 evidence that bromelain can trigger beneficial changes in white blood cells.

. and that bromelain appears to improve quercetin absorption.13 The two substances are found in combination simply because they enhance each other’s antiinflammatory actions.

These ingredients. that group will be then compared to another group with similar characteristics and studying the same subject matter under customary instructional methods but unexposed to the experimental factor.CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY This chapter gives the general outline of the procedure used in the study. This involves a group that is subjected to an experimental factor for a period of time. materials and procedures of the study. instrumentation. Any excess between the two achievements is considered due to the experimental factor. we will be using the Single group with only a post-test design. Then. The . This design is best suited for this study or experiment because it determines the effectiveness of each individual method. It includes the research design. olive oil. Water. Selection Phase There are no experiments to be done without the materials used. These materials must be abundant and easy to find. except emulsifying wax or beeswax can be found at the market of City of San Fernando in La Union. after the experimental period. Research Design This study made use of the descriptive and experimental research using different treatments. emulsifying wax or beeswax and pineapple extract was the ingredients used in this study. Under this study.

The one we used as an additive ingredient is the pineapple extract. They are anionic in nature and produce o/w emulsions. Blender 2. Such that we used the natural emulsifying agents. since these substances are variable chemical composition. Kitchen knife 2. Burette 4. Preparation Phase Preparation of Materials 1. We used the beeswax as an alternative of emulsifying wax. All emulsifying wax are blends of chemically prepared substances. Beeswax is a natural wax produced in the beehive of honeybees of genus Apis. Distilling flask 3.15 emulsifying wax or the beeswax is available at some craft store or online. These exhibit considerable variation in emulsifying properties. Tripod . improving hydration and moisture and promoting more elastic and clear looking skin. Pineapple fruit Extraction of Pineapple 1. Pineapple extract has a variety of positive effects on the skin and promotes skin elasticity while removing dead damage skin. Basin 3.

Then assemble the distilling set up. 2 pail Preparation of Lotion 1. Bunsen burner 6.16 5. 2. Container for lotion Methods in Product Making 1. Saucepan 4. Tripod 5. we carefully carve the rinds off of the outside of the fruit. And carve the fruit off of the core then cut the core into several chunks. Set aside. Using the kitchen knife. Rinse thoroughly with water to remove dirt and other foreign materials. Bunsen burner 6. 3 measuring cup 2. Extraction of Pineapple We put the chunks of core and the pieces of rind into the blender. Water tube 7. Blender 3. Preparation of Materials We bought pineapple fruit from the market. We put the blended pineapple in the flask and . We use the blender to blend the pineapple. Then twist the leafy top of the pineapple with hands.

There are three treatments. In T1. 3. In T2. the pineapple extract was measured 5mL. And last. The controlled variable used was the pineapple extract while the uncontrolled variables were olive oil. Treatment 1 (T1). beeswax. water. The next step was filling the small saucepan with water and set it on low fire to use as a water bath. in T3. Then we added the ¼ cup beeswax into the saucepan and we mash the beeswax in the water bath until it formed a refined lump without any granules of beeswax.17 perform the distilling process until we have the ample amount of extract ass an additive. it was measured 10mL. And then. we got the lump of beeswax and transferred it to another saucepan with 1 ¼ cup of hot water in it. The controlled variable is the variable that is being controlled in every treatment while the uncontrolled variable is the variable that is not controlled in every treatment. Each treatment has controlled and uncontrolled variables. Then we added the pineapple extract first followed by the ½ cup oil and mixed all the ingredients thoroughly by . the pineapple extract was measured 15mL. again made sure it would not melt the beeswax. Treatment 2 (T2) and Treatment 3 (T3). This water bath was used for mashing the beeswax with the use of spoon but we made sure that it would not melt the beeswax. Preparation of Lotion We prepared the treatments by group.

stirred with a spoon or chopstick and poured the lotion into a bottle while it’s still warm and pourable.acceptable . Moisturizing Effect 5. with an equivalent numerical rating of 1 as the least and 5 as the highest. A.18 using a blender or an electric whisk. but occasionally cap the lotion and we gave it a quick shake to help blend the mixture. We let it cool slightly.very highly acceptable 4. Table 1 Proportion of Ingredients in each Treatment Treatment extract T1 T2 T3 olive oil (cups) 1/2 1/2 1/2 water (cups) 1 1/4 1 1/4 1 1/4 beeswax (cups) 1 /4 1/4 1/4 pineapple (mL) 5 10 15 Data Collection Phase The product will be evaluated by 45 respondents using the subjective score card which includes the moisturizing effect. And the last step. Otherwise. it would be hard to get the lotion into its container and you might have to use a funnel.highly acceptable 3. we left the cap off to let it cool completely. fragrance and viscosity.

acceptable B.very highly acceptable 4. Preparing the Treatments 1.19 2. ¼ cup emulsifying wax or beeswax and 5 mL of pineapple extract.least acceptable 1. Fragrance 5. Viscosity 5. 1 1/4 cup of water.acceptable 2.highly acceptable 3.least acceptable 1. Forty-five respondents are to be randomly selected by the researches.acceptable C.acceptable 2. Bacnotan. Instrumentation and Data Collection A. La Union.highly acceptable 3. Poblacion.very highly acceptable 4. .least acceptable 1.Acceptable The respondents who will evaluate the product were composed of citizens at Sitio Paratong. Treatment 1 (T1) The formulation consists of ½ cup olive oil.

Effective is determined when the moisturizing effect of the lotion is evident and effective to the skin. ¼ cup emulsifying wax or beeswax and 10 mL of pineapple extract.49 DESCRIPTIVE EQUIVALENT Very Highly Acceptable Highly Acceptable Acceptable Least Acceptable Not Acceptable Highly effective is determined when the moisturizing effect of the lotion is too evident and is effective to the skin.49 2. 1 1/4 cup of water.49 1. 3. ¼ cup emulsifying wax or beeswax and 15 mL of pineapple extract. . Treatment 3 (T3) The formulation consists of ½ cup olive oil. Moisturizing Effect The following scale was used to evaluate the lotion: SCALE 4. Testing the Treatments a.5-5 3.5-3. B.5-4.49 1-1.20 2.5-2. 1 1/4 cup of water. Treatment 2 (T2) The formulation consists of ½ cup olive oil.

Least effective is determined when the moisturizing effect of the lotion is least evident and least effective to the skin. b. Acceptable is determined when the fragrance of the lotion is pleasing.5-2.49 1-1.49 2. Not effective is determined when the moisturizing effect of the lotion has no effect to the skin at all.5-3. . Moderately acceptable is determined when the fragrance of the lotion is considerably pleasing.49 DESCRIPTIVE EQUIVALENT Very Highly Acceptable Highly Acceptable Acceptable Least Acceptable Not Acceptable Highly Acceptable is determined when the fragrance of the lotion highly pleasing.49 1.21 Moderately effective is determined when the moisturizing effect of the lotion is not so evident and least effective to the skin. Fragrance The following scale was used to evaluate the lotion: SCALE 4.5-5 3.5-4.

22 Least acceptable is determined when the fragrance of the lotion is slightly pleasing.49 1-1.5-4.49 2.5-5 3. Moderately acceptable is determined when the viscosity of the lotion is considerably thick. c.49 DESCRIPTIVE EQUIVALENT Very Highly Acceptable Highly Acceptable Acceptable Least Acceptable Not Acceptable Highly Acceptable is determined when the viscosity of the lotion very thick.49 1. . Least acceptable is determined when the viscosity of the lotion is thin. Not acceptable is determined when the viscosity of the lotion is watery.5-2. Viscosity The following scale was used to evaluate the lotion: SCALE 4.5-3. Acceptable is determined when the viscosity of the lotion is thick. Not acceptable is determined when the fragrance of the lotion is not pleasing.

Table 2. Moisturizing Effect As to test the moisturizing effect. Results show that T3 which uses 15mL in pineapple distillate was preferred by the panelists rather than T1 and T2 that used 5mL and 10mL.Chapter 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Formulations yield the best lotion in terms of moisturizing effect.73 mean rating is very highly acceptable also as shown in Table 1.20 having an acceptable descriptive equivalent. Treatment 2 (T2) gained 4. results show that Treatment 1 (T1) were rated by the panelist with a mean of 3.1 Results of the Evaluation of the Respondents (Moisturizing Effect) Panelist 1 2 3 T1 3 3 3 T2 5 4 3 T3 5 5 4 . viscosity. and fragrance. The panelists rated T1 and T2 as acceptable and highly acceptable while T3 was also rated as very highly acceptable but with a higher mean.20 mean rating which is described as highly acceptable and Treatment 3 (T3) with 4. respectively.

73 Very Highly acceptable .20 Acceptable 4 5 5 4 5 4 5 4 4 3 4 4 63 4.20 Highly acceptable 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 71 4.4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Total Mean Descriptive Equivalent 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 2 3 4 3 48 3.

The panelists rated T1 as least acceptable while T3 was rated as highly acceptable.93 mean rating which is described as acceptable and Treatment 3 (T3) with 4.27 mean rating is acceptable as shown in Table 2. Table 2.25 Fragrance As to test the fragrance. Again results show that T3 which uses 15mL of pineapple distillate was preferred by the panelists rather than T1 and T2 that used 5mL and 10mL respectively. results show that Treatment 1 (T1) were rated by the panelist with a mean of 2. Treatment 2 (T2) gained 3.2 Results of the Evaluation of the Respondents (Fragrance) Panelist 1 2 3 4 5 6 T1 4 4 3 3 4 2 T2 4 5 4 3 5 4 T3 4 5 4 4 4 5 .93 having the least acceptable descriptive equivalent.

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Total Mean Descriptive Equivalent 3 3 2 3 4 3 2 2 2 44 2.27 Highly Acceptable .93 Highly Acceptable 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 64 4.93 Acceptable 4 3 5 3 4 4 4 4 3 59 3.

Treatment 2 (T2) and Treatment 3 (T3) with means of 3. Table 2.60 rather than T1 and T2 that used 5mL and 10mL respectively. The panelists rated T1. 4.27 and 4. T2 and T3 as acceptable but again results show that T3 which uses 15mL in pineapple extract was preferred by the panelists having the highest mean of 4.27 Viscosity As to test the viscosity.3 Results of the Evaluation of the Respondents (Viscosity) Panelist 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 T1 4 4 3 4 3 3 4 T2 4 4 3 4 3 4 5 T3 4 5 4 4 4 5 5 .60 respectively were rated as acceptable as shown in Table 3.40. results show that Treatment 1 (T1).

40 Acceptable 5 5 4 5 4 4 5 5 64 4.60 Very Highly Acceptable .8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Total Mean Descriptive Equivalent 5 4 3 4 3 2 3 2 51 3.27 Highly Acceptable 5 5 4 5 5 5 4 5 69 4.

T2 as highly acceptable. T1 and T2 are moderately acceptable formulations of pineapple fruit extract as an ingredient in making lotion with 5 and 10 mL of fruit extract. panelists rated T1 and T2 as acceptable and highly acceptable while T3 was rated as very highly acceptable but with a higher mean. the panelists rated T1 and T2 as least acceptable and acceptable. respectively.60 rather than T1 and T2 that used 5mL and 10mL respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION Summary of Findings As to the test on the moisturizing effect. respectively. the panelists rated T1 as acceptable. As to the viscosity. . respectively. Results show that T3 which uses 15mL in pineapple extract was preferred by the panelists rather than T1 and T2 that used 5mL and 10mL. T3 as very highly acceptable but again results show that T3 which uses 15mL in pineapple extract was preferred by the panelists having the highest mean of 4. Again results show that T3 which uses 15mL of pineapple extract was preferred by the panelists rather than T1 and T2 that used 5mL and 10mL respectively. As to fragrance. As to the acceptability of the pineapple fruit extract.Chapter 5 SUMMARY. while T3 was rated as highly acceptable.

. Pineapple fruit extract can be an ingredient in making lotion. Pineapple fruit extract should be tested for other cosmetic purposes. Recommendations 1. and viscosity. and 3.Conclusions 1. The use of 15 mL of pineapple fruit extract in making lotion provide better results in terms of moisturizing effect. 30 2. and 3. and viscosity. Pineapple fruit extract can be added to other ingredients to make cosmetic products such as lotions. Pineapple fruit extract is an acceptable ingredient in making lotion. 2. fragrance. fragrance. Another formulation can be developed to study its effectiveness and acceptability in terms of moisturizing effect.

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22).d. Retrieved December 21.htm#Cosmetic%20Properti es%20Of%20Pineapples The history of Pineapple.20. from http://www. (2009. Retrieved January 16. (1997). 2010. from http://www. Reader’s digest: foods that harm foods that heal. Kitchen Project.com/pineapplenatural-remedy-for-poor-digestion-and-skin-problems/ 32 Pineapple extract in skin care use to promote skin elasticity and removing damaged skin.kitchenproject. (n.dermaxime.htm The history of the Pineapple. 2010. .com/all/pineapplehistor_rmfj.). (2011.htm The Reader's Digest Association. Pleasantville. from http://www. [ Article posted on Web site essortment]. New York/Montreal: Author. Jan. 2010. from http://guide2herbalremedies.com/history/Pineapple/index.essortment.. January 1). Retrieved December 22.com/pineapple. 2011.

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