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Republic of the Philippines SUPREME COURT Manila EN BANC G.R. No.

L-5671 August 24, 1910

BENITO DE LOS REYES, plaintiff-appellant, vs. VERONICA ALOJADO, defendant-appellee. Ramon Diokno, for appellant. No appearance for appellee. TORRES, J.: On or about January 22, 1905, Veronica Alojado received, as a loan, from Benito de los Reyes that the sum P67 .60, for the purpose of paying a debt she owed to Olimpia Zaballa. It was agreed between Alojado and Reyes that the debtor should remain as a servant in the house and in the service of her creditor, without any renumeration whatever, until she should find some one who would furnish her with the said sum where with to repeat the loan. The defendant, Veronica Alojado, afterwards left the house of the plaintiff, on March 12, 1906, without having paid him her debt, nor did she do so at any subsequent date, notwithstanding his demands. The plaintiff, therefore, on the 15th of march, 1906, filed suit in the court of the justice of the peace of Santa Rosa, La Laguna, against Veronica Alojado to recover the said sum or, in a contrary case, to compel her to return to his service. The trial having been had, the justice of the peace, on April 14, 1906, rendered judgment whereby he sentenced the defendant to pay to the plaintiff the sum claimed and declared that, in case the debtor should be insolvent, she should be obliged to fulfill the agreement between her and the plaintiff. The costs of the trial were assessed against the defendant. The defendant appealed from the said judgment to the Court of First Instance to which the plaintiff, after the case had been docketed by the clerk of court, made a motion on May 4, 1906, requesting that the appeal interposed by the defendant be disallowed, with the costs of both instances against her. The grounds alleged in support of this motion. were that the appeal had been filed on the sixth day following that when judgment was rendered in the trial, on April 14th, and that it, therefore, did not come within the period of the five days prescribed by section 76 of the Code of Civil Procedure, as proven by the certificate issued by the justice of the peace of Santa Rosa. The Court of First Instance, however, by order of July 16, 1906, overruled the motion of the plaintiff-appellee, for the reasons therein stated, namely, that the defendant was not notified of the judgment rendered in the case on April 14th of that year until the 16th of the same month, and the appeal having been filed four days later, on the 20th, it could having seen that the five days specified by section 76 of the Code of Civil Procedure had not expired. The plaintiff was advised to reproduce his complaint within ten days, in order that due procedure might he had thereupon. The plaintiff took exception to the aforementioned order and at the same time reproduced the complaint he had filed in the court of the justice of the peace, in which, after relating to the facts hereinbefore stated, added that the defendant, besides the sum above-mentioned, had also received from the plaintiff, under the same conditions, various small amounts between the dates of January 22, 1905, and March 10, 1906, aggregating altogether P11.97, and that they had not

been repaid to him. He therefore asked that judgment be rendered sentencing the defendant to comply with the said contract and to pay to the plaintiff the sums referred to, amounting in all to P79.57, and that until this amount should have been in paid, the defendant should remain gratuitously in the service of plaintiff's household, and that she should pay the costs of the trial. The defendant, in her written answer of August 15, 1906, to the aforesaid complaint, denied the allegations contained in paragraphs 1 and 2 of the complaint and alleged that, although she had left the plaintiff's service, it was because the latter had paid her no sum whatever for the services she had rendered in his house. The defendant likewise denied the conditions expressed in paragraph 4 of the complaint, averring that the effects purchased, to the amount of P11.97, were in the possession of the plaintiff, who refused to deliver them to her. She therefore asked that she be absolved from the complaint and that the plaintiff be absolved from the complaint the wages due her for the services she had rendered. The case came to trial on October 19, 1906, and, after the production of testimony by both parties, the judge, on November 21st of the same year, rendered judgment absolving the defendant from the complain, with the costs against the plaintiff, and sentencing the latter to pay to the former the sum of P2.43, the balance found to exist between the defendant's debt of P79.57 and the wages due her by the plaintiff, which amounted to P82. The plaintiff, on the 6th of December, filed a written exception to the judgment aforesaid through the regular channels, and moved for a new trial on the ground that the findings of fact set forth in the judgment were manifestly contrary to the weight of the evidence. This motion was overruled on the 17th of the same month, to which exception was taken by the appellant, who afterwards filed the proper bill of exceptions, which was approved, certified, and forwarded to the clerk of this court.

The present suit, initiated in a justice of the peace court and appealed to the Court of First Instance of La Laguna at a time prior to the enactment of Act No. 1627, which went into effect on July 1, 1907, which limited to two instances the procedure to be observed in verbal actions, concerns the collection of certain sum received as a loan by the defendant from the plaintiff, and of the wages earned by the former for services rendered as a servant in the said plaintiff's house. Notwithstanding the denial of the defendant, it is a fact clearly proven, as found in the judgment appealed from, that the plaintiff did deliver to Hermenegildo de los Santos the sum of P67.60 to pay a debt was paid by De los Santos with the knowledge and in behalf of the said defendant who, of her free will, entered the service of the plaintiff and promised to pay him as soon as she should find the money wherewith to do so. The duty to pay the said sum, as well as that of P11.97 delivered to the defendant in small amounts during the time that she was in the plaintiff's house, is unquestionable, inasmuch as it is a positive debt demandable of the defendant by her creditor. (Arts. 1754, 1170, Civil Code.) However, the reason alleged by the plaintiff as a basis for the loan is untenable, to wit, that the defendant was obliged to render service in his house as a servant without remuneration whatever and to remain therein so long as she had not paid her debt, inasmuch as this condition is contrary to law and morality. (Art. 1255, Civil Code.) Domestic services are always to be remunerated, and no agreement may subsist in law in which it is stipulated that any domestic service shall be absolutely gratuitous, unless it be admitted that slavery may be established in this country through a covenant entered into between the interested parties.

Articles 1583, 1584, and 1585 of the Civil Code prescribe rules governing the hiring of services of domestics servants, the conditions of such hire, the term during which the service may rendered and the wages that accrue to the servant, also the duties of the latter and of the master. The first of the articles cited provides that a hiring for life by either of the contracting parties is void, and, according to the last of three articles just mentioned, besides what is prescribed in the preceding articles with regard to masters and servants, the provisions of special laws and local ordinances shall be observed. During the regime of the former sovereignty, the police regulations governing domestic service, of the date of September 9, 1848, were in force, article 19 of which it is ordered that all usurious conduct toward the servants and employees of every class is prohibited, and the master who, under pretext of an advance of pay or of having paid the debts or the taxes of his servant, shall have succeeded in retaining the latter in his service at his house, shall be compelled to pay to such servant all arrears due him and any damages he may have occasioned him, and the master shall also be fined. The aforementioned article 1585 of the Civil Code undoubtedly refers to the provisions of the regulations just cited. When legal regulations prohibit even a usurious contract and all abuses prejudicial to subordinates and servant, in connection with their salaries and wages, it will be understood at once that the compact whereby service rendered by a domestic servant in the house of any inhabitant of this country is to be gratuitous, is in all respects reprehensible and censurable; and consequently, the contention of the plaintiff, that until the defendant shall have paid him her debt she must serve him in his house gratuitously is absolutely inadmissible. The trial record discloses no legal reason for the rejection of the findings of fact and of law contained in the judgment appealed from, nor for an allowance of the errors attributed appealed from, nor for an allowance of the errors attributed thereto; on the contrary, the reasons hereinabove stated show the propriety of the said judgment. For the foregoing reasons, and accepting those set forth in the judgment appealed from, it is proper, in our opinion, to affirm and we hereby affirm the said judgment, with the costs against the appellant. Arellano, C. J., Johnson, Moreland and Trent, JJ., concur.

Republic of the Philippines SUPREME COURT Manila THIRD DIVISION [G.R. No. 120859. June 26, 2001] METROPOLITAN BANK AND TRUST COMPANY, petitioner, vs. FRANCISCO Y. WONG, respondent. DECISION SANDOVAL-GUTIERREZ, J.: It is bad enough that the mortgagor has no choice but to yield his property in a foreclosure proceeding. It is infinitely worse, if prior thereto, he was denied of his basic right to be informed of the impending loss of his property. This is another instance when law and morals echo the same sentiment. This is a petition for review on certiorari seeking the reversal and setting aside of the decision dated June 13, 1994 and resolution dated June 14, 1995 of the Court of Appeals in CA-G.R. CV No. 35615 entitled Francisco Y. Wong versus Metropolitan Bank and Trust Company.i[1] The essential antecedents are: Sometime in 1976, the Mindanao Grains, Inc. (MGI for brevity), through its officers Wenceslao Buenaventura and Faustino Go, applied for a credit accommodation with the Metropolitan Bank and Trust Company (herein petitioner) to finance its rice and corn warehousing business. As a security for such credit accommodation, respondent Francisco Y. Wong, and his wife Betty C. Wong executed in favor of petitioner a real estate mortgage over a parcel of land consisting of 31, 292 square meters located at Campo 7, Molave, Zamboanga del Sur and registered in respondents name under Transfer Certificate of Title (TCT) No. 11758. On April 11, 1980, due to MGIs failure to pay the obligation secured by the real estate mortgage, petitioner filed an application for extra-judicial foreclosure under Act No. 3135. A notice of foreclosure sale was published in Pagadian Times once, for three consecutive weeks (May 18-25, 1980, May 26-June 2, 1980 and June 2-8, 1980), setting the auction sale of the mortgaged property on June 5, 1980. No notice was posted in the municipality or city where the mortgaged property was situated. As a consequence, MGI, through its president, Simeon Chang (Chang), requested petitioner to postpone the scheduled auction sale from June 5, 1980 to July 7, 1980. Petitioner granted the request. Thereafter, Chang and petitioner agreed that should MGI pay P20,000.00 on or before the scheduled auction sale, the same would be postponed for a period of 60 days. Chang paid the amount on November 3, 1981. Despite such payment, Sheriff Deo Bontia proceeded with the auction sale on November 23, 1981. Petitioner was adjudged the sole and highest bidder. Thus, a certificate of sale was issued to petitioner. The sale was registered with the Registry of Deeds on the same day. After the expiration of the one (1) year redemption period, ownership over the property was consolidated and TCT

No. T-17853 was correspondingly issued in the name of petitioner. Respondent, unaware of the foregoing developments, applied for a credit accommodation with the Producers Bank of the Philippines, Iloilo City, using as security his TCT No. 11758. It was only then when he learned that his property was already foreclosed by petitioner and no longer in his name. Feeling aggrieved, respondent filed with the Regional Trial Court, Branch 18, Pagadian City a complaint for reconveyance and damages against petitioner and the Register of Deeds of Zamboanga del Sur. Respondent, in his complaint, assailed the validity of the extra-judicial foreclosure sale basically on the ground that petitioner did not comply with the requirements of Section 3, Act No. 3135 that notice shall be given by posting notices of the sale for not less than twenty days in at least three public places of the municipality or city where the property is situated, and if such property is worth more than four hundred pesos, such notice shall also be published once a week for at least three consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the municipality and city. During the pendency of the case, petitioner sold the disputed property to a certain Betty Ong Yu. After hearing, the trial court decreed: WHEREFORE, IN VIEW OF ALL THE FOREGOING, judgment is hereby rendered sentencing defendant Metropolitan Bank and Trust Company to pay plaintiff the following amounts: 1. Ten Million, Five Hundred Thousand (P10,500,000.00) Pesos representing the fair market value of the property as of the promulgation of this decision, with interest of twenty four (24%) percent per annum thereof until fully paid; 2. Moral damages of Two million (P2,000,000.00) Pesos; 3. Exemplary damages of Ten million (P10,000,000.00) Pesos; 4. Attorneys fee of Two Hundred Thousand (P200,000.00) Pesos, plus Five Hundred (P500.00) Pesos for every hearing or court proceeding actually attended by plaintiffs counsel; and

5. Costs of suit. No monetary judgment can be rendered against defendant Register of Deeds of Zamboanga del Sur in view of the absence of monetary claim in the complaint. Defendant banks counterclaim is hereby DISMISSED for lack of merit. SO ORDERED.ii[2] On appeal by petitioner, the Court of Appeals affirmed the RTC decision with modification in the sense that the monetary awards were reduced, thus: "WHEREFORE, the judgment appealed from is hereby MODIFIED, directing the appellant to pay appellees the following amounts: 1. Four Million (P4,000,000.00) Pesos representing the fair market value of the subject property; 2. Moral damages of Five Hundred Thousand (P500,000.00) Pesos;

3. Exemplary damages of One Million (P1,000,000.00) Pesos; 4. Attorney's fees of Two Hundred Thousand (P200,000.00) Pesos, plus Five Hundred (P500.00) Pesos for every hearing or court proceeding actually attended by plaintiff's counsel; and

5. Costs of suit. SO ORDERED." Twice thwarted, petitioner now comes before us imputing the following errors to the Court of Appeals: I THE RESPONDENT COURT OF APPEALS ERRED IN RULING THAT THE FORECLOSURE SALE CONDUCTED ON NOVEMBER 23, 1981 WAS LEGALLY INFIRM FOR NON COMPLIANCE WITH THE STATUTORY REQUIREMENTS OF POSTING AND PUBLICATION AS PROVIDED FOR IN ACT 3135, AS AMENDED. II THE RESPONDENT COURT OF APPEALS ERRED IN AWARDING DAMAGES AND ATTORNEYS FEES TO RESPONDENT WONG. Petitioner places excessive reliance on the case of Olizon v. Court of Appealsiii[3] in justifying its claims: (a) that its failure to comply with the posting requirement under Section 3 of Act No, 3135 did not necessarily result in the nullification of the foreclosure sale since it complied with the publication requirement; and (b) that personal notice of the foreclosure proceedings to respondent is not a condition sine qua non for its validity. In assailing the monetary awards to respondent, petitioner claims it was not guilty of bad faith in selling the disputed property to Betty Ong Yu, the sale having been perfected even before respondent filed his action for reconveyance and damages with the trial court. For its part, respondent argues that the unusual nature of the attendant facts and the peculiarity of the confluent circumstances involved in Olizon are not present in the instant case. The petition is bereft of merit. Succinct and unmistakable is the consistent pronouncement of this Court that it is not a trier of facts. And well-entrenched is the doctrine that pure questions of fact may not be the subject of appeal by certiorari under Rule 45 of the 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure, as this mode of appeal is generally confined to questions of law. Corollarily, non-compliance with the requirements of notice and publication in an extra-judicial foreclosure is a factual issue. The resolution thereof by the lower courts is binding and conclusive upon this Court.iv[4] Thus, disregarding all factual issues which petitioner interjected in his petition, the only crucial legal queries in this case are: first, is personal notice to respondent a condition sine qua non to the validity of the foreclosure proceedings? and, second, is petitioners noncompliance with the posting requirement under Section 3, Act No. 3135 fatal to the validity of the foreclosure proceedings? In resolving the first query, we resort to the fundamental principle that a contract is the law between the parties and, that absent any showing that its provisions are wholly or in part contrary to law, morals, good customs, public order, or public policy, it shall be enforced to the letter by the courts. Section 3, Act No. 3135 reads: Se. 3. Notice shall be given by posting notices of the sale for not less than twenty days in at least three public places of the municipality or city where the property is situated, and if such property is worth more than four hundred pesos, such notice shall also be published

once a week for at least three consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the municipality and city. The Act only requires (1) the posting of notices of sale in three public places, and (2) the publication of the same in a newspaper of general circulation. Personal notice to the mortgagor is not necessary. Nevertheless, the parties to the mortgage contract are not precluded from exacting additional requirements.v[5] In this case, petitioner and respondent in entering into a contract of real estate mortgage, agreed inter alia: all correspondence relative to this mortgage, including demand letters, summonses, subpoenas, or notifications of any judicial or extra-judicial action shall be sent to the MORTGAGOR at 40-42 Aldeguer St. Iloilo City, or at the address that may hereafter be given in writing by the MORTGAGOR to the MORTGAGEE. Precisely, the purpose of the foregoing stipulation is to apprise respondent of any action which petitioner might take on the subject property, thus according him the opportunity to safeguard his rights. When petitioner failed to send the notice of foreclosure sale to respondent, he committed a contractual breach sufficient to render the foreclosure sale on November 23, 1981 null and void. The second query must be answered in the affirmative. An incisive scrutiny of Olizon shows that this Court has not actually dispensed with the posting requirement under Section 3 of Act No. 3135, thus: Neither can the supposed failure of respondent bank to comply with the posting requirement as provided under the aforesaid Section 3, under the factual ambiance and circumstances which obtained in this case, be considered a sufficient ground for annulling the aforementioned sale. We are not unaware of the rulings in some cases that, under normal situations, the statutory provisions governing publication of notice of extra-judicial foreclosure sales must be strictly complied with and that failure to publish the notice of auction sale as required by the statute constitutes a jurisdictional defect which invalidates the sale. However, the unusual nature of the attendant facts and the peculiarity of the confluent circumstances involved in this case require that we rule otherwise. Petitioners' cited authority on the requisite publication of notices is not so all-embracing as to deny justified exceptions thereto under appropriate situations. x x x xxx Furthermore, unlike the situation in previous cases where the foreclosure sales were annulled by reason of failure to comply with the notice requirement under Section 3 of Act No. 3135, as amended, what is allegedly lacking here is the posting of the notice in three public places, and not the publication thereof in a newspaper of general circulation. We take judicial notice of the fact that newspaper publications have more far-reaching effects than posting on bulletin boards in public places. There is a greater probability that an announcement or notice published in a newspaper of general circulation, which is distributed nationwide, shall have a readership of more people than that posted in a public bulletin board, no matter how strategic its location may be, which caters only to a limited few. Hence, the publication of the notice of sale in the newspaper of general circulation alone is more than sufficient compliance with the notice-posting requirement of the law. By such publication, a reasonably wide publicity had been effected such that those interested might attend the public sale, and the purpose of the law had been thereby subserved.(Underlining added)

Obviously, as correctly pointed out by respondent, what prompted the Court to dispense with the posting requirement is the unusual nature of the attendant facts and the peculiarity of the confluent circumstances involved in Olizon. It bears stressing that in the said case, the extra-judicial foreclosure sale sought to be annulled was conducted more than 15 years ago, thus, even on the equitable ground of laches, the Olizons action for annulment of foreclosure proceedings and certificate of sale was bound to fail. Unlike in Olizon where there was a valid publication of the notice of foreclosure sale, the publication in the case at bar was defective. Not only did it fail to conform with the requirement that the notice must be published once a week for at least three consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation, but also, there were substantial errors in the notice of sale published in the Pagadian Times as found by the scrutinizing eyes of the trial court, thus: As maybe noted, the published notice bespeaks of a Deed of Mortgage allegedly executed by Mindanao Grains, Inc., signed by Faustino Go, Francisco Y. Wong, Wensceslao Buenaventura and Betty C. Wong on May 9, 1978 in favor of defendant bank. The evidence, however showed that plaintiff never executed a Real Estate Mortgage (REM) on May 9, 1978. Neither plaintiff had executed any REM whereby his co-mortgagors are MGI, Faustino Go, Wensceslao Buenaventura and his wife Betty C. Wong. What plaintiff had actually executed were two REMS dated January 18, 1977 and March 23, 1977 respectively. In other words the REM adverted to in the published notice is a non-existent document, for there was no REM of the property in question actually executed and dated May 9, 1978. The contention of defendant bank that the erroneous date of the REM as published in the Pagadian Times was merely a clerical error would not cure the fatal defect and invalidity of that published notice. No further evidence was shown that the glaring error was corrected in the subsequent notice of publication. The court is in accord with the argument of the plaintiff that the order in the date of the REM published in the Pagadian Times is not a harmless error. It did not give proper notice to the public the correct nature of the REM which cover the properties being sold at public auction. Considering the sizable amount of the properties being sold, over half a million pesos, a very big amount to businessmen based in the Province of Zamboanga del Sur, nobody would dare to buy such properties without first carefully scrutinizing the pertinent documents, foremost of which is the REM allegedly violated by the plaintiff-mortgagor which gave rise to the foreclosure proceedings. Simply stated, serious prospective bidders just backed off upon knowing the non-existence of that REM published in the Pagadian Times. For who would participate in the auction sale of the properties covered by REMS which are non-existing? It is not surprising, therefore, to note that the defendant bank was the winning bidder, for the reason that it was the lone bidder. And lastly, not to be glossed over is the fact that there was no evidence in Olizon insinuating bad faith or collusion among the Sheriff who conducted the sale, the Register of Deeds and the bank. In the present case, collusion is evident in the precipitate manner the foreclosure sale was conducted by Sheriff Bontia as well as in the sale made by petitioner to Betty Ong Yu during the pendency of the case. To stress that Olizon is an exception rather than the rule, this Court in the same case held: x x x We are not unaware of the rulings in same cases that, under normal situations, the statutory provisions governing publication of notice of extrajudicial foreclosure sales

must be strictly complied with and that failure to publish the notice of auction sale as required by the statute constitutes a jurisdictional defect which invalidates the sale. However, the unusual nature of the attendant facts and the peculiarity of the confluent circumstances involved in this case require that we rule otherwise. While the law recognizes the right of a bank to foreclose a mortgage upon the mortgagors failure to pay his obligation, it is imperative that such right be exercised according to its clear mandate. Each and every requirement of the law must be complied with, lest, the valid exercise of the right would end. It must be remembered that the exercise of a right ends when the right disappears, and it disappears when it is abused especially to the prejudice of others.vi[6] Anent the award of moral damages, both the trial court and the Court of Appeals found that petitioner acted in bad faith in extra-judicially foreclosing the real estate mortgage and in selling the mortgaged property during the pendency of the case in the trial court. To be sure, petitioner banks bad faith caused serious anxiety, mental anguish and wounded feelings to its client, respondent herein. He is thus entitled to moral damages. The Court of Appeals made a commendable ratiocination on the fact that petitioner acted in bad faith, thus: There is no dispute that during the pendency of the reconveyance case, appellant sold the subject property to one Betty Yu. In this regard, the trial courts observation is worth mentioning: Conversely,defendant banks most eloquent manifestation of bad faith, deception, and fraud is its sale of the mortgaged property subject of the reconveyance action while this case was already under trial. That sale was without leave of court nor the knowledge of the plaintiff. At the stage of the court proceedings when the defendants were in the process of presenting their evidence, defendant bank sold the property in litigation to Betty Yu of Molave, Zamboanga del Sur on August 8, 1984 (Exhibits FF, FF-1,FF-2 & FF-3). Accordingly, the title of defendant bank was cancelled and a new title, TCT No. T-19,350, was issued in the name of Betty Ong Yu (Exhibits HH & HH-1). The transfer of ownership over the mortgaged property to the third person (Betty Ong Yu) who is not a party in this case rendered moot and academic the reconveyance aspect of this case, clearly to the prejudice of the plaintiff. Appellants contention that there was no need for them to secure leave of court for the sale of the property because there was no notice of lis pendens annotated in the title of appellant nor was there a restraining order issued by the court enjoining them from conveying or transferring the property deserves scant consideration. A notice of lis pendens is an announcement to the whole world that a particular real property is in litigation, serving as a warning that one who acquires an interest over the said property does so at his own risk, or that he gambles on the result of the litigation over said property (People vs. Regional Trial Court of Manila, 178 SCRA 299). The absence of a notice of lis pendens on the title of the appellant will not save the day for the appellant. The latter and the Register of Deeds are being sued with regard to the property. x x x. Note too that no less than the deputy Register of Deeds Ramon Balinton refused to register the property subject matter of the controversy because of the pending case as evidenced by the letter addressed to the Register of Deeds. Even when directed by the Register of Deeds Pedro Jamero, he made a handwritten annotation in the document which

reads: Register per instruction of the Acting register of deeds this 31 st day of August 1984. The manner by which appellant deprived appellee of his property through irregular foreclosure proceedings and its well-orchestrated scheme to frustrate reconveyance of the property by selling the same to a third person during the pendency of the case entitles appellee to moral damages. But while the amount of moral damages is a matter left largely to the sound discretion of the trial court, the same when found excessive, should be reduced to more reasonable amounts considering the attendant facts and circumstances. Moral damages, though incapable of pecuniary estimation, are in the category of an award designed to compensate the claimant for actual injury suffered and not to impose a penalty on the wrongdoer. Moral damages are not intended to enrich a complainant at the expense of a defendant. They are awarded only to enable the injured party to obtain means, diversion or amusements that will serve to alleviate the moral sufferings he has undergone by reason of the defendants culpable action. The award of moral damages must be proportionate to the sufferings inflicted.vii[7] Taking into consideration the attending circumstances here, we are convinced that the amount awarded by the Court of Appeals is exorbitant. Likewise, we find the exemplary damages and attorneys fees quite excessive. WHEREFORE, the instant petition is hereby DENIED. The assailed Decision of the Court of Appeals is AFFIRMED subject to the MODIFICATION that the awards of moral damages be reduced to P100,000.00 and the exemplary damages to P50,000.00. The award of attorneys fees is deleted. SO ORDERED. Melo, (Chairman), Vitug, Panganiban, and Gonzaga-Reyes, JJ., concur.

METROPOLITAN BANK AND TRUST COMPANY vs. WONG. Facts: Sometime in 1976, the Mindanao Grains, Inc. (MGI for brevity), through its officers Wenceslao Buenaventura and Faustino Go, applied for a credit accommodation with the Metropolitan Bank and Trust Company to finance its rice and corn warehousing business. As a security for such credit accommodation, respondent Wong, and his wife executed in favor of petitioner a real estate mortgage over a parcel of land consisting of 31, 292 square meters located at Campo 7, Molave, Zamboanga del Sur and registered in respondents name. On April 11, 1980, due to MGIs failure to pay the obligation secured by the real estate mortgage, petitioner filed an application for extra-judicial foreclosure A notice of foreclosure sale was published in Pagadian Times once, for three consecutive weeks, setting the auction sale of the mortgaged property. No notice was posted in the municipality or city where the mortgaged property was situated. As a consequence, MGI, through its president, Chang, requested petitioner to postpone the scheduled auction sale from June 5, 1980 to July 7, 1980. Petitioner granted the request. Thereafter, Chang and petitioner agreed that should MGI pay P20,000.00 on or before the scheduled auction sale, the same would be postponed for a period of 60 days. Chang paid the amount on November 3, 1981. Despite such payment, Sheriff Deo Bontia proceeded with the auction sale on November 23, 1981. Petitioner was adjudged the sole and highest bidder. Thus, a certificate of sale was issued to petitioner. The sale was registered with the Registry of Deeds on the same day. After the expiration of the one (1) year redemption period, ownership over the property was consolidated and TCT No. T-17853 was correspondingly issued in the name of petitioner. Respondent, unaware of the foregoing developments, applied for a credit accommodation with the Producers Bank of the Philippines, Iloilo City, using as security his TCT No. 11758. It was only then when he learned that his property was already foreclosed by petitioner and no longer in his name. Feeling aggrieved, respondent filed with the Regional Trial Court, Branch 18, Pagadian City a complaint for reconveyance and damages against petitioner and the Register of Deeds of

Zamboanga del Sur. Respondent, in his complaint, assailed the validity of the extra-judicial foreclosure sale basically on the ground that petitioner did not comply with the requirements of Section 3, Act No. 3135 that notice shall be given by posting notices of the sale for not less than twenty days in at least three public places of the municipality or city where the property is situated, and if such property is worth more than four hundred pesos, such notice shall also be published once a week for at least three consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the municipality and city. Issue: Whether or not personal notice to respondent a condition sine qua non to the validity of the foreclosure proceedings. And is petitioners non-compliance with the posting requirement under fatal to the validity of the foreclosure proceedings. Held: The law only requires (1) the posting of notices of sale in three public places, and (2) the publication of the same in a newspaper of general circulation. Personal notice to the mortgagor is not necessary. Nevertheless, the parties to the mortgage contract are not precluded from exacting additional requirements. In this case, petitioner and respondent in entering into a contract of real estate mortgage, agreed inter alia: all correspondence relative to this mortgage, including demand letters, summonses, subpoenas, or notifications of any judicial or extra-judicial action shall be sent to the MORTGAGOR at 40-42 Aldeguer St. Iloilo City, or at the address that may hereafter be given in writing by the MORTGAGOR to the MORTGAGEE. Precisely, the purpose of the foregoing stipulation is to apprise respondent of any action which petitioner might take on the subject property, thus according him the opportunity to safeguard his rights. When petitioner failed to send the notice of foreclosure sale to respondent, he committed a contractual breach sufficient to render the foreclosure sale on November 23, 1981 null and void. Yes. We take judicial notice of the fact that newspaper publications have more far-reaching effects than posting on bulletin boards in public places. There is a greater probability that an announcement or notice published in a newspaper of general circulation, which is distributed nationwide, shall have a readership of more people than that posted in a public bulletin board, no matter how strategic its location may be, which caters only to a limited few. Hence, the publication of the notice of sale in the newspaper of general circulation alone is more than sufficient compliance with the notice-posting requirement of the law. By such publication, a reasonably wide publicity had been effected such that those interested might attend the public sale, and the purpose of the law had been thereby subserved