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DR.ASHIS KUMAR DASH
DR.ASHIS KUMAR DASH
DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY
A. B. 3 25
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C. 29 D. 42 E. F. 53 65
G. 72 H. 74 I. J. K. L. 77 83 85 87
M. 90 N. 99 O. 105 P. R. S. T. 107 116 118 126 Q. 115
U. 128 V. 130 W. 133 X. Y. Z. 134 135 136
DR.ASHIS KUMAR DASH
DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY
Aristotle Stagira., Peripatetic
(384–322 founder school,
B.C.), of well
Greek philosopher born in
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known for his noble ideas viz. Golden mean, Logic etc
presentation of the major conceptual categories constituting Buddhist doctrine; used as a label for
both the texts that contain such presentations and the content of what is presented. ABHINIVESHA: Sanskrit word meaning ‘self-love’ or ‘will to live’. In Indian philosophy in general and in the Sankhya-Yoga system in particular, abhinivesha was regarded as an aspect of avidya (ignorance).
ABSOLUTE: The term used by idealists to describe the expression
one independent reality of which all things are an
ACCEDENTALISM: The metaphysical thesis that the occurrence of some events is either not necessitated ACOSMISM: A term formed in analogy to ‘atheism,’ meaning the denial of the ultimate reality of the world.
DR.ASHIS KUMAR DASH
or not causally determined or not predictable.
it is the true self or soul of each ADVAITA: Also called Uttara Mimamsa. Dvaita Vedanta. Later. or spiritual exercise related to the self (adhyatma-yoga). in Indian thought. or the soul. meditating on that which appertains to the self. is other than the ego. e. ultimately the only Real. individual. Page | 4 which. the the non-dualistic form of Vedanta. in Hinduism. a state of pure consciousness.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY ADHYATMANA: (Sanskrit. In adhyatman is the one Self that is the impersonal Absolute (Brahman). ‘relating to or belonging to the self’). It emerged as a separate . it became a term for the Supreme Spirit.ASHIS KUMAR DASH an epistemological distinction (not a and the level of reality the natural environment. Advaita Vedanta. e. the Supreme Self.g. monistic systems. DR. Advaita Vedanta makes metaphysical one) between the level of appearance AESTHETICS: The branch of philosophy that examines the nature of art and the character of our adventitious ideas aesthetics experience of art and of field of philosophical inquiry during the eighteenth century in England and on the Continent.g.In early Hindu texts concerning such topics as knowledge of the self. In dualist systems.
conceit.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY AGMA:(Sanskrit. are Hindu. In the Sankhya and Yoga systems. ahimsa was a vow to injure no living being (jiva) in thought. since injuring another is an particularly Gandhi. Page | 5 nonviolence to living creatures. ‘known’)This term was invented by Thomas Henry religious disproved. ‘not’. assertion of egoism. or deed. pride. Many Buddhists practice ahimsa as a precept that denies the existence of the ego. Jain. With the modern period. egotism. An authoritative religious text of an Indian sect. There AHAMKARA : In Hindu thought. ahimsa was equated with selfsacrificial love for all beings. ‘what has come down’). and gnastos. and Buddhist agamas. word. by extension. the ego or faculty that gives the sense of ‘I’ or individual personality. traditionally and literally. AHIMSA: attitude of those who claim that Huxley in 1869 to denote the philosophical and metaphysical ideas can be neither proved nor (Sanskrit). a positive sense of kindness to all creatures.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . To the Jains. DR. for modern Indian thinkers. changing Nature evolving in creation. it is the third element of ever AGNOSTICISM: (from Greek a-.
DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY ALAYA-VIJNANA: Sanskrit term meaning literally Indian Buddhist metaphysicians to solve some ‘storehouse consciousness’. notably those of delayed karmic effect and causation at a temporal distance. and Wittgenstein. on the whole. ANTINOMISM: The view that one is not bound by moral law. specifically. concerned not language per se. to be Englishspeaking academics whose writings are directed. a category developed by specific philosophical problems. as practiced by Russell and Moore. Moore. Analysis. Page | 6 ANALYTICAL P0HILOSOPHY: A broader term currently used to cover a diverse assortment of philosophical techniques and tendencies. to other English-speaking philosophers. They are the intellectual heirs of Russell. the view that Christians are by grace set free from the need to observe moral laws. though not exclusively. Analytic philosophers tend largely. but concepts and propositions DR. philosophers who self-consciously pursued “philosophical analysis” in the early part of the twentieth century.ASHIS KUMAR DASH .
This view is advanced by Kumalila. ABHAVA : (Negation) It is the seventh category of the Vaisesika system. ‘not’. The ABDUCTION: Canons of reasoning for the discovery. ‘god’). whose knowledge is dependent on the knowledge of ABHIHITANVAYAVADA:(Sentence-meaning : Kumarila) : The meaning of a sentence is a concatenation of the individual items expressed by words. view that there are no gods. It is merely the synthesis (Anyava) of the meaning of the separate words composing it. Abhava is often defined as that its counter entity.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . we achieve an authentic life by depending only on ourselves. and theos. opposed to the or theories. No deity provide us with guidance or direction.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY ARGUMENT: A sequence of statements such that some of them (the premises) purport to give reason to accept another of them. abandonment is the awareness that there are no external sources of moral authority. the conclusion. of scientific hypotheses Page | 7 ABANDONMENT: In the ethical thought of existentialist writers as Sartre and Heidegger. as justification. ATHEISM: (from Greek a-.Mimamsa. DR.
Bradley. Bradley. In metaphysics. triangles of different shapes are all triangular. in particular. The and unconditioned. idea or concept is said to be abstract when it is thought of in isolation from the object to which it belongs. non-relative. as entirely unrestricted. independent. In politics. unconditioned . Page | 8 ABSOLUTE IDEALISM : The doctrine that reality is entirely spiritual or mental and that every aspect of reality has its being and its character only as an aspect of the whole. doctrine or practice of unconditioned sovereign power. In metaphysics. Hegel. Hegel. A form of government in which political power is concentrated in the hands of a single individual or small group. Cf. theory that values are objectively real.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY ABSOLUTE: unmodified. having no environment or relations to anything external to it. Spinoza. Royce. Parmenides. all-inclusive. ABSOLUTISM : Opposed to relativism. ABSTRACT : A quality. reality considered as a single entity. Cf. DR.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . In ethics and aesthetics. indicates independence of relations. For example. perfect. totally God. theory that reality is an absolute. an absolute monarchy.
ACADEMY : School founded in Athens by the Philosopher Plato. the Academy eventually became fertile ground for the rise of ancient skepticism. Thus. a number of objects. the absurd is that which violates rules of logic. ACQUAINTANCE KNOWLEDGE BY : Immediate or intimate knowledge as distinct from knowledge by DR. abstraction is the concept or idea that results from ABSURD : Irrational. the process of forming a general concept by adding together different distinguishing feature from our notions of some collection of particular things. or possibly common to. ACCIDENT : A characteristic which is not one of the defining characteristic of the object to which it belongs. self-contradictory.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY ABSTRACTION : The process of forming an idea of a characteristic common to. ACQUAINTANCE : In this there is an awareness of consciousness. thought. Generally. emotion. In other words. patently false. an the process.ASHIS KUMAR DASH Page | 9 feeling. or any content of .
Opposed to intellectualism. "How much pleasure or pain would result if everyone were to do this?" ACTIVISM : Any philosophical position that describes reality in terms of activity or otherwise emphasizes action. Qualifed to know DR. ACTUALITY/POTENTIALITY between what really is the case and what merely has the power to change or to come to be the case . knowledge of as contrasted with feeling. emotion or any content of consciousness.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY description. while rule-utilitarianism considers the consequent value of wide spread performance of similar actions. He undergoes a strict ethico-spiritual discipline and makes a sincere and incessant endeavour worthy of it. ADHIKARÎ : The competent student is an aspirant of Moksa or self-realisation. In this there is an awareness of Page | 10 Act-utilitarianism consequences. ACT/RULE supposes that each particular action should be evaluated solely by reference to the merit of its own UTILITARIANISM : knowledge about. The act-utilitarian asks.ASHIS KUMAR DASH : Aristotle's distinction . thought.
who is obedient to his teacher and who is endowed with virtues. the superimposition of silver over conch shell is Adhyasa. Sankaracharya says that Adhikari of Vedanta is he. For example.ASHIS KUMAR DASH The . AGENT : In ethics the person who acts. It works not only in cases of illusion. beauty and criticism. who has subjugated his Page | 11 ADHYASA : (Superimposition) According to Shankara it is an apparent presentation of something previously observed over some other thing. through our senses. ADVENTITIOUS : Adventitious ideas are those that come to us from without. AESTHETICS : The philosophy of art. who is free from faults.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY Brahman. but also in the form of false identification of self with the not-self. concepts and judgements arising from our appreciation of the arts or of the wider class of objects considered moving or beautiful. Descartes ditinguishes them from innate ideas & from ideas that are ourselves create. The study of the feelings. DR. is called Adhyasa. who has tranquility of mind. superimposition of unreal on real and vice-versa. competent for Brahmajnana. or sublime. senses.
AGNOSTICISM : The theory that it is not possible to know whether God exists.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY AGNOSTIC : One who believes in agnosticism. METHOD OF : One of Mill's methods for discovery of causal relationships. If a specific every occasion on which a phenomenon occurs. it DR. In other words . Or one who neither believes nor disbelieves in the existence of God. ALTRUISM : Concern for the interests and welfare of others. mind and God. The belief that we do not have sufficient reason either to affirm or to deny God’s existence. unperceptible Brahman. antecedent circumstance is found to be present on may be inferred to be the cause of that phenomenon. Agnosticism implies man’s Page | 12 ignorance of the real nature of such ultimate as matter. AGREEMENT.ASHIS KUMAR DASH .The theory that one ought to act for the good of all concerned. based either upon enlightened self-interest or a belief in a common humanity. AGOCARA : Inaccessible to the senses.
ASHIS KUMAR DASH . ANADI : Beginningless. AMÉRTAÍ : Formless. incorporeal.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY AMBIGUITY : An expression having more than one meaning. ANALOGICAL ARGUMENT : An argument based on similarities. One important Page | 13 DR. A kind of inductive argument in which it is concluded that two entities are alike in some respect on the ground that they are alike in some other respect or respects. ANALOGY : A likeness drawn between two or more entities in one or more respects. ANALOGY : One of the uses of this concept is in attempts to explain how religious statements can make sense. One important discussion is in Aquinas. One of the uses of this concept is in attempts to explain how religious statements can make sense. To Aquinas God is known analogically. disembodied and indeterminate Brahman. AMORAL : Neither moral nor immoral. discussion is in Aquinas.
its implications. A statement which must be true and cannot be false.' According to Kant an analytic statement is one in which the predicate is negation is self-contradictory. for example.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY ANALYSIS : Conceptual or philosophical analysis is the process of explaining a concept. In traditional logic. ANALYTIC STATEMENT : A statement which is true because of the meanings of its terms.' or 'All bachelors are unmarried male. the analysis of statements about a physical object into sits of reports about sense data. Opposite of synthetic statement. for example. ANARCHISM : A theory or a political movement which interprets the ideals of human freedom and equality contained in the concept of the subject and its DR. a belief. by drawing attention to its constituents. its presuppositions. a theory. sometimes. a proposition in which the predicate is logically Page | 14 implied by the subject to which it is attributed and therefore gives us no new information about the subject. philosophical analysis is conceived as reductive analysis.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . 'All red roses are red. etc. etc.
DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY very strictly. vital principle. it is neither absolute being (sat) nor absolute non-being called anirvachaniya or indescribable. There is refusal to accept the legitimacy of state power. which is (asat) nor both. For philosophical theories that all matter contains an element of mind. ANEKANTAVADA : Jaina’s metaphysics is called anekantavada or the doctrine of the manyness of reality.ASHIS KUMAR DASH Page | 15 According to this theory there are . ANIRVACHANÎYA : The advaitins explain illusion as experience of a relatively real object. the term Panpsychism is more appropriate. ANTECEDENT : That which is before. ANIMISM : The belief that material objects and the physical environment are imbued with some kind of soul or spirit. Accordingly. material atoms and innumberable individual souls which are all separately and independently real and each atom and each soul possess innumerable aspects of its own or an infinite number of characteristics of its own. in a conditional if p then q. DR. innumerable. soul or spirit. Anima means breath. p is the antecedent and q is the consequent.
ANTHROPOMORPHISM : The attribution of human characteristics to God or to inanimate objects. ANTHROPOCENTRISM : An outlook that places mankind at the centre of the universe. A contradiction between two conclusions drawn from equally credible premises.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY ANTECEDENT : In a conditional if P then q. term may refer to the portrayal of God as having The ascription of human characteristic to non-human beings. ANTINOMY : A Paradox . A belief that and philosophical importance. A belief that human needs and interests are of overriding moral and philosophical importance. Views which represent God as closely resembling a human being are anthropomorphic. the opposite of . the opposite of eco-centrism. p is the antecedent and q is the consequent. the view that everything in nature exists for the sake of man. The human form or human characteristics. Kant in his Critique of Pure Reason presents four DR. Of the known attacks on religious anthropomorphism human needs and interests are of overriding moral ecocentrism.ASHIS KUMAR DASH Page | 16 the first was made by Xenopanes.
The second thesis is that there are ultimately simple substances. that is. The first thesis is in space. Each thesis expresses a demand of reason to find an ultimate basis for everything conditioned. to regard every cause as in turn an effect of something else.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY antinomies: four pairs of thesis and antithesis. The fourth thesis is the other to noumena-things as they are in DR. that is. themselves. and the antithesis in each case expresses a demand of reason to regard every condition as being in turn conditioned. a first cause. not everything exists contingently. The third thesis is that not everything in the world is determined by natural that there exists an absolutely necessary being. both of that the world has a beginning in time and is limited which are supplied with proofs. Kant resolves the antinomies by asserting that in each antinomy.ASHIS KUMAR DASH .things as they appear to us. A phrase containing a balanced Page | 17 causes. contradictory. ANTITHESIS : An opposite statement : a contrary or a juxtaposition of two contrasting ideas. there is freedom. one of the two conflicting statement can be thought to apply to phenomena . that is. that is.
Kant and Bradley. and attainment of liberation.ASHIS KUMAR DASH Page | 18 knowledge to know negation. Kumarila like Nayayika admits negation as an independent ontological category. Words convey a meaning only of the contexts of a sentence. DR. APPEARANCE / REALITY : Distinction between the way things seem to be and the way they are.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY ANUPALABDHI: (Non-Apprehension) According to Kumarila Bhatta and others non-apprehension is the sixth independent source of knowledge. freedom of the soul from the worldly bondage. ANVITABHIDHANVADA:(Sentence-meaning) (Prabhakara) : A sentence is first a construction (Anvaya) of the words with one another and there in expression of the construed meaning. . but unlike Nayayika he accepts non-apprehension as an independent means of negation is known either by perception or by a subject of perception or inference. APAVARGA: Completion. the Descartes. Nayayikas accept that inference as the correlate (pratiyogin) of negation is distinction is important in the philosophy of Plato. APHORISM : A concise statement expressing a stricking insight (sukti).
A POSTERIORI STATEMENT : A factual statement or an empirical statement. APOHAVADA: The Buddhists maintain that the essence of meaning is negative in character. According to him a word opposite meaning. For instance. which is true independently of any factual state of affairs.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY A POSTERIORI : Knowledge a posterior is based on experience.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . Dinnaga first can express its meaning only by rejecting the promulgated this theory. Opposite of a posteriori statement. Page | 19 DR. APODICTIC : The characteristic feature of any proposition that states what is necessary. which can be confirmed or disproved through experience. Opposite of a priori statement. A PRIORI : Knowledge a priori is independent of experience. perfectly certain or demonstrably tree. the word ‘cow’ denotes the exclusion of all objects that are not cows or the negation of non-cows. A PRIORI STATEMENT : A universally and necessarily true statement.
political terrorism. of particular problems in private and public life that are matters of moral judgement. consciousness of one’s own self. The distinction is important in the philosophies of Plato. and environmental issues. also. DR. questions of race. medical science and practice. APPERCEPTION : Awareness of one’s own mental representations. The term was introduced by Leibnitz. ARCHETYPE : An original essence. an ideal pattern of which individual things are copies. or model. for example. the Platonic Berkeley in the mind of God. The word is often used for defense of religious beliefs. APPLIED ETHICS : The philosophical examination. APPEARANCE/REALITY : Distinction between the way things seem to be and the way they are. relations.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY APOLOGETICS : Defense against adverse criticism. Kant and Bradley.ASHIS KUMAR DASH Page | 20 Ideas and the ideas of things existing according to . Descartes. The original. Basically applied ethics is a branch of philosophical inquiry which guide us to find moral solutions in the sphere of personal relationship. of which other things are regarded as the copies. from a moral standpoint. a universal.
aristocracy. ASMITA: Egoism.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . monarchy and democracy.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY ARGUMENT : Any group of propositions of which one (the conclusion) is claimed to follow from the others (the premisses) which are regarded as providing support for the truth of that one. correct or incorrect. But not as true or false. sound or unsound. ASCETICISM : A way of life focussing on the denial of sensual pleasures as a means of fostering spiritual development. Ahankara. An argument is valid or invalid. of knowledge according to Kumarila Bhatta. Aristotle discusses the relative merits of Page | 21 DR. ARISTOCRACY : A class of person enjoying high status and hereditary privileges. as developed originally in the Organon of Aristotle. ARTHAPATTÎ:(Presumption) It is an independent source consists in the assumption of some unperceived fact in order to explain apparently inconsistent facts. It In the Polities. in the politics. ARISTOTELIAN LOGIC : Traditional categorical logic.
Agnosticism (in religion) is the view that it is impossible for us to know whether God exist.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY ASSORTORIC :A proposition stating that something actually is the case. the self as distinguished from. rather than necessary or merely possible. atomic fact. ATHEISM: (not-God-ism) The view that there is no divine being. one which cannot be analyzed into basic. It is different from pantheism and agnosticism. the universal reality or world soul. ATOMIC PROPOSITION : A simple proposition or statement.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . Pantheism is the view that God and the world are identical. although essentially the same as. ASRAVA: The flow of karmic matter towards the soul (Jaina philosophy). ATMAN: In Indian philosophy. Brahma. The opposite of molecular proposition. no God. existence. propositions or statements or the statement of a ATHEOLOGY : A theory designed to disprove God’s Page | 22 DR.
Or. The power of ajnana which hides the self from the mind of man. ATTRIBUTE : A property or characteristic necessary to a thing of a certain sort.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . discrete. AUTONOMY : (in ethics) a person's capacity for selfdetermination. AUTOCRACY : Absolute rule.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY ATOMISM : Atomism is the name given to a materialist theory according to which nothing exists except atoms and the void. self-government. AUTONOMY : Literally. the ability to see oneself as the author of a moral law by which one is bound. independence. Page | 23 DR. A political system in which an elite rules without regard to the opinions of the ruled. Any theory that describes reality and irreducible entities. AUTHORITARIANISM : A system of decision making without dice consultation with the parties concerned. one of the two powers of ajnana. political as a pluralistic system composed of separate. AVARANA: Veiling. concealing. an essential property. monarchic rule without constitutional limitations. any property or characteristic.
in modern logic. AXIOM : Proposition assumed to be true without proof and taken as basis for proof of other propositions. direct knowing. ACT OF : The act of apprehending the content of consciousness. Page | 24 ***** DR.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY AWARENCESS.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . Traditionally regarded as self-evident. AXIOLOGY : A theory of value. knowledge by acquaintance. The Philosophical Study of value. commonly taken simply as an assumption for the purposes of formal demonstrations. knowledge of as distinguished from knowledge about something. intuitive recognition.
the Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision . the view that behavior is fundamental in understanding mental phenomena A method in psychology which limits empirical investigation of the mind to the study of human behaviour. This pretence of external unfreedom allows a person to disclaim responsibility BEGGING THE QUESTION: (Petitio Principii) The fallacy of assuming the conclusion of an argument by using BEHAVIOURISM : Broadly. George (1685–753). Philosophically the doctrine of the conclusion as a premise. Page | 25 BAD FAITH : As expounded by Sartre consists in character and by viewing oneself as being determined by one’s circumstances beyond one’s control. ‘song of the blessed one/exalted lord’).DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY Berkeley.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . Hindu devotional DR. BHAGABAT GITA: (from Sanskrit Bhagavadgita. Berkeley’s first major publication. behaviourism is that mental states are logical constructions out of dispositions to behavior. Irish philosopher and bishop in the Anglican Church of Ireland. one of the three great British empiricists along with Locke and Hume.His well known statement is “ESSE EST PERCIPI” B relatively fixed in good conscience.
and the second century A. receives a selfless deeds and bhakti. reluctantly waiting to wage war. Compassion and wisdom constitute the essence of the Bodhisattava. Mahayana school from the spiritual individualism of the Hinyana school. surrender. and attachment. and forms the sixth book (Chapters 23–40) of the Indian epic Mahabharata. Bhakti includes the ideas of faith. love. Its most BODHISATTAVA: It is a special feature of Mahayana Buddhism. typically treated as shruti or infallible revelation.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY poem composed and edited between The fifth century B. common form of expression is worship by means of offerings. Strictly classified as smrti or fallible tradition. or devotion.C. affection. He is ready to suffer gladly so that he may liberate others. It contains eighteen chapters and seven hundred verses. Page | 26 devotion. the Gita is BHAKTI: (Sanskrit). Bodhisattava defers his own liberation in order to work for the liberation of others.. puja etc.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . In its narrative.D. This ideal distinguishes the DR. the warrior revelation from the Lord Krishna that emphasizes Arjuna. in Hindu theistic thought systems.
483 B.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . 563-c.563–c. 483 B. without requiring the unifying presence of any underlying right resolve. The eight-fold path involves right understanding. The Pali Canon BUDDHISM : The philosophy or religion based on the teachings of Gautama Siddhartha (c. That suffering can be eliminated. living. (Buddhahood) sought in Buddhism. a title (but not a name) of Siddharta Gotama (c. and of any of his later representations. right conduct. The universal reality or world-soul. the supreme.). and that the way to get rid of suffering is by following the eight-fold path. BUNDLE THEORY : Belief that an object comprises only the features or properties it exhibits.C.‘ Buddha’ can also mean Page | 27 anyone who has attained the state of enlightenment mentions twenty-four Buddhas.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY BRAHMA : Also Brahman. ‘the enlightened one’). BUDDHA:(From Sanskrit. all-pervasive essence and ground of the universe.). right intuition and right concentration. The Four Noble Truths teach that life is suffering. right speech.C. the historical founder ofBuddhism. that desire is the cause of suffering. right effort. right DR.
Hence supposed that the human self is nothing more than a bundle of perceptions. Page | 28 ***** DR.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY substance.ASHIS KUMAR DASH .
CATEGORICAL IMPERATIVE : In the philosophy of Kant. Descartes used a method of systematic doubt by which he arrived at the idea which served as the foundation of his philosophy: “Cogito. CASUISTRY : Approach to ethics that begins by examining a series of concrete cases rather than by trying to deduce the consequences of a moral rule.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY c dictates of the market. Confucius: Chinese thinker founder of the Confucian school of thought.” “I think. (humanity. therefore I exist”. ergo sum.which His highest ethical ideal is jen includes an affective concern for the wellbeing of others Page | 29 CAPITALISM : An economic system in which wealth is owned by private individuals or businesses and goods are produced for exchange according to the CARTESIANISM : The philosophy of Rene Descartes (1596-1650). the purely formal principle of moral action: “Act only according to a maxim by which you can at the same DR.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . the unconditional moral law for all rational beings. goodness).
CATEGORY : A fundamental class. an expression applied to God to mean in part that God owes his existence to nothing other than himself. It does not mean that God somehow brought himself into existence. a basic conception.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY time will that it shall become a universal law. DR. Thus to suppose that sleep is furious or that a city is nothing more than its buildings is to commit a category mistake.” See also practical imperative. In Indian Philosophy. ‘cause of itself’). The term ‘category’ means what is predicated or affirmed of something. Aristotle mentions ten categories (substance. Ryle maintained that Cartesian dualism arises from such a mistake. mentions seventy categories. quantity.) while Kant accepts twelve categories.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . one of the primary ideas to which all other ideas can be reduced. the Vaishesika system deal with the categories and categories (padarthas) CATEGORY MISTAKE : Confusion in the attribution of properties or the classification of things. relation etc. the entire universe is reduced to six or seven Hegel Page | 30 CAUSA SUI: (Latin.
or an object. formal cause. has a cause. that out of which something is made. the plan or idea by reference to which something is made. and efficient cause.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY CAUSATION: the relation between cause and effect. Its viewed that the mind is simply the body and its capacities. CAUSE : In Aristotelian philosophy four kinds of cause are distinguished: material cause. at least according to their critics. final cause. CAUSALITY. which may be an event. but in its most sophisticated form DR.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . the purpose for which something is made. or every event. the act or event which produces the result. PRINCIPLE OF : It states that every change. but differ physical property under some as to whether every mental property is simply a description (reductive materialism) or there are emergent irreducibly mental properties that are caused by physical properties and themselves have no causal impact (epiphenomenalism). a state. Some psychological Page | 31 Carvaka epistemologists. accept only perception as a reliable source of knowledge. CHARVAKA: Indian materialism. or the act of bringing about an effect.
CIVIL LIBERTY : The private sphere of existence. An empty class DR. definition defines an expression in terms of itself. CIRCULARITY : A circular argument implicitly employs its over conclusion as it’s premise. CLASS : A collection which results of a number of entities possess a common property. Also called petitio principii. freedom from government. allows inference at least to conclusions that concern perceptually accessible states of affairs. clubs. belonging to the citizen not to the state. not unlike logical positivism. CIVIL SOCIETY : Civil society is a social formation intermediate between the family and the state. civil society includes businesses.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY Carvaka. A realm of autonomous associations and groups.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . begging the question. families and so on. formed by private citizens and enjoying independence from the government. A circular Page | 32 CIRCULAR ARGUMENT : A fallacious argument in which the conclusion is assumed in one of the premises.
free markets and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam Smith. CLASSICAL LIBERALISM : importance of human A doctrine stressing the rationality. CLASSICAL LIBERALISM : A doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality. individual property rights. a class which has no members. free markets and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam Smith. It is seen as the fusion of economic liberalism with political liberalism. Jeremy Bentham. a class-conscious class is a class-for-itself. natural rights. constitutional limitations of government. constitutional limitations of government. David Ricardo. natural rights.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . David others.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY is a potential collection. Jeremy Bentham. the protection of civil Page | 33 liberties. individual Ricardo. John Stuart Mill and property rights. the protection of civil liberties. CLASS-CONSCIOUSNESS : A Marxist term denoting an accurate awareness of class interests and a willingness to pursue them. John Stuart Mill and DR.
harmony and consistency among judgements. Coherence is agreement.) consider coherence to be the test of truth. COGNITION : Any kind of knowledge process. the product of the knowledge process.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY others. COGITO. ERGO SUM : I think therefore I am. From thinking.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . CLEAR AND DISTINCT : An idea is clear if its content is raise and detailed otherwise. existence of the self is proved by French rational philosopher Rene Descartes. confused if it cannot. An idea is distinct if it can be distinguished from any other idea. Bradley & Bosanquet etc. certain theories of meaning for the (true or false) Descartes told that the clarity and distinctness of our Page | 34 COHERENCE THEORY OF TRUTH : The objective idealists (Hegel. it is observe. The theory that truth is a property not of DR. Or. COGNITIVE : The term cognitive meaning is used in information conveyed by a statement. it is seem as the fusion of economic liberalism with political liberalism. The two are commonly supposed to coin cide on the grounds that clarify is a necessary and sufficient condition for distinctness. ideas is a criterian for the truth of what use believe.
Prominent consequentialists include J. It holds the view that either the nature of truth or the sole criterion for determining truth is constituted by a relation of coherence between the belief (or judgment) being assessed and other beliefs (or judgments). Immediately after World War II the expression was more or less synonymous with ‘phenomenology’. Moore. S. Page | 35 CONSEQUENTALISM: The doctrine that the moral rightness of an act is determined solely by the goodness of the act’s consequences.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY individual statements or propositions but of the totality of ideas or of the absolutely inclusive idea. COLLECTIVISATION : The abolition of private property and the establishment of a comprehensive system of mechanisms of the state. Mill. usually through the .ASHIS KUMAR DASH common or public ownership. DR. and Sidgwick. CONTINENTAL PHILOSOPHY: The gradually changing spectrum of philosophical views that in the twentieth notably different from the various forms of analytic the Anglo-American century developed in continental Europe and that are philosophy that during the same period flourished in world.
to each according to his needs). highlighting the importance of social groups. In other words Communism is the principle of the common ownership of wealth. COMPATIBILISM : Belief that the causal determination of human conduct is consistent with the freedom required for responsible moral agency. DR. COMMUNISM : Communism is a social system in assets and all members of the society work for the group to the best of their abilities. usually by settlement or economic domination.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY COLLECTIVISM : A belief that human ends are best achieved through collaborative or collective effort. communism is often used more broadly to refer to movements or regimes that are based on Marxist principles. In return the group will give to each member goods according to his or her deeds. (from each according to his abilities. COMPLEMENT : The class of all and only those things that are not included in the class designated by a categorical term.ASHIS KUMAR DASH Page | 36 which the community as a whole is the owner of all . COLONIALISM : The theory or practice of establishing control over a foreign territory.
CONSEQUENTIALISM : Any normative theory holding that human actions derive their moral worth solely from the outcomes or result that they produce. Or. Or. properties of a term. CONCEPTUALISM : The theory that general terms have mind.. the ideas and images avoiding the extreme forms of both realism and meaning because universals exist as concepts in the Page | 37 DR.. One of the several theories describing the status of universals in terms of mental concepts and nominalism.. CONCEPT : Any idea. any universal which can be the object of thought.. CONSCIENCE : The faculty of judging morally one’s own actions. CONDITIONAL STATEMENT : Any statement of the form “If .” CONNOTATION : The properties common to whatever is designated by a particular term. the defining associated with the use of a particular term.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . FALLACY OF : The informal fallacy where reasoning mode from part to whole.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY COMPOSITION. Or. then .
the closing clause of a conditional statement. powers and functions of government institutions and the rights of the individual. the act of experiencing content. CONSTITUTIONALISM : The belief that government rules (a constitution) that define the duties. the datum of experience. DR. CONSISTENCY : The logical relation which holds between propositions which are not contradictory. CONTINGENT : A proposition that could be either true or false. In logic. CONTINGENCY : A state of affairs which need not occur a state of affairs which may or may not occur. CONSEQUENT : That which is after. the relation between entitles which may be parts power should be exercised within a framework of .ASHIS KUMAR DASH Page | 38 Or. of a whale. CONTENT OF CONSCIOUSNESS : Whatever is directly apprehended in experience as distinguished from awareness.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY CONSENSUS : An agreement on basic issues or principles that may permit disagreement about matters of detail or emphasis.
When the predicate is joined directly to the subject. COPULA : The expression which joins the predicate to the subject in a sentence. collective effort intended to achieve mutual benefit. the coupla is ‘is’. and judgements with fact or object. COSMOLOGICAL ARGUMENT : An argument which purports to prove the existence of God by DR. For instance. there is no coupla. as in the sentence Socrates thinks. The theory that a statement or to correspond to fact. Page | 39 CORRESPONDENCE THEORY OF TRUTH : The realist consider correspondence to be the test of truth. A theory concerning the creation of . to actual state of affirs.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY CONTRADICTION : The logical relation which holds between two statements or propositions which cannot both be true and cannot both be false in that the truth of either involves the falsity of the other. COOPERATION : Working together. in the sentence Socrates is wise. COSMOGONY : the universe. It is a factual consistency.ASHIS KUMAR DASH Correspondence is agreement or harmony of ideas proposition is true if it corresponds to matter of fact.
CRITICAL REALISM : The theory that most existing things do not depend for their existence upon being perceived or conceived in mind. Boyle CREATION EX NIHILO: The act of bringing something into existence from nothing. God created the world ex nihilo. CRITICAL PHILOSOPHY : Kantian Philosophy. According to traditional Christian theology. cospuscularians included Gassendi. COSMOLOGY : The philosophic study of basic causes and processes in the universe. more usually. an inquiry into the structure of the universe. a commitment to fostering . COSMOPOLITANISM : Literally.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY maintaining that there must have been a first cause which initiated the causal sequence of contingent things.ASHIS KUMAR DASH Page | 40 state. parites. COSPUSCULARIANISM: 17th century physical theory that supposed all matter to be composed of minute and Locke. the theory that knowledge of independently existing things is possible even when the ideas by which things are DR. a belief in a world harmony and understanding amongst nations.
Kants theory of knowledge is callled critical theory of knowledge. CRITICAL THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE : Kant regards reason and experience both as the source of knowledge.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY known differ in existence and in character from the things known.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . nation as a distinctive civilization rather than on supplied by experience. The forms of knowledge are Page | 41 ***** DR. CYNICISM: Belief that the entire point of human life is the satisfaction of our most basic natural needs without any respect for social convention. CULTURAL NATIONALISM : A form of nationalism that places primary emphasis on the regeneration of the self-government. The matter or material of knowledge is supplied by reason.
DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY
Descartes, René (1596–1650), French philosopher and mathematician, a founder of the “modern age”. His well known statement is Cogito ergo sum (Latin, ‘I think, therefore I am’),the starting point of Descartes’s system of knowledge.
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DARWINANISM: The view that biological species evolve primarily by means of chance variation and natural DATUM : The given element. Or, whatever is presented as the content of consciousness. DECENTRALISATION : The expansion of local autonomy through the transfer of powers and responsibilities away from national or central bodies. DECISION PROCEDURE : An algorithm by means of which to establish in a finite number of steps, whether a statement form is tautologous or whether an argument form is valid. Drawing Venn diagrams provides a decision procedure for a modern interpretation of categorical logic and truth-tables give a decision procedure for the propositional quantification theory. calculus, but there is no decision procedure for
DR.ASHIS KUMAR DASH
DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY
DECONSTRUCTION : A form of textual analysis, usually combined with theoretical revision. Its aim is to unmask and overcome hidden (conceptual or theoretical) privilege. This is a key concept in the writings of Jacques Derrida. DEDUCTION : One of the two major types of argument traditionally induction. A deductive argument claims to provide deductive inference is one in which the conclusion is a necessary consequence of the premises. It is the mode of reasoning which involves passing from one or more propositions to other propositions logically implied by the former. DEEP ECOLOGY : A green ideological perspective that rejects anthropocentrism and gives priority to the such as biocentric equality, diversity maintenance of nature, and is associated with values decentralisation. and distinguished, the other being
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conclusive grounds for its conclusion. A valid
DE FACTO / DE JURE : Distinction between the grounds for a condition that merely happens to obtain (de facto) and one that holds as a matter of right or law (de jure)
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DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY
DEFINIENDUM : A word to be defined. DEFINIENS : An expression used to define a word. DEFINITION : The process of explaining the meaning of a term. Or, the expression used to explain the meaning of a term; the statement of the equivalence in meaning of a definiendum and definiens. DEFINITE DESCRIPTION : An expression that claims to refer to the single being that possess some unique proper analysis of such expressions, as the joint member of otherwise troubling difficulties. DEISM: The belief that God is unconcerned with the world he created. Or, the view that God can be understood by the use of reason and by reference to natural phenomena. It holds the view that true religion is natural religion. Some Christian deists accepted revelation although they self-styled feature. Russell showed nearly a century ago that the assertion of several distinct propositions, resolves a
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argued that its content is essentially the same as natural religion. Deism is largely a seventeenth- and eighteenth-century phenomenon and was most prominent in England. Among the more important English deists were John Toland (1670–1722),
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‘craftsman’). Matthew Tindal (1657–1733). immediate knowledge. The class of entities to which a term refers. DEMOCRACY : A systems of government in which all citizens are entitled to participate in political decision-making. The DR. whatever a term designates. and Thomas Chubb (1679–1747). Thomas Paine and Elihu American deists.e. DENOTATION : A general term is said to denote each object to which it refers. ‘artisan’.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . DEMIURAGE: (from Greek demiourgos. i. DEMONSTRATIONS : Demonstrative knowledge is indirect. be it directly. or indirectly through elected representative. attained by proof in contrast to intuition. a deity who shapes the material world from the preexisting chaos. Plato introduces the demiurge in his Timaeus.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY Anthony Collins (1676–1729). Palmer (1764–1806) were prominent Page | 45 DELIBERATIVE DEMOCRACY : A form of democracy that emphasises the role of discourse and debate in helping to define the public interest. Herbert of Cherbury (1583–1648). Continental deists included Voltaire and Reimarus.
formal nature of the act. DESIGN. DETERMINISM : The theory that every event has a cause and an effect and that the character of any event is entirely a function of its cause. DESCRIPTIVISM : The thesis that the meaning of any evaluative statement is purely descriptive or factual. Hare as a contrasting team to his own prescriptivism. Descriptivism is related to cognitivism and moral realism.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . an ethics which regards an Page | 46 DR. ARGUMENT FROM : Belief that the operation of the universe evidences its providential origin.M. its extension. The word 'descriptivism' was introduced by R. Theory that every thing or event is totally conditioned by antecedent cause.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY several object to which a term may correctly be applied. DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS : Any theory of the right and the wrong which relates moral value not to the value of the consequences of human action but to the act as right if it conforms to moral principle. Also known as Teleological agreement.
a dilemma is a situation requiring a difficult choice DR.ASHIS KUMAR DASH Page | 47 orthodox . The crude and deterministic form of Marxism that dominated intellectual life in communist states. DICTUM DE OMNI ET NULLO : The Aristotelian principle of syllogistic logic which states that whatever can be affirmed or denied of the whole of a class may be affirmed or denied of a part. DICHOTOMY : Dividing into two.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY DHARMA : In Indian philosophy. Or. Or. division of a class into two subclasses that are mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive. the right. the method of constructing ideas by resolving apparent contradictories. DILEMMA : In ordinary non-technical usage. Or. virtue. the critical treatment of paradoxes arising out of the misapplication of categories. DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM : A phiolosophy founded by Marx and Engels and supported by Lenin and Stalin. the method of philosophical inquiry by the use of questions and answers. DIALECTIC : The art of rational discourse. the cosmic law.
METHOD OF : One of mill’s Methods for discovering casual relationships. and the component DR. DISCOURSE ETHICS : A theory designed to establish the right moral and political principles. : The word DESCRIPTIVISM 'descriptivism' was Page | 48 introduced by R. DISCURSIVE : A term applied to processes of thinking which reach their conclusion step by step through a series of intermediary operations. If an antecedent circumstance is present only on those occasions q' is called a disjunction.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY between alternatives. both of which are bad. DISJUNCTION : A compound statement of the form 'p or statements are called disjuncts.M. A common form of argument in ordinary discourse in which it claimed that a choice must be made between two alternatives. Hare as a contrasting team to his own prescriptivism. DIFFERENCE. DIRECT DEMOCRACY POPULAR SELF-GOVERNMENT: Characterised by the direct and continuous participation of citizens in the tasks of government.ASHIS KUMAR DASH .
The subject propositions. emotion. without the mediation of ideas or sensory representations. DISTRIBUTION OF TERMS : a term is distributed if the proposition refers to entire member of the class it term is distributed in all and only universal and only negative propositions.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . DIRECT KNOWLEDGE : Awareness of feeling. DIVISION. intuition. undistributed if it does not. DIRECT REALISM : Theory of perceive according to which are perceive material objects directly. this view of ten requires a sophisticated defense. FALLACY OF : The informal fallacy of attributing some feature of a collection to the members of that collection individually or reasoning from whole to part. the predicate term is distributed in all Page | 49 DR. designates. especially in its attempts to account for the occurrence of hallucinations and perceptual error. it may be inferred to be the cause of that phenomenon.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY when a phenomenon occurs. or any content of consciousness. thought. See also awareness. It is also called “Naive” realism.
DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY DIVIDED LINE: One of three analogies offered in Plato’s Republic Socrates divides a line into two unequal segments: the longer represents the intelligible world and the shorter the sensible world. and noesis illusion or the apprehension of images. Socrates segments (beginning with the shortest): eikasia. Both these theories dogmatically assumes the truth of certain fundamental principles. Page | 50 segments is divided in the same proportion. belief .ASHIS KUMAR DASH . viz. and deduce conclusion from them. rationalism and empiricism. Then each of the associates four mental states with the four resulting as a partial explanation of the Good. dianoia. Dogmatism assumes two forms. pistis. without enquiring into the capacity of the organ of knowledge to comprehend the reality. in ordinary physical objects.rational ascent to the first principle of the Good by means of dialectic. the sort of hypothetical reason dispositional belief divided lineing engaged in by mathematicians. as Kant says. DR.. DOGMATISM : Dogmatism is the dogmatic procedure of pure reason without previous criticism of its own power.
DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY DOUBLE ASPECT THEORY : Belief that mental properties and events on the one hand and physical distinct feature or as aspects of one and the same thing that exhibits them both. Spinoza. for example. a theory that regards the object of knowledge as not numerically identical with the object as known. (ii) ‘Suffering’ ‘ill’. The crux of dualism is an apparently properties and events on the other are irreducibly Page | 51 DR. DUÍKHA: (i) ‘Pain’ painful feeling..e. As the first of the four Descartes. maintained that thought and extension are distinct or Nature” attributes of the one existing substance that is . or in the knowledge theories of Locke and unbridgeable gap between two incommensurable orders of being that must be reconciled if our assumption that there is a comprehensible universe is to be justified. as the content of the mind in the knowing relationship. and mental. i.“God DUALISM : Any metaphysical theory which reduces the kinds of existing things to two basic substances.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . Represented in Critical Realism. In epistemology. which may be bodily noble truths.
DYAD : A group of two.ASHIS KUMAR DASH .DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY DUTIES : What we ought to do. an action that people are required of a moral obligation. the practical content Page | 52 ***** DR. to perform.
Page | 53 EGOCENTRIC PREDICAMENT : The peculiar situation in which any knower finds himself when he attempts to existence upon being known. efforts to protect the environment at large are feminist in discover something which is not dependent for its DR. industry and individual. Einstein’s own understanding of relativity stressed the invariance of the space-time interval and promoted realism with regard to the structure of space time. founder of the special and general theories of relativity and a fundamental contributor to several branches of physics and to the philosophical analysis and critique of modern physics. rather than the achievement of human ends.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY E Einstein. notably of relativity and the quantum theory. A rather than any individual organism is the source and support of all life and as such advises a holistic ad eco-centric approach to government.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . Germanborn American physicist. ECOCENTRISM : A theoretical orientation that gives priority to the maintenance of ecological balance philosophy that recognizes that the eco sphere. On this view. Albert (1879–1955). ECO FEMINISM : Belief that human violation of the natural world is an extension of the prevalent patriarchy of western culture.
or the belief that each individual is the entitled to function as a morally autonomous being. centre of his or her own moral universe. one of Aristotle's four causes. EFFICIENT CAUSE : The agent or event that produces some changes in the accidental features of a thing. ecology stresses the network of relationships that sustain all forms of life. since they challenge systemic male domination of the other. and is thus .DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY spirit. ETHICAL : The theory that one ought to act so as to secure the greatest possible good for oneself. DR. EGOISM : Concern for one’s own interest or welfare. selfishness. ECO CENTRISM : A philosophy that recognizes that the eco sphere. EGOISM. ECONOMIC LIBERALISM : A belief in the market as a self-regulating mechanism that tends naturally to deliver general prosperity and opportunities for all.ASHIS KUMAR DASH Page | 54 a holistic ad eco-centric approach to government. ECOLOGY : The study of the relationship between living organisms and the environment. rather than any individual organism is the source and support of all life and as such advises industry and individual.
has a fullness. PSYCHOLOGICAL : The theory that man is so constituated that he must act to secure whatever he regards as best for himself. one of the eternal.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY EGOISM. for phenomenological ELAN VITAL : The life force.figure. an arising out of. EIDOS: Greek term for what is seen . Husserl used the term “eidetie” apprehension of essences generally. the basic creative principle of all living things or the evolutionary principle as operative in nature. The creative process in which all being is derived in a non temporal fashion from a single source of being. EMANATION : The issuing forth from. shape or form. transcendent forms apprehended by human reason. or God. indeed an overflow of being and other things come into being at various levels as emanations of the divine. The One. DR. the eidos is the immutable genuine nature of a thing. Asrisotole rejected the the notion of Page | 55 indenpendently existing forms.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . In the philosophy of Plato. It is a key concept in Gnostic and neo-Platonic philosophy.
evocation or endorsement of powerful human feelings. with the most of the logical positivists and Stevenson.APPEAL accept or reject TO:(ARGUMENTU AD POPULISM) a conclusion of persuading someone to by arousing Page | 56 The informal fallacy favourable or unfavourable emotions toward it or by emphasizing its widespread acceptance or rejection by others. DR. The descriptive meaning of an expression is its power to produce an idea or a belief in a hearer. EMERGENCE : The appearance of new forms of life or preceding forms.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY EMOTION. the emotive meaning of an expression is its power to produce a feeling or an attitude in a hearer. its origination lies in the non-cognitivist morality of theme. EMOTIVE MEANING : The capacity of an utterance to express or to communicate feeling. EMOTIVISM : the meta-ethical theory according to which the meaning of moral language is exhausted by its expression.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . emotivism matter which cannot be explained by reference to reached its height early in the twentieth century.
ASHIS KUMAR DASH . the final cause. EMPIRICAL STATEMENT : A statement which can be verified or shown to be false by reference to facts revealed by experience. secular. The Enlightenment is at once a style. DR. motion or state of mind of another as if one were the other. EMPIRICISM : The theory that all knowledge is derived from experience and that no knowledge is innate or a priori. in the ENLIGHTENMENT : An intellectual movement that reached its height in the eighteenth century and challenged traditional beliefs in religion. empirical. a temper –critical. END : The goal or purpose of a thing. in what it took to be “nature. an philosophy of Aristotle. the observation or experience generally. EMPIRICAL : Based on use of the senses. Hence empirical coincides Page | 57 with what is a posteriori. ”and in the “natural feelings” of mankind. It is also characterized by core beliefs in human rationality. politics and learning in general in the name of reason and progress. hence.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY EMPATHY : The assumption of the attitude. skeptical. attitude. and practical.
ASHIS KUMAR DASH sensuous pleasures. ENVIRONMENTALISM: (in ethics and politics) the view that the of major production of the natural environment is practical and moral concern for movement based on and conclusion. . In metaphysics. ENTITY : Whatever can be considered or referred to. and Voltaire. Thomas Jefferson. Kant. The essence or vital principle of a thing by virtue of which it is actual. ENTAILMENT : Relation between propositions such that one of them is strictly implied by the other(s). EPICUREANISM : The theory that happiness is the greatest good and that happiness is to be achieved by living a life of moderation in which the contemplative pleasures are preferred to the EPI-PHENOMENALISM : The theory that mental events reflect bodily changes but have no cause influence DR. the promoting that view. The premises of a valid deductive argument entail its ENTELECHY : (from Greek entelecheia).DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY Four of its most prominent exemplars are Hume. the realization of the essence of a thing. Page | 58 mankind.
A theory about the relation between matter and mind. and they have no causal power of their own. EPISTEMOLOGICAL MONISM : The theory that the content of consciousness and the aspect of object known are distinct in existence even though they may be alike in essence.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . The attempt to clarify ideas about knowledge and the methods for securing knowledge. It inquires into the origin. EPISTEMOLOGY : Epistemology is the theory of knowledge. DR. according to which there is some physical basics for energy mental occurrence. Mental phenomena are seems as by products of a closed system of physical causes and effects. Greek term for distinct in existence even though they may be alike Page | 59 cessation or stoppage. EPOCHE : suspension of In the Philosophy of the skeptics. nature. the Judgment. validity and extent of knowledge. EPISTEMOLOGICAL DUALISM : The theory that the content of consciousness and the object known are in essence.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY on the body.
ASHIS KUMAR DASH . It is a compound statement that is true whenever both of its component value. statements have the same truth Page | 60 EROS : The Greek god of erotic love. According to Berkeley. whether or ESSENTIALISM : essential not it is the characteristic of something. for spirits. any characteristic whatsoever. divine judgement and the end of the world. ESSENCE : The distinctive nature of a thing or. this is the most basic feature of all sensible objects. . EQUIVOCATION : The informal fallacy that can result when an ambiguous word or phrase is used in different senses within a single argument. Eros came to be symbolic of various aspects of love.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY EQUIVALENCE : Symbolized in the form : p = q. immortality. first appearing in Hesiod in opposition to reason. more broadly. DR. ESCHATOLOGY : The theological study of such final matters as death. A metaphysical theory that objects non-essential or accidental have essences and that there is a distinction between and predications. ESSE EST PERCIPI : Latin phrase meaning “ to be is to be perceived”.
or that something has objective existence. moose argued that it is indefensible. esse est percipi “ to be is to perceive”.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY on the other hand. To say that a fact is objective. Page | 61 rights. ETHICAL OBJECTIVISM: The view that the objects of the most basic concepts of ethics (which may be supposed to be values. beginning with study of human conduct Aristotle. objectively and that similarly worded ethical statements by different persons make the same factual claims (and thus do not concern merely the speaker’s feelings). DR. ETHOS : characteristic conduct of an individual human life. ETERNITY : The infinite temporal duration which includes all time or. is usually to from its being thought to hold or exist.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . duties. oughts. obligations. or what not) exist. the say that its holding or existence is not derivative held that all behavior for good or evil . Granting this to be the most fundamental principle of idealistic philosophy.arises from the ethos of the individual. a state which transcends time. and ethics the it stories the Greek word for western or habit. or that facts about them hold. Hence.
’ William Lillis defines ethics as the ‘normative science of the conduct of human beings living in societies. but upon the way of life most suited to man’s nature. the attitudes of persons judging the acts. functions of.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . holds that acts are right insofar as they contribute to eudeamonism is not upon pleasure. as in hedonistic man’s well-being or happiness. that part of philosophy which deals with questions concerning the nature and source of value. Mackenzie says that ethics is the ‘study of what is right or good in conduct. ETHICS : The philosophy of morality. duty and related matters. It eudaimonia. ETHICAL HEDONISM : The theory that acts are right insofar as they contribute to happiness or pleasure or suffering. EUDAEMONISM : (from Greek and wrong insofar as they contribute to unhappiness Page | 62 ‘happiness’.‘ flourishing’). rightness. DR. The emphasis in ethics. The ethical doctrine that happiness is the ultimate justification for morality.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY ETHICAL RELATIVISM : The theory that the rightness and wrongness of acts are relative to.
particularly in France. EXTENSION / INTENSION : Distinction between ways in which the meaning of a term may be regarded: its DR. and that focused on the uniqueness of each human individual qualities.ASHIS KUMAR DASH ‘fit’ members of a species or preventing procreation Page | 63 as distinguished from abstract universal human . mental suffering and moral wickedness. achieved either by promoting procreation amongst by the ‘unfit’. The existentialist beings with the fact of an encountered existence and regards essence. EXISTENTIALISM : A philosophy which distinguishes between existence and essence and gives priority to existence. as contingent upon the mode of existence. or character.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY EUGENICS : The theory or practice of selective breeding. PRINCIPLE OF : The principle that a proposition is either true or it is false. the philosophy which claims that in man existence precedes essence. It is a philosophical and literary movement that came to prominence in Europe. EXCLUDED MIDDLE. EVIL : Mean physical pain. immediately after World War II.
this ensures that functional. EXTENSIONALITY : The feature of a formal system in which the meaning of energy non-logical term is wholly determined by its extension.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY extension or denotation. its intension or connotation. compound statements of the system will be truthPage | 64 ***** DR. is the set features those things are presumed to have in common.ASHIS KUMAR DASH .
Sigmund (1856–1939). facticity includes all DR. FACT / VALUE : Distinction between assertions about how things really are. that is. the founder of psychoanalysis. Austrian neurologist and psychologist. Freud.and political authority. the distinction is usually taken to entail that claims about moral obligation can never be validly inferred from the truth of factual premises alone. fact and how things ought to be.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . Not to be confused with a statement of fact or a factual proposition. Factual propositions are true or false. Freud regarded dreams as “the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY F Facts simply are. value.” Page | 65 FACT : A state of affairs. It follows that people who agree completely on the simple description of a state of affairs may never the less differ with respect to the appropriate action to take in response to it. Freud used the results of his investigations to speculate about the origins of morality. Drawn by Hume and defended by Stevension. That which objectively is. that is. In the existentialism of Heidegger and Sartre. Hare and other ethical non cognitivists. FACTICITY : The continent conditions of an individual human life. religion .
DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY of the concrete birth. falsifiability is the crucial feature of scientific hypothesis : belief can never be tested against the empirical evidence are dogmatic. or values. is possible that to specify a set of Page | 66 FALSIFIABILITY : A property of any proposition for circumstances the occurrence of which would demonstrate According to Karl Popper. Also. Cf. FALLIBILISM : Theory that it is impossible to attain absolute certainty in factual knowledge.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . FALSE CONSCIOUSNESS: concerning society. Peirce. details-time and place of FALLACY : An unsound argument or an error in reasoning. Lack of awareness of the religion. a form of totalitarianism. presence than which it FALSE CAUSE : The informal fallacy of affirming the of a causal relationship on anything less adequate grounds. the proposition is false. source and significance of one’s beliefs and attitudes DR. FASCISM : A social philosophy that rejects democracy and freedom and glorifies the state as an instrument of power.
Serious attention DR.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY objectionable forms of ignorance and false belief.reliance on reason. scientific traditional Cartesian Or. Feminists differ widely in their accounts of the origins of patriarchy. FEDERALISM : A territorial distribution of power based on the sharing of sovereignty between central (usually national) bodies and peripheral ones. Many feminist philosophers objectively oppose and dualism. FEMINISM : Commitment to the abolition of male domination in human society. dishonest forms of self-deception. but all share is the recognition that the subordination of women to men in our culture is indigestible and eliminable. the vague belief that somehow certain events are Marx) use the expression to explain and condemn Page | 67 theories of moral obligation as instances of masculine over. their analyses of its most common consequences. Marxists (if not illusions generated by unfair economic relationships. decided upon as historical facts prior to their occurrence.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . and their concrete proposals for overcoming it. FATALISM : The belief that all or some events are determined by some supernatural being or power.
instead of on reason. to recognize women’s adequate can not of human life. Bayle and DR. feminist philosophers challenge several to take seriously women’s interests. rather than of what they are. Page | 68 ways of being. FEENCTIONALISM : An approach to the philosophy of mind that analysis mental states in terms of what action performed instead of on intrinsic features. perspectives. thinking.religious doctrines rest faith.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY to the experiences of women would offer a more FEMINIST PHILOSOPHY: A philosophical viewpoint that refuses to identify the human experience with the male experience. fideism Kierkegaard. In was maintained by exclusively on they do.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . and doing as valuable as FEUDALISM : A system of agrarian-based production that is characterised by fixed social hierarchies and a rigid pattern of obligations. This focus on various forms. FIDEISM : Belief that . Writing from a variety of areas of traditional philosophy on the grounds that they fail identities. philosophers as diverse as Pascal. and issues. and those of men.
FIRST MOVER : (Prime Mover) The being or power that initiated change in the universe. a necessary truth which serves as the foundation of a system of ideas.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . Or. equality. FORMAL CAUSE : Structural features or attributes of a thing. PLATONIC : The pure objects of mathematical and dialectical knowledge. the first cause. FIRST PRINCIPLE : The first cause of all contingent beings. DR. necessary truths are involve knowledge ideas. or equal. Page | 69 arguments. of taken to eternal. or Good only in so far as they participate in the universal forms of beauty. FINAL CAUSE : The end or purpose for which something was done. one of the four causes of Aristotle. argument from moral perfection and the unchanging forms or Particular things in the realm of appearance are beautiful. in Thomas Aquinas’ Summa Theologa. FORMS. In the vigorous realism of Plato’s middle dialogues.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY FIVE WAYS : The attempts to prove the existence of God included They include three versions of the cosmological teleological arguments.
FUNDAMENTALISM : A belief in the original or most basic principles of a creed. are just those which I perform freely. or power to decide. a or prefer.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . often associated with way causally determined. rewarded or punished. which is in no will free from the excessive influences of other persons. the theory that moral obligation is relative to formal principles of conduct whose validity can be determined by intuitive reflection. Or. FREE WILL : A will. we choose FREEDOM : The human capacity to act or not to act. an uncoerced will. without any external Page | 70 DR. as compulsion or restraint. bonds of sympathy and comradeship between and amongst human beings. brotherhood. Freedom in this sense is usually regarded as a presupposition of moral responsibility: the actions to which I may be praised or blamed. The doctrine of forms was attacked in Plato’s own Parminides and by Aristotle. FORMALISM : In ethics.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY or the Good. FRATERNITY : Literally.
classical system of reasoning in which propositions may have many degrees of truth or falsity. method Page | 71 ***** DR.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . fuzzy logic has found a number of significant practical applications in the design and operation of control .systems. FUZZY LOGIC : Non .DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY fierce commitment and sometimes reflected in fanatical zeal. Developed by Lotfi Zadeh as a of providing for vagueness in the application of predicates.
an advocate of nonviolent mass political action. : Refers to increasing global economic. GESTALT : Shape. technological. called Mahatma (1869–1948). Indian nationalist leader. ‘force’). the citizens of a property contracted civil biological and therefore ineradicable differences society are infallibly guided by the general will. which refers to between men and women. cultural. the whole considered as more than the sum of its parts. rather than by their conflicting individual selfinterests. integration and interdependence in the and ecological spheres. GLOBALIZATION connectivity. and agraha. GENERAL WILL : Collective desire for the welfare of a society as a whole. ‘truth’. Mohandas Karamchand. as opposed to sex. considering it a science whose end is truth (which he identified with God) and method nonviolence (ahimsa). form. political DR. According to Jean Jacques Rousseau. social.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY G Gandhi.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . Page | 72 GENDER : A social and cultural distinction between males and females. He called his approach Satyagraha (Sanskrit satya.
theological arguments is the problem of evil.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . the principle is that action are right only in produce the greater balance of pleasure over pain for the largest number of people. The most serious a western Philosophy. so far as they tend to and the moral argument. GOOD : The most general term of approval both moral and non-moral. EXISTENCE OF : Attempts to demonstrate the existence of God have been a notable feature of theistic efforts include the cosmological argument. moral whether intrinsic or extrinsic GREATEST HAPPINESS PRINCIPLE : The definition of value by utilitarians.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY GOD. Bentham and mill. As stated by Hutcheson. the ontological argument the teleological argument. The Commonly employed Page | 73 ***** DR.
Although defended as a moral theory about the proper aim of human conduct. Henotheism means belief in one only conceding existence to others. Page | 74 HEDONISM : According to hedonism pleasure is the highest good and supreme end of life.ASHIS KUMAR DASH allegiance to one supreme deity while . Aristotle argued against any attempt to identify pleasure as the HEGEMONY : The ascendency or domination of one element of a system over others. Hegel’s best-known attempt is dialectical resolution of many of the traditional oppositions and antinomies of past thought. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1770–1831). for Marxists. also well known for his philosophy of history and philosophy of religion. also described as DR. It to monotheism. HENOTHEISM : Maxmuller introduces the term ‘Henotheism’ as a transitional stage from polytheism God. hedonism is usually grounded on the psychological claim that human beings simply do act in such ways as to maximize their own happiness.one of the most influential and systematic of the German idealists. hegemony implies ideological domination. It is the belief that pleasure is the highest or only source of intrinsic value. highest good.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY H Hegel.
as well as a type of philosophy that starts with questions of interpretation. incipient monotheism. Not just a philosophical position in twentieth-century German became a DR. HIERARCHY : A gradation of social positions or status. which denies reality to all gods save one. It occupies a middle ground between polytheism and radical monotheism.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY monolatry. HERMENEUTICS: The art or theory of interpretation . HOLISM : A belief that the whole is more important than its parts. a set of presuppositions that assigns to human beings a special position in the scheme of things. Originally concerned more Page | 75 narrowly with interpreting sacred texts. or practical monotheism. hierarchy implies structural or fixed inequality in which position is unconnected with individual ability. the term acquired a much broader significance in its historical development and finally philosophy.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . holism implies that understanding is gained by studying relationships among the parts. HUMANISM : A philosophical view which emphasises the centrality of man and rejects the supernatural.
empirical HYLOZOISM : The belief that all matter is living Page | 76 ***** DR. HYPOTHESIS : A General principle. humanism is rather a general perspective from which the world is viewed substance.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY school of thought or a collection of specific beliefs or doctrines.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . tentatively put forward for the purposes of scientific explanation and subject to disconfirmation by evidence.
Philosophiae Naturalis Principia mathematica (“The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy”) It has been remarked that conflicting strains of a rationalism (anticipating Kant) and empiricism (anticipating Hume) are present in Newton’s conception of science Page | 77 IDEA : In Platonic philosophy. Sir Isaac (1642–1727). English physicis and mathematician. In Berkeleian IDEALISM : The theory that only minds (spirits) and their ideas exist. an eternal essence. minds. one of the greatest scientists of all time. In the philosophy of Gottfried Wilhelm Von Leibniz (16461716). but exist only as in some way correlative to conception that reality as we understand it reflects IDENTITY OF INDISCERNIBLES : The principle that no two things can be identical in character. Newton. The doctrine centers on the the workings of mind. any sense object directly known in archetype of things.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . the principle that no two monads can have characters without a discernible difference. a philosophy. It is the philosophical doctrine that reality is somehow mind-correlative or mindcoordinated – that the real objects constituting the “external world” are not independent of cognizing mental operations. His masterpiece. DR.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY I universal experience.
ASHIS KUMAR DASH .DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY IDENTITY. The four classes of idols described by Bacon are the ‘Idols of the Tribe’ inherent human habits of thought. repay you this money next week. For example. the individual. IDEOLOGY : A more or less coherent set of ideas that provides the basis for some kind of organised political action. The fact that “A is A” is a tautology. IDOL : In the philosophy of Francis Bacon (15611626). the ‘Idols of the Market ‘Idols of the Cave’ the particular weaknesses of the Place’ of misconceptions resulting from the misuse Page | 78 language and the ‘Idols of the Theater’ false ideas resulting from the uncritical acceptance of authority. “ one typically DR. PRINCIPLE OF : It states that an object is always the same as itself (A=A). ILLOCUTIONARY ACT : The speech act of doing something elsefor example – in offering advice or taking a vow. in saying “ I will performs the illocutionary act of making a promise. the process of uttering meaningful language. a cause of human ignorance or error.
DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY
IMAGINATION: The mental faculty sometimes thought to encompass all acts of thinking about something novel, contrary to fact, or not currently perceived; propositions categorical that are logically equivalent IMMEDIATE INFERENCE : The relationship between two logic, the traditional immediate in
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inferences include : conversion, obversion and contraposition. IMMANENT : Being within, part of, indwelling. The IMMATERIALISM: The view that objects are best characterized as mere collections of qualities: “a certain colour, taste, smell, figure and consistence one distinct ting, signified by the name IMPLICATION : The logical relation which holds could not be the case that the one is true and the other false. p implies that q means that q can be correctly inferred from p. IN COMMENSURABILITY : measured against a common Incapable of being standard. The between one proposition and another whenever it having been observed to go together, are accounted opposite of transcendent.
preserved in commensurability of individual human
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DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY
pleasures is sometimes raised as an objection against hedonistic versions of utilitarianism. INCONTINENCE : Inability to act reasonably because of weakness of will, lack of self control. INCOMPLETE SYMBOL : An incomplete symbol is one which has no meaning in isolation, but only in some so, the present king of France etc. context. For example – or, and, if ... then, the so and INDETERMINISM : The theory that some events are not causally determined. Or, the theory that acts of will are not determined. INDIVIDUALISM : A belief in the central importance of the human individual as opposed to the social group or collective. INDUCTION : The process of moving from the particular to General. The method of empirical generalization. inferring a general conclusion from a argument claims that its premises give only some conclusion. number of particular instances. An inductive degree of probability but not certaintity to its
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INFERENCE : The process of reasoning from one idea or set of ideas (the premises) to a conclusion. Inference relationship. INNATE IDEAS : Beliefs with which man is born. According to Descartes those ideas which we have God. from birth before any experience. Like the Idea of INSTRUMENTALISM : Another term for the pragmatism of John Dewey and others. The view that theories regarded as tools. INTENTIONALITY: Aboutness. Things that are about other things exhibit intentionality. Beliefs and other mental states exhibit intentionality, but so, in a derived way, do sentences and chairs, tables and pictures, and other representations. The adjective ‘intentional’ in this philosophical sense is a technical characterizing something done on purpose. INTERACTIONISM : The theory that body and mind causally affect each other. See also epiphenomenalism and parallelism.
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is a kind of activity; implication is a logical
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are not strictly speaking true or false but are to be
term not to be confused with the more familiar sense,
DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY
INTERNATIONALISM : A theory or practice of politics that is based on transnational or global cooperation; the belief that nations are artificial and unwanted formation. INTRINSIC PROPERTY : Belonging to the nature or essence of a thing. Belonging to something independently of its relation to other things. INTUITION : The faculty of knowing by mental inspection and without recourse to reason; direct knowing or awareness which is neither deductive nor inductive. Or, the product of recognition. INTENTIONALITY : The characteristic feature of cognitive states - that they invariably represent or are about something beyond themselves. The intentions of a moral agent are therefore, the states of mind accompany its actions IRRELEVANT CONCLUSION:
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Reasoning that misses the point the informal fallacy of defending the truth of a proposition by appeal to an argument that is actually concerned with something else.
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Jean-Paul Sartre:(1905–80), French philosopher and writer, the leading advocate of existentialism during the years following World War II. The heart of his philosophy was the precious notion of freedom and its concomitant sense of personal responsibility., bolder slogan, “man makeshimself.”
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JAINISM: An Indian religious and philosophical of the sixth and the beginning of the fifth century B.C. The tradition holds that each person is
tradition established by Mahavira in the latter half
everlasting and indestructible, a self-conscious identity surviving as a person even in a state of final JAÒA: Unconsciousness; dull. JUDGEMENT : The simplest form of knowledge is expressed in a judgement. A judgement consists of a subject and a predicate.
JUSTICE : Each getting what he or she is due. Formal justice is the impartial and consistent application of are just. Substantive justice is closely principles, whether or not the principles themselves associated with rights, i.e., with what individuals
can legitimately demand of one another or what they
can legitimately demand of their government
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Page | 84 ***** DR.ASHIS KUMAR DASH .DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY Retributive justice concerns when and why punishment is justified.
I know a proposition if and only if: a : I Sincerely affirm the proposition b. the causal and moral law of the universe. KARMA: In Indian philosophy. is open to question. deed or action. The analysis of each element of the definition. philosophers have KNOWLEDGE : Justified true belief. that different views about the nature of belief and have DR. however. Philosophers have held proposed many different theories of truth. accepted this and jointly sufficient conditions for knowledge. the proposition is true and c.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY K all western Im Kant Immanuel.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . Since Plato. Or. nearly deceptively simple statement of the three necessary is. my affirmation is genuinely based upon its truth. His philosophy is known as Criticism. preeminent German philosopher whose distinctive concern was to Page | 85 vindicate the authority of reason. (17241804).
notion of knowledge by acquaintance is primarily Page | 86 ***** DR. The associated with Russell KNOWLEDGE BY DESCRIPTION : Knowledge about a thing in terms of its properties. falliblists raise practical doubts about over certainly in achieving the second condition. sketies suppose that the third condition is never met and contemporary philosophers since gettier have questioned whether even the satisfaction of all these elements is genuinely sufficient for knowledge.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY Much of western epistemology has focused on the third element: precisely what constitutes adequate justification for knowledge? Rationalists and empiricists disagree about the sources which might provide relevant evidence.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . KNOWLEDGE BY ACQUAINTANCE : Knowledge of objects by means of direct awareness of them.
FAIRE : French phrase meaning “allow to do!” hence in political philosophy and economies.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY L Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm: (1646–1716). Laws of thought are rules that apply without exception to any subject matter of thought. LIBERALISM: a political philosophy first formulated of modern nation-states. German rationalist philosopher who gives the theory of the pre established harmony. LOCUTIONARY ACT : The simple speech act of generating sounds that are linked together by grammatical conventions so as to say something DR. LAISSERZ .ASHIS KUMAR DASH interference with the natural order of in general and centralize . Monadology etc. or to which all valid deduction is reducible. Page | 87 LAWS OF THOUGHT : laws by which or in accordance with which valid thought proceeds.. sometimes they are said to be the object of logic. a presumption against the desirability or governmental with the conduct of free trade in particular. which during the Enlightenment in response to the growth governmental functions and claim sole authority to exercise coercive power within their boundaries. etc. or that justify valid inference.
LOGICAL FORM : The structure of a proposition or an argument from which all content has been removed DR. “it is raining” per forms the locutionary act of saying that it is raining.g. operations from certain element.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY meaningful. The philosophy of rational argument. criticism.. LOGICAL EMPIRICISM : The philosophy which endorses the logical analysis of language as the method of philosophy and which regards statements as or theoretically verifiable in meaningful only if they are either logically analytic consequently. the clarification of the terms of formal of forms of inference and rules for their use.”which he introduced in connection with his experience. LOGIC : That branch of philosophy which deals with the nature and problems of clear and accurate thinking and argument. e. together with the invention or specification LOGICAL CONSTRUCTION: something built by logical originates with Russell’s concept of an “incomplete theory of descriptions. the philosophy which relies on logic and science and which rejects metaphysics as meaningless. .ASHIS KUMAR DASH Page | 88 The notion symbol .
LOGOS : The divine reason.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY . excluded middle. the creative thought or plan of the universe. the word of God namely. The earlier version of logical empiricism as developed by the Vienna Circle (Moritz Schlick.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . LOGICAL SYNTAX : See syntax. contradiction and Page | 89 ***** DR. logical. Otto Neurath and others) over the period 1923-1936.tautology and validity are features that hold only in LOGICAL POSITIVISM : virtue of logical form. Chiefly distinguished from logical empiricism by its more rigid criteria of empirical meaning. it began in the 1920s and flourished for about twenty or thirty years. the principles of identity. a philosophical movement inspired by empiricism and verificationism. LOGICAL PRINCIPLES : The principles on which the analysis of the structure of arguments depends. Herbert Feigl. Also called positivism.
ASHIS KUMAR DASH . Augustine.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY M MANICHACANISM : manes adhered good and evil. or any of several systems of thought or approaches to social criticism derived from Marx. who had been a manichaean before his commersion to christianity. or spirit Madhvacarya(Madhva). founder of Dvaita or “dualist” school of Vedanta philosophy well known for his theory panchavedaveda Page | 90 MANANA: Intellectual conviction after critical analysis. MATERIAL CAUSE : Basic stuff of which a thing is made. later wrote an extended refutation of his heretical doctrine. one of Aristotle’s four causes. followers of to a radical dualism between and body and recommended an ascetic way of life . DR. MARXISM: The philosophy of Karl Marx. MATIERIAL EQUEVALENCE : The logical relationship between any two propositions that have the same truth value. Persian religion .
MAYA:A term with various uses in Indian thought. MATTER : The stuff of which things are made. a system in which advancement is based on ability and achievement. In Aristotelian philosophy. MERITOCRACY : Meritocracy means rule by a talented or intellectual elite. In ethics.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY MATERIAL IMPLICATIONS : The logical relationship between the first is false or the second is true. Monotheistically conceived. Everything that exists can be understood as a form of matter. maya is the power of an omnipotent and omniscient deity to produce the world of dependent things. the doctrine that material wellbeing and self-interest should always govern individual actions. The term may also refer to an elite DR. pure potentiality. any two propositions such that either Page | 91 MATERIALISM : The doctrine that everything is composed of matter. In ordinary usage.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . merit being defined in Michael Young's formula as IQ + efforts. the capacity to be something. it regards matter as the only reality and life and mind as the products of matter. it expresses the concept of Brahman’s power to act.
and to those who have the relevant qualifications for successful performance in them. METALANGUAGE : A language devised to describe another language. or (b) awarded only to the candidates who are likely to perform the best. both success and failures are 'personal' achievements. a meritocracy is a scheme of social organization in which essential officers. or (c) managed so that people advance in and retain their offices and jobs solely on the basis of the quality of their performance in them. the idea of Page | 92 rewards are distributed according to individual talent and hard work. In a meritocratic society. or (d) all of the above. others are either untalented or lazy. (Cambridge Dictionary). the term's meaning is similar.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY group of talented achievers.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . reflecting the simple fact that while some are born with skills and a willingness to work hard. meritocracy relies heavily upon the ability clearly to distinguish between 'natural' and 'social' causes of inequality. In philosophical usage.In meritocratic society perhaps careers and jobs of all sorts are (a) open only However. DR.
. whence comes the word ‘metaphysics’. Speculative inquiry Page | 93 concerning philosophical matters which lie beyond the range of empirical inquiry. Traditionally.. life.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . the fourteen books now known as the Metaphysics were placed after the Physics.In Andronicus’s edition...The subject is DR.. Hence. whose literal meaning is ‘That comes after the physics’.) as a descriptive name for that part of Aristotle’s philosophy which appeared in the collection ‘after the physics’). It also seeks to determine the relation of the world. matter etc. it is the aim of experience. (The terms ‘metaphysics’ was originally used by Andronicus of Rhodes (first century B. mind.. cosmology and metaphysics to describe a reality lying beyond being as such (ontology). the study of includes ontology.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY METAPHYSICS : Metaphysics is that branch of philosophy which deals with the nature of the ultimate reality underlying the world of our experience. to the ultimate reality or the Absolute. The Fundamental postulate of metaphysics is that there is a super or hinter phenomena/reality .C. in a limited sense. Aristotle himself prefers ‘first philosophy’ or ‘wisdom’ (sophia). that part of philosophy which epistemology.
MECHANISM : Belief that science can explain all natural interaction among material parties. MEAN : The middle way between too much and too little of something.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY defined as the theoretical science of the causes and principles of what is most knowable. METAPHYSICS: Most generally. Hobbes. Aristotle held that virtue is always a mean between extremes of excess and deficiency. As employed by Descartes and phenomena in terms of the causal Page | 94 Mechanism offered an alternative to the scholastic reliance on explanatory appeals to final causes. constitution. and DR. without any reference to intelligent agency or purpose. the philosophical investigation of the nature. META ETHICS : Branch of philosophical ethics concerned with judgments language the meaning of propositions and the grounds upon are to be justified which oral Meta ethical moral theories typically offer an account of moral and its uses together with between an explanation of the logical relations assertion of fact and value.ASHIS KUMAR DASH .
Pre-establish harmony of Leibniz. MECROCOSM : Literally. It is broader in scope than METAPHYSICAL REALISM: In the widest sense.g. Absolute Idealism MIRACLE: An extraordinary event brought about by God. DR. of Hegel etc. in the philosophy of whole MIND BODY PROBLEM : The difficulty of explaining howthe to their the most includes mental activities of human being relate lining physical organisms. Historically. commonly accepted solutions have Occasionalism of Melbronchi Causal the Aristotles. Parallalism of Spinoza.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY structure of reality. the view that there are real objects exist independently of our experience or our knowledge of them. e. Page | 95 independently of the concepts with which we understand them or of the language with which we describe them.. and they have properties and enter into relations science. neoplatonists are taken to reflect the structure of the universe as a Interactionism of Descartes. physics and even cosmology. a “ littel world”.ASHIS KUMAR DASH .
Opposed to dualism or pluralism. active. self-contained. the individual soul. In the philosophy of Leibniz. purposive. the individual substance.ASHIS KUMAR DASH .DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY MODERATE REALISM : The doctrine that universals exist in things or as concepts in mind but not as nominalism and to Platonic realism. the theory that the object known and the given element in experience are one in existence as well as in essence. For example "either today is Tuesday or have made a mistake. possessing knowledge of experiences. the theory that all reality is basically of one substance. In epistemology." MONAD : In the philosophy of Giordano Bruno (15481600). a unity of body and mind. Opposed to Page | 96 DR. MONOTHEISM: (one-God-ism) Monotheism is the belief that there is but one supreme being who is only because of a divinely pre-established harmony independently subsisting quantities. MOLECULAR PROPOSITION : A proposition which is analyzable into atomic propositions. a manifestation of divine energy. MONISM : In metaphysics.
DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY personal and moral and who seeks a total and MORALITY: an informal public system applying to all rational persons. governing behavior that affects harm as its goal. Page | 97 concludes that God perfect cause of all lesser goods.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . The fourth of Aquinas’ five ways others. of reality involves the immediate of the terms and categories at the command of DR. having the lessening of evil or unqualified response from human creatures. and including what are commonly known as the moral rules. inaccessible through either the sense or the intellect. that is. The belief that knowledge awareness of God’s nature and presence. Kant postulation of God’s existence is a condition for our capacity to apply the moral MYSTICISM : The doctrine that the fundamental nature of reality is ineffable. by appeal to preserve of moral value must exist as the most argued that necessary law. moral ideals. of God MORAL ARGUMENT : an attempt to prove the existence in the universe. and moral virtues. indescribable in any ordinary human consciousness.
or the study of such stories.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . Page | 98 ***** DR. Myths arise out of man's unscientific efforts to account for the world around him.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY MYTHOLOGY : A collection of myths or stories associated with primitive regions.
ASHIS KUMAR DASH . Sometimes the term is used to refer to new realism.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY N desire of action. based on ordinary experience and not dependent on revelation. Here ‘A Unicorn’ is not a name but it is an incomplete symbol. Where there are no individuals to be referred there are no names. and political activist who has spent his professional career at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. For example ‘I met a unicorn’. Noam Chomsky.1928). DR. NATURAL THEOLOGY : The theology. NAME : Names are names only if they refer to individuals. According to Sankara Naiskarmya means freedom from the selfish NAIVE REALISM : The conventional opinion that the world is directly known and that it has whatever character we perceive it to have. preeminent American linguist. philosopher. Chomsky’s bestknown scientific achievement is the establishment of a rigorous and philosophically compelling foundation for the scientific study of the grammar of natural language Page | 99 NASKARMAYA: Freedom from action. (b. An indefinite description which describes nothing. or philosophy concerning God.
which claims that value terms and moral predicates are definable empirically and DR. It regards nature as the whole reality. composed of energy.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY NATURALISM : Theory that the universe has no supernatural origin or ground and needs no supernatural explanation. that human life and behaviour are in no way exceptional and outside the course of Page | 100 natural events and are to be explained by the same principles as obtained throughout the rest of nature and that human values. the good and the bad. moral ideals and conducts are determined entirely by the organic structure and needs characteristic of the human species. physics and chemistry and thinks the world of matter life and mind can be satisfactorily explained by physical and chemical laws. the obligatory. that its behaviour is not teleologically explicable by final causes and purposes. that it is self-existing and should be explained solely by reference to itself.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . The theory that reality is understandable without reference to the supernatural. NATURALISTIC ETHICS : Any philosophical theory concerning the right and the wrong. which is Naturalism lays stress on physical sciences.
Neutral monism was deferded by James and Russell.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY that value assertions and moral judgements are empirically verifiable. Page | 101 DR. NATURALISTIC FALLACY : The fallacy defined by G. Knowledge of one of the innumerable aspects of a thing is called ‘Naya’. Judgement based on this partial knowledge is also included in ‘Naya’. which are themselves ultimately neither mental nor physical. profound meditation and absorption is necessary. For self realization. NAYA: (Jaina philosophy) Naya means a stand point of thought from which we make a statement about a thing. All truth is relative to our stand points. Profound and constant meditation. NIDIDHYASANA: Practical realisation. NEUTRAL MONISM : Belief that both mental and physical properties are the features of substances of a single sort. reflection.E. the practice of hearing.ASHIS KUMAR DASH .. Moore (1873-1958) as the error of confusing some property common to good things but distinct from the property goodness with the property goodness.
ASHIS KUMAR DASH . which claims that the elements of reality are one in kind.204-c. Vedantic idea of Neti -Neti is to support the view that the indeterminate Brahman or Atman is beyond the name and form. but neutral. having been related to consciousness. proposed by William James (1842-1910). not this'.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY NEO PLATONISM : A philosophic movement started in the beginning of the third century by Ammonious Saccas the teacher of Plotinus (c. having been perceived as the aspects of physical things. that matter is the being by a non-temporal process of emanation. are regarded as material. 185-c. NETI NETI: It is understood as 'not thus not this. 254). in other contexts the neutral entities. NEUTRAL MONISM : The theory. thought it is allpervading. In some and Aristotelian ideas with certain Page | 102 negation of being and that the One creates orders of contexts the neutral entities. DR. are described as mental. 270) and Origen (c. neither essentially mental nor essentially material. Neo-platonism combines Platonic conceptions from Eastern philosophy and maintains that reality is an absolute oneness.
It is the cessation of the vicious circle passion. possibility of making any useful distinctions among NIRVANA (Duhka-Nirodha) Cessation of suffering) Nirvana is the summum bonum of Buddhism. the word is combination of two words (Ni-vana) which means freedom or departure from craving. not facts. NIHILISM : Complete rejection of the existence of human knowledge and values or denial of the things. Opposed to Platonic realism and to moderate realism. It is the annihilation of Page | 103 DR.ethical theory according to which moral issues are not subject to rational determination. NON COGNITIVISM : A meta . Dealing with values. dvesa and moha) NOMINALISM : The theory that general terms do not designate universal properties but are mere vocal sounds.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY NEW REALISM : The theory that physical objects exist independently of being perceived and that the knowledge of physical objects is direct in that physical objects are immediately perceived. Etymologically.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . moral of samsara or becoming. hatred and delusion (raga.
or demands. the unknowable reality behind phenomena. Ethics is a normative science. 1937). Normative sciences are called value of a fact in terms of an ideal or standard. but with norms or ideals which regulate human life.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY assertion are neither true nor false. desires. appreciative and NOUMENON : In the philosophy of Kant. feelings. express but merely attitudes. a thing-initself.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . Page | 104 NON-NATURALISTIC ETHICS : Any ethics which regards value as unique and unanalisable and which regards intuition as the only way of knowing the truth of moral claims. the unique state of mind which results from ***** DR. NUMINOUS : In the philosophy of Rudalf Otto (1869being aware of God as awesome and mysterious. NORMATIVE SCIENCE : Normative Science judge the Normative Science is concerned not with factual judgement but judgements of what ought to be. regulative sciences. Normative sciences are not concerned with actual facts or their laws.
This theory of causation held by a number of important philosophers. Géraud de Cordemoy (1626–84). OCKHAM’S RAZOR : The scientific principle introduced by William of Ockham (c. Arnold Geulincx (1624–69). creativity and humour – qualities that he viewed as being suppressed by adherence to static belief systems. the One is the universe considered as the divine unity of all being. awareness. The theory that God causes mental phenomena to accompany physical events. 1350) to the effect that whatever explanation involves the fewest assumptions is to be preferred. and Nicolas Malebranche (1638–1715). celebration. ONE : In philosophy. seventeenth-century Cartesian DR. Louis de la Forge (1632–66). love. 1280-C. especially God. religious tradition and socialisation Page | 105 : Theory of psycho-physical parallelism where mind and matter do not interact but correspond in their events as a result of a mediator. including Johannes Clauberg (1622– 65).DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY O OCCASIONALISM Osho: born Chandra Mohan Jain ( 1931 1990) also known as Acharya Rajneesh was an Indian mystic and spiritual teacher who emphasises the importance of meditation.ASHIS KUMAR DASH .
the theory of the world. the soul and God. ontology is the general theory of being as such.e. ORPHISM: A religious movement in ancient Greece that Socratics. rational psychology.. The word ontology was coined in the early 17th century to avoid was ambiguities the first 'metaphysics'. The three special parts are general cosmology. and natural theology.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY ONTOLOGY : Inquiry into. and forms the major general part of metaphysics. working together for the good of the ***** DR. Leibniz of Page | 106 philosopher to adopt the word. may have influenced Plato and some of the preinterdependent.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . This is the central subject-matter or Aristotle's Metaphysics. or theory of being qua being. ORGANICISM : The cosmological theory that the universe is like an organism in that its parts are whole. i.
DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY P Plato (427–347 B. PARALLELISM : In connection with the mind-body problem. Employed by Kant to designate the incorrect reasoning by which the substantial.C. Leibnitz' monadology. Kant uses the word for those errors of reasoning which give rise to the theory of the incorruptibility and substantiality of the soul. e. DR. PANTHEISM : The doctrine that everything is an aspect of God. as distinguished from the class. simple. is "demonstrated". PANPSYCHISM : The doctrine that everything has a mind or soul. (God-is-all-ism) is the belief that God is identical with nature or with the world as a whole. Greek philosopher whose chief contribution consists in his conception of the observable world as an imperfect image of a realm of unobservable and unchanging “Forms.”. .). a thing of a kind. the kind. Theory that reality consists of minds or psychicentities.g. and personal character of the soul. the universal. PARTICULAR : A member of a class. the theory that mental and physical events See also epiphenomenalism and interactionism.ASHIS KUMAR DASH occur concomitantly but are not causally related. Page | 107 PARALOGISM : False reasoning.
PERSONALISM personality. PHENOMENON : An appearance. DR. PETITIO PRINCIPII : The informal fallacy of begging the question. an argument in which the conclusion is assumed in one of the premisses. senses. PHENOMENOLOGY : The philosophy of Edmund Husserl (1859-1938). which purported to be a intended objects considered as intended.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY PERCEPT : A given element in perceptual experience. a sensation or sense datum. as distinguished from a thing-in itself. PHENOMENALISM : The belief that we can know only phenomena and not the ultimate nature of things.ASHIS KUMAR DASH : The philosophy which regards personality as the highest good and God as the divine Page | 108 stirring emotions. often relying upon the use of We merely know objects as they appear to our science of the subjective. of phenomena. See also noumenon. and of . PERSUASIVE DEFINITION : A definition formulated and used to resolve a dispute by influencing attitudes or emotive language.
the philosophy cosmic structure. ontology. It is not a branch of theology but a branch of Religion is an attempt to discover by rational interpretation of religion and its relation to other types of experiences.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY PHILOSOPHY : Literally. the truth of religious belief and the value of religious attitude and practices. the attempt to make basic ideas clear and to justify descriptions of reality. consequently search for wisdom. It is not an organ of religious teaching. the philosophy of morality. beauty. the philosophy of Page | 109 DR. the philosophy of art.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . logic. have a reality of their own of Philosophy."Philosophy of being as such. the philosophy of formal argument. or general characteristics. thus. which includes epistemology. According to Brightman . PHILOSOPHY OF RELIGION : Philosophical thinking about religion. and metaphysics. and cosmology." PLATONIC RREALISM : The theory that universals. The major fields of philosophy are aesthetics. the philosophy of knowledge. the love of wisdom and. The intellectual attempt to resolve problems having to do with the nature of matters of common experience and concern. ethics. and criticism.
While some logicians use axioms and postulates as synonymous. The view that there is not just one substance (Monism) or two substances substances. all axioms are postulates.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . POSITIVISM : See logical positivism. a plurality of Page | 110 latter sense. POTENTIALITY : An unrealized or latent capacity or power. Leibnitz was a pluralist. PLURALISM : Any theory which asserts that there are many ultimate substances. Spinoza was a monist. POSTULATES : Fundamental assumptions used as a basis for developing a system of proofs. Descartes was a dualist. apart from the things which embody them. In this postulates are axioms.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY and subsist eternally. but not themselves subject to proof within the system. but not all DR. more than one God. for others an axiom is a self-evident truth and a postulate is a presupposition or premise of a train of reasoning and not necessarily self-evident. Opposite of actuality. POLYTHEISM : Any theory which claims that there is (Dualism) but that there are many.
It becomes true. “So act as to treat humanity. the fruitful consequence. never as a means only. James.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . whether in thine own person or in that of any other. Schiller and Dewey) consider workability to be the test of truth. James said . the moral law which states.“Truth Page | 111 DR. it is true. PRAGMATICS : The study of the relations of signs to those who use them.” PRAMA : Knowledge of reality or valid cognition is called Prama. doctrine that God has foreordained the eternal life of Or. a branch of semiotic. PRAGMATISM : The pragmatists (Peirce.” See also categorical imperative. in every case as an end withal. some persons. it is made true by events. If it leads to a happens to an idea.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY PRACTICAL IMPERATIVE : In Kant’s philosophy. PREDESTINATION : The doctrine that all events are determined by the action of God’s will. PRAMANA : Source of valid cognition. An idea is true if it works.
an attribute of a substance. In metaphysics. even though monads have no access to external events. at least in part. everything else being equal. of moral language conveys an implicit commitment Page | 112 DR. PRIMA FACIE DUTIES : In the philosophy of W. PRELOUTIONARY ACT : The speech act of having an effect on those who hear a meaningful utterance. those duties which.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY PREDICATE : That which is asserted of a subject. are morally binding. PRESCRIPTIVISM : R. Ross. A term indicating a property.D. Such duties are know by intuition to be duties. PREMISE : A proposition on which. When prima facie duties conflict. M.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . PREESTABLISHED HARMONY : In the philosophy of Leibniz. Hare’s contention that the use to act accordingly. because of God’s causing the experiences of all monads to be harmonious with one another. the theory that individual souls (monads) know reality contemporaneously with other monads. the conclusion of an argument is based.
See also secondary qualities. extension. motion or rest.ASHIS KUMAR DASH .DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY further acts of intuition are needed to resolve the conflict. PRIVATE LANGUAGE ARGUMENT : Wittgenstein’s individual to employ language. contention that it is impossible for an isolated have adequate criteria for following This arguments is commonly other than that supplied by any of the contingent Page | 113 taken as a refutation of solipsism. figure. the principle that the series of contingent events (events that need not have occurred) must be accounted for by reference to some reason or cause events in the series. DR. PRINCIPLE OF SUFFICIENT REASON : In the philosophy of Leibniz. PRIMARY QUALITIES : In the philosophy of John Locke 1632-1704). characteristics regarded as inseparable from physical objects and as belonging to them quite apart from any relation to other objects or to knowing minds : solidity. since a single person could not linguistic rules. and number. PRIME MOVER : See first mover.
Or. pleasure and avoid pain. any relational characteristic. Or. sentences proposition. a sentence ascribing a basic sense property to some physical object. PSYCHO-PHYSICAL PARALLELISM : See parallelism. especially Neurath and Carnap. They assert but do not command or wish. We always seek are complex symbols. any defining characteristic or. Basic PSYCHOLOGICAL HEDONISM : According to the psychological hedonism. They symbols. sentence. Cf. object of desire. reporting the results of observations.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . In some logical positivists. pleasure is the natural end and motive of human action. a declarative sentence and hence Pleasure is the natural ***** DR.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY PROPERTY : Any characteristic. Page | 114 PROPOSITION : A state of affairs meant by a declarative always either true or false. Or. being symbols whose parts are Or. any essential characteristic. They symbolize something. PROTOCOL SENTENCE : A sentence reporting a sense response.
renowned for his rejection of the analytic–synthetic distinction and for his advocacy of extensionalism. W(illard) V(an) O(rman) (b. ***** DR. physicalism. American philosopher and logician. and holism Page | 115 QUALITIES:Properties or characteristics QUANTIFICATION:the application of one or more quantifiers (e.g. ‘for some y’) to an open formula. empiricism..ASHIS KUMAR DASH . ‘for all x’. naturalism.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY Q Quine. QUANTOM LOGIC: the logic of which the models are certain non-Boolean algebras derived from the mathematical representation of quantum mechanical systems.1908).
moderate realism. Moral relativists hold that there are no universal standards of moral (subsist) apart from things.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . Page | 116 RATIONALISM : Reason is the source of true knowledge.and man of letters. Also. logician.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY R rationalist thinkers. DR.British philosopher. Bertrand (Arthur William) (1872–1970). Russell. the doctrine that physical objects exist independently of being thought or perceived. Descartes. one of the founders of analytic philosophy. Platonic realism. RELATIVISM : Belief that human judgments are always conditioned by the specific social environment of a particular person. See also critical realism. Spinoza and Leibnitz are known as REALISM : In metaphysics. social reformer . the doctrine that universals exist new realism. REDUCTIO AD ABSURDUM : The method of proving a proposition by showing that its contradictory involves an inconsistency or of disproving a proposition by showing that the proposition involves an inconsistency. or place.
but only the cultural norms of particulars societies.” REPRESENTATIONALISM according to only through the : Theory of perception which we are aware of objects mediation of the ideas that Locke were both sentiments and actions. which the feelings and Page | 117 represent them. conforms to the rule or law.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . When an action is said to be right. RELIGION : According to Flint “Religion is man’s belief in a Being or Beings. RIGHT : The term ‘right’ is derived from the Latin ‘rectus’ which means straight or according to rule. it means that it ***** DR. mightier than himself and inaccessible to his sense. Descartes and representationalists.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY value. but not indifferent to his practices which flow from such belief.
and philosopher of religion. or the Christian concern of this group was the reconciliation of the of Aristotle. NORMATIVE : Normative science judge the value of the facts in terms of an ideal. the sudden recognition of the unity Buddhism. enlightenment. the moment which one can escape only by achieving nirvana. Baruch (1632–77). Ethics is a DR. of SANCTION. SCIENCE.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY S SATORI : In Zen of being. Page | 118 SANSARA: The cycle of birth. moral philosopher. The main Christina doctrines with reason and the philosophy . death. Dutch metaphysician. Spinoza. epistemologist. Normative sciences are concerned not with factual judgements.ASHIS KUMAR DASH philosophers of the medieval period. SCHOLASTICISM : Applied to the methods and doctrines of the Schoolmen. and rebirth from The circuit of worldly life. but with judgements of what ought to be. political theorist. generally regarded as one of the most important figures of seventeenth-century rationalism. psychologist. MORAL : A force that is supposed to motionate moral agents to perform their duties.
It is primarily concerned with what ought to be the right type of conduct. always subject to revision. positive. Psychology etc. A positive science is also called a Page | 119 natural science and a descriptive science. SCIENTIFIC EXPLANATION : Any theoretical account of some fact or event. belong to the group of positive sciences. Positive science deals with things as they are found in nature. to trace the line of their development. and to discover the actual order of things. that exhibits certain essential features. Ethics is not concerned with giving a mere description of human conduct. It analyses. and (2) the group of normative.. SCIENCE. and simplicity. Physics. appreciative or regulative sciences. POSITIVE : Sciences are usually classified into two groups (1) the group of theoretical. Positive sciences are those which seek to discover the origin of things. well-established DR.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . predictive power. It is concerned with judgement of value or what ought to be. describes and explains facts. compatibility with previously relevance. natural or descriptive sciences.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY normative science. hypotheses.
and smells of things. the branch of semiotic concerned with the meanings of signs SEMIOTIC : The study of signs and symbols. those characteristics of physical objects which do not belong to the physical objects themselves except as powers to cause sensations. the deduction of consequences from hypotheses. deduced. the secondary qualities are the colors. tastes. semantics. the testing of the consequences.ASHIS KUMAR DASH .DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY SCIENTIFIC METHOD : A set of techniques for solving problems involving the construction of preliminary hypotheses. SELF EVIDENT TRUTH : A known truth that requires no further proof or justification. and explanatory Page | 120 DR. Semiotic includes pragmatics. the study of the uses of signs. sounds. the study of the meanings of signs. SEMANTICS : The systematic attempt to discover the meanings of linguistic expressions as used. and the application of the theory thus confirmed to further problems. the formulation of hypotheses. SECONDARY QUALITYES : In the philosophy of Locke. See also primary qualities.
SOLIPSISM : The belief that only oneself exists. Theory that reliable knowledge is impossible. customs and institutions of human society in all its stages of development. simply means doubting. Listening to scriptures. a form of subjective idealism where an individual affirms that he alone exists and all other DR. SOCIOLOGY : Sociology is the science of structure. the given content of any experience. the certain. SRAVANA: Hearing the truth. Or. SENSE DATUM : The given content of a sense experience. a sense image. from the primitive to the present civilised state. In metaphysics. SENSUM : Synonym for sense datum. It investigates the habits.ASHIS KUMAR DASH Page | 121 view that all knowledge is merely probable. never . manners. origin and development of human society. To understand the meaning of all the Vedantic tenets. the study of the forms of linguistic expressions. Or.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY synatactics. SKEPTICISM : The philosophical position of one who maintains that knowledge is not possible.
goal or end of human life good”. the view that matter is a complex of sensations.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . that which is intrinsically valuable. the external world and other selves. an describing what is universally out any reference to or merely temporal positions and eternally true. SUMMUM BONUM : Latin phrase meaning “ highest ultimate generally. SUBSISTENCE : The mode of existence. which is peculiar to DR.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY reality. without independent existence. The interpretation of the world as our private sense data. Linguistic solipsism has been treated as a problem especially in logical positivism. from Spinoza on words. aspect of SUB SPECIC ACTERNITATIS : Latin word for “ under the expression Page | 122 eternity”. is a product of his own mental operations. with dependence upon the of reality. the SUBJECTIVE IDEALISM : The doctrine that knowledge of the world is limited to the world as a complex system of sensations. the claim by George Berkeley (16851753) that esse est percipi : to be is to be perceived. involving neither temporal nor spatial location.
the substance which is characterized. SYNTACTICS : The study of the forms of linguistic expression. that branch of semiotic which is concerned with the regulation of symbols.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . relation between them. SUBSTANCE : A substance is that which is permanent in the midst of changes.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY universals Ideas. archetypes. The theory of relativity of knowledge. Descartes defines a substance SUMMUM BONUM : The highest good. SYADAVADA: The epistemological and logical theory of the Jaina is called ‘Syadavad’. SYLLOGISM : Any deductive argument in which a conclusion is inferred from two premisses. and other abstract entities. either as a property of them or a as what exists in itself and conceived by itself. DR. SUBSTRATUM : That which bears properties. that which is intrinsically better than any other good and which is thus qualified to serve as the end of human conduct. realizes itself. A substance or thing is fundamental entity or reality which manifests and Page | 123 Every being is dependent for its existence on them.
SYNTHETIC STATEMENT : A statement whose truth value cannot be determined by logical analysis. by logical analysis and which is nevertheless Page | 124 ***** DR. a synthetic statement would be a statement whose truth value cannot be determined universally and necessarily true. Hence. a statement in which the subject does not imply the predicate. Logical syntax indicates the formal rules of a symbolic system.ASHIS KUMAR DASH .DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY SYNTAX : Formal arrangement of symbols in a symbolic system.
the most influential thinker of the medieval period. the term.in . TABULA RASA : In Locke’s philosophy.themselves but can only postulate their nature from what we know about observable phenomena.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . He produced a powerful philosophical synthesis that combined Aristotelian and Neo platonic elements within a Christian context in an original and ingenious way. Page | 125 TAUTOLOGY : A statement which is neccessarily true by virtue of its logical form. A rule of replacement of the forms: THING . a statement which can be shown to be true by logical analysis. at birth as being without innate ideas. TAUTOLOGY : An analytically true statement.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY T Thomas Aquinas.ITSELF : An object as it is. Also. TELEOLOGICAL ARGUMENT : An argument devised to prove God’s existence by maintaining that evidence meaning ‘’black tablet’’. Italian philosopher-theologian. we can not know things . (1225–74).IN . used to describe the mind’s DR. As per Kant.
As a cosmic principle the Tao bears some similarity to logos.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY of design or purpose in nature suggests the existence of a cosmic designer. the study of events as signs of purpose. THEISM : (Often used as a synonym for monotheism) is belief in a personal deity. TAO :The source and principle of the cosmic order. TELEOLOGY : Any theory of ends of purposes Or. THEODICY : Theory to justify the goodness of God in view of the evil in the world. THEOLOGY : The philosophical study of God and of problems concerned with God. TRANSCENDENT : Beyond the natural world of sense experience.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . the constant flow of the life force in increasing change. theology depends on revelation. A theory which purports to solve the problems of evil. Opposite of immanent. TRANSCENDENTAL PHILOSOPHY : Philosophy which studies either the a priori form of experience or Natural theology stresses reason and empirical evidence : revealed Page | 126 DR.
ASHIS KUMAR DASH .DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY experience as formed a priori. ***** DR. philosophy which regards the spiritual as the essence of reality or as a mode of being which transcends the empirical and the physical. Or. TRUTH FUNCTIONAL STATEMENT : statement is said to be a truth functional statement A compound Page | 127 when its truth or falsity can be determined solely from the truth or falsity of its constituent statements or propositions.
Page | 128 MIDDLE categorical syllogism that middle term is not : The formal fallacy distributed in either premise. material cause. events in nature. UPADANA: Constituting matter. as the prime mover. mill recognising its instances. assumption that the world exhibits enough regularity to warrant inductive reasoning. and writer. God. Born in Bilbao. he studied in Bilbao and Madrid and taught Greek and philosophy in Salamanca. Hume pointed out that such uniformity is presupposed by all of our belief in matters of fact.ASHIS KUMAR DASH identified several practical methods for . again. scholar. UNIFORMITY OF NATURE : The complete regularity of UNIFORMITY OF NATURE : Presumption that the future will be like the post. Miguel de (1864–1936). UNMOVED MOVER : The first cause. His open criticism of the Spanish government led to dismissal from the university and exile (1924–30)and. not itself moved. to dismissal from the rectorship in1936.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY U UNDISTRIBUTED committed is a is invalid because its Unamuno. DR. Spanish philosopher. but Goodman raised a significant paradox of induction. or mover.
It describes in detail a society with ideal political structures and an ideal way of life. UTOPIA : The word was created by Thomas More. According to Nyaya. a utopia. UTILITARIANISM : According to this moral theory actions are to be judged according to their utility or usefulness as means for promotion of greatest happiness of the greatest number.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY UPAMANA (comparison) : Upamana means 'knowledge by similarity'.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . It is the knowledge of similarity of an unknown object like wild cow with a known object like a cow. knowledge of the relation between a word and the Page | 129 ***** DR. comparison is the object denoted by that word. UTOPIANISM : A belief in the unlimited possibilities of human development typically embodied in the vision of a perfect or ideal society.
the cream. VEDANTA: The end of the Veda. He is considered a key figure in the introduction of Vedanta and Yoga in Europe and America and is also credited with raising inter faith awareness. The Indian philosophy based on the Upanishads. Upanishads are known concluding portion. Vivekanan(1863–1902). the value of something merely as a means.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY V good. Page | 130 VALUE.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . the end of the Vedas. (ii) Secondly because they are the essence. VOLUNTARISM : The theory that the will is the basic reality or controlling power of the universe.. INSTRUMENTAL : The value which something has because it is a means to something intrinsically VALUE. as Vedanta. (i) Because they are literally the which is worth while on its own account and not DR. the height of the Vedic philosophy. the philosophic writings which made up the last of the Vedas. INTRINSIC : The value which something has by virtue of its intrinsic quality. Narendranath Dutta was the chief disciple of the 19th century mystic Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa and the founder of Ramakrishna Mission.
The verifiability principle formulates a criterion of meaningfulness of a synthetic statement to be meaningful. Neveralt. Feigl. control tenet of logical positivism. Gooedl. contains synthetic statements. true or false entirely in virtue of their meaning. members of the circle included Carnap. VERIFICATION : Process of determining the truth or falsity of a proposition.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY VERIFIABILITY PRINCIPLE : Also called the verification principle. matter moticians and scientists in Austria during 1920’s and early 1930s who founded logical positivism. assumes that meaningful statements can be divided into two broad classes. One contains the statements that are analytically tree or false.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . Hahn and Waismann. that is. VIDEHA MUKTIH: Liberation after leaving the body. it must be possible to determine the means of sensory experience. VIRTUE ETHICS : Normative theory that all moral value is derived truth-value of the statement directly or indirectly by The other It Page | 131 DR. VIENNA CIRCLE : A group of philosophers. Sehlick.
E. Bergson. VITALISM : Theory that living things are identified by a property of life or a life force that is not reducible to H. H.g. Driesch and Page | 132 ***** DR..DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY from the character of moral agents. VOLUNTARY ACTION : An action performed by a selfconscious and self-determined agent deliberately and intentionally to realise some foreseen ends with the free choice of means.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . physical or chemical processes. Aristotle and others assumed that the acquisition of virtue is the proper goal of human conduct. VOLITION : Excercise of the faculty of willing.
or basic reality. which he composed between 1936 and1948. WORLD GROUND : That power. See logos. which Wittgenstein wrote in the trenches of World War I.e. and the later period that of the Philosophical Investigations(1953).. action is an action which does not conform to the moral ***** DR. Wittgenstein’s work into two sharply distinct phases. the system of totality of whatever exists.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY W Wittgenstein. WORLD : The universe. Austrian born British philosopher. wisdom is the virtue appropriate to the rational soul and for Aristotle.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . Wrong law. one of the most original and challenging philosophical writers of the twentieth century. The early period is that of the TractatusLogico-Philosophicus (1921). Ludwig (1889–1951). for Plato. not according to rule. which sustains and directs the universe. WORLD SOUL : The spirit or creative principle which makes life possible and which endows contingent things with reality and order. WRONG : The term ‘ wrong’ is related to the word ‘wring’ which means ‘twisted’ i. it is the highest intellectual virtue. Page | 133 WISDOM : Good judgment with respect to abstract truth or thoeretical matters.
was interested in philosophy.570–c.C.350 B.a proponent of an idealized conception of the divine. He penetrating and intelligent “social thinker” whose over many centuries. and he was a views on morality and society have been influential ***** DR. author of several Socratic dialogues. and the first of the pre-Socratics to propound epistemological views.).C.475 B. and the first of the pre-Socratics to propound XENOPHON: (c. a proponent of an idealized conception of the divine.570–c.) Greek soldier and historian. Page | 134 XENOPHANES: (c.430–c.475 B. Xenophanes (c.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY X epistemological views.) Greek philosopher.C.. Greek philosopher .ASHIS KUMAR DASH .
C. Yang Chu: (c.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY Y the world-soul. attributed to him by Mencius. a method of bodily and mental discipline devised to effect the union of atman. but a less radical one than the Madhyamika.ASHIS KUMAR DASH .Chinese philosopher most famous for the assertion. that oneought not sacrifice even a single hair to save the whole world. or the spirit of the individual.). ***** DR. and Brahma. Page | 135 YOGA: In Indian philosophy. or YOGACARA BUDDHISM: The Yogacara (perhaps “Yoga” because it used meditation to remove belief in mindindependent physical objects) school of Mahayana Buddhism contends for a more ambitious revision of our beliefs about objects than does Sautrantika or Vaibhasika.370–319 B.
e. Achilles and the tortoise.the acetrack. Greek philosopher well known for his Four paradoxes relating to space and motion attributed to Zeno i. ***** DR.ASHIS KUMAR DASH .DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY Z Buddhism Zeno: Zeno of Elea. fifth-century B. and the arrow.D. because of conversion to Islam. the stadium. Zoroastrianism suffered a steep decline after the seventh century A. in particularAristotle. PARADOXES. strictly. Page | 136 ZA-ZEN: The term used for meditation in Zen ZEN BUDDHISM: It is a form of religion which developed out of and in reaction to. Zeno’s work is known to us through secondary sources. ZOROSTRAINISM: the national religion of ancient Iran. Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism.C.
(v) History of Philosophy. (v) Manual of Buddhist Terms and Doctrines. (viii) Political Ideas and Concepts — An Introduction. E. Singh. Ram Murti Sharma. Central Publishing House. Harold H. Allahabad. B. (vii) Philosophers of East and West. Page | 137 ***** DR. Bertrand Russell. Audi.W. (v) Living Issues in Philosophy.ASHIS KUMAR DASH . edited by Robert (iii) Encyclopaedia of Vedanta. Titus. Tomlin. (ii) The Cambridge Dictonary of Philosophy. Prof.N.DICTIONARY OF PHILOSOPHY REFERENCE BOOKS (i) The Penguin Dictonary of Philosophy. (vi) A History of Philosophy. by Andrew Heywood. edited by Nyanaponika (v) History of Western Philosophy. edited by Thomas Mautner.F. (iv) Dictionary of Indian Philosophical Concepts by Dr. Fuller and MacMurrin.
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