38 (1984)

255 - 266


A Simulation Model for An Air-Swept Ball Mill Grinding Coal
L. G. AUSTIN, Deportment K. SHOJI h-ure Research Laboratory (formeriy h’ennedy Van Saun Corporation), Hiroshima (Japan) P_ T_ LUCKIE




The Pennsylvania







Kennedy (Received Van Saun February Corporation. 3.1983;in Danuille. revised PA (USA.) May 6.1983) form

SUMMARY The conventional model for grinding in tumbling ball milk was modified to allow for air-sweeping, for the case where all the material is carried out of the mill in the air stream. It was shown that this type of mill can be treated as a single fully mixed reactor. The values of the internal classification numbers given by the air-sweeping were determined for a 1 m by l-5 m pilot-scale mill grinding coal. The resuits showed that only 1 to 270 of the mih charge are exposed to the sweeping action per mill revolution_ S and B values determined in a laboratory mill were scaled-up for use in the continuous miiZ modei and the simulations gave product size distributions and mill capacities which agreed with the pilot-scale mill data within the experimental accuracy of the pilot-scale data.

industrial dry grinding of coal is always carried out with a high rate of air-sweeping to remove fines from the mill_ The inlet air is heated to give drying in the mill so that the product is fine dry coal- Surface moisture prevents the fines from being swept out and greatly reduces grinding efficiencyThe simulation of tumbling ball mills wit.h mathematical models has reached a fairly advanced stage 13, 4, 51 but the concepts have not been applied to coal grinding because the models have not included the effect of air-sweeping- In this paper, we will modify the models to allow for air-sweeping, assuming that the removal of fines allows the fracture to proceed in a first-order manner [2]. The characteristic of an air-swept ball mill is that the entire flow of powdered coal from the mill is in the air stream- The model incorporates closed circuit via an estemal classifier and t.he simulation is validat.ed by tests on a pilot-scale mill_


The most widely used equipment for grinding coal to the sizes prescribed for pulverized coal firing of utihty boilers are the ball-race and roll-bowl types of mill. However, there are some advantages to the use of tumbling ball mills for coal grinding and several manufacturers supply such systems. It has been known for many years that coals do not grind well if fines are allowed to buiid up in the grinding zones. This has been recently confirmed [l, 21 by studies of the specific rates of breakage of coals in ball-race and tumbling ball mills. For this reason,

Consider the mill receiving a feed of known size distribution: as customary [3], the size intervals of the size distribution are chosen in \/2 geometric sequence corresponding to the standard sieve sequence, with the masimum size interval denoted by 1, the second size interval by 2, and so on_ The nth interval is the ‘sink’ interval containing all material less than the smallest size measurement, 2’70 mesh (53 pm) for the tests described here_ The feed is denoted by the set of numbers fi, where f, is the weight fraction in size interval 1, etc_ It
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Wi is the fraction of the mass of size i and Si is the specific rate of breakage of size i. For a mill rotation speed o. where b. (3) and rearranging using 7 = W/F. (2) becomes i-l ri +Pi(F- 5 b. then the total rate of removal of powder by air-sweeping is R = Zyri and eqn. then. the amount of size i material in W exposed per unit time is pivOW_ It will be assumed that the exposed material of size i has a probability Ci of being retained in the hold-up and hence the fraction swept up will be 1 -Ci or ri = pi??0 W(1 Ci) Fig_ 1. time-‘_ It will also be assumed that primary breakage of size j produces a suite of daughter fragments described by the set. To modify this to allow for airsweeping. (l). For the purpose of this paper. A particularly convenient method of allowing for the RTD is to consider the mill as a series of fully mixed stages.SjWi i=1 - SiWi W (2) i>l where F is the feed rate and pi the product size distribution. R) = fiF + W C bi$jWi i=l i>l -SiwiW (3) It is assumed that she powder acted on by the grinding action is the flowing powder and that the suspended powder is not subject to breakage action. is the fraction of material which is of smaller size i after primary breakage of Iarger size i (i > i). i-l (4) Inserting into eqn. pi = Wi and eqn. If there is no classification where R/F = E = n)w-&l 1 cj)pj (54 . note that + T C bi$ijp~ i=1 i>l i-l l=Gi<n (W where -r is the mean residence time defined by 7 = W/F. =1 i=n ’ The size distributions produced from a tumbling ball mill also depend on the residence time distribution (RTD) of material in the mill. i-l fi + TC b&jpi j=1 pi = (1 E) + Si7 + qO(l Ci)7 l<i<n (5) PiF = fiF + W C b. per mill revolution. of numbers b.. Wi =pi_ It is also assumed that a fraction 77of the powder maSS W is exposed to the air stream by tumbling. the left-hand side of the mass-rate balance becomes rate of removal of size i in the air stream + rate of removal of size i in the powder flow Let the rate of removal of size i by airsweeping be ri. equal sizes of the stages are assumed. but the equations developed can be readily extended to stages of unequal size_ Figure 1 illustrates the system and nomenclature. (2) becomes pi = rate of breakage of size i = SiWiR’ where W is the mass of coal acted on by the mill. Illustration stages_ of air-swept mill as a series of Austin and Gardner [6] have given the mass-rate balance of a single fully mixed mill operating at steady state as rate of removal of size i material in product = rate of addition of size i material in feed + rate of production of size i material by breakage of all larger sizes . using eqn.rate of breakage of size i material or.256 will be assumed that breakage obeys the firs& order hypothesis (1) action at the mill exit.

k lGk<m (6b) There is no powder flow out of the mth reactor. for the first stage - (1 _Ei)(l T/m --El) --. at W/m_ For the relatively short mills used in coal grinding. Since it is known that the hold-up level along this type of mill does not change very much.(1 -Eg_.&l 1 - ‘+)&. i=1 Pi-l= t1 -El) + SiTI + qO(l i-l 1 -Ci)Tl pi’ = wyCi) 2 k=1 pi_k l=si<n (7) l<i=Gn If the values of n and Sj are assumed constant along the mill. since r = TV/F.) l<k<m Is2- = 7/m @a) time il = 7/m where -r is the overall mean defined by IV/F and residence Ek = Tk.2 In general [ 73.1 +~2 C TJwFV(I - ci jwi = fiF + tV 3 j=1 bijSjU?j - i=l piy2 = (1 - fZ*) + Sira + 7jW(l -Ci)T* i>l - Si WWi (8) ldidn r2 = (W/m)/(F -R.i C i=l bi$TiWj -Cj)T Pivk = (1 - ek) + Sirk -I.lO(l l=Gi<n (9) . the mean size distribution in the mill. a mass balance on size i over the total mill gives E 1= r1T-J i: i=1 (1 --jlPi stage i-l 1 1 gri_. i-l fi -i. is k . can be used in each section_ It will also be assumed that particles in the air stream are rapidly swept out and do not fall back into the bed of powder.fiF + ‘i ‘g’ bijSjgpi_& = 1 ?7lj=.1 -t Tk c i=1 b$$P~. 1 - W m si m x:Pi_ 1 L_ i>l For the second or i-l bijSjPj. = l_ The size distribution of the air-swept product is or fi * 71 C bi+jPi. E = 1_ The treatment is extended to m fully mixed stages in series as follows (see Fig_ l)_ A mass-rate balance on the second stage is identical except that the product piF(1 . the value of F must be such as to lead to E. then.E) is the feed into the second stage. w and fi. if the RTD of the powder flow in the mill corresponded to one fullymixed reactor. = l_ For a given set of 1 .2 pi = Pi.) = 711(1 EI) where m wi=xPi. SO the same values of Si and b.k 1 I m E2 = T27& 1 (1 - CilPi.E is thus the fraction of the feed rate removed in the air stream. it can be assumed that the hold-up is equal in each stage.n~(l Wi = l<ibn lCk=Gm (6) and SiT ~ ‘I. ri is the total flow of size i in the air stream and IV is the total mass of powder in the mill_ Thus.k -Ci)Ti. Then. so E. i-l Pi. and given 77. the balls are fully mixed throughout.ci vdue~. W.

ball mills grinding coal have another characteristic which is somewhat different from the usual ball milling of mineral rocks. a small feed particle can soon be swept out. Examination of the classifier data show that terms in Si dominate over those in Ciy SO that the final result of closed-circuit operation is not highly sensitive to the values of ci_ For these reasons. Experimental size distributions for coal ground in 0. it is necessary in the simulation to: (a) specify the air-flow rate. 2.‘I8 Fig. S].The ball charge used was 4810 g of 1 in dia. using the sound of the mill as a guide. In addition. For ~IIOWII VdUeS of Si. DETERMINATION 4ND SCALE-UP OF BREAKAGE RELATIONS PARAMETERS DISCUSSION OF MODEL Laboratory ball mill test In this type of system. c =. the experimental measurement of size distributions along the axis of a pilotscale mill (see later) showed that there was only a minor variation along the mill. The coal feed to the air-swept ball is typically a crushed feed with a top size of about 1 in. Since the flow rate of material presented to the internal air classification is VOW. pilot-scale air-swept ball mill fitted with a twincone classifier_ . but the kinetics of breakage of larger sizes have not been so fully investigated [ 9] _ The normal values of S and B were measured on a coal g-round dry in a cylindrical steel laboratory ball mill of 195 mm diameter and 5.Ci)(l -. The concept of residence time distribution starts to lose meaning under these circumstances_ The assumption that particles will not fall back into the bed once they are entiained is clearly an over-simplification which cannot apply to a long mill [ 73 _ However. the air flow rate is usually adjusted to match the coal feed rate so that a correct filling level of powder is obtained in the mill. bif. A large particle which moves to the discharge end of the mill will strike the end wall and back-mis into the mill contents. pi’. the treatment of the closed circuit system (Appendix 1) shows that the effective overall classifier action is given by (1 . 7. Since IV is thus In addition to the air-sweeping action. (c) calculate F for a correct value of W.0 1290 ACFH 970 IbS~h. and the rate of fine material leaving is QWWCi(l -Ci)UJi. as shown in Fig. there is a unique value of 7. The presence of appreciable quantities of such large sizes means that care must be taken to describe the breakage of these large sizes with reasonable accuracy_ The description of the breakage of small sizes which are nipped and crushed in a normal breakage by the balls has been well studied 15. the simple model of a fully mixed mill was used.258 Pi ’ = mW(l - Ci)Wi ldi<n (IO) The conclusion is thus reached that for these assumptions the mill behaves as if it were a single fully mixed mill containing a mean overall size distribution. correspond- w P/CIRCUIT PRODUCT L N r. steel balls. the equivalent internal circulating load is l/Xi(l -Ci)Wi- fixed. In practice. (b) calculate Xi. 2. with the values of Ci being mean effective values over the mill as a whole_ This gives a particularly simple system for experimental analysis.22 litre volume.Because the values of Ci vary with air flow rates. Ci and T)O.Q) where 1 -si is the fraction returned by the external classifier. the coal feed rate follows from F = llr. (d) repeat for different values of air flow rate until the desired value of F is obtained by trial-anderror search or interpolation.98 rn I. a large particle in the feed entering the mill must stay in the mill as long as necessary to break it down in a z series of steps to sizes small enough to be swept out. The computational procedure is given in Appendix 1.D. On the other hand.

W) P (12) It was found that the cumulative daughter fragment distribution Bii was normalized [12] for the coal (that is. Ayre mm loo PARTICLE Fig.259 ing to a fractional filling of the mill volume by the bed of balls of J = 0. _ . and (Y is characteristic of the material. the primary daughter fragment distribution calculated using the BII method was expressed in cumulative form s oo~L_-__ ___. The experimental methods have been described in detail elsewhere 110 J_ For particles which are small with respect to the ball size. The values of S and B are shown in Figs. /O 0=195mm . values plotted at upper size of intervai). and ‘1~~= O-36(5). using a formal porosity of 0. The dry mass of coal used was 122 g. 4.1__ _. 3.83 for this coal. Bii = 2 k=n b. giving a fractional filling of the mill volume of f.03._-_L. The value of iv0 is still in question due to conflicting results of various tests but was taken [ll] as l-O_ In the usual way [ 123.i i>j 002 Fig. _. = 0. y = O-90..= 0.3 and a formal porosity of O-4. it has been fGund that the values of Si vary with particle size -Xi. assuming an apparent specific gravity of coal of 1.l 0. Cumulative or RELATIVE SlZE xi /xi fragment :j daughter distribution of and the results fitted to Belle Ayre coal (d2 inierval).4 for the ball bed (290 lb/ft3).~_ ~. ball diameter d and mill diameter D according to simple power functions Si(d) a XiQDNIjdNo .I =0. 0.1 I IO SIEVE Belle SIZE. 3 and 4_ The experimental values of the normal values of Si can be converted to other powder where Ni is close to O-5..2.. . p = 2.20 4 P I i 3 f.. rrr. S values used in the simulations: coal (d2 size interval. the formal bulk density of coal is 770 kg/m3.8.03 d =25mm 2 A I I I1ll‘l 1 i I t I. 4:_ = a constant for different breaking size j).

and 37-5% of 1 l/2 in.5% of 1 l/4 in. It is clear that for this type of coal it is necessary that the laboratory batch test be performed at moisture conditions corresponding to those in the continuous test. 5. The mechar.2U) 1 -i 6. (13) where U is interstitial filling of balls defined by tl = f. The results are shown in Fig. with sampling for each time. A = 2. . = 0.isms by which moisture content affects the breakage of larger sizes remains to be investigatedPilot mill tests: Continuous grinding The test mill was a cylindrical air-swept mill of 0. A feed of coal predominantly in the size intervals 4 X 6 and tion was satisfactory. Pilot mill tests: Batch grinding Iu order to test the scale-up relations of eqn. with inlet and discharge trunnions of approximately 0. via P. the power function of eqn. = 1 l/2 in. mill= see Fig m = 0. 3. with the feed rate adjusted by an experienced operator to give the correct .7 mm. In addition.[S]: 1 si = exp(-1.5 and A is an index of how steeply the values fall with increasing particle size.D. (ll). m2 that of d2 = 1 l/4 in. This espression allows for the effect of ball diameter and mili diameter on the position of the maximum in S values. The size distributions at each time were determined by screening of a measured amount of dried coal. The ball load corresponded to 24% mill filling (J = O-24). etc. 11 is modified [5] by an empirical function Q(w) which makes the values of Si pass through a maximum and decrease at large sizes : D NIXiQ S. The mill was run in closed circuit at steady state. with a ball mix of 25% 1 in diameter. a similar batch test in the pilot mill on the same coal without prior air-drying to 15% moisture gave a significantly different result. especially for breakage of the larger sizes. 3. 37. 5 and 16 min. 1 l/2.98 m mean ID_ by 1. The first-order plot for the top size interval is shown in Fig.25.4. the slowing down of breakage rate observed with small mills was also seen in the pilot mill results.53 m long was run as a batch mill with the same filling conditions as for continuous operation (see next section). using exponents N. = 1 in diameter. laboratory mill and the simula- 6 X 8 was prepared and 75 kg (dry basis. assuming A to be constant_ The overall values of S for the mixture of ball sizes in the mill were assumed to be the weighted sums of the S values for each bail size. For grind times beyond 5 min. by 1. to give grinding periods of l/Z. a sample of about 500 g taken by random scoop sampling. (m. m2 O-375. at 80% of critical speed./O. It was assumed that u varies with ball diameter and mill diameter according to p a d*Dh’z (16) where Nz is about 0. Z?i= 5 mhSi(d.3 and ball filling conditions using the empirical moisture content 15%) was loaded into the mill. and the mill run for additional grinding times.4J.. stopped. For larger sizes. The coal used in these tests was a subbituminous coal (Belle _4yre South) with an as-received moisture content of 30%. N2 = 0.75 for 1 in balls in the laboratory mill.0 min.375 for the pilot-scale . The mill was run for 112 min.5. followed by redrying and weighing: weight loss was assumed to be material of minus 270 mesh.2. Q(x) d where 1 (14) Q(x)= 1 + (xi/P)* A> 0 (15) The value of ~1is the size at which Q(x) = 0.3 m dia. It was clear that the breakage in the pilot mill gave the same basic shape of the size distributions as those in the 195 mm dia.) k=1 (17) where ml is the weight fraction of balls of d.652.‘_ Figure 5 shows the results of simulation of this batch grind using the laboratory S parameters scaled to this mill diameter and ball mixture and assuming the same normalized B values.98 I. m3 that of d. = 0.(d) a N.2. a pilot-scale mill of 0.53 m long. The experimentally determined values of M and A for the test coal were ~1= 3. The mean value of gI calculated from the slope of the curve was 4.260 equation developed by Shoji et OZ. 6.

and the mill came to rest in less than one-third of a revolution_ The contents were tipped out. Fig. ensuring coal of low free-moisture content. feed and air flow rate were then about 1. 157 and 175 lb of coal (dry basis).83. Rcsulls of batch grinding 75 kg Belle Ayrc coal (J = 0. weighed and mixed.2 m/s. 160.Ci)) GUI be calculated_ It was found that these values became constant for sizes smaller than about 60 pm. pm -I 1000 -_LLl-d loooo Fig. Four tests at various coal flow rates gave mill hold-ups of 157. = 0.6 rpm). The test system is described in detail in another place [13 J_ Samples were taken for feed. the value of r/ for the test conditions follows_ The results are shown in Fig_ 7_ The effect of air flow rate on 71is given by 7) = 6. First-order plot for the 4 x 6 mesh top size in the batch pilot mill. fc = 0. suddenly and simultaneously stopped. 5. that is.MINUTE 3 4 3 -I’! 100 1-L_I-I_L_I-lISIEVE SIZE. The constant value is thus VW and since w is known (34. a value of about 160 lb. This is a fractional formal mill filling of f. variable-speed belt feeder_ The exit air temperature was close to 150 OF. and the make-up feed rate was measured by a calibrated. pi’.081. The mass flow rate of recycle from the classifier was measured by diverting the flow to a collecting bin for a short timeinterval. m/s)“-s (I8a) (18) . (10) (pi’/TUri = 7)0(1 . which is a fractional filling of the ball interstices of U = 0. moisture contrn~ of cod = I 5%) in pilot-scale mill.2 X 104Vo-s that is q = 1.2 X lo-‘(u. Knowing the steady mass flow rate to the classifier. it can be assumed that ci is zero for these small sizes. is readiIy calculated. and sampies taken for size analysis.25. Since the air velocity in the open space in the mill is sound level. 6. recycle and product size analysis The mill power. the size distribution of the mill discharge. the mass flow rate of recycle. r is calculated from the mill feed rate and hold-up (both dry basis)_ Thus the values of qw(l -cci) in eqn.083. and the recycle and product size distributions.

sexperimental results for two air-coal . 2. as shown in Fig_ 3. Fig_ 8.. of course. ym 1 gr 0 ILlI. Since q is now known. by l-5 m long airswept ball mill. giving the typical result shown in Fig. so that the final result of closed circuit operation is not highly sensitive to the values of ci_ COMPARISON MILL DATA OF SIMULATIONS AND PILOT = ~WT (19) where C’ is the apparent internal circulation ratio. Table 2 shows the comparison between simulated 0erssu. the value of ci can be calculated from the values of qo(l . 8. on the values of ci and Wi. made up of fresh feed and recycle.i i 2% 1 : -! 50 loo 400 22 20 IS 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 SIZE INTERVAL NUMBER APPARENT SPACE VELOCITY.95 m 1-D. plotted at upper size)_ where V is the apparent space velocity (volume changes per minute.ci)The smoothed set of cc values for an air flow rate of 1290 actual cubic feet per minute (ACFM) at the exit temperature of 150 “F are shown in Fig. of course. V miri’ Fig. the external classification values dominate over those in ci. The simulation correctly predicts the long plateau in the size distribution of the powder in the mill. see Fig.75. gi [ : & i 0001 IO 0 1 .. 7_ Value of 7 for different fiow rates of air through a 0. appeared that the curves were of the same shape but shifted along the size scale to larger sizes as flow rate increased. it. and the mill feed shown is. Smoothed values of internal c?assification numbers cc (for d2 intervals. this gives C” = 0. it gives results which are consistent with the esperimental data and which aBow interpolation and extrapolation in a logical manner. based on an empty mill fraction of 1 -J) and u is velocity through the mill based on a cross-section of 1 -J_ It is concluded that the fraction of the mill powder which could be swept up in the air stream per mill revolution is only 1 to 2% of the hold-up and that it increases with air velocity_ The actual amount swept out of the mill depends.For a value of i. and F is the mill mass flow rate. In addition.The individual values of Ci for different air flow rates were too scattered to give a definite relation to air flow rate.However. Particles larger than about 2000 pm fall back into the bed and cannot leave the mill. The mill products shown are passed through a classifier to prepare the standard pulverized coal grind.Since ~wW is the mass iate of material exposed to the internal air-sweeping classification action. which is due to the shape of the feed size distribution and due to the larger feed sizes being to the right of the maximum of S values.262 UPPER SIEVE SIZE.:. The change of ci with air velocity was estimated by a simple settling velocity treatment The model discussed above was programmed and simulations performed for coal and air flow rates corresponding to continuous tests run in the pilot mill_ The samples of make-up feed and recycle in the continuous tests enabled the size distribution of the mill feed to be calculated_ These were used as feed to the mill simulation (see Table l). _4lthough this treatment is not very sophisticated. 9. 8. giving the results shown as broken lines in Fig.of 5 min and q = 1% per revolution. the air-sweeping action gives an apparent internal circulating load of 1 -L C’ = QoWJF (see Appendix 2).

7 41.14 0.71 2.86 4. a series of closedcircuit tests on the same coal was performed at varying flow rates_ The size distributions around the twincone classifier were used to ca.. 1 2 890 1290 1680 2380 Sim. as the motor efficiency was 82% The fan power at 1500 ACF’M was 2-6 kW and at 2000 ACF41 was 6 kW_ It is clear that fan power is significant compared with net mill power. Comparison of experimental results and computed results.75 22.Iculate si values fitted by the form [14] &=a+(l--a) 1 1 + (X</dsc)-” I (191 where the classification action is defined by the three parameters of a. It was concluded that the simulation model predicted the correct mill capacity and fineness of product wit.93 4.86 63-19 61.61 m3/s) at 150 ‘F (66 ‘C).61 ma/s. by In SI = -2_1972/h.04 m/s).64 O-48 0. rates.1 52.0 1-o 1-c.99 0.6 .32 44.17 0. Comparison pilotscale mill tests Air flow (ACFhI) AIill product (% < 200 mesh) Exp_ 64-S 55-4 Sim. The simulations are in reasonable agreement with the experimental results.0 o-0 Feed size distribution (% < size) cf Si (mm-‘) 0.5 kK.6 Sim_ 48. 1-o 1. SI. Interval number i Upper size of interval Wm) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 38100 26900 19000 12500 9510 6730 4760 3360 2350 1680 1190 841 595 420 297 210 149 105 74 53 38 26 100 99. and h is related to Sharpness Index.01 11.0 1-o 0. dsO and A: a is the TABLE 2 of simulated uerszzsexperiment Mill feed rate (d-b. 63.hin the scatter of the experimental results.86 0. 1685 2385 for continuous by-pass fraction {O =Ga G LO). giving a total motor power of 16. air flow rate 1290 ACFM (6.11 O-09 0 Fig.98 4.85 0.77 1.15 0.15 9519 92-56 85. 9.7 39.26 3.36 0. The vaiue of J = O-24 is lower than in conventional nonswept ball milling because the trunnions must be large enough to pass air without excessive pressure drop and fan power.04 5756 52.his particular pilot mill.00 7. dgn is for the classifier curve.) Ublh ) Exp.68 2. 50.96 0.0 1. The resulting values of si were used in t-he closed-circuit simulation model to give product size distributions and capacities for comparison with the experimental results.03 l-52 1.9 kW and the net mill power was 7.86 SO-31 75. u = 1.76 O-66 O-54 0.54 69.TABLE 1 ACFM Data used in simulation: air flow rate = 1290 (0.92 0.77 83. 10 and 11.72 67-00 64.9 (‘% c 250 mesh) Esp. mill hold-up 160 ib (73 kg).32 16.0 1. as shown in Figs. To obtain an indication of the level of experimental variability of the pilot-scaIe data.0 0.2 kW. In t.27 O-20 0.22 32.42 O-30 0.37 72.80 1-o 1. the drive and bearing friction losses were 5.18 4.36 2.

G_ Austin. G.655_ 8 K_ Shoji. however. 29 (1981) 263. contract monitor Mr. Luckie. Ibs/hr Comparison of experimental and predicted fineness of grinding for Belie Ayre cod ground closedcircuit in the pilots&e mill. on MiZZing. A_ Herbst and D_ W_ Fuerstenau. within the experimental scatter of the pilot-scale mill results i E f5 - SIMULATION iI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CIRCUIT PRODUCT RATE. P. but we wish to thank especially Mr.264 given by eqn.83. Gallagher and P. G. 11. . T. U. S. T_ Luskie. G. at a ball fiiing of 24%. 261. Austin. Behrens (Eds. 9 T. L. Austin and P_ Bagga. K. K_ Brame. Austin. W. Austin and V_ K. Powder 5 (1972) 215 TechnoL. Rates Mill. Luckie. G. P_ Weymont and 0. L. T_ Luckie and R. Verlag Chemie. pp_ 232 . laboratory mill gave values which. The Effect of Ball Diameter on Breakage and Breakage Distributions in a Laboratory 12 in preparation_ L. of Large Particles in 10 11 5 (1972) L. it is not possible to scaleup the total model to larger mills because the variation of 71 with mill diameter is not kIlOWIl. 5 (1971/72) 1. Smaila.A. I. Gregor and F. Manager of Testing Services. F_ Smaila. L. Breakage Rates and Breakage Dish-butions Ball Mills. Gardner. Wang.98 m diameter by 1. Pa_. correctly predicted the size distributions and mill capacity for the pilot-scale mill. Proc 1st European Symposium in Size Reduction. C. J. The optimum powder filling represents a value of U = 0. J_ Shah. CONCLUSIONS If it is assumed that the grinding conditions are constant along the mill. Appendix -42 gives a method of scaling the internal classification to larger mills_ At the moment. Scale-up of experimental breakage rates from a 195 mm dia. K_ Brame and P_ T. G. E. G. This work was supported by research contract No_ EX-76-C-01-2475 from the U-S. Rumpf and D. This can be compared with the optimum value of 0. in K_ Schonert. Preprints. Powder TechnoL. Fig.D. L. an air-swept mill in which all of the mill product leaves in the air stream can be treated as a single fully mixed mill. Department of Energy. Powder TechnoL. in H. Lau_ A number of people have been involved in the test work on which the results are based. Shah and L. Powder TechnoL. (13).53 m long pilot-scale mill showed that the percentage of mill hold-up exposed to the air-sweeping action per revolution of the mill was about 1 to 2%. Danville. Powder TechnoL. Sept_ 6 1982. Weinheim. P. Dechema. The results from a 0. Iscm ACFM laoo 2000 REFERENCES L. Austin.S. 1962. Ken Gardner. Austin and P_ T. Hawaii. 28 (1981) 83. G. J. Proc. and MrJames Wilver. Chief Engineer. L. in preparation. Knobloch. Hofmann (Eds_). Symp. G.248_ 7 L. 31 (1982) 121. Luckie. G. 1400 AIR FLOW RATE. Austin and P_ T. J_ of Min. when used in the air-swept simulation model. 7 (1980) 1. Bhatia. R R Khmpel. Austin. an optimum powder filling of 8%. Inf. F.84 L. the Kennedy Van Saun Corporation. Particle Technology 1980. Circuit capacity versus air flow rate for Belle Ayre coal ground in the pilot-scale mill. Powder TechnoL. Miles.324_ Fig. 10. based on results from a laboratory mill of 195 mm I. pp_ 301 . N. Austin. AIME. Austin and R.). Vol_ B (1980) 640 . G. Rogers. and 80% of critical speed.

and L.ci)(l -si). the values of pi’ follow. Austin. T. settling velocity and the time for the air to reach the end of the mill. Q being the make-up feed rate and T the recycle rate_ Because the circulation ratio is defined as C = T/Q. it can be assumed that the external classification action can be described by a set of classifier numbers Si. then fi(l + C) =gi + (1 + C)sipi’. FE-2475-25. since CiWi = 1. = 0 because not zero_ It is given by S.. tiT = FSipi’. (Al-l) to eliminate fi gives i--l gi + jTl bijYi* yi* = 1 + l?O(l -si)(l cil As discussed previously.ci replaced with an effective value of (1 . (10) pi* = Ci)Wi. Luckie Technology: 265 Coal Grinding Engineers. which then defines r_ The computation is performed as follows. but w. Ci and VW_ (For example. an . Springfield.C %Y. for known values of b.S. Va_. APPENDIX 1 I COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURE size distribution to the mill is related to the make-up and recycle by fiF = giQ + tiT where F = Q + T. that is. there is a unique value of T_ The values of wi follow from Wi = Yi/SiT and eqn. The computation program for closed circuit can thus be used for open circuit by setting Si = 0 and gi = fi- APPENDIX SIFIC-TION 2: VARIATION WITH AIR OF INTERNAL R_TE CLAS- where C.When the velocity of air flow through the mill is increased.‘(l + C)) and gpi*= --Ci) where Yi = WiSir_ The Y ~23~2s are calculated sequentially starting at i = I. Equation (9) can be put as lGi<n si (X1-3) where yi* = (1 + C)WiSir = WiSi7*.* i. hence. 14 L. Department of Energy. When the mill circuit is closed via an external classifier. R.. (1979) p_ 92. 13 P.) i=l Then 1+ Bw(l Si n> iz= 1 (Al-l) T*vc.However. The size distribution of the circuit product is given by 4i = (1 + C)pi’(l -St) (_41_6) Note that Y. the internal sweeping action can be treated as an apparent classification action. F/WFor the air-swept system. z = 0 in most cases)_ Thus. Austin and R. the programs we have used previously for mill circuits [Al] choose a value of mean residence time r = F’/W and calculate C’ and.The make-up feed size distribution is gi and the actual feed The concept used is that a particle of a given size (and density) ent. then 1 + C = F/Q_ Since si is defined as the fraction of Fpi’ which is recycled. (where pi* = p. the values of ci and q depend on the air flow.rained in the air stream will follow a falling path determined by its starting position.. Si. 29 (1981) 277. (10) gives the product size distribution. SO y1 = fI_) Then.(~ l-?-C= wi = yi*/Sir*. Powder TechnoL. n-1 i=1 7*wJ 2 i=1 Wj(1 - Cj) (X1-5) Knowing C.Substituting into eqn. A Monuol for Process U. Klimpel. so it is more convenient to set the air flow. the y* values are computed sequentially and G -Ir?w(l n-l -r.r is The circuit capacity Q is W/r*It is useful to note that the closed circuit behaves like the open-circuit model but with the value of 1 .)(l -Z) (Xl_‘Z) fi + z biirj i= 1 i>l Yi = i-1 n--l 7* = c (Yj*/S. it will leave in the air stream. = 0. available National Technical Information Service. is the mean value of c for the sink interval (fortunately.AS before. G. G. the value of Ci will probably be 1 for size 1.1 -s. If the path does not reach the bed before the particle is swept to the end of the mill. from eqn.

1. the settling velocity must increase proportionally to l/C. and Engng.61 m3/s and D = 0.3) is to be used. as air velocity is increased the size of particle which leaves the mill by a particular path also increases. (A2. the same set of geometrically similar settling paths would be espected for the same L/D at the same gas flow velocity.3) where x was in ym. Thus. the treatment is as follows. cm/s.04 m/s.5. that is. Min. This was fitted by the empirical curve (A2.2) P. The ratio of LL’ u is to calculated from volume flow rates V by entrained particle wilI follow the same path and have the same probability of leaving if its settling velocity is higher than the original particle. Thus. The value of c for this value 0% r can be interpolated from an esperimental Ci versus ri CUNe. so that its time for settling is decreased in the exact ratio that the time for the air to reach the end of the mill is decreased. New York. u = 1.‘Iv. corresponding to typical air temperatures in the mill_ The result was fitted by the empirical expression log u. A.t and v. J-= l/[ ($)-O-24 + l’r’i’ VW* = REFERENCES Al A2 V-‘/(D’)7 (A2_4) If the c relation of eqn. Thus.256 log(u’/u)]‘-” (A2.2) allows the calculation of x. In quantitative form. (A2. 1961.. Fuchs. N. (A2. 4 (1972) 24. In the case given here.98 m. the experimental value of ci represents the mean effect of all possible paths for powder of radius ri with a flow time for air in the mill of t.1). The equation is arranged in this form so that setting a value for r’ enables the calculation of r for a given u’/u. = 4-352 0. u. Macmillan.3) then gives ciWith respect to mill diameter D.796f”-*” (A2_1) where r is in cm. the variation of settling velocity us in air with particle radius r given by Fuchs [A23 was converted to the air viscosity and density at 150 ?F. In order for particles of radius r’ to go through the same set of paths to give the same ci. For spheres of 40 to 6000 pm. The Mechanics of Aerosols. = u’ju. eqn.he time is L-’= h/u’. 8 (at 1290 ACFM). t. At anjr other flow rate L(‘.266 . Using eqn. . T. At a given airin sweeping veiocity u in the mill.61 m3/s for the ci curve of Fig. _r = 2r X 104. u a 0. ZJ. that is. G. (A2. for LX’ in the desired t/2 sequence. Austin. Sci. V = 0. Luckie and L.‘t’ = u. for L/D = 1. and eqn.

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