Ralph Waldo Emerson -- The conduct of life | Ralph Waldo Emerson | Samuel Taylor Coleridge

Book
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COPYRrCHT DEPOSIT.

THE

CONDUCT OF
BY

LIFE

RALPH WALDO EMERSON

WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY

ANDREW

J.

GEORGE, M.A.

NEW YORK
THOMAS
Y.

CROWELL &

CO.

PUBLISHERS

THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS.
Two
Copies Received

iUl

9

1903
Entry

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Copydgnt

CLASS'

d

XXc. No,

L

3)

L / COPY

B.

Copyright, 1903,

By

THOMAS

Y.

CROWELL &

CO.

CONTENTS.
PAGE
I.

Fate

3

II.
'

Power

43
69
105 135
161

III.

Wealth
Culture
Behavior

IV.

V. VI.
VII.

Worship
Considerations by the

Way

.

.

.

195

VIII.

Beauty
Illusions
.

225

IX.

247

.

Not many present themselves for these tests. it On the centenary of the birth of each asks.^" and again at the hundredth anniversary of his death the same "What aid interrogation is made in another form have you for mankind as it faces the great unseen can you help life onward in its noblest mysteries have you increased man's capacity for truth : ." Time. subjects every candidate for immortality in the sphere of literature and life to a searching test." if it be silent. his modest answer behalf . With dialogue the poet who overhears say. I In the present year this plea upon have no be entered by one in whom the world has an . is. " The gods talk in the breath of the woods. " How and pure delight. for nobler loves and nobler cares . the final arbiter in all contests for lasting distinction.INTRODUCTION. Some random word they Is the fated man of men Whom the ages must obey. "I am powerless to speak in my own : I call humanity will itself to testify claim to distinction. They talk in the shaken pine. And And fill the long reach of the old seashore divine. but when a candidate comes forward and listens to aim?" the great question.

essayist and orator. Every detail of that eventful life will be dwelt upon by poet and preacher." Emerson's life falls naturally into three periods. we can readily The first. whom will naturally lead in this By laying the corner-stone of Emerson Hall. The event cannot fail to add richly to the ever growing literature associated with the of this apostle of sweetness and light. Waldo Emerson. and sensitive child grew into the gracious. and Lexington great assize. all Better be ignorant of less to the them than to give one moment reading of those pages which while they glow with a serene and mellow light are animate with health and strength of a courageous and stalwart defender of the faith. of nature. Concord. Cambridge. to be dedicated to extended philosophical research. period it related to that .Vi interest. wise. as was uneventful save which followed. With the perspective which time has given us. and of human life. sweet. name our guard. in order to reveal how it was that this simple. however. and winning teacher of the truth and beauty of man. On May 25th will be fittingly observed the centennial of the birth of Ralph the witnesses heard. or formative. INTR OD UC TION. that " One The accent of the Holy Ghost heedless world hath never lost. lest we be tempted — as we have names in our Let us be on been by the literature like history of other great — to neglect the original voice for these in- teresting interpretations. and he summons in his behalf will be Boston. fair Harvard will bear significant testimony to the claims of her noble son.

Energy and gentleness combined to give that charm of personal atmosphere which filled his life and work with the eager and childlike spirit of enthusiasm. he was a poet before he was twelve. while working as president's freshman and waiter at Commons. the school. Plutarch and Plato. He breathed the keen and wholesome air of poverty a love of the beautiful and the true was fostered by association with lofty ideals of manhood and womanhood in his home. came from the Waldensian valleys." Like Milton. He was a dreamer in the midst of a stimulate the best that was in elective affinities . for his lack of and a stroll to Mount Auburn . vii perceive that the forces which were elemental in this period bias" stock — forces which gave "the moral and — came from ancient and honorable material English which for generations had maintained an unbroken line of academic teachers and preachers. whose slaughtered saints Milton called upon Heaven to avenge. . Emerson's poetic name. Early he learned what later became one of his " Nothing great was ever achieved withapothegms. He everywhere pays tribute to the unconscious in education. and the university was such as to — — him what he calls his became evident at every stage. Waldo. — too busy world. He says. Chaucer and Montaigne consoled him success in mathematics . and this became the noblest affinity during his school and college days both in his work and play. ''The regular courses of studies have not yielded me better facts than some idle books under the bench at the Latin school. The training which he received in the home. out enthusiasm." At Harvard.INTR OD UCTION. if not his poetic nature.

never imiWhen he came to teach he had little respect tate. she was called from him. " Insist on yourself.' Viii INTRODUCTION. by a here his second period of life new and visit to Europe . of remarkable grace. Louise Tucker. He evidently had httle encouragement in this from the authorities. The fundamental note in all these exercises was. too. for he soon gave up teaching and turned to the profession which so many of his ancestors had adorned. He won prizes for declamation. me- in study hours revealed a nature rebellious to the chanical elements of education. for essays on the " Character of Socrates." for conventional Decency and Custom starving Truth. beauty." and " The Present State of Ethical Philosophy. where he had anticipated so much. and he was compelled to resign He had but recently married Miss Ellen his office. as has that of the eighteenth by Sir Leslie Stephen. In this double disappointment he sought relief in scenes and associations. He became He was so pastor of the Second Church in Boston. When the history of English thought in the nine- teenth century shall be written. 1831. early we shall have revealed the natural relation of our great American writers and teachers of the and middle period In of the century to their antecedents in England. he was doomed to disappointment. and buoyancy of spirit but here. a woman ." and was elected class poet. for in February. thoroughly imbued with the spirit of Channing's lofty and catholic ideals that the materiahsm of creed and observance became an impediment to his highest religious aspirations. and turned every recitation into a symposium alive with the play of individuality. and work began. .

. the influence on Emerson of that noble-hearted and spiritually minded leader of men. "Nature": . and ennobling literature. but truth of the cause we shall not have the whole and result of his first visit to Eng- land until we study the other great forces which com: bined to lure him forth in those eventful days forces which came into English life and letters through Coleridge and Wordsworth in the Chartreuse of the genius Quantocks and the English Lakes dedicated to the We have already alluded to of solitude. in that " solstice of his spirits. we know from his sea notes written the voyage over. : . rich. of achieving fame. as Emerson did. of doing good. of the . beautiful. Wordsworth. rich and rare philosophical insight of Coleridge they reveal the wis- dom of love." Emeron health and Almost the first sentiment recorded is that Wordsworthian note which he later elaborated in his "Rose at sunrise and first great essay. Knowing all this. deep. and no reader of his eloquent and v/ise works can fail to recognize how much he owed : to the teaching full of these great Englishmen spiritual passion of they are of the lofty. Channing. and the love of wisdom. our country the happiness and glory of a pure. the study of IX Emerson we have had clearly impressed upon us the essential facts in that interesting rela- tionship to Carlyle. Dr.INTR OD UCTION. terest to ture. ." That the desire to see and hear these creators of a hope for national and universal English literature fired son^s soul. he had listened with special in- Channing's noble address on National Literawhich contained the following ideal " Literature is to become more and more the instrument of swaying We men.

forevermore. justly. It It is quite natural." X INTRODUCTION. Coleridge. On setting out for home September i. Wordsworth. less timidly. Man. there- veal a conscious purpose. as o'er them sweep. in their silent faces might be read unutterable love. Plastic and vast.' The slight modification of the line is sion" fact that from "The Excurmay have been due to the he was quoting from memory. things I owe to the sight of these men. Carlyle. Here is Coleridge's transcendental theory of the genesis of consciousness and thought throughout the universe " : — And what if all of animated nature Be but organic harps diversely framed. one intellectual breeze. The comfort is of meeting men of genius such as these that they talk sincerely. to find him acknowledging in his letters. of wise men. and thoughtful hour." Of the three European movements which Coleridge. " At once the Soul of each and God of all ? . Wordsworth. under the lee of the Spencer^ had a solitary and ^The clouds were touched. Coleridge. he writes: "God has shown me the men I wished to see. or it may reinteresting. and Carlyle. and later in " English Traits." that his main purpose in England was to see three men. Wordsworth. the Scientific. for it was the idealist's conception of God. 1833. That tremble with thought. . shall judge more . the imagination. He has thereby comforted and confirmed me visiting in my convictions. fore. and the Transcendental was the last which influenced Emerson. and the will. I Many . and Carlyle represented the Revoluit tionary. and Nature — — as presenting a unity to the intellect.

especially. till it be deciphered and obeyed . till it burn forth. as revealed to the imagination and impasseen in what follows : — And I have felt A presence that disturbs . in our hearts. that all impels all All thinking things. and leaves us no rest. feeling. Work thou in . and Carlyle. objects of thought. Emerson profoundly and colored moved his thought." Carlyle's impulse in the direction called transcen- dental was directed to the " Sartor Resartus " : — will. yet is the meaning of Life itself no other : than Freedom. Our Life is compassed round with felsdrockh < Necessity ." INTRODUCTION. pel of Freedom. night or day. a visible. " is xi to the transcendental con- ception. And the round ocean. as is revealed in the " ' Temptations : in the Wilderness ! ' exclaims Teu- Have we not all to be tried with such ? Not so easily can the old Adam. And through all things. than Voluntary Force thus have we a warfare in the beginning. For the God-given mandate. Wordsworth's impulse sioned contemplation. lodged in us by birth. And the blue sky. acted Gosof impulse as revealed in Colerespectively. these types Wordsworth. Whose dwelling is the light of setting suns. . a hard-fought battle.' All ridge. and in the mind of man : A motive and a rolls spirit. be dispossessed. Welldoings lies mysteriously written. me with the joy Of elevated thoughts a sense sublime Of something far more deeply interfused. in Promethean Prophetic Characters. and the living air. in our conduct.

I say down " in tion at the " Old Manse partially. he began that career of writer and lecturer which he continued for more than a generation. think. materialism. that so of his pre- liminary work as a lecturer was on subjects relating to English literature " .Xll INTRODUCTION. as is seen in the verse and prose through which he manifested himself to the world immediately on his return from this first visit abroad. and action." How widely he read may be seen only partially by the three thousand quotations which Dr. It is was the rare power of fusing the thought of the poet into the elements of his stituted own soul much that conIt is him a voice rather than an echo. With health restored. Ripley. and it is to the careful reader of his work rather than to the devotee of the inner school that his wealth of gathering revealed. the appearance for the felt ible for the reality. " I am a poet by nature. A degree of humihation must be by the American . and therefore must live in the country. for his originality consisted in being himself and not reminding one of another. and stimulated by new ideals. especially significant : sage from the last in a series of ten — was this pas- alive live There remain at least two English authors now (Wordsworth and Coleridge) and may they long ! — — who deserve particular attention their genius. he settled After a few preliminary manifestoes of the war he was about to wage against for reading and reflecConcord with Dr. the plausgood. a disposition to put forms for things. I not without significance. as it men must of genius who obey In general be felt that a torpidity has crept over the greater fac- ulties. He said. Holmes collected from his writings.

and on April 19. have enlarged the limits of wisdom. although it lacks spirit." work upon his the preface to Carlyle's Resartus." who in The hnk between Channing's " National Literature " and Emerson's address. "It is full of the har- . he gave us that hymn which. which has enjoyed the culture of science in the freedom of the wild." of a later date is here evident. its spiritual vision. and at once made the spot ever to be associated with his name. In September. and the first in which he came forward teaching as one having authority. has added to the stock." own gospel of idealism was taking shape. from Chaucer down. his home of plain living and high thinking. And While " Sartor at fired the shot heard round the world. he married Lydia Jackson of Plymouth." This work Mr. scholar xiii when he reviews the great names of those England. and then reckons how little this country. and Carlyle respectively in a form distinctly individual and incommunicable. expresses the noblest political and moral and has become immortal in virtue of the : range of a single quotation " — Here once the embattled farmers stood. it unites the work of Coleridge. Wordsworth. for in September he published " Nature. " The American Scholar. 1835." In its intellectual range. Now he more often sought the medium of verse for his revelations. movement. 1836. Richard Garnett calls " the most intense and quintessential of his writings.INTRODUCTION. and its appeal to the elements of action.

" How revolutionary it was is revealed by Dr." Nature and God in History. others tried to preserve to be used as it in old bottles of . that and and those.xi V INTR OD UC TION. and they cast it aside with monies are in the soul and in matter." There were many for whom this new wine was too heady. " Man Thinking. should be read by every one interested in Emerson's influence." in 1872. or the American Scholar. Dr. especially of the correspondence of these : horror . star-bright Edward and companions. who said of it " Emerson was an iconoclast without a hammer. in August. social. it Kappa Society of Harvard. Much of his verse of this time is tinged with sadCharles. " Strong. Holmes. Through the master vision of this little tract the reader of Emerson should approach his teaching. Martineau's " God in written for Old and New ^ as is seen by the history of his next great address. literary. who took down our idols from their pedestals so tenderly that it seemed like an act of worship. and by the most discerning were welcomed. was sounded the clear and emphatic note . political." In the winter of 1836 he gave a course of twelve lectures on the Philosophy of History a study of the method of God's working through the various activities of — man. Gradually Emerson's ideas came to be viewed in their entirety. a natural The thought is but sequence to that set forth in " Nature." before In the Phi Beta 1837. formalism which could not stand the pressure a few allowed it while it was intended to be. ness at the death of his brothers.

July 15. a : scene to be always treasured in the picturesqueness and its memory for its inspiration. what grim silence of foregone dissent " ! The was third great utterance of Emerson... What crowded and breathless aisles." " It was an event Lowell says of the occasion without any former parallel in our literary annals. it is not so important to us whose they are. what windows clustering with eager heads. upon which to the graduat- the entire structure of his thought and imagination to be built. As an illustration of this. said : He Let "It becomes the scholar to feel all confidence in himself. This to many seemed a denial of what had been .. him not quit his belief that a popgun is a popgun. . to all intelligence.. of intellectual independence. A great soul will be strong to live as v/ell as strong to think. . inspiring lessons. was that of the address ing class in the Harvard Divinity School. 1838." "Man Thinking" was a noble plea for originality as against servile imitation. what enthusiasm of approval. which did XV not mean ignorance of Europe and her art. or imaginative poetry. . If an author give us just distinctions. . instincts own experiences and our '- : . The worth of the sentence consists in radiancy and equal aptitude . and to defer never to the popular cry. read what he " We expect a says in Quotation and OriginaUty " great man to be a good reader or in proportion to the spontaneous power should be the assimilating power. but reliance upon our and inspirations to use for our new new problems all the wealth of the past.INTRODUCTION. though the ancient and honorable of the earth affirm it to be the crack of doom.

" His time was now spent figure in nearly every in editing the Dial. and in lecturing. . had heard thirty or forty preachers of different communions during his six weeks' visit. sweet reasonableness to erect the superstructure. gentleness. He became a welcome guest Eliot that he When Dean . vility here as in " The American Scholar" was. but was rather a call to the behever to depend less upon externals and rest more upon the The remedy for serrealities revealed to the soul. in writing verse. soul. XVI INTR OD UC TION. Mr. when rightly considered fundamental in religion. and which in intellectual will remain permanent landmarks said. and found everywhere enthusiastic and admiring audiences. " first. " In these three great discourses history. or since. He became a familiar town in the country. and the calm of true influence majesty.. Perhaps the most significant impression which his personality revealed was that home-bred sense ripening into perfect innocence. and second. delivered there many courses of lectures. Richard Garnett writing of Emerson in 1896 America may boast of possessing works of the first class which could have been produced in no other country. manliness. Between 1840 and 1850 he gave to the world his first two volumes of essays and a volume of poems visited England a second time. and that in every case the sermon was by Mr. and his was the most pervasive and invigorating of any man of his time." With soul this foundation laid he proceeds calmly and with a understood it . Stanley was in America he told Dr. soul and evermore. Emerson.

and repeated in pubhshed Boston and elsewhere.! INTR OD UCTION. dead. in the . Through these two volumes we may follow the transition to the third period of his work which began with that volume entitled " Conduct of Life. being six lectures which were first given at Pittsburgh. he complained to Carlyle of failing productiveness." in i860. in 185 1. While he was writing the chapter on " Fate " of this volume." and gave us Traits." interesting to note that this the fibre volume appeared of the nation was being at the period when tried by the great . with Irving's " Sketch Book. is That thou canst hear. Pa." his return EngUsh lectures the he volume gathered ''' from these Representative Men." and Hawthorne's " Our Old Home. unprofitable world. oracular hath peal'd to-day. lectures to " those rhapsodical exercises of Coleridge. hold thy way A voice Soon To-day a hero's banner after unfurl' d. in his Table Talk. and hearing." Henry Crabb Robinson likened Emerson's ." Arnold's sonnet "Written in Emerson's Essays " reveals the best English sentiment toward his work : — " O monstrous." his impressions of the English people in lectures afterwards collected (1856) as "English The latter still remains. George Cooke says. XVll homes of culture and refinement audiences had been created for him as Mr.. " He entered into the labors of Coleridge and Wordsworth." the most intelligent and sympathetic treatment of the great subjects in which every American should be interested. " I scribble always It is a little — much less than formerly.

shall I — . and how boldly and resolutely he pursued his work here is evident to those who read " Conduct of Life " and the volumes which followed it. Through the quickening of the national conscience in this fiery ordeal. and was moved by his heroism at Harper's Ferry. . Here we find the supreme wisdom and strength of this serene thinker. . with his grandfather's — two believes in two articles. "He joins fifth that perfect Puritan faith. He had welcomed Brown to Concord. " Society and Sohtude. the Emancipation Proclamation. He instruments. to raise funds for the support of his family. and the death of Lincoln. Is that the kind the gallows was built for ? " Of the Emancipation Proclamation he said " Every man : . there was opened up a much wider avenue for the activity of the great idealist." issues of the Civil test of the history Emerson's conduct toward the great crisis in our may be revealed best through his words relat: ing to the three stages of that crisis the career of John Brown. of and courage he has ever met. ardor in the Revolution. truthfulness. which plays such pranks with temporary reputations." and " Letters and Social Aims. He became an interpreter of the 'finger pointings' of the gods and taught others to heed the monition. It is the red7ictio ad absiu'dtoii of slavery when a governor of Virginia is forced to hang a man whom he declares to be a man of the most integrity. he said:.XVlll INTRODUCTION. say? the Golden Rule and the Declaration of Independence. War. At a meeting in Tremont Temple. which brought his ancestor to Plymouth Rock. It is easy to see what a favorite he will be with history.

. as if his long-avowed. hearts with flame. whilst yet . and has the terest of genius. with which the Presistrictly dent advanced to his design tant policy." . The extreme moderation . He has been permitted to do more for America than any other The following majestic strains are from the in Faneuil Hall poem he recited Proclamation was read: " — when the Emancipation The word of the Lord by night To As the watching Pilgrims came. step in the history of poHtical liberty is xix a sally of the in- human mind . and is fruitful in heroic anecdotes. into the untried future. we are beginning to think that we have underestimated the capacity and virtue which the Divine Providence has made an instrument American man. . waiting only fair till it should be unmistakably pronounced that . INTR OD UC TION. filled their And "I break your bonds and masterships And I unchain the slave Free be his heart and hand henceforth As wind and wandering wave. great as the popularity of the President has been. so a mind none ever listened so patiently ." of benefit so vast.. they sat by the seaside. — all these have bespoken such favor to the act. to such extreme varieties of opinion cision so reticent that his desurprise. expec- he chose to be the executive of the best public sentiment of the country. that. had taken it. all parties by it is the just sequel of his prior acts the firm tone in which he announces without inflation or surplusage.

And what should turn out. — . had and what remained to be done required new and uncommitted hands. A plain man of the people.. the light of the truths these volumes contain for by them the public recognition of his leadership became universal. an . . inspires his genius. trains him in poverty. from the oak no aping of foreigners. had never crossed the sea. a quite native aboriginal man. shall endure. that could not longer serve us . and ordains that only that race which combines that the rebellion touched its natural conclusion.XX INTR OD UCTION. It has given every race its one talent. His note was: — . He was thoroughly American. and arms him for his task. . like kings. . that this heroic deliverer he had reached the term. creates the man for the time. no frivolous ac- complishments. the death of Lincoln he said : On " The President stood before us as a man of the people. The serene providence which rules the fate of nations makes its own instruments. . if it .. are not good by facility and complaisance. wishing to show the world a completed benefactor. a new spirit born out of the ashes of war and that Heaven. shall make him serve his country even more by his death than by his life ? Nations. or French dissipation . in the unfolding of the web. Never in our history has the true function of the scholar been so forcefully revealed as by this gentle leader in the great struggle for national preservation and reconstruction." The spirit who wielded of the mighty deeds wrought by those the sword may be best interpreted by . perfectly with the virtues of all. as an acorn . . extraordinary fortune attended him. had never been spoiled by English insularity.

lightnings are loosed " in the third. word for what he somewhere calls subterranean prudence. These volumes. namely. to change. because they view . and gives to manners and rules of daily behavior an importance that might have satis- . clouds form. from own intellectual position they are individual and embody a distinctly American type of thought and feeling. where most of the world's . He values mundane circumspection it or to say a as highly as Franklin. he delighted in the activity of the common crofts safe in the bosom of the plain. John Morley says: "Emerson was for basing modern commonwealth on the only real strength.. and emancipated character of the citizen. This gives to his doctrine a hold and a prize on the work of the day and makes him our helper. . the honest manly. the soHd ground of homely wisdom. and the only kind of force that can be the health of a relied upon. work has sense and to practical be done. simple.. less poetical in form. and death ? " It was fortunate for him and for us that. to cowardice. " xxi What do we gather hence but firmer faith That every gift of noble origin Is breathed upon by Hope's perpetual breath That virtue and the faculties within Are vital and that riches are akin — To fear.. Mr. while less rapturous and fascinating our and inevitable in spirit. He never thinks beneath his dignity to touch a point of minor morals. INTR OD UCTION. are more far-reaching in their life influence than the others. while in the second period he circled the summit of the transcendental mount of vision "where meteors shoot.

XXll INTR OD UCTION.. who take care not to miss the real. And we are never old. He knew that his work was done. he is becoming more modern as time goes on. filled with a liberalizing force. Like all great writers. the one whose elemental work is least likely to yield to the ravages of time." of which he was so : fond. a revelation of deep spiritual illumination. not madden and pollute " the depth rather than the tumult of our life is reflected in his work. Of his " Conduct of Life. It is fied Chesterfield. . By 1870 Emerson's childhke simplicity he still lived in the future. His gracious presence was the delight of his townsfolk." after a creative work was done. reveals his spirit to the last — Spring still makes Spring this in the mind When sixty years are told Love wakes anew throbbing heart. : the effect of being It is It is made expressly for our present time." recently translated into German.. while he is always and everywhere distinctly American. . like Emerson. and much-needed rest in Europe he lived in the home-bred pleasures and gentle scenes of his beloved Concord. but he never grew old for in his . His voice is reaching beyond the limits of our English speech."" Hence it is that Emerson. only great idealists. His mission is "to heal and cleanse. and occasionally made gatherings in Boston and elsewhere distinguished. a gospel of life.. is acknowledged to be the most universal of our great writers. a literary journal of Germany says " It reads like a thoroughly modern book. His own poem " The World Soul. Its observations have .

his exaggerations. but you ask me how dare to say so.. With moving But With reverential resignation. What a splendid impulse these volumes have con! tributed to the spirit of learning He says in if them all : " I delight in telling I what I I think. sense of supplication o'er all ." me to trust the Creator for what Though Coleridge and Emerson are in so many respects unlike. am the most helpless of mortals. yet not unblest. no thought exprest. yet when each is on the heights same note " is the sounded : — Ere on It hath not been silently. his vogue. In humble trust mine eye-lids close. INTR OD UCTION. need not detain us here . his defects in verse and prose. Hale has recently told us he has it on good authority that more than million of his volumes have been printed in America. . No wish conceived. And through the wild-piled snow-drift The warm rosebuds below. Only a That I A sense my soul imprest am weak. My spirit I to Love compose. Dr. XXUl glaciers see the summer glow. the best reply to those is who still present these questions the fact that he is being read by that five those who can discriminate between a great book and a little one." Questions of his limitations. my bed my limbs I lay. Over the winter I . my use to pray lips or bended knees by slow degrees. What I 1 have seen have not teaches seen.

. when brought Among the tasks of real life. to his wish or not — . that he hath much to love : — Who.." Throughout a long and singularly eventful life he was our Happy Warrior.. wheresoe'er he be. . in my judgment. round me. think. To Are homefelt pleasures and to gentle scenes ! Sweet images at his heart and such fidelity It is his darling More brave ******* passion to approve for this. serenity. : XXIV INTR OD UC TION. " the most imporin verse. or a great but we shall be more likely to philosopher even realize what Matthew Arnold said of him as best revealing his true greatness. so Emerson's essays are. who. delicacy. " As Wordsworth's poetry . Prosperous or adverse. . — " The generous Spirit. during the I tant work done present century." says Arnold. everywhere Eternal Strength and Wisdom are. hath wrought Upon the plan that pleased his boyish thought Whose high endeavors are an inward light That makes the path before him always ******* bright.. Since in me. the most important work done in prose. with a toward or untoward lot. eleHe is the friend and aider of those who vation. .. . is." As time passes we are less likely to insist that Emerson was a great poet. a great essayist. would live in the Spirit. in our language. A Soul whose master-bias leans which.. To us he shows for guidance his lucid freedom. his cheerfulness and hope to you his dignity.

fast. . Plays. Mass. i6. while the mortal mist is gathering." ANDREW Brookline. in the many games of life. draws His breath in confidence of Heaven's applause.. : INTR OD UC TION. that one Where what he most doth value must be won XXV Whom neither shape nor danger can dismay. daily self-surpast Who. to sleep without his fame. . J. unprofitable name Finds comfort in himself and in his cause And — And. Feb. From well to better. whether praise of him must walk Forever. GEORGE. Or he must fall. leave a dead. not content that former worth stand Looks forward. Nor thought of tender happiness betray Who. the earth and to noble deeds give birth. 1903. persevering to the last.: .

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at dawn of day. the foresight that awaits Is the same Genius that creates. I. . lay. him to warn Well might then the poet scorn To learn of scribe or courier Hints writ in vaster character And on Sott his mind. Delicate omens traced in air To the lone bard true witness bare Birds with auguries on their wings Chanted undeceiving things Him to beckon. . shadows of the evening For the prevision is allied Unto the thing so signified Or say. . FATE. ..

.

Our I live ? geometry cannot span the huge orbits of the prevailing ideas. By an odd coincidence. It so happened that the subject had the same prominence in some remarkable pamphlets and journals To me. first steps to gain our wishes. 3 . we come upon immovable Hmitations. if we must In our accept an irresistible dictation. the question of the times resolved life. there is Fate. We decide that they are not of good stock. 'Tis fine for us to speculate and elect our course. — tion : that is to say. four or five noted men were each reading a discourse to the citizens of Boston or New York. We must begin our reform eariier still. We are fired with the hope After many experiments. that we must begin earlier. a few years ago. But the at school. boys and girls are not docile we can make nothing of them. that our cities were bent on discussing the theory of the Age. ever. behold their return. we find to reform men. howissued in London in the same season. We can only obey our own polarity.FATE. on the Spirit of the Times. It chanced during one winter. and reconcile their opposition. or laws of the world. itself into a practical question of the conduct of How shall We are incompetent to solve the times. at genera- — .

is true. thought frankly. This them. and have manned them- The Spartan. that. But each our geometry cannot span these extreme points. the grandeur of duty. and a just balance would be made. it must method of taking up in turn each of the leading topics which belong to our scheme of human that is agreeable to life. Our America has a bad name for superficialness. and doing the same justice to the solution. majesty without a on the iron leaf in the The Turk. if pounding on each string. though we know not how.4 But if CONDUCT OF LIFE. and then comes some reasonable hope of harmonizing them. the significance of the individual. necessity does comport with liberty. or. rushes . and reconcile What do ? By obeying you will. But let us honestly state the facts. and. there be irresistible dictation. the power of character. understands If we must accept Fate. the true limitations will Any excess of emphasis. By the same obedience to other thoughts. we learn at last its power. the individual with the worlds times. been boasters and buffoons. have not ceivers of the terror of selves to face it. We are sure. facts in the others. dies before question. on one part. we are not less compelled to affirm liberty. my polarity with the spirit of the The If this riddle of the age has for each a private one would study his own time. but perlife. by firmly stating all experience on one. embodying his its reli- gion in his country. this dictation itself. who believes his doom is written moment when he entered the on the enemy's sabre with undivided world. great nations. Great men. would be corrected. we learn theirs. and to that other is true. be by opposing appear. by harping.

and the unappointed day . . Yet sometime it shall fallen on a day That falleth not oft in a thousand year For. an amiable parson.FATE. or hate. accepts the foreordained " On On two days. is as firm." Savages cling to a local god of one tribe or town. or peace. that will take place. now and then." Chaucer The Knighte's Tale. were quickly narrowed to which preach an election or favorAnd. That executeth in the world o'er all. is The great immense mind of Jove not to be transgressed. slay. or Robert Huntington. the Persian. The broad village theologies. our appetites here. belt which girds the world. certainly. : The Greek Tragedy expressed " Whatever is the same sense : fated. thee. All this is ruled by the sight above. the Arab. neither balm nor physician can save. The Nor it steads not to run from thy grave. like itism." The Hindoo. 5 The Turk. under same dignity. will. Jung StilUng. fate. vinists. believes in a ethics of Jesus . the first. on the second. Our Calhad something of the verse held they do ? They felt that the weight of the Unithem down to their place. Be it of war. So strong it is. or love. " — a strap or The Destiny. appointed. the Universe the wheel. in the last generation. minister general. The purveyance which God hath seen beforne. that tho' the world had sworn The contrary of a thing by yea or nay. What could Wise men feel that there is something which cannot be talked or voted away.

The The cold. complicity. tingles your blood. does not cosset or pamper us. fortune. rendings from earthquake and volcano. — your ship freezes a like a grain of dust. and leave a half-dollar. — these are in You have the system. alterations of climate. at New Orleans. however scrupulously the slaughter- house there at the is is concealed in the graceful distance of miles. pistareen-Providence.6 CONDUCT OF LIFE. as a frost to the crickets. whenever the good man wants a dinner. and will but swallows not mind drowning a man or a woman sentimentalist. three years ago. We must see that the world is rough and surly. — expensive The races. the crackle of the bones coil of his prey in the just dined. lightning. inconsiderfeet. of the anaconda. and. The habit of snake and spider. gravity. which. which. At Lisbon. Rivers dry up by opening of the forest. having filled the summer with . — race to living expense of race. cut . Our western prairie shakes with fever and ague. and our habits are like theirs. makes that somebody shall knock at But Nature is no his door. benumbs your man like an apple. the snap of the tiger and other leapers and bloody jumpers. precessions of equinoxes. at Panama. off men like a massacre. The sea changes its bed. The to cholera. . planet is liable shocks from comets. ate of persons. respect no persons. The scurvy at sea the sword of the climate in the west of Africa. perturbations from planets. Towns and counties fall into it. have proved as mortal some tribes. the small-pox. an earthquake killed men like flies. the ele- ments. diseases. at Cayenne. ten thou- sand persons were crushed in a few minutes. At Naples. The way of Providence is a little rude.

the skull of the snake. Will you say. noise. : The gross lines are legible to the dull the cab- . of ferocity in the interiors of nature. temperaments so is sex so so the reaction of talents imprisoning the vital power in certain directions. they must be feared. the jaw of the sea-wolf paved with crushing teeth. FATE. are silenced 7 night. or forms and powers of the spine. Providence has a wild. is is the scale of climate . But these shocks and ruins are less destructive to us. us. ^ cataclysms and one need not lay his account for ? Aye. Let us not deny up and down. the weapons — are of the grampus. or the obscurities of alternate genera. — of fate : the bill of the bird. on a bombyx tion or groping after intestinal parasites. and so long as these strokes are not to be parried by us. but what happens once. are exceptional. . of is So . An expense of ends to means is fate organization tyrannizing over character. than the stealthy power of other laws which act on us daily. The menagerie. determines tyrannically races. its limits. Every spirit makes its house but afterwards the house confines the spirit. may happen again. hints and other warriors hidden it in the sea. by a fall of the temperature of one Without uncovering what does not concern or counting how many species of parasites hang . and it is of whitewash its huge. the labrus. rough. is a book every day .. incalculable road to its end. the forms of the shark. the disasters which threaten mankind . or to dress up that terrific benefactor in a clean shirt and white neckcloth of a student in no use to try to divinity. or infusory biters. mixed instrum'entalities.

or often appears in a family. or eight ancestors at least. as if all the qualities of the progenitors were potted in several jars. the pigment of the epidermis. a pug-nose. ask the doctors. ask organization. or his mother. comes to the windows of his eyes. mats of hair. betray People seem sheathed in their tough character. in man see phrenologist so far is : he looks your face to if his shilling . a man represents each of several of his ancestors. the rank unmitigated elixir. play severally in the company. his father. A dome . and sometimes a remote relative. Quetelet.8 CONDUCT OF is LIFE. in the complexion. arate individual. — some ruling — and sometimes the unmixed temperament. quality in each son or daughter of the house. the family vice. In different hours. Ask Spurzheim. in the facial angle. variety of notes for that life is. Find the part which black eyes. and say. as if there were seven seven or eight of us rolled up in each man's skin. in our is drawn off in a sepand the others are proportionally We sometimes see a change of expression companion. sure. At the corner of the you read the posHis parentage sibility of each passenger. and you will think you are reading your own thoughts which you had not yet told. — and — they constitute the new piece of music which his street. . another a squint. relieved. How shall a man escape from his ances- draw off from his veins the black drop which he drew from his father's or his mother's life? It tors. if temperaments decide nothing? or if there be anything they do not decide? Read the description in medical books of the four temperaments. in the depth of his eye. and which blue eyes. of brow denotes one thing a pot-belly.

Ask : the digger in the ditch to explain Newton's laws the fine organs of his brain have been pinched by overwork an4 squalid poverty from father to son. why it does not make cashmere. sees that they are ripe to be each other's victim. Jesus said. the better for the hive. determines 9 Men are what their mothers made it. If. with force enough to add to this animal a new aim. or who meets her. and the stronger these are. Most men and most women are merely one couple more. future. for a hundred years.FA TE. he has but one that is pair. the gate of gifts closes behind him. later. In certain men. one has a new cell or cama- . he hath committed adultery. or a chemical discovery from that jobber. and delittle scribed in that and squat form." But he is an adulterer before he has yet looked on the woman. So he has but one fatty face. as exthem. and a complete apparatus work it out. in his constitution. pig-eye. You may as well ask a loom which weaves huckaback. and the defect of thought. Now and then. by the superfluity of animal. digestion and sex absorb the vital force. the individual is The more of these drones perish. Who meets him. pect poetry from this engineer. "When he looketh on her. all the ancestors are gladly forgotten. All the privilege and all the legislation of the world cannot meddle or help to make a poet or a prince of him. in the street. Let him value his hands and feet. When each comes forth from his mother's womb. so much weaker. and already predetermined in his lobes. they give birth to some to superior individual.

which skill nowise alters rank in the scale of nature. and by no it means became such — in the history of the individual in time. " Fate is nothing but the deeds committed in a prior state of existence. or a philological knack. draws off so rapidly the vital force. It was a poetic attempt to tinguish in the is a lift this mountain of Fate. Mr. the health visibly deteriorated. or pigments. Carpenter might come to dis- embryo at the Whig. is if the like genius appear. &c. hardly enough for health so that. — tination : and I suppose. a good foot for dancing. or chemistry. a musi- — an cal. with high magnifiers." I find the coincidence of the extremes of eastern and western speculation in the daring statement of Schelling. this Frauenhofer or Dr. these hints and tendencies are fixed in one. as to become Each absorbs so much itself a new centre. which led the Hindoos to say. to reconcile this despotism of race with Hberty. rial People are born with the moral or with the matebias uterine brothers with this diverging des. generation. in the second talent The new that not . the of sensation going on as before. some stray taste or talent for flowers. LIFE. that he all has been what he limely.lO rilla CONDUCT OF opened in his brain. an athletic frame for wide journeying. a good hand for drawing. fourth day. eternity. or in a succession. or story-telling. food and force. architectural. enough remains for the animal functions. and that a Free-soiler. At last. and the generative force im- paired. but serves life — to pass the time. " there is in every is man from a certain feeling." To say less sub- is always an .

New Hampshire giants.FATE. and their defects and gout. if you could weigh bodily the tonnage of any hundred of the Whig and the Democratic party in a town. we have to consider two things power and circumstance. act on the defensive. is. who. another vesicle. and. Broughams. Burkes. are inevitable patriots. In science. as soon as he calls begins to die. during all years of on the side of progress. from : each successive discovery. are such from personal defects. there is In England. the election goes by avoirdupois weight. always some man of wealth and large conhis nection planting himself. born halt and blind. it would be rather the speediest way of deciding the vote. on the Dearborn balance. All we know of the egg. Websters. tures. through luxury of their parents. On the whole. until their life ebbs. Napoleons. Now and then. All conservatives They have been by position or nature. A good deal of our politics is physiological. warp them. you get a better observer. But strong nalike invalids. a man of wealth in the heyday of youth adopts the tenet of broadest freedom. and can only. . and if. palsy and money. you could predict with certainty which party would carry it. Kossuths. health. checks his forward play. Prob- ably. effeminated The and strongest idea incarnates itself in majorities nations. II a party to his present estate. troops. in his and becomes conservative. to put the selectmen or the mayor and aldermen at the hayscales. after five hundred years. as they passed the hayscales. backwoodsmen. in the healthiest and strongest.

or skates. — leaf the book of Fate. granite . ! — but the tyranin unsheath- new circumstances. trilobium. he finds within the last observed another. strong enough on the but which can do nothing but mischief off of ice. 12 CONDUCT OF In vegetable all LIFE. it suffers changes.. what you may do. and a measure of coal ages. that negative power. or a better glass. in which she has only blocked her future statue. rock-like tion . and it unlocks itself to fish. necessitated activity . learn. vesicles. of Nature is The book turns the gigantic pages. zoophyte. in ates. it is just power or spasm operYes. Nature The Circumstance is Nature. bird. Oken thought. animal. the sheathed snake. and a bed of slate . We have two things. a plant. still. which end ing miraculous capability in the unaltered vesicle. — never floor of She One leaf she lays down. fish then. saurians. the ponderous. is. There is much you may all. — . not. it . like the locomotive. a vesicle lodged in darkness. became animal in light. layer of marl : . rude forms. or quadruped. life. and that the primary and animal tissue. vesicles. jaw . is. — the circumstance positive and the stance. violent direc- the conditions of a tool. a thousand ages. Once we thought. head and foot. eye and claw. Lodged in the parent nical Circumstance A vesicle . Nature is power was Now we is half. a then a thousand ages. alike. a thousand and mud vegetable forms appear her first misshapen animals. concealing under these unwieldy monsters the fine type of her coming and a . its track. re-turning one. or circum- the tyrannous circumstance. the thick skull. after leaf. which are wings on but fetters on the ground.

is as uniform as the superposition of strata. But when a race term. has lived lation and dries.FATE. have a great deal of guano in their destiny. of the Indian. French. of the world is a conditional popunot the best. but charged with pungent and unforgetable truths. and monopolizing the commerce of these countries. We follow the step of the Jew. Irish The German and millions. and defeat to another. but the best that could live and the scale of tribes. it comes no more again. like the Negro.'''' " Detach a colony from the race. see We how much Knox. and it deteriorates to the crab." "Every race has its own habitat. to make a spot of green grass on the One more fagot of these adamantine bandages is new science of Statistics. It is a rule. The population ." a rash '" — and unsatisfactory writer. They are ferried over the Atlantic. of the Negro. and carted over America. We like the nervous and victorious habit of our own branch will of the family. now . 13 The its face of the planet cools races meliorate. and then to lie down prematurely the prairie. and not hybrids. to ditch and to drudge. the and man is born. has been expended to extinguish the Jew. We know in history what weight belongs We see the English. and the steadiness with which victory adheres to one tribe. planting themselves on every shore and market of America and Austraha. king. and Germans to race. sions of in his Look at the unpalatable concluFragment of Races. " Nature respects race. in vain. that the most casual and extraordinary events — if the basis of . to make corn cheap." See the shades of the picture.

inventor. would be born in Boston but on a population of twenty or two hundred millions. dependent on causes by which society and is preserved." — QUETELET. . copying or duplicating his as the need is. or Fust. of which all these shifts drawn from himself are toy models. Tubal Cain. in every million there will be an astronomer. a mathematician. are not new men. as if the air he breathes were made of Vaucansons. or a navigator like Bowditch." and centuries of them. Laplace. Anaximenes. broad enough become matter of fixed It would not be safe to say when a cap- — tain like Bonaparte. considfacts. is CONDUCT OF LIFE. that Thales. and Watts. a singer like Jenny Lind. or Copernicus. Doubtless. harder indisputable find the Homer. just so far 'Tis hard to find the right to Zoroaster. No one can read the history of astronomy. belongs to the order of physical greater the The number of individuals. a mystic.^ 'Tis frivolous to fix pedantically the date of par- They have all been invented over and over fifty times. "The air This kind of talent so abounds. Franklins. if it full of this con- structive tool-making efficiency. He helps hinlself on each emergency by ticular inventions. Everything which pertains to the human species. the more does the influence of the individual will disappear. something like accuracy may be had. scores the Cadmus. or a 1 " new kind of men.: 14 population calculation. but Newton. without perceiving that Copernicus. own still structure. as adhered to the chemic atoms. leaving predominance to a series of general facts exists. or or Fulton. Man is the arch machine. ered as a whole. There are is men. or Menu. a comic poet. or Vulcan.

in every barrel of cowries. the penthe most casual things. and things . Empedocles. to see struggling jn the waves. must be reckoned calculable parts of the system of the world. skulls. Aristarchus. Mahometan and Chinese know what we know of leap-year. The Roman on a measure of a degree of the meridian. They glanced intelligently at . alties of violated functions. FaiYiine. suicide. GEnipodes. brought to a dozen millions of Malays and Mahometans. The force with which we resist these torrents of the terms by which our tendency looks so ridiculously inadequate. that it amounts to little more than a criticism or a protest made by a minority of one. New Bedford. and which show a kind of mechanical exactness. 15 Pythagoras. Hipparchus. as of a loom or mill. apt for the same vigorous computation and logic. And not less work the laws of repression. frost.FATE. a mind parallel to the movemile probably rested ment of the world. . in be one or two astronomical city. I men overboard seemed. Punch makes exactly one capital joke a week and the journals contrive to furnish one good piece of news every day. and effete races. These are pebbles from the mountain. and of the precession of the equinoxes. As. typhus. in the height of a tempest. and driven about here and there. hints of life is walled up. there shall be one orangia. under compulsion of millions. in what we call casual or fortuitous events. of the Gregorian calendar. are produced as punctually and to order as the baker's muffin for breakfast. so there In a large will. whose beauty lies in their casualty. war. had anticipated them each had the same tense geometrical brain.

and was Fate. until she became at last woman and goddess. each other. the fate takes a brute and dreadful shape. until he learns The element running through entire nature. and this held him the more he spurned it. nor hell-fire. he its arc.6 1 CONDUCT OF little LIFE. As we refine. nor sulphuric ether. the Well. brandy. they put round his foot a limp band softer than silk or cobweb. cannot trifle We No in with this reality. and he a man and a god. this cropping out in our planted gardens of the core of the world. admit the odious A by a necessity. is known to us as limitation. If we rise to antagonism takes a spiritual form. Whatever limits us. touches on every side. he took the male form of that kind. picture of life can have any veracity that does not facts. If we are brute and barbarous. our checks become finer. So Neither soft and so stanch is the ring of Fate. — the Wolf with steel or with weight of — : . limitations refine as the soul purifies. the stiflfer it drew. which. we call Fate. mountains. nor nectar. In the Hindoo fables. 'twas much if each could keep afloat alone. but 'twas they could do for one all another rest . When the gods in the Norse heaven were unable to bind the Fenris one he snapped and the other he spurned with his heel. The . but the ring of necessity is always perched at the top. the up to elephant whatever form she took. man's power is hooped by many experiments. from insect and crawfish spiritual culture. Vishnu follows Maya through all her ascending changes. they had a right to their eye-beams. which we popularly call Fate.

in race. if we give it the high sense in which itself is even thought not above Fate : must act according to eternal laws. " God may consent." said the bard of Spain. and all wilful and all. levelling the high. . can get rid of this limp band. is What " is useful will last hurtful will sink. For. last And. 17 nor ichor. character as well. so is power. and seek to do justice to the other elements as w^ell. . will." said The doer must the the Welsh triad. — But Fate has its lord limitation its limits is different seen from above and from below. requiring justice in man. is and lofti- and the freedom of the But we must not run into generalizations too large. one of its obedient members. mind. the poets use that too that its is For it. from within and from without. though Fate is immense. power attends and antagonizes Fate. in the world of morals. nor genius. If Fate follows and limits power. est ascensions. Thus we trace Fate. of high over thought. : " you Greeks wduld soothe a Deity not to be soothed. We must re- . The In limitation its last is im- passable by any insight of man. in retardations of strata." said suffer. in matter. and in thought and everywhere bound or limita. insight itself. when what justice is not done." "God himself cannot procure good for the wicked. immense. but only for a time. Fate appears as vindicator. which is the other fact in the dual world. and al- ways striking soon or late. It is and morals.FATE. but show the natural bounds or essential distinctions. nor poetry. lifting the low. tion. fantastic in it is in opposition to fundamental essence.

are. sand- stone and granite. mind and matter. and say. . — thick-skulled. yet it is wholesome to man to look not at Fate. biped. So far as a man in the soul. riding peacefully together in the eye and brain of every man. is in him. fishy. 1 CONDUCT OF LIFE. is To hazard the con- If you please to on the side of Fate. on the other part. and the flippant mistaking for freedom of some paper preamble like a "Declaration of Independence. thought. belly and members. And though nothing is more disthinks. rock-ledges. side by side. But the lightning which explodes and fashions planets. Man is not order of na- sack and sack. — Nor can he tradiction. On one side. nor any ignominious baggage. blink the freewill. forest. but there natural history. the spirit here they which composes and decomposes nature. but a stupendous antagonism. more than For who and what ? is this criticism that pries into the matter ture. plant yourself . link in a chain. hardly escaped into loss of and has paid for the new powers by some of the old ones. but the other way — freedom necessary. as most men are." or the statute right to vote. king and conspirator. a part of Fate is the freedom of man.8 : . — quadruped him. quadruma- ill-disguised. nous. sea and shore and. he is free. a dragging together of the poles of the Universe. by those who have never dared to think or to act. Fate is all then we say. god and devil. peat-bog. He betrays his relation to what is below small-brained. gusting than the crowing about liberty by slaves. elemental order. maker of planets and suns. is spect Fate as natural history. Forever wells up the impulse of choosing and acting Intellect annuls Fate. belt and spasm.

not to cringe to them. except by themselves are the elements. the practical view is 19 the other. Let him hold his invincible purpose as with the tug of gravitation. Let him empty his breast of his So let man be. tiny. or what danger lies in the way of duty. Go face the fire at sea. a river. 'Tis the best use of Fate to teach a fatal courage. " Look not on nature. cited the instinctive and heroic races conspire with lievers in Destiny. 'Tis weak and vicious people who cast The right use of Fate is to bring the blame on Fate. as proud beit . when it is held by the weak and lazy. and show his lordship by manners and deeds on the scale of nature. for her name is fatal. or the burglar in your own. the expansion. limits induces The too meanness. are in a and I invite the evils they fear. &c. our atoms are as savage . no bribe point.FATE. No power. or a mountain. Rude and up our conduct to the loftiness of nature. knowing you are guarded by If you believe in Fate to the cherubim of Destiny.. His sound relation to these facts is to use and command. much contemplation of these They who talk much of deslower dangerous plane. no persuasion. resignation is with the event. for your good. A man your harm. If the Universe have these savage accidents. at least. also is Fate is so prevailing. man part of it. They a loving But the dogma makes a different impression." said the oracle. believe For. shall make him give up his ought to compare advantageously with an oak. their birth-star. and can confront fate with fate. and the resistance of these. windy conceits. or the cholera in your friend's house. He shall have not less the flow. if it.

we were and afterward we were born again. as if we grew to . in the If there be omnipotence of But Fate against Fate : is only parrying and de- fence there are. and ought to be. come to our eyes. of the maker. of law oris the best. that forgets the old. We should be crushed by the atmos- phere. — live . if filled with the same water. and we see. stroke. : seeing its immortality. we prophesy and This insight throws us on the party and interest of the Universe. and many times. we breathe and that in . ourselves. we die. we speak for Nature . if not. against as all and sundry against . but for the reaction of the air within the body. A tube made of a film of glass can resist the shock of the ocean. cibility. It is not in us so much as we are in it. to the omnipresence sees that what is must be. If the air come to our lungs. the which the inward eye opens to the Unity in things. also.20 in resistance. A man is I speaking from insight firms of himself what I true of the mind . I . else not. We rightly say of ourselves. If the light if its see . we dimensions. not of what made. we come to our mind. but is we are in it. It is am strong. And truth suddenly expand to worlds. The born. not in us. afits much as others. CONDUCT OF LIFE. and hence the mythology of the seven or the nine heavens. am immortal It is seeing invin- he says. We are as lawgivers divine. there is omnipotence recoil. . is The day of days. This beatitude dips from on high down on us. great day of the feast of life. the noble creative forces. he says. We the new have successive experiences so important. revelation of Thought takes man out of servitude into freedom.

hear eagerly every thought and word quoted from an intellectual is We man. make a musical or The world of men show like : a comedy without laughter government. history . — not constitution. much more interested in the new play of our own thought. Just as much intellect as you add. in his presence. but all things pictorial impression. and is not used. our dream will come Our thought. 'tis toy figures in a toy house. — — populations. .FATE. But. which refuse to be severed . dates former men or better men. It it distances those not. or custom. the sphere of laws. and changed by This it. or it from itself. that ality. It those flocks who share who share Those who share it from from is not are and herds. so much organic power. It apprises us of its sovereignty and godhead. the impersonthe scorn of egotisms. and. Where shines. He who sees through the design. It does not overvalue particular truths. All things are touched 21 it. and not to be separated from will. and a little that way now. our own mind what he roused to activity. Once we were stepping a little this way. into 'Tis the majesty which we have suddenly mounted. or the point we would make. — gospel. affirms an oldest necessity. or college. uses. engage us. old. and must will that which must be. not to be separated from thought. They must always have coexisted. and do not think so much of the point we have left. We sit and rule. and we forget very fast says. all interests. we are as men in a balloon. than in any thought of his. Nature no longer intrusive. though we sleep. though it were only an hour to pass. presides over it. as of the liberty and glory of the way.

22 from it. in the upper region of our atmosphere. All great force is real and elemental. each obeying his own thought. by carrying the mind up into a sphere where all is plastic. CONDUCT OF It is LIFE. Thought dissolves the material universe. Always one man more than another represents the will of 2. that it all atoms which rise to that height. it must rest on the universal force. a permanent westerly current. That affection essential to will. which It is mind. There must be a pound to balance a pound. thought makes free. Yet we can see that with the percepment. carries with see. they accept a knowledge and motive above self- ishness. Where power is shown in will. when usually results from a certain unity of organization. as is alleged. it a strong will appears. There is no manufacturing a strong will. as the soul itself which constitutes them men. Divine Providence to the period. Moreover. but the will of poured into the souls of all men. Alaric and Bonaparte must believe they . but I when souls reach a certain clearness of percep- tion. tion of truth is joined the desire that is it shall prevail. he whose thought is deepest will be the strongest character. If so does the moral senti- The mixtures of spiritual chemistry refuse to be analyzed. A breath of will blows eternally through the universe of souls in the direction of the Right and Necessary. I know not whether there be. and it is the wind which blows the worlds into order and orbit. as if the whole energy of body and mind flowed in one direction. Of two men. all not mine or thine. It is the air which all intellects inhale and exhale.

I know not what the word sublime means. Each pulse from that an oath from the Most High. a name and anecdote sallies of courage. are not of freedom. .FATE. its martyr. One of these is the verse of the Persian Hafiz. and moves on serious is The one will. honnHes gens c^est qtiHls sont des Idches. And one may say boldly. Per. 'tis and goodness dies in wishes as the misfortune of worthy people that they are cowards " tin des plus grands malheurs des Voltaire said. making him the and the will him. and formidable thing in nature is a from want of will. so as to be ready to be conversion of the will. and cannot be bribed or bent.'''' There must be a fusion of these two to generate the energy of will. if it be not the intimaheart is tions in this infant of a terrific force. believe in Whoever has had experience of the moral sentiment cannot choose but unlimited power. ' Wo unto him who suffers ! ' himself to history be betrayed by Fate " Does the reading of little make us fatalists? What ! courage does not the op- posite opinion show is A will. who has not been reacted on by it. " 'Tis written on the arguments. is a bribe possible for any But the pure sympathy with universal ends an infinite force. cold. One way is right to go the hero sees it. and therefore the world wants saviours and religions. but gate of Heaven. Society servile : . There can be no driving force. There is 23 finite will. But insight ception is not nor affection will. except through the man into his will. A text of hero- ism. that no man has a right perception of any truth. whim is of will to be free gallantly contending against the universe of chemistry.

Every brave youth is in training to ride and His science is to make weapons rule this dragon. for root and has the world under him to others as the world. Now whether. A fluence towers up in memory only worthy. and 'Tis only a question of builds a new and bigger. in politics. : mankind believe in two gods. honest. LIFE. . in love. time. master of the house. will be wolves and foxes on change! What pious men in the parlor will vote for what To a certain point. and wings of these passions and retarding forces. it they think they come under another to and that transfer the would be a practical blunder method and way of working of one What good. in religion but in mechanics. if we know the meter of the growing man. His appropersonal in- bation is honor The glance his eye has the force of sunbeams. and the rest of Fate. in . and we gladly forget numbers. his dissent. money. seeing these two things. fate and power. CONDUCT OF He is . in art. infamy. we are permitted to believe in unity ? The and bulk of parent. ! believe themselves the care of a Providence. But. in dealing with steam and climate. and is to year. dominion here in the house. They are under one as friend in social circles. We stand against it up against the wall in and notch their height from year But when the boy grows to man. Fate. in letters. as children stand their father^s house. in trade. climate. is We can afford to allow the limitation. he pulls down that wall. gravitation. they reprobates at the polls sphere. into the other. generous men at home.24 that aim. and of support.

but everywhere and always. the spasms of — the secrets electricity.FATE. like a grain of dust. name for facts not yet passed under the of thought — for causes which are unpenetrated. the ductility of metals. All the bloods it shall absorb and domineer of water : and more than Mexicos. slaughter from typhus far exceeds that but right drainage destroys typhus. they run against it. they believe a malignant energy rules. sweet. 25 a steamboat. fire is a . a plume and a power. The annual of war. is convertible swim. a hundred Mexicos. Cold and sea will train an imperial Saxon race. and. tingles your blood. us. like its own foam. in an epidemic. and the ice will give you a graceful. The water drowns But learn to ship and sailor. the chariot of the air. the ruddered balloon are awaiting you. The power works on the same rules. jet by intellect into wholesome Fate is unpenetrated causes. trim your bark. The . and hurt themselves. will be cloven by it. in war. The cold is inconsiderate of persons. and make you foremost men of time. and poetic motion. freezes a man like But learn to skate. gives a hundred Englands. Fate. in the next But. a dew-drop. and steam. of chaos which threatens to exter- But every minate force. then. The cold will brace your limbs and brain to genius. and the wave which drowned it. and the next planet. But relation and connection are not somewhere and sometimes. which nature cannot bear to lose. where they have not farm. after cooping it up for a thousand years in yonder England. friendly The divine order does not stop where their sight stops. and carry it. experience.

that. but was God that it must be availed of. or labor the chemic explosions are controlled like his watch. But the Marquis of Worcester. He could be used to away. is plague in the sea-service from scurvy healed by and other diets portable or procurable the depopulation by cholera and small-pox is ended by drainage and vaccination and every other pest is not less in the chain of cause and effect. namely. cubic miles of all mountains. and the labors of men in the world . and may be fought off. Steam was. ing to hunt the eagle in his own element.: 26 CONDUCT OF juice LIFE. It has not fared much otherwise with higher kinds . And. reluctant and dangerous. There''s nothing he dreaded. will not make his carrier. by wings of wind. and compel other devils. it commonly extorts some benefit from the vanquished enemy. and shorten space. Man moves in all modes. by steam. or dress. and not by any means let off and wasted. Watt. The mischievous torrent is taught to drudge for man the wild beasts he makes useful for food. These are now the steeds on which he rides. Could he lift pots and roofs and houses so handily ? he was . till the other day. weight or resistance of water. lest he should lift pot and roof. was not devil. to let off the enemy. vi^hilst art draws out the venom. and stands on tiptoe threatenlemon . far more earth. and Fulton bethought themselves. and carry the house away. and time he shall lengthen. ma- chinery. the devil which we Every pot made by any human potter or brazier had a hole in its cover. the workman they were lift in search of. chain. by gas of balloon. by electricity. by legs of horses. : . where was power.

as to lame him on the other side. (as justice satisfies everybody. which is the badge . when mature. but may pass. the fact invariable with the Neapolitan. 27 The opinion of the million was the terror of the world. . religious principle would get in. spine. in these days. it was attempted. Who have a dapper phrenologist pronouncing on his fortunes ? Who likes to believe that he has hidden in his skull. That is a Httle overstated. The sufferance. — of the Jew. the ruler of . the of castles. that. by satisfying it. has made him. sometimes. they have contrived to make of into a mountain. and. either to dissipate by amusing nations. A man must thank his defects. believing in unity. a layer of and a king on the top with clamps and hoops But. — — State. Very odious. dodging is A learned physician tells us. —a layer of soldiers . I confess. or to pile it over with strata of society. The and rive every mountain laid on top of it. and burst the hoops. over that. ? and resolve he servile. of steam. which will be sure to pull him down.FATE. and pelvis. selfish. garrisons. are the lessons of Fate. and stand in some terror of his talents. A transcendent talent draws so largely on a defect pays him revenues his forces. Fultons and Watts of politics. But these are magazines and arsenals.) through a different disposition of grouping it on a level. animal is fired. and police. instead of piling it society. — with what grandeur of hope — into a huckstering. he assumes the forms of the unmistakable scoundrel. this terror the most harmless and energetic form of a lords . all the vices of likes to a Saxon or Celtic race. and it. saw that it was a power.

and of the parts. toward benefit. observe how far the roots of every creature run. The The and worst races are dead. which does not admit its ascending effort. at menagerie. — tooth for food. — devouring war. perception. a yelp of last. far-related. pain and a grunt of triumph. or find. oppositions. until. the love every generosity. and where his endeavors do not yet fully avail. are certificates of advance out of fate into freedom. the whole chemical mass refined for is the whole mellowed and higher use.28 CONDUCT OF If LIFE. you can. is The of the whole. evil is Fate if ore and quarry. Our life is consentaneous and is This knot of nature so well tied. . Fate involves the melioration. second and imperfect races are dying out. or remain for the maturing of higher. and in proBehind every individual. Liberation of the will from the sheaths and clogs of organization which he has outgrown. closes organization the Best. and freedom is into fate. : before him. No statement of the direction Universe can have any soundness. is the rulers of the earth. But to see how if fate slides into freedom. — we and weights are are reconciled. wings and means. portion to the health. in man. at a sufficient per- spective. first — the Better. Every calamity is a spur and valuable hint. that nobody was ever cunning enough to find the two ends. they tell as tendency. war — pleases circle of animal life. In the latest race. every new and praise he extorts from his fellows. a point where there no thread of connection. is the end and aim of this world. The whole against tooth. limitation power that shall be. calamities. is if good if in the making. opens liberty.

and regains its is activity when . " that. and end- Christopher to Wren first said of the beautiful King's if College chapel. each on land fins in water creature where it was meant to be. which of relation is is all and balance of parts The web was found. and awaiting him with love. its enemy. prey it lives on its is becomes torpid when the fruit or not in season. his when he arrives . . allowed to diminish in numbers. is cooked. shown in habitat^ shown in it hybernation. His food the pit . It is not parasite. com- panions arrived at the same hour. interweaved. in winter. There are more belongings to every creature than his air and his food.FATE. he another. . house of man. like adjustments exist for The man. nor to exceed. the mud of the deluge dried. inosculation. its Balances are kept. some animals became torpid hybernation others were torpid in summer that. with a mutual Every zone has its own Fauna. His instincts must be met. When hybernation was observed. 29 overlapped. his coal in the house ventilated. Eyes are found in light ears in auricular air feet wings in air and. is intricate. food ready. whilst : then was a false name." But where ? shall anybody would tell him would build such we find the first atom in consent. and he has predisposing power that bends and fits what is . coarse adjustments. but the invisible are These are not less. concert. of cold. There is fitness. adjustment between the animal and its food. where this lay the stone. . but is The lotig sleep is not an effect regulated by the supply of food proper It to the animal. laughter. Nature less. . and tears.

not possible until the invisible things are right for him. in sky and earth. in their time they would be Russians or Americans to-day. Do you suppose. near him to his use. new men come. and absorbing and using of material. he can be estimated by his weight in pounds. does the appearance of some Dante or Columbus apprise us How is this effected ? Nature is no spendthrift. — wren or shall make is own lair. the world throws its life and puts him where he is wanted. and get then. mouth. nose." you want a fort. animal. converts itself into stomach. there something it to be done. ? — this reaching.! 30 CONDUCT OF He is LIFE. — life in the direct ratio new-born man works both voluntarily and supernaturally in its neighborhood. but takes the shortest way to her ends. as well as the visible. as the need is . that he amount. build a so nature makes every creature do its own work its living. — what dragon. The vegetable eye makes pericarp. As the gen- eral says to his soldiers. As soon as there there is self-direction. — wants. root. it The animal Every its makes itself. " if fort. and the is papillae of a man run out to every star. finer skies then. or. radiating. When leaf. or tree. The adaptation is not into a hero or a shepherd : . or thorn. cell The planet makes itself. creature. of its Life freedom. Dante and Columbus were Italians. and in and earths. is life. sure. jaculating fellow The smallest candle fills a mile with its rays. Life is contained in his skin. — is it planet. or : nail. according to the want . bark. the is You may be not inert. Of what changes. the world the knows how first cell to get done. Things ripen.

. The and event. with a new gauze or two of And of all the drums and rattles illusion overlaid. as betw^een the sexes. What each does is proper to him. power. 31 the purpose The ulterior aim. the correlation by which planets subside beyond and crystallize. but a few profound persons and a few active persons who epitomize the times ? Goethe. or between a race of animals and the food it eats. luxury. for. because the copula is hidden. by which men are made willing to have their heads All the toys that infatuate men." and which they play money. But the soul contains the event that shall befall for the event is only the actualization of its thoughts and what we pray to ourselves for is always granted. it. is. FATE. then animate beasts and men. " Alas ! We is the soul of us. and event person. Hegel. and from secret of the world finer to finest. as Hafiz till now and I had not known. Metternich. Guizot. you like your skin. Rothschild." what is that. or the inferior races it uses. will not stop. the tie between person Person makes event. learn that the soul of Fate sings. fame.. It fits The event is the print of your form." *' the age. Kossuth. Events are the children of his body and mind. He Astor. — Calhoun. The " times. Peel. land. capricious. and the rest. itself. Adams. but will work into finer particulars. — houses. are the selfsame thing. The same fitness must presumed between a man and the time and event. Cobden. be' thinks his fate alien. Brunei. My guide fortune's guide are one.

CONDUCT OF LIFE. Each creature puts forth from itself its own condition and sphere. At the conjurer's. and independent of actions. doubt. Ducks take parade. as we do in dreams. we detect the hair by which he moves his puppet. Life is an ecstasy. In youth. as the slug sweats out its slimy house on the pear-leaf. hunters to the forest. what power to paint a vile object in hues of heaven. and avarice. A We go to Herodo- . diet. A man's fortunes are the fmit of his character. margin. but we have not eyes sharp enough to descry the thread that ties cause and effect. caprice. As insane persons are indifferent to their dress. we put out another sort of perspiration. and other accommodations. eagles to the sky. and the fish its shell. — to the water.32 broke. clerks to waders to the sea counting rooms. the most absurd acts. and the woolly aphides on the apple perspire their own bed. Nature magically suits the man to his fortunes. fretting. and. and go as brave as the zodiac. The it. so. In age. a drop more of wine in our cup of life will reconcile us to strange company and work. with equanimity. man's friends are his magnetisms. — gout. We know what madness belongs to love. and are led out solemnly every morning to the most admirable is this by which we are brought to believe that events are arbitrary. fever. soldiers to the frontier. rheumatism. according to the man that lives — and not according to the work or the place. we clothe ourselves with rainbows. Thus events grow on are sub-persons. the same stem with persons pleasure of hfe is . by making these the fruit of his character.

but . tus 33 . wherever you put them. as the last proof of the merits. of that town.FATE. and his growth is declared in his ambition. they would build one. and many another noisy mart. his companions. Events expand with the character. and Plutarch examples. an explanation of the factories. Hence m is some man who in his brain tillage. constitution efforts for examples of Fate but we are " Qiiisque siios patiimir ?naiies. As once he found himself among toys.'''' The tendency of every is man to enact all that is in his expressed in the old to escape it : belief. as walking cities. Holyoke. than on A man that will see his character emitted in the events seem to meet. so now he plays a part in colossal systems. History is the action and reaction of these two. production. is a of causation fit — the mosaic. built Lynn. if they were transparent. ways of living. Lowell. Nature and Thought. churches. Fitchburg. but which exude from and accompany him. a man his be complimented on his position. or total excellence. We know who in Massachusetts who built New Bedford. Each of these men. and per- formance. that the which we make serve to lead us into likes better to and I from our destiny only have noticed. and society. and his performance. fills. all that you see will leave you a little puzzled if you see : him. and. Portland. If you do not chance to meet him. banks. it will become plain. Clinton. would seem to you not so much men. angulated and each ground to town there into the gap he is. Lawrence. piece He looks like a piece of luck. two boys pushing each — — .

Iron was deep in the ground. stuffs. the earth takes up him. By and by he will take up the earth. and it came. To a subtler force. what he wants of them. and have his gardens and vineyards in the beautiful order and productiveness of his thought. within reach of every man's day-labor. so. but his hands were stronger. fruits. The races of men rise out of the ground preoccupied with a thought which rules them. He plants his brain and affections. but an aggregate of incongruous materials. in vain. and the power to flux it is the measure perpetual of the mind. which have obeyed the will of some man? The granite was reluctant. What is the city in which we sit here. and well combined with stone . lime. gums. expressive of the character of the mind.• are all all impression- we are made of them impressionable. is : and matter and mind are and balance. and divided into parties ready armed and angry to fight for this metaphysical abstraction. Wood. Here they are. If the wall remain adamant. The quality of the thought diff"erences the Egyptian and the Roman. The men who come on the stage at one period are all found to be related to each other. We . the Austrian and the American. it accuses it the want of thought. — Certain ideas are in the able.34 CONDUCT OF pusher or pushed tilt LIFE. . but could not hide from his fires. Whilst the man is weak. Everything in other on the curb-stone of the pavement. The whole world is the flux of matter over the wires of thought to the poles or points where it would build. for air. were dispersed over the earth and sea. will stream into new forms. Every solid in the universe is ready to become fluid on the approach of the mind.

like iodine to light. the This explains the curious contemporaneous- ness of inventions and discoveries.FATE. but 35 first some more than others. He feels His mind is righter the infinitesimal attractions. astringent. The truth is in and the most impressionable brain v^fill announce it first. but all will announce it a few minutes later. bilious nature has more trucu- lent enemies than the slugs leaves. borers. and moths first. that is. the hump would be seen. — The his correlation is shown in defects. is the impressionable man. as most susceptible. A strong. poem. into his charity. structures and pervasive. vexed by this checks each all his activity. than others. though beauty had not been intended. knife- worms a swindler ate him then a client. So each man. irritable and delicate. hunted by his own daemon. as speculation. into his fable. So the great man. So women. that fret my Such an one has : curculios. would turn out to be beautiful. into the structure of his And. like plant. Moller. into his every his man is own disease. taught that the building which was fitted accurately to answer its end. in Essay on Architecture. because he yields to a current so feeble as -can be felt only by a needle delicately poised. I find the like unity in human . rather virulent If a man has a seesaw in his voice. the man most imbued with the spirit of of a fibre the time. and these express them. air. then . are the best index of the coming hour. it will run mto his sentences. If his mind could be seen. has his parasites. that a crudity in the blood will appear in the argument a hump in the shoulder will appear in the speech and handiwork.

" — Some people are made up of rhyme. wonderful constancy in the design this vagabond life admits. " Or Be if the soul of proper kind so perfect as it men find. bitter and Moloch. : . . plausible gentlemen. they first say to him." too often cursed with the granting of our prayer and hence the high caution. a quack. periodicity. omen. : . coincidence. spend a great part of their best time within a few feet of each other.. we beware to ask only for high things. comes in heaps on us in old age. We wonder how the fly finds its mate. and presage they meet the person they seek what their companion prepares to say to them. that. and a hundred signs apprise them of what is about to befall. thought can follow and show them. then smooth. Especially when a soul is quick and docile as Chaucer sings. figures Of every of their By previsions or But that our flesh hath not might It to understand aright For it is warned too darkly. . " what we wish for in youth. and yet year after year we find two men. Wonderful intricacy in the web. And the moral is. existing can be divined. That And wot what is to come. without legal or carnal tie. two women. that what we seek we shall find what we flee from flees from us as Goethe said. . since we are sure of having what we wish. 36 CONDUCT OF selfish as LIFE. that he warneth all and some aventures. really This correlation If the threads are there.

der at a snow-flake. a the glory of the stars . or summer but at the necessity of beauty . in some form. and a selfish temper. . A man must ride alternately on the horses of his private and his public nature. and foreknowledge. exists. pulls drag of temperament and race. pain. one solution to the mysteries of 37 human condition. as the equestrians in the circus throw themselves nimbly from horse to horse. and the other foot on the back of the other.FATE. free- dom. When a god wishes to ride. he is to take sides with the Deity who secures universal benefit by his foot . namely. that by the cunning co-presence of two elements. and cramp in his mind a club-foot and a club in his wit a sour face. offset the To draws in with it the divinity. One key. the propounding. ing the daemon who suffers. to repay. namely. a strut in his gait. which down. Let us build altars to the Blessed Unity which holds nature and souls in perfect solution. . learn this lesson. or is ground to powder by the vice of his race he is to rally on his relaLeavtion to the Universe. I and compels do not wonlandscape. which his ruin benefits. and a conceit in his affection. a shell. every atom to serve an universal end. has sciatica in his loins. good intention clothes itself with sudden power. one solution to the old knots of fate. any chip or pebble will bud and shoot out winged feet. which is throughout nature. and serve him for a A horse. of the double consciousness. whatever lames or paralyzes you. So when a man is the victim of his fate. or plant one on the back of one.

If Let us build altars to the Beautiful Necessity. animal and In astronplanet. and discloses the harmony and joy. If. but the same laws as to-day. nor incur one that sity not . to the Neces- which rudely or softly educates him to the per- . when the indweUing necessity plants the rose of beauty on the central intention of Nature to be brow of chaos. pull down the sun. which makes man brave we fear to in believing that he cannot shun a danger that is is appointed. when I cannot look without seeing splendor and grace. LIFE. omy. we thought men were single free in the sense.38 CONDUCT OF lies. There is no need for foolish amateurs to fetch me to admire a garden of flowers. How idle to choose a random sparkle here or there. are of one kind. vast time. would accept the gift of life? — who Let us build altars to the Beautiful Necessity. results . were all one as a child's hand could ticular. or a waterfall. that the rainbow. is vast space. friend and enemy. but no foreign system in geology. food and eater. we who are made up of the same elements ? Let us build to the Beautiful Necessity. is Why should we be afraid of Nature. that. which no other than " ? " philosophy and theology embodied Why should be crushed by savage elements. in a exception one fantastical will it could prevail if over the law of things. which secures that all is made of one piece. or a sun-gilt cloud. . that all is and must and the curve of the and the arch of the blue vault are only from the organism of the eye. that plaintiff and defendant. in the least par- one could derange the order of nature. under which the universe be pictorial horizon.

— — it disdains words and passes . not personal nor impersonal. understanding. . ception that there are no contingencies.FATE. rules 39 that Law throughout existence. . a Law which is not intelligent but intelligence. it dissolves persons it vivifies nature yet solicits the pure in heart to draw on all its omnipotence.

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And And . his heart the throne of will. His tongue was framed to music. his hand was armed with skill. POWER.II. His face was the mould of beauty.

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wise to know and in the is the end to which nature works. — that no honest seeking A man let an element with which the world is so in which it is goes unre- warded. and the education of the will is the flowering and result of all this geology and astronomy.— POWER. carry nations with them. And if there be such a tie. not — there no chink or crevice lodged. If he have secured the elixir. There ulties. Who shall set a limit to the influence of a human being? There are men. is not yet any inventory of a man's facany more than a bible of his opinions. and. he can spare the wide gardens from which it was distilled. nature will accompany him. A cultivated man. instrumentalities organize around them. where they appear. perhaps there are men whose magnetisms immense is of that force to draw material and elemental powers. by their sympathetic attractions. Life a search after power. wherare ever the mind of man goes. who. and is this is saturated. their value has been added shape of power. can well afford to to events and possessions. All successful men have agreed in one thing. should prize events and possessions as the ore in which this fine mineral is found and he . and lead the activity of the human race. 43 . him bold to perform. and the if breath of the body go. that.

as the to the age may be ages is — Imbecility. collected in the arteit. The key other. — the reckon success a constitutional old physicians if taught. — courage. believed that things they were causationists They . that nothing is got for nothing. all young orators describe — the or that. victims of gravity. (and their meaning holds. wrestling. " All the great captains. belief in compensation. the maintenance of bodily strength requiring little and but is sent into the veins. a large ries. in all but certain eminent moments . — by adjusting efforts to obstacles. and fear. at times. LIFE. . — characterizes valiant all is valuable minds. but by law that there was not a weak or a cracked link in the chain that joins the first and last of things. courage and adventure possible. custom." is Where hold their blood. or. . fury. A belief in causality." this.) must Courage. or the degree of amount of blood is is their physiology is a little life. or strict connection between every trifle and the principle of being. or the key to all imbecility in the vast majority of men. The most men best believers in the tension of the laws. We ical. This condition the arteries constant with intrepid persons. and. anger. This gives force to the strong. trials of strength. fighting. went not by luck.44 CONDUCT OF . even in heroes. and. — that the trait. in consequence. is myth- as the degree " of circulation of the blood in the arteries. and must control every effort that made by an are the industrious one. multitude have no habit of self-reliance or original action. " have per- formed vast achievements by conforming with the rules of the art." said Bonaparte. During passion.

. and has to spare. every- where. and has slept well. needs extraordinary health. For. at the top of and thirty years old. trade. There is no chance in results. and his condition. war. With adults. spirited. he reach Newfoundland. sympathy Whatever talk him first . fifteen hundred miles further. religion. one thousand. The first wealth is health. befalls can predict is it.a stronger and bolder man. with just as much ease. with the course of things befalls. and whirl with the whirling world the others have cold hands. weight. at his departure will steer west. and put in . is is made in of the same stuff of which events are made . as with children. and strong with their strength. Biorn. But health or fulness answers its own ends. and inundates the neighborhoods and creeks of other men's necessities. and reach Labrador and New England. and the ships will. can on politics. runs over. the is it low and feeble. sail six hundred. one class enter cordially into the game. and his ships will But take out Eric. so that he equal to what- ever shall happen. . well A man who knows men. law. a sharing of the nature of the world. For performance of great If is mark. All power is of one kind. One man . The mind that is parallel with the laws of nature will be in the current of events. men are led in the same manners. Eric is in ro- bust health.— POWER. and remain bystanders or are only dragged in by the humor and vivacity of those who can carry a dead from Greenland. : Sickness is poor- and cannot serve any one it must husband its resources to live. — . or Thorfin. Where spirit 45 they pour it unrestrained into the veins.

are drifted to this point. other cret . it is large and sluggish. a colony full of hardy Yankees. there is not only the active and passive sex. that. This affirmative force is in one. or among the planters of Virginia. art. It is in everybody's . or Constantinople. which needs no diplomacy to force capital or genius or labor to it. which of themselves. plied of a strong pulse is not to be supby any labor. with seething brains. can elsewhere rival." said Hafiz. and another in the whip. in both men and women. " sparkles no gem so gracious as enterprise. se- anticipates everybody's discovery and if it do not it is command because every fact of the genius and the scholar. the inventive or creay . and is not in another. which no glass. but. crank. It is like the climate. as one horse has the spring in him. pulley. is the arrival of James Watt or Brunei! In every company. healthy." Import into any stationary district.— 46 CONDUCT OF LIFE. or concert. heads of steam-hammer. men lie plotting for. as the waters flow to it. It is like New York. a deeper and more important sex of mind namely. or tillage. of unseen oceans. "On the neck of the young think man. which are covered with barks. What enhancement to all the water and land in England. or manures. and toothed wheel. night and day. which easily rears a crop. the opportunity of a city like The advantage or irrigation. That is poured into its lap. and does not them worth the exertion which you do. massive understanding seems to lie on the shore of unseen rivers. and everything begins to shine with values. as into an old Dutch population in New York or Pennsylvania. They come So a broad.

if he have the accidental advantage of personal ascendency. — which implies neither more nor less of talent. and. the houses that are built. or. all his coadjutors and feeders will admit his right to absorb them. Thorwaldsen's statue has journeymen Dumas and Shak- speare was theatre-manager. when a strange ox is driven there is into a pen or pasture where cattle are kept at once a trial of strength between the best pair of horns and the new comer. as well as the playbooks. Society is a troop of thinkers. and encounters strangers every day. but merely the temperamental or taming eye of a soldier or a schoolmaster. The merchant works by the lawyer's authorities are book-keeper and cashier hunted up by clerks ates . and the uninvenEach phis man represents his set. as fast as the and farms. Commander Wilkes the naturalists is . There is always room for a man of force. . When . appropri- all attached to finished by the Expedition stone-cutters . when into any old club a new comer is domesticated.) then quite easily and without envy or resistance. and one has not. and he makes room for many. and used the labor of many young men. His eye makes sun breeds clouds. men and women. A feeble man can see the farms that are fenced and tilled. the geologist reports the sur. that happens which befalls. (which one has. The strong man sees the possible houses estates. tive class of 47 both tive or accepting class. as one has a black moustache and one a blond.POWER. and the best heads among them take the best places. and it is settled thence. a new boy comes into school. when a man travels. veys of his subalterns the results of .

or what ship. Vivacity. The good as the first. yeast. very courteous. the one point is the thrifty tree. as creative. 48 forth CONDUCT OF which is LIFE. whilst the rival's arrows are good. or neglect. when he himself is other antagonist. or bug. will A good tree. emptyings. in choosing. well his wit is seems over-fine or under-fine. by night all and by day. all — power. his 'Tis a question of own shafts fly well matched with some and hit. that resists disease. in every cast. perhaps better — but has not stoutness or stomach. of attitude. we must have contagion. second man is as stomach and constitution. is and conservative. that agrees with the grow in spite of blight. he finds that he omitted to learn the end of Nothing that he knows all if will quite hit the mark. as the first has. and we are not allowed to be nice We must fetch the pump with dirty water. and so poison. and an acquiescence thenceforward when these two meet. He thought he knew this or that it. leader- must be had. and.: . is and enemies. the choice of weapon and mark . or whether with clay. all : and well thrown. but decisive. Each reads his fate in the other's eyes. question. whether to whitewash or to potash. if clean cannot be had. in weathers and all treatments. every spring. If we will make bread. or to prune but . it he knew the facts in the encyclopaedia. Here life. for this : But would not help him is an affair of presence of mind. So now. soil. of aplomb the opponent has the sun and wind. Health as good. and. . The weaker party finds that fits none of his information or wit quite the occasion. there a meas- uring of strength. or pruning. is the leader. whether to graft with wax.

and remember the mischance in their chamber at home. and observing the profligacy of party. A timid man listening to the alarmists Congress. the wounds cicatrize. to induce fermentation 49 dough: as the by virtue or by vice. or go to the bottom of the class. by prayer or by wine. We watch in children with pathetic interest. And we have a certain instinct. might easily believe that he and his country have seen their best days. — make our politics unimportant. though gross and peccant. not. the degree in which they possess recuperative force. — — that all difficulties vanish before in it. and in the newspapers. ballot in one hand. they have a serious check. and government six per cents have not declined a quarter of a mill. by friend or by fiend. he discovers that the enormous elements of strength which are here in play. with a mind made up to desperate extremities.POWER. after this has been foretold with equal confidence fifty times. When they are hurt by us. it has its own checks and purifications. that where is great amount of hfe. But. One comes to value this plus health. . sectional interests urged with a fury — which shuts its eyes to consequences. or miss the annual prizes. and will be found at last in harmony with moral laws. if they lose heart. Personal power. when he sees into the torpid artist seeks inspiration at any cost. or by each other. or are beaten in the game. and the fibre is the tougher for the hurt. But if they have the buoyancy and resistance that preoccupies them with new interest in the new moment. and he hardens himself the best he can against the coming ruin. and rifle in the other.

rough and ready style which belongs to a people of sailors. to A Western lawyer of emi- nence fence in this said it were a penal ofan English law-book into a court country. Badger.50 CONDUCT OF LIFE. Oregon. freedom. half assassin. . miss the Sucker. as Power educates the potentate. half orator. . standards. that. these rough — — Wol- whatever hard head Arkansas. We prosper with such vigor. . mice. The very word " commerce " has only an Enghsh meaning. foresters. pond-hole of quote English legislators admiralty. must add an American extension to the experience. to represent its wrath and cupidity at Washington. and is pinched to the cramp exigencies of English The commerce of rivers. advantages. ereignty of power but in shirt-sleeves. and borers. and the resources of nature strain every faculty of every citizen. farmers. As long our people quote English standards they dwarf their own to proportions. so we do not suffer from the protiigate swarms that fatten on the national treasury. and the rancor of the disease attests the strength of the con- The same energy in the Greek Deinos drew the remark. which grow in spite of ice. verine. — or — Hoosier. the commerce and who knows but the commerce of airballoons. so pernicious had he found in his me he wished bring experience our deference to English precedent. of railroads. As long they will let as our people sovriders. lice. ^ hke thrifty trees. or Utah sends. The huge animals nourish huge parasites. that the evils of popular government appear greater than they are there is compensation The for them in the spirit and energy it awakens. has its stitution. and mechanics.

or who first conquers his own government. and sometimes those what was yesterday foreground. Britain. and bad power of mind. last. than transgressor. playing now a not less effective part as basis. who. . but Benton and Calhoun. the ecstasies of devotion. on our and authority and majesty of manners. power of Lynch law. — . like from some strong Jackson. Jefferson. The from senators who dissented from Mr. its own antidote that all kinds of power usually emerge at the same time good energy. and the of territories and public lands. Polk's Mexican war. the force to fly off by so much augmented. and then uses the same genius to conquer the foreigner. or with our own malcontent members. The same elements are always sometimes these conspicuous. This power. only . Spain. and reason. The instinct of the people is right. . the necessity of bal- ancing and keeping at bay the snarling majorities of German. will bestow promptness. address. what was surface. at buffalo-hunter. Irish. 'Tis the is not clothed in satin. health . The is faster the ball falls to the sun. But it brings and here is my point. Men expect from good whigs. with the exaspera- tions of debauchery. put country. . with physical . let 51 disposition these drive as they may. The longer the drought lasts. were not those who knew better. being to-day background. — surcharged with water. of soldiers and pirates and it bullies the peaceable and loyal. into office by the respectability of the much less skill to deal with Mexico.POWER. could afford not Webster. to be sure. but those it . political position. the more is the atmosphere present. and of native millions.

. is a spasm of nature to engender an intolerable tyrant On the other hand. in morals. for a mouthful of fresh air into this coarse energy. Our politics fall into bad hands. they are and direct. the sons of democrats be whigs whilst red republicanism. have no opinions. from step to resolutions of the legislatures. and churchmen and men of refinement. 52 And. wild liberty breeds iron conscience natures with great impulses have great resources. really better These Hoosiers and Suckers are Their see. I — lean to the last. Those who have most of " bruisers. tion between the most civil and the most forcible." — the who have run the gauntlet of caucus and tavern through the county or the state. conservatism. and return from far. they proceed and they have calculated but too justly upon their Excellencies. but may be had cheap for any and if it be only a quesopinion. wrath is at least of a bold and manly cast. than the snivelling opposition. the New England The messages of the governors and the legislators. In politics. will . are not fit persons to and courage. but they have the good nature of strength Fierce and unscrupulous. and above falsehood. are a proverb for ex- . and upon their Honors. and drives them radicaHsm. it seems agreed.. like some poisonous handicrafts. in the next age. how much crime the people will bear step. in the father. CONDUCT OF LIFE. They against the unanimous declarations of the people. the New England governors. have their own vices. ever more timorous and narrow. Politics is a deleterious profesMen in power sion. usually frank send to Congress. for any purpose. disgusts the children.

commonly make their executive officers The communities hitherto founded by munities at out of saints. found tice.— POWER. The most amiable of country gentlemen has a certain pleasure in the teeth of the bull-dog which guards his orchard. that they always sent the devil to market. doctrine of society. the Jesuits. sure to be belied. sort of proverb in the country. And in representations of the Deity. and popular It little religion have is ever drawn the wrath from Hell. the American com- New Harmony. wolves. that a an esoteric is good to make muscle. a knave whom the town could ill He was He was a . in the is course of events. In trade. as if conscience were not good for hands and legs. the Port-Royalists. as if poor decayed formalists of law and order cannot run like wild goats. painting. and good neighborhood. as there is a use in medicine for poisons. installing The rest of the offices Judas as steward. Of the Shaker society. so the world cannot that public spirit and the ready move without rogues hand are as well . are only possible. I among the malignants. also. years kept a public-house in one of our rural capitals. 'Tis not very rare. which. by at Brook Farm. it was formerly a gesses. this energy usually carries a trace of Philanthropic and religious bodies do not ferocity. poetry. Socialists. may be filled by good bur- The pious and charitable proprietor has a foreman not quite so pious and charitable. knew a burly Boniface who for many spare. and wickedness conies. at Zoar. the coincidence of sharp private and political prac- with public spirit. that. pressing a 53 sham virtuous indignation.

vascular creature. getting . especially those Shall he. renounce of most subtle force. he was social. — 2i[\pi?is is good . by setting up his new trap on the landlord's premises. in his house. not. steam. fire. and cut off the horses' of the temper- ance people. Whilst thus the energy for originating and executing work.54 CONDUCT OF LIFE. very cordial. grasping his hand. and united in his person the functions of bully. He was planted founthe the roads repaired and subscribed . that the peddler stopped at his house. and also with his honor the Judge. and paid his keeping. But he made good friends of the selectmen. he precisely active in was civil. and burglar. All the elements whose aid man sometimes become his masters. He led the "rummies" and radicals in town-meeting with a speech. served them with his best chop. only put it in the right place. and the most public-spirited citizen. deforms itself by excess. tails He girdled the trees. that Connecticut sends to the admiring He did this easier. incendiary. and what citizens. in the night. grasping and selfish. the fiends. or. the baby-jumper. He introduced all male and female. into the town. shade-trees the gas. shall he learn to deal with them ? The rule for this whole class of agencies is. he for and the telegraph he introduced the new horse-rake. There was no crime which he did not or could not commit. and electricity. Men of this surcharge of arterial blood cannot live . barkeeper. and so our axe chops will off our own fingers. Meantime. fat. the new the scraper. with tains. — this evil is not without calls in. then. swindler. and easy. remedy. when they supped at his house.

They pine for adventure. I remember a poor Malay cook. and elegies cannot read novels. . for the sea. Sheik. could not contain his joy. in South Africa. yachting . for mining. nias. rhinoceros. lion. and play whist cannot satisfy all their wants at the Thursday Lecture. on board a Liverpool packet.POWER. diving into Maelstroms ming Hellesponts hunting . . elephant. herb-tea. gypsying with Borrow in Spain and Algiers alligators in riding South America with Waterton Bedouin. and in crocodiles to eat. and clearing for hair-breadth adventures. and Pacha. . or the Boston Athenaeum. cover you with glory. huge risks. as dangerous as war. . blow Their friends and governors must see that some vent for ! ! '' their explosive complexion is provided. utilizing . who. Califorand Exploring Expeditions enough appertaining to America. they seek for travels . with Layard the icebergs of Lancaster . or running on the creases of Malays in Borneo. Some men cannot endure an hour of calm at sea. full of blood. heroes and generals." and come back There are Oregons. They . and the joy of eventful living. will " sent to Mexico. are made for war. among Sound peeping into craters on the equator . The young English are fine animals. when the wind blew a gale. 55 on nuts. than sit all day and every day at a counting-room desk. . " me do tell you. hunting. The if roisters who are destined for infamy at home. and must go to Pike's Peak had rather die by the hatchet of a Pawnee. " Blow " he cried. and when they have no wars to breathe their riotous valors in. swimwading up the snowy Himmaleh . to find them in files to gnaw.

56

CONDUCT OF
excess of
virility

LIFE.

The

has the same importance in
private

general history, as

in

and

industrial

life.

Strong race or strong individual rests at last on natural forces, which are best in the savage, who, like
the beasts around

him,

is

still

in reception

of the

Cut off the connection between any of our works, and this aboriginal The people lean on source, and the work is shallow. this, and the mob is not quite so bad an argument as
milk from the teats of Nature.

we sometimes
tribune,
''

say, for

it

has this good side.
into night

"

March

without the people," said a French deputy from the

and you march
benefit.

:

their instincts

are

a finger-pointing of Providence, always turned

toward real

But when you espouse an Or-

leans party, or a Bourbon, or a Montalembert party,

or any other but an organic party, though you
well,

mean

you have a personality instead of a principle, which will inevitably drag you into a corner." The best anecdotes of this force are to be had from savage life, in explorers, soldiers, and buccaneers. But who cares for fallings-out of assassins, and fights
of bears, or grindings of icebergs ? Physical force has

no

value,

where there
is

is

nothing

else.

Snow
is

in

snow-

banks,
days.

fire

in volcanoes

and
fire

solfataras

cheap.

The

luxury of ice

in tropical countries,
is,

The
:

luxury of

to

and midsummer have a little on our

hearth

and of

electricity,

not volleys of the charged
the rests or remains
all

cloud, but
wires.

the manageable stream on the batteryspirit,

So of

or energy

;

of

it

in the civil

and moral man, are worth

the

cannibals in the Pacific.

In history, the great

moment

is,

when

the savage

is

POWER.
just ceasing to

57
all

be a savage, with

his hairy Pelasgic

strength directed on his opening sense of beauty

and you have Pericles and Phidias,
over into the Corinthian
in nature
tion,
civility.

— — not yet passed
:

Everything good

and the world

is

in that
still

moment
is

of transi-

when the swarthy
and humanity.

juices

flow plentifully from

nature, but their astringency or acridity
ethics

got out by

The triumphs of peace have been
to war.

in

some proximity

Whilst the hand was

still

familiar with the

sword-hilt, whilst

the habits of the

camp were

still

visible in the port

his

intellectual

and complexion of the gentleman, power culminated the compression
:

and tension of these stern conditions is a training for the finest and softest arts, and can rarely be compensated in tranquil times, except by some analogous vigor drawn from occupations as hardy as war. We say that success is constitutional depends on a plus condition of mind and body, on power of work, on courage that it is of main efficacy in carrying on
;

;

the world, and, though rarely found in the right state
for

commerce, but oftener in the supermakes it dangerous and destructive, yet it cannot be spared, and must be had
an
article of

saturate or excess, which

in that form,

and absorbents provided

to take off its

edge.

The

affirmative class monopolize the

homage

of

and execute all the great feats. What a force was coiled up in the skull of Napoleon! Of the sixty thousand men making his army at Eylau, it seems some thirty thousand were thieves and burglars. The men whom, in peaceful
mankind.
originate

They

58

CONDUCT OF
if

LIFE,

communities, we hold
legs, in prisons,

we

can, with iron at their

under the muskets of sentinels, this man dealt with, hand to hand, dragged them to their duty, and won his victories by their bayonets. This aboriginal might gives a surprising pleasure when it appears under conditions of supreme refinement, as in the proficients in high art. When Michel Angelo was forced to paint the Sistine Chapel in fresco, of which art he knew nothing, he went down into the Pope's gardens behind the Vatican, and with a shovel dug out ochres, red and yellow, mixed them with glue and water with his own hands, and having, after many trials, at last suited himself, climbed

and painted away, week after week, month month, the sibyls and prophets. He surpassed his successors in rough vigor, as much as in purity of He was not crushed by his intellect and refinement. one picture left unfinished at last. Michel was wont
his ladders,
after

to draw his figures them with flesh, and

first

in skeleton,

then to clothe

lastly to

drape them.

"Ah!"

said a brave painter to me, thinking "
if

a

man

has

failed,

instead of working.

you There

will find
is

on these things, he has dreamed
to success in

no way
all

our

art,

but to take off your coat, grind paint, and a digger on the railroad,

work
day."

like

day and every

Success goes thus invariably with a certain plus
or positive power: an ounce of power must balance

And, though a man cannot womb, and be born with new amounts of vivacity, yet there are two economies, which are the best Sicccedanea which the case admits.
an ounce of weight.
return into his mother's

:

POWER.
The
first is,

59

the stopping off decisively our miscella-

neous
forces

activity,

or a few points

and concentrating our force on one as the gardener, by severe pruning, the sap of the tree into one or two vigorous
;

limbs, instead of suffering

it

to spindle into a sheaf

of twigs. " Enlarge not thy destiny," said the oracle

:

" en-

deavor not to do more than

is is

given thee in charge."
concentration
;

The one prudence
evil is dissipation
:

in life

the one

and

it

makes no

difference whether
its

our dissipations are coarse or fine; property and
cares, friends,

and a

social habit, or politics, or music,

or feasting. Everything is good which takes away one plaything and delusion more, and drives us home Friends, books, to add one stroke of faithful work.
pictures, lower duties, talents, flatteries, hopes,

all

are distractions which cause oscillations in our giddy

and make a good poise and a straight course You must elect your work you shall take what your brain can, and drop all the rest. Only so, can that amount of vital force accumulate, which can make the step from knowing to doing.
balloon,

impossible.

;

No

matter

how much

faculty of idle seeing a
to

man
into
all

has, the step from

knowing

doing

is

rarely taken.

'Tis a step out of a chalk circle of imbecility
fruitfulness.

Many an

artist

lacking this, lacks

he sees the masculine Angelo or Cellini with despair. He, too, is up to Nature and the First Cause in his thought. But the spasm to collect and swing his whole being into one act, he has not. The poet Campbell said, that " a man accustomed to work was
equal to any achievement he resolved on, and, that.

6o

CONDUCT OF

LIFE.

for himself, necessity not inspiration

was the prompter

of his muse."

Concentration

is

the secret of strength in politics,

in war, in trade, in short, in all
affairs.

management of human

of the high anecdotes of the world is the reply of Newton to the inquiry, " how he had " By always been able to achieve his discoveries ? "

One


:

have a text from Plutarch " There was, in the whole city, but one street in which Pericles was ever seen, the street which led to the marketHe declined all invitaplace and the council house. tions to banquets, and all gay assemblies and
intending

my

mind."

Or

if

you

will

from

politics, take this

company. During the whole period of his administrahe never dined at the table of a friend." Or if "I hope," said a we seek an example from trade, good man to Rothschild, " your children are not too fond of money and business I am sure you would "I am sure I should wish that: I not wish that." wish them to give mind, soul, heart, and body to It requires that is the way to be happy. business, a great deal of boldness and a great deal of caution, to make a great fortune, and when you have got it, it requires ten times as much wit to keep it. If I were to listen to all the projects proposed to me, I should ruin myself very soon. Stick to one business, young man. Stick to your brewery, (he said this to young Buxton,) and you will be the great brewer of London. Be brewer, and banker, and merchant, and manufacturer, and you will soon be in the Gazette." Many men are knowing, many are apprehensive and tenacious, but they do not rush to a decision.
tion,

:

The good lawyer all not the man who has an eye to every side and angle of contingency. aiming is at substantial something intelligible for the guidance of suitors. A man is the shortest who has that presence of mind which can bring to him on the instant all he know^s. vanic stream. "Miserable beyond names of wretchedness is that unhappy pair. against the spasm of energy. but continuous. The hack is a better In chemistry. Johnson said. you can but any is better than none. a better agent. is equal in power to the electric spark. The good judge is not he who does hair-splitting justice is not the tactics. the galroadster than the Arab barb. So in human action. we offset the continuity of drill. There are twenty ways of going to a point. but the to every allegation. 'Tis the same ounce of gold . little There are cases where can be said. but can only bring it to light slowly. The good Speaker in the House — the But in our flowing affairs a decision best. Dr. the power of use and routine. and one but set out at once on one. We spread the same amount of force over much time. . rules who. slow. instead of condensing it into a moment. if . but who throws himself on your part so heartily. 6 must be made. in our arts. but justice. man who knows the theory of parliamentary man who decides off-hand. and qualifies his qualifications. is worth for action a dozen men who know as much. who are doomed to reduce beforehand to the principles of abstract rea- son all the details of each domestic day. and is. in one of his all flowing sentences. that he can get you out of a scrape. and much must be done.1 POWER." The second substitute for temperament is drill.

At last. and there in a Col. speakers were bad speakers at first. it to a nicety. Wendell Phillips. so well as mediocrity can at the fif- teenth or twentieth reading.62 CONDUCT OF LIFE. John Kemble said. Henry VIII. the chief engineer. and gets up such inconceivably fine sunsets. for A All course of the great mobs is good practice orators. here in a ball. The rule for hospitality and Irish " help. At West Point." is. that she has learned how. or. that the reason why Nature is so perfect in her art. Now which Every stroke. A humorous friend of mine thinks. leaf. great is drill. until he broke them off. Stumping it through England for seven years. at last. No genius can recite a balEngland The way for twice seven. until stroke broke the trunnion? blast burst the piece? sens. made Cobden a Stumping it through New consummate debater. that the worst provincial company of actors would go through a play better than the best amateur company. is. and can pronounce and repeat them by heart. Buford. Practice is nine tenths. German. O'Shaughnessy learns to cook it. Mrs. is. till you know every word and particle in them. to have the same dinner every day throughout the year. ^^ Which Diligence passe Every blast. to read the same dozen pages over and over a hundred times. pounded with a ham- mer on the tnmnions of a cannon. trained to learn lad at first reading. was wont to say. by dint Cannot one of doing the same thing so very often. He fired a piece of ordnance some hundred times in swift succession. the host learns to carve and the guests are well served. Basil Hall likes to show that the worst regular troops will beat the best volunteers.'^ it burst. .

too. I remarked in England. university deans and professors. way. at painting. Men whose 63 converse better on a topic on which he has experience. and off that ground their opinion valuable. in confirmation of a frequent experience at home. by seeing the pose of the hands on the keys so difficult and vital an act is the command of the instrument. piano. in Old as in New England. only . . in literary circles. Hence to drill. The masters say. than on one which is new? opinion is valued on 'Change. that. Indifferent hacks and mediocrities tower. and the worthlessness of amateurs six hours a cope with practitioners.POWER. bookmakers. only to give terials. " is not made good by exercitation. only to give facility of touch day command of the odious ma- ochres. that they in music. the men of trust and consideration. with a sort of mercantile activity and working talent. know a master — . It is to elect our not question to express our thought. The friction in nature is so enormous that we cannot spare any are More power. but to overcome resistances of the material in everything medium and the use of we do. by thousands of manipulations to have learned the arts of reckoning. but usually of a low and ordinary intellectuality. To have learned the use of the tools. or by working power." said Democritus. by endless adding and dividing. Six hours every day at the . than by nature. editors. were by no means men of the largest literary talent. over multitudes of superior men. are only such as have a special experience. is the power of the mechanic and the clerk. and brushes. oil. by pushing their forces to a lucrative point. bishops.

. and never was any signal act or achievement in history. than to go into one of the factories with which we have lined all the watercourses in the States. loom. being the means relied on by Nature for bringing the work of the day about. in his own . 64 I CONDUCT OF LIFE. or as fluids and gases are wasted every man is efficient only as he is a container or vessel of this force. until he begins to make telegraph. I I abstain from. but the gold-maker not penditure. first or last. and all conceivable benefit for man. centricity. and the prizes of the world. But this force or spirit. of our how much he is a machine. And I hold. . know what — There are sources on which we have not drawn. we infer that all success. and superficial We can easily overpraise the vulgar hero. and has no casualty. but by this exThis is not gold. A man hardly knows If these forces will. as far as we attach importance to household life. and locomotive. and this husbandry are within reach and the laws of them can be read. but the exploit. that an economy may be applied to it it is as much a subject of exact law and arithmetic it may be husbanded. in all Success has no more ecits vast and flowing curve. plotting New England brains. within his reach. and has its own sublime economies by which it may be attained. The world is mathematical. press. we must respect that. is also. I know no more affecting lesson to our busy. than the gingham and muslin we weave in our mills. . the fame. have not forgotten that there are sublime consid- erations which limit the value of talent success. I adjourn what I have to say on this topic to the chapters on Culture and Worship..

and do you expect to swindle your master and emA day is a more ployer. fraudulent. image. and you shall not conceal the sleezy. and see how they come out. follies 65 But in these. or straighter steel. and is traced back to the girl that wove it. or more inflexible shaft. rubs his hands ham-mill.PO WER. a with delight. nor fear that any honest thread. go to a loom. web through a broken thread or a shred spoils the piece of a hundred yards. The stockholder. Are you so cunning. Let a man dare the machine is more moral than we. on being shown this. and the architect stooped less. Let machine confront machine. rotten hours you have slipped into the piece. the mechanism that makes it is infinitely cunninger. and lessens her wages. The world-mill is more complex than the calicoIn the gingmill. and see if he be equal to it. so that when we go to the mill. Mr. he is forced to leave out his and hindrances. . Profitloss. will not testify in the web. in the web you weave? magnificent cloth than any muslin.

.

From air the creeping centuries drew The matted thicket low and wide. What smiths. Who shall tell what did befall. and in what furnace. Over the lifeless ball. Wafting the puny seeds of power. rolled (In dizzy aeons dim and mute The reeling brain can ill compute) Copper and iron. when once. WEALTH. lodged in rock. Which. lead. Hung idle stars and suns ? What god the element obeyed ? Wings of what wind the lichen bore. the rock abrade ? And well the primal pioneer Knew the strong task to it assigned Patient through Heaven's enormous year To build in matter home for mind. Ere wheat can wave its golden pride.III. and gold ? What oldest star the fame can save Of races perishing to pave The planet with a floor of lime ? is Dust their pyramid and mole : . This must the leaves of ages strew The granite slab to clothe and hide. Far away in time.

saw what ferns and palms were pressed Under the tumbling mountain's breast.68 CONDUCT OF Who LIFE. New slaves fulfilled the poet's dream. To feed the North from tropic trees The storm-wind wore. draw Electric thrills and ties of Law. The shop of toil. : Remembering Matter pays her debt Still. ingots And added to the hoard. through her motes and masses. Where they were bid the rivers ran . and crops were stored. But. the hall of arts . and towns. Wit Draws the threads of fair and fit. though light-headed man forget. And. the torrent span. Then temples rose. Then flew the sail across the seas . Which bind the strengths of Nature wild To the conscience of a child. All is waste and worthless. . and marts. In the safe herbal of the coal ? But when the quarried means were piled. built. till Arrives the wise selecting will. out of slime and chaos. Then docks were Galvanic wire. strong-shouldered steam.

one of the is. He is by constitution and needs its be rich. by fine art. 69 . Every man ducer. questions which wish to have How He with reason. . is a consumer. and ought to be a pro- He fails to make his place good in the world. unless he not only pays his debt. Wealth has to nature. does that man get his living? And is no whole man until he knows how Society is to earn a blameless livelihood. his genius. As soon answered. The and the resistances are Nature's. up to the last secrets of art. but also adds some- thing to the common wealth. until every industrious barbarous. man can get his living without dishonest customs. by song. expensive. or the reproductions of memory.WEALTH. without making some to Nor can he do justice to larger demand on the world than a bare subsistence. as a stranger first is introduced into any comall pany. and in the creation of finer values. . Wealth is in applications of mind to nature and the art of getting forces mind acts in bringing things from . Intimate ties subsist between thought and all production. but the where they abound in in wise combining to where they are wanted directing the practice of the useful arts. because a better order is equivalent to vast amounts of brute labor. source in applications of the mind from the rudest strokes of spade and axe. by eloquence.

much in a better order. 70 CONDUCT OF LIFE. Every basket power and It carries civilization. Then he cunningly screws on the steam-pipe to the wheat-crop. is no stronger now. by rail and by boat. O Steam! The steam puffs and expands as before. Coal lay in ledges under the ground since the Flood. and lies fulsomely on the ground. We is may well call it black diamonds. . the heat of : and it means of transporting itself whithersoever it is wanted. and growth of markets. but rich consists not in industry. to make Canada as warm as Calcutta. One man has stronger arms. Puff now. and wakes up rich. Watt and Stephenson whispered in the ear of mankind their secret.. The craft of the merchant is this bringing a thing from where it abounds. and a hundredfold value over the fruit which grew on the same bough. they have a new look. where land will be wanted. For coal is is a portable climate. in timeliness. less in saving. that a half-ounce of coal will draw two tons a mile. Steam was a hundred years ago A clever fellow was ac. quainted with the expansive force of steam he also saw the wealth of wheat and grass rotting in Michigan. makes a clearing to the river. to where it is costly. until a laborer with pick and windlass brings it to the surface. and coal carries coal. than is it but put to better use. and the the tropics to Labrador and the polar circle with its comfort brings its industrial power. and carried into town. but this time it is dragging all Michigan at its back to hungry New York and hungry England. in being at the right spot. When the farmer's peaches are taken from under the tree. or longer legs another sees by the course of streams. goes to sleep.

WEALTH. . and eyes. length to the day. . but still with sting enough. have him no must go work. and : torments him. thunders in these northern climates. laughter. so to change sweet water your dress when you are wet in dry sticks to burn and three meals in a in a good double-wick lamp . in tools to and so. which it concerns his power and dignity to gratify. opens a new want to him. less peremptorily. and knowledge. by tools and auxiliaries. he must draw himself out of that state of pain and inwhich she forces the beggar to He. If. and good-will. horse. or a locomotive. she rehappily. taunts. Then. It is of no use to argue the wants down the philosophers have laid the greatness of man in making his wants few but will a man content himself with a hut and a handful of dried pease? He is born to be rich. . . in giving. inheritance. And here we must recite the iron law which Nature feet. to cross the land . sleep. He is thoroughly related and : . Every warehouse and shop- window. friends. as if it added and hands. quires that each his fathers First. every fruit-tree. . and by making his wants sult in or his gains more. . on all work with in books to read sides. the greatest possible extension to our powers. 71 Wealth begins in a tight roof that keeps the rain and wind out in a good pump that yields you plenty of in two suits of clothes. cross the sea . . she urges him to the acquisition of such things as belong to him. every thought of every hour. takes away warmth. . Wealth begins with these articles of necessity. in a boat to . until he has fought his way to his own loaf. and blood. he less. to man left should feed himself. She gives him no rest until this is done she starves. and daylight.

or his education . until he finds his well-being in the use of his planet. the talismans of the machine-shop . an equal power. . min- erals. tin. the best culand the best company. and the power and day by day to his craft and auempire that follow it. and of more city. crust of bread Wealth roof. is his attrac- tion for the instruments he is to employ." Fire offers. ledges of rock. according to the excellence of the machinery in each his tool-chest. spondence that is between thirst in the stomach. on Fire. all grand and subtile things. offers its perilous aid. trade. ity. ethers. and gold forests of all woods fruits of all climates animals of all habits the powers of tillage the fabrics of his chemic laboratory the webs of his loom the to man who knows how — . machinery. war. lead. music. . and the — the freedom of the He requires. and. is the draw a benefit from the labors of the greatest number of men. the poles. exists between the whole of man and the whole of nature. government. washing the equator and service to him. the benefits of science. and fine arts. The elements offer their The sea. quicksilver. are his natural playmates. me. " Beware of me. and in past times. masculine draught of his locomotive. planets than his own. . besides the the freedom of the earth. steam. I am the key to all the lands. travelling. . fancies to the con- tempted out by and quest of this and that piece of nature. passions. . gravits side. The world and he is successful. lightning. " but if you can hold dacity. mines of iron. ture." it says. .72 is CONDUCT OF his appetites LIFE. He is the rich man who all can avail himself of richest men's faculties. human is being. and water in the spring. gases. of men in The same corredistant countries.

no marrying-on. but. no system of clientship suits them but every man must pay his The English are prosperous and peaceable. Poverty demoralizes. man of his man of honor. the leading race. the absence of bonds. its No reliance for bread and games on the government.WEALTH. inasmuch as it is a peremptory point of virtue that a man's independence be secured. the chances of integrity if are frightfully diminished. the feeling of of the senses. the degree in which he takes up strong race things into himself. clanship. when a man or a woman is driven to the wall. if he do not maintain and improve his position in society." He may fix his inventory of necessities and of enjoyments . no patriarchal style of living by the revenues of a chief. easy for a millionaire to be a And when one observes in the hotels and palaces of riot our Atlantic capitals. no clanship. . in failing circumno man can be relied on to keep his integrity. fellow- any kind. scot. — . The Saxons are the merchants of the world now. the habit of expense. as is the marriage of his facul- ties with nature. that. "at a market almost too high for humanity. a stances. and by nothing more than their quality of personal independence. for a thousand years. as virtue were coming to be a luxury which few could afford. pecuniary independence. A man thinks in debt it is so far a slave. and. is 73 carried on just so far. The subject of economy mixes itself with morals. and Wall-street word. with their habit of considering that every man must take care of himself. or. or. in special modification. as Burke said. and has himself to thank. he feels. The is strong on these terms. that.

or statues.. of genius to wear their fop livery. that contracts no stain from the market. that it disconcerts it statue is so beautiful. or tweezer-cases . to once from their reason. The yer was pitiful to disgust. can well afford not to conciliate. but if he wishes the power and privilege of thought. and having society on his own terms. 74 CONDUCT OF LIFE. if who might succumb in his practice. No matter whether he It is the privilege of any make shoes. he do not must replace the grace or by the merit of the work done. — a paltry matter of buttons case of the young lawit but the determined youth saw in his an aperture to insert dangerous wedges. made The his picture so true. that not respectable to be seen earning a living the snake will for wise five . anything. the chalking out his own career. deliver the fop opinion. that much more and respect- able to spend without earning this doctrine of come also from the elect sons of light all men are not wise at hours. The mechanic at his He bench carries a quiet heart and assured manners. and The world is full of fops who never did who have persuaded beauties and men and these will it is it is . or laws. artist has criticism. elegance forfeited. human work which is well done to invest the doer with a certain haughtiness. and will speak times from their taste or their humor. but makes the market a silent gallery for itself. and The deals on even terms with men of any condition. in his manners. on what scale he pleases. made the . betray his feeling of The it brave workman. whose faithful work will answer for him. he must bring his wants within his proper power to satisfy. The manly part is to do with might and main what you can do.

WEALTH. and inherited complete it. and wealth is is made a toy. and. and survey. if this were the main use would bring us to barricades. form and actuality to their thought. and offices. ^5 and gave fame affairs of the by his sense and energy to the name and Tittleton snuffbox factory. until they dare fit him out. it — — for practical navigation. Columbus thinks that the sphere is a problem ends in cosseting. telegraph. mill. and looks on all kings and peoples as cowardly landsmen. So the men of the mine. insignificance of the thing forgotten. whatever it pretended. His suchis fury to cessors inherited his map. the converting of the sap and juices of the" planet to the incarnation and nutriment of their design. and all its resources might be well applied. Society in large towns is babyish. this is that a shallow observer must beheve that is the agreed best use of wealth. and tomahawks. map. as well as for closet geometry. who dragged all the prudent men — : — . But. power to execute their design. not candy. the monomaniacs. Men of sense esteem wealth to be the assimilation of nature to themselves. of surplus capital. burned towns. except by the importunity of these orators. power to give legs and feet. The life of pleasure so ostentatious. who talk up their project in marts. presently. Few men on the But he was planet have more truly belonged to it. Power is what they want. forced to leave much of his map blank. and entreat men to subscribe how did our factories get built ? how did North America get netted with iron rails. appears the end for which the Universe exists. which. to a clear-sighted man.

It is to have the sea. ficed. And the supply in nature of railroad presidents. by voyaging to visit the mountains. libraries. ears. and implements which mankind have anywhere accumulated. the desert. who has money . and of hydrogen. &c. the Nile. tories.76 in ? ? CONDUCT OF Is party the LIFE. arsenals. if he could. He is would make it met and antagonized by other speculators. Rome. of alum. manufacThe reader of Humboldt's " Cosmos " follows man whose eyes. Layard. the White Hills. Beckford." The rich take up something more of the world into man's life. as one tree keeps down another in the forest. copper-miners." says Saadi. the Far West. Paris. Each of these working after tyrannical. Lepsius. The equilibrium is preserved by these counteractions. smoke-burners. and mind are armed by all the science. The world is his. in their notion of available material. They include the country as well as the town. his thought. " is everywhere expected and at home. to see galleries. grand-junctioners. in the supply of To be rich is to have a ticket of admission to the master-works and chief men of each race. idealists. as hot as he. The the gainer. fire-annihilators. for the gain of madness of many is a few This speculative genius but the public is the madness of few projectors are sacri- for the gain of the world. is limited by the same law which keeps the proportion carbon. that it may not absorb all the sap in the ground. Belzoni. the marches of a and Livingston. the ocean-side. " The rich man. Wilkinson. and the old European homesteads of man. using these to add to the stock. Niagara. Constanti- nople. and who is So is it with Denon. Kane.. . arts.

. " 'Tis the if the whole earth were covered with leather. proprietors. Grand Dukes of Tuscany. Townleys.WEALTH. Ambrosian." Kings are said to have long arms. amid the horrors of tempests. the Men are urged by their over nature. He arrives at the sea-shore. take these moralists at their word. and stars. to It is the interest of all should be Vaticans and Louvres . Richardsons. The Persians say. full . I have never seen a man as rich as all men ought to be. from the demand to be have never seen a rich man. with an adequate command of nature. and Kanes. Royal. The pulpit and the press have many commonplaces denouncing the thirst for wealth but if men should sun. same to him who wears a shoe. Philadelphia Academies of Natural History. I . and leave off aim- ing to be rich. Vernons. lest civilization should be undone. men. Rosses. Leo Tenths. the moralists would rush to rekindle at all hazards this love of power in the people. and French Gardens of Plants. Bodleian. Franklins. 77 to go over it. that there of noble works of art British Museums. Congressional Libraries. but every man should have long arms. and Peels. magnificent Kings of France. Is not then the rich legitimate ? Yet. It is the interest of all that there should be Exploring Expeditions Captain Cooks to voyage round the world. 'or. and made it a luxurious hotel. Dukes of Devonshire. and a sumptuous ship has floored and carpeted for him the stormy Atlantic. in England or whatever great . and his knowing. his power. and should pluck his living. as his instruments. ideas to acquire command Ages derive a culture from the wealth of Roman Caesars. moon.

can be enjoyed by all. and he the people are poor : the poor man whom the in whom masterpieces of and how to give all access to the and nature. We are measurement of a degree of latitude on the earth's surface. Goethe said well. Others cannot their owning is not graceful seems to be a compromise of : . Often it is very undesirable to him. and can animate all their possessions. wishes to see the ring of Saturn. need not be in his hands. There are many articles good for occasional Every man use. hoard and conceal not they who. Whilst it is each man's interest. which few men are able to own. Our navigation is safer for the chart. but also it and convenience of wealth or surplus product should exist somewhere. the satellites and art . opens a . is the problem of civilization. The socialism of our day has done good service in setting men on thinking how certain civilizing benefits. not only ease living. their character they seem to steal their own dividends. now only enjoyed by the opulent. " nobody should be rich but those who understand it. the providing to each man the means and apparatus of science. They should own who can administer not they who : . are only the greater beggars. For he is the rich is man in people are rich. path for all.78 CONDUCT OF richer for the LIFE. How intimately our knowledge of the system and a true economy of the Universe rests on that in a state or an individual will forget its frugality in find the magnetic all ! — behalf of claims like these. and of the arts. the greater proprietors they are. For example. and the geographic poles. that." Some men are born to own. but they whose work carves out work for more.

they would draw the bonds of A town would exist to an neighborhood closer. fishes. If properties of this kind were owned by states. that any person should pretend a property in a work of art. the mountains and craters a telescope ! moon : yet how few can buy it. and lyceums. it.: WEALTH. and casts. belts of Jupiter in the 79 and Mars . which belonged to all who their first cost. that were a bath and a medicine. where the feudal intellectual purpose. In the Greek cities. beasts. — . shells. I think sometimes. and public documents pictures flowers. forms secure the permanence of wealth in certain families. entail expenses. and many the man may have and Every consult books which he So of electrical like things. does not care to possess. which is as positive as music. as of galleries . whose names he desires to Design that of source. those families buy and preserve these things. also of birds. is much enhanced by the numbers of men who can share their enjoyment. There is a refining influence from the arts of on a prepared mind. and their value. scarcely one would like the trouble of keep- ing it in order. it was reckoned profane. maps. such as cyclopedias. statues. have music on my own terms . charts. In Europe. know. dictionaries. — could — could I I only in a live and know where I could go whenever I wished the ablution and inundation of musical waves. and not to be supplied from any other But pictures. towns. engravings. beside and and the use which any man can make of them is rare. keepers for the exhibition could behold great city. and exhibiting occasion to chemical apparatus. trees. too. and of those. tables.

in making money. his good or bad fortune. right reasoning. Commerce is a game of skill. promptin the players. An infinite number of shrewd have arrived at certain best and shortest ways of doing.80 CONDUCT OF LIFE. requires coolness. inevitably . cultures. But in America. the man^ for There is always a reason. the public should step into the place of these proprietors. likes He insures small and sure gains. himself in every transaction. constitutes the worth of our world to-day. or. and patience drives out brute labor. in infinite years. a man of a strong affinity for who makes up his decision on what he has seen. The right merchant is one who has the just average of faculties we call facts. cent for cent. after a few years. He knows. which every man cannot play. is — and and that good luck another name for tenacity of purpose. this culture and provide and inspiration for the citizen. facts are the basis. He is thoroughly persuaded of the truths of arithmetic. Probity and closeness to the but the masters of the art add a . common sense . pound for pound. navi- gations. — for every effect a perfect cause. and so. curings. and m believe in magic. arts. which few men can play well. Men talk as if there were some magic about this. in all all parts of life. manufactures. and this accumulated skill in men. and lay them open to the pubHc. that goes on the old road. exchanges. Cultivated labor The game ness. where democratic institutions divide every estate into small portions. be rich. to Man was born by the use of his with nature. faculties is Property grows rich by the union of thought an intellectual production. harvestings.

that the way in which it must be begun and kept up. as private and any Bible which has come down to us. He sents . He knows how many strokes of labor it represents. or men. He knows how much land it reprehow much rain. Napoleon was fond of telling the story of the Marseilles banker.WEALTH. operations. and the ascendency of laws over hostile influences. social. to so to arrive at gigantic results. and seen him. since those laws are intellectual and moral. 81 The problem is many and remote adherence to the transactions . an intellectual and moral obedience. and. Success consists in close appliance to the laws of the world. frost. — whether how masses — — : • — law of particles. with the accuracy facts. The farmer It is no is covetous of his dollar. derstand the meanness of the counting-room in which he had " Young man. who said to surprised at the contrast between the splendor of the banker's chateau and hospitality. which easy in combine and near and small is. a mass is an immense centre of motion. you are too young to un- — are formed. and with reason. without safety. and moral changes. any compromise of his visitor. waif to him. certain long arithmetic. cal life Politi- Economy is as good a book wherein to read the all of man. His bones ache with the day's work that earned it. — . is. and sunshine. it is all alike. water. by obedience to the power. The coin is a delicate meter of civil. Money is representative. but it must be begun. the true and only composed of money. it must be kept up " and he might have added. and follows the nature and fortunes of the owner.

what would it buy? A few years since. I wish the farmer held it dearer. it will buy beauty mitigation of suffering. hunger. steamers. and the clerk's is light and nimble leaps out of his pocket jumps on but still more curious is its to cards and faro-tables knows cretion . Yet there are many goods appertaining to a capital city. The farmer's dollar is heavy. and crime. and magnificence. so much hoeing. bad company. . of is moral values. it would buy a shanty. thapks to railroads. and^ at last. It is the barometer of social storms. no. but for Athenian rated for the corn will buy. Try to lift his dollar you must lift all that weight. — dollars. the country where it grew. and the whole country. but representa- tive of value. not for the corn or house-room. A dollar in Florida is not worth a dollar in Massachusetts. he gives you so much disand patience. . which are not yet purchasable here. not with a mountain of Every step of civil dollar worth more. A dollar speak strictly. and would spend it only for real bread force for force. There are wide countries. in the dollar. telegraphs. like Siberia. where money follows the skit of a pen. dysentery. and the contemporaneous growth of New York. and announces revolutions. In the city.82 CONDUCT OF that. Now it will buy a great deal more in our old town. advancement makes every man's In California. A dollar is it not value. and threshing. it comes to be looked on as light. or a lucky rise in exchange. : susceptibility to finest metaphysical changes. than some petty In Rome. a dollar would not buy much in Boston. . Forty years ago. where it would buy little else to-day. LIFE. or to .

— the rates : of insurance will indicate will it . of crime. betray it. and his decisions be less upright he has lost so much support and constraint. An apple-tree. is the virtue of the world. and put in ten roguish persons. and power. But the current dollar. wealth is moral. which all need and the pulpit will judge will sit less firmly . than in some sink . in a laxer rule of life. The value of a dollar is. and all : — A dollar in a university. a load of loam. he makes so chusetts in the . the soundness of banks be less secure will show it : the highways will it . The ''Bank-Note Detector" is a useful publication. law-abiding community. controlling the same amount of and every acre in the State hour of his action. will find it — out. where dice. capital. and put in a load of sand about its roots. and Roman house-room. are in constant play. knives. Wealth is mental.WEALTH. if you take out every day for a number of days. much more If equity in Massa- is more worth. silver or paper. is itself the detector of the right and wrong where it circulates. worth more than a dollar in a jail in a temperate. — . you take out of Statestreet the ten honestest merchants. or adheres to some odious right. to buy just things a dollar goes on increasing in value with all the genius. corn. Is it not instantly enhanced by the increase of equity ? If a trader refuses to sell his vote. which we eat bread and dwell in houses to share and exert. probity. but this treatment be pursued for a short . if An apple-tree is a stupid kind of creature. and arsenic. schooled. the schools will feel their little the children : bring home dose of the poison the on the bench. Zl for the wit.

In Europe. The vibra- tions are presently felt in New York. and there is He takes it. . The police records attest it. one of the principal charges of every nation. or. pres- And ently find it it out? The value of a dollar is social. introduce a demoralizing institution. with every hideous result. Not much otherwise. more. you should take out of the powerful class engaged in trade a hundred good men. and put in a hundred bad. at Paisley. New Orleans. ending in revolution. Do not is non-interference. self-adjusting meter legislate. Meddle. and peace. what is just the same thing. The basis of political economy The only safe rule is found in the of demand and supply. a new worth. Wealth brings with it its own checks and balances. the economical power touches the masses through the political lords. childs at Paris and. so far stopped. would not the dollar. Every man who removes skill in into this city. crime is observed to inIf the crease or abate with the price of bread. with any purchasable talent or him. Rothschild refuses the Russian loan. gives to every man's labor in the city. think it would begin to mistrust something. and a new order. the If a talent is anywhere born into the world. and landlords are shot down in Ireland. with a new degree of probity. and Chicago. are forced into the highway. much The expense of is crime. and an agitation through a large portion of mankind. at Birmingham. Roths- do not accept bills. the people at Manchester. which is not much stupider than an apple-tree. is community of nations enriched. there is war. and the harvests are saved. I CONDUCT OF if LIFE. as is created by society.84 time.

brave. . whenever his dealing touches on the inevitable facts when he sees that things themselves dictate the price. 85 and you snap the sinews with your sumptuary laws. . by reactions. and bankruptcies. WEALTH. — .. and enable him to finish his task knows all of political economy that the budgets of empires can teach him. . but well spent. throughout nature and. . Give no bounties make equal laws secure life and property. tally with the solar system. and a private man's methods. for all that is consumed. and you need not give alms. In a free and just commonwealth. every man has a certain satisfaction. The interest of petty economy is this symbolization of the great economy the way in which a house. than is the equilibrium of value in society. by the demand and supply and artifice or legislation punishes itself. Whoever knows what happens in the getting and spending of a loaf of bread and a pint of beer that no wishing will change the rigorous limits of pints and penny loaves that. if it nourish his body. property rushes from the idle and imbecile. as a toy- battery exhibits the effects of electricity. and the laws of give and take. gluts. however wary we are of the falsehoods and petty tricks which we suicidally play off on each other. : : The laws of nature play through trade. . and property will not be in bad hands. to the industrious. Open the doors of opportunity to talent and virtue. of the sea is not : . and persevering. and they will do themselves justice. so much less remains in the basket and pot but what is gone out of these is not wasted. The sublime laws play indifferently through atoms and galaxies. The level more surely kept.

that a relation a little injurious is established between landlord and . it will. "Patrick. for money. the vines must be planted. ostler. tenant. If a St. You will rent a house. are seen to do. as cheaper or dearer. poet. in large manufactures. A it may have There made up pound of paper costs so much. six per cent. for he knows that the weeds will grow with the potatoes. the cantelopes. priest. but a worse one besides. shall for you as soon as I cannot do without you.86 CONDUCT OF Your paper is LIFE. as they always tend to do. . and the tenant gets not the house he would have. and you in any pattern you fancy. saying. they have just of insecurity. Michael's pear sells for a shilling. but so he incapacitates himself from making proper repairs. Who but must wish that all labor and value should stand on the same simple and surly market? If it is the best of its kind. however unwilling you may be. is — not fine or coarse too heavy. weaver. The owner can reduce the rent. If. the pattern is quite indifferent to him here is his schedule any enough. and. We must have joiner. but must have it cheap. and cucumbers will send for him. cook. planter. and. the best securi- twelve per cent. You may not see that . will furnish turer says. with the prices annexed. in Boston. is in all our dealings a self-regulation that supersedes chaffering. or too thin. I You send dismiss your laborer. he ." Patrick goes off contented. each in turn. next week. through the year. locksmith. The manufacyou with just that thickness or thinness you want. it costs a shilling to raise ties offer it. crook-necks. doctor. — variety of paper.

WEALTH.
the fine pear costs

87
but
it

you a

shilling,

costs the

community so much. The number of enemies the pear
risk

shilling

represents the

has,

in ripening

it.

The

price of coal

and the amount of shows the

narrowness of the coal-field, and a compulsory confinement of the miners to a certain district. All
salaries

actual

services.

are reckoned on contingent, as well as on " If the wind were always south'-*

west by west," said the skipper, women might take ships to sea." One might say, that all things are of

one price; that nothing
shopman's
bargain.
native

is

cheap or dear; and that
the

the apparent disparities that strike us, are only a
trick of concealing

damage

in

your

A

youth coming into the city from his

fresh in his

farm, with its hard fare still remembrance, boards at a first-class hotel, and believes he must somehow have outwitted Dr. Franklin and Malthus, for luxuries are cheap. But

New Hampshire

he pays for the one convenience of a better dinner, by the loss of some of the richest social and educational advantages. He has lost what guards! what He will perhaps find by and by, that incentives! he left the Muses at the door of the hotel, and found Money often costs too much, and the Furies inside. power and pleasure are not cheap. The ancient poet
said, " the

There

is

gods sell all things at a fair price." an example of the compensations
history

in the

commercial

of

this

country.

When

the

European wars threw the carrying-trade of the world, from 1800 to 181 2, into American bottoms, a seizure Of was now and then made of an American ship. course, the loss was serious to the owner, but the

88

.

CONDUCT OF
;

LIFE.

country was indemnified for we charged threepence a pound for carrying cotton, sixpence for tobacco, and so on which paid for the risk and loss, and
;

brought into the
ies,

country an immense prosperity,
building of
cit-

early marriages, private wealth, the
:

and of states and, after the war was over, we received compensation over and above, by treaty, for all the seizures. Well, the Americans grew rich and great. But the pay-day comes round. Britain, France, and Germany, which our extraordinary profits had impoverished, send out, attracted by the fame
of our advantages,
millions, of
first

their

thousands, then their

poor people, to share the crop. At first, we employ them, and increase our prosperity: but, in the artificial system of society and of protected labor, which we also have adopted and enlarged, there come presently checks and stoppages. Then

we

employ these poor men. But they will They go into the poor rates, and, though we refuse wages, we must now pay the same amount in the form of taxes. Again, it turns out that the largest proportion of crimes are committed by foreigners. The cost of the crime, and the expense of courts, and of prisons, we must bear, and the standing army of preventive police we must pay.
refuse to

not so be answered.

The

cost of education of the posterity of this great
I

But the gross amount we thought was a net gain from our transatlantic customers of It is vain to refuse this payment. iSoo. We cannot get rid of these people, and we cannot get rid of their That has become an inevitable will to be supported.
colony,
will

not compute.

of these costs will begin to pay back what

:

WEALTH,
;

89

element of our politics and, for their votes, each of the dominant parties courts and assists them to get it executed. Moreover, vire have to pay, not what

would have contented them at home, but what they have learned to think necessary here; so that opinion, fancy, and all manner of moral considerations complicate the problem.

There are a few measures of economy which
bear to be
tender,

will

named without disgust for the subject is and we may easily have too much of it and
; ;

therein resembles the hideous animalcules of which

our bodies are built up,
particular, yet

— which,

offensive

in

the

compose valuable and effective masses. Our nature and genius force us to respect ends, whilst we use means. We must use the means, and yet, in our most accurate using, somehow screen and cloak them, as we can only give them any beauty, by a reflection of the glory of the end. That is the good head, which serves the end, and commands the means. The rabble are corrupted by their means the means are too strong for them, and they desert
their end.
I. The first of these measures is that each man's expense must proceed from his character. As long as your genius buys, the investment is safe, though you spend like a monarch. Nature arms each man with some faculty which enables him to do easily

some feat impossible to any other, and thus makes him necessary to society. This native determination guides his labor and his spending. He wants an equipment of means and tools proper to his talent.

:

90

CONDUCT OF
to

LIFE.

And

save on this point, were to neutralize the

special strength

and helpfulness of each mind.
This
the
is

Do

your work, respecting the excellence of the work, and
not
its

acceptableness.
it

so

much economy,
Prof-

that, rightly read,

is

sum

of economy.

ligacy

consists

not

chests of money,

spending years of time or but in spending them off the line
in

of your career.
states,
is,

The crime which bankrupts men and
;

job-work
if it

— declining

from

design, to

serve a turn here or there.
is

your main Nothing is
life
I

beneath you,
nothing
is

in the direction
if it is off

of your

great or desirable,

from

that.
line,

think we are entitled here to draw a straight
say, that society can never prosper, but

and

be bankrupt,

until

every

man does

that

must always which he was

created to do.

Spend
which
is

for

your expense, and retrench the expense
Allston, the painter,

not yours.

was wont
it

to

say, that

he built a plain house, and
him,

filled

with
to

plain furniture, because he

would hold out no bribe

any to own.

visit

who had

not similar tastes to his

We

are sympathetic, and, like children, want

But it is a large stride to ina man, in the discovery of his proper talent, has sunk the necessity for false expenses. As the betrothed maiden, by one secure affection, is relieved from a system of slaveries, the
dependence,

everything we see.

— when

daily inculcated

necessity of pleasing

all,

— — so the

has found what he can do, can spend on and leave all other spending. Montaigne said, " When he was a younger brother, he went brave in dress and equipage, but afterward his chateau and
that,

man who

WEALTH.
farms might

91
Let a

answer

for

him."

belongs to the class of nobles, those, namely,

man who who

have found out that they can do something, relieve himself of all vague squandering on objects not his.
Let the realist not mind appearances.
gate to others the costly courtesies
social
life.

The

virtues are

Let him deleand decorations of economists, but some of
I

the vices are also.
noticed that pride
is

Thus, next to humility,
a pretty good husband.

have

good pride is, as I reckon it, worth from five hundred to fifteen hundred a year. Pride is handsome, economical pride eradicates so many vices, letting none subsist but itself, that it seems as if it were a great gain Pride can go without to exchange vanity for pride.
:

A

domestics, without fine clothes, can live in a house

with two rooms, can eat potato, purslain, beans, lyed
corn, can

work on the
sit

soil,

can travel afoot, can talk
fine

with poor men, or
saloons.

silent well-contented in

But vanity costs money, labor, horses, men, women, health, and peace, and is still nothing at last, Only one drawback a long way leading nowhere. proud people are intolerably selfish, and the vain are gentle and giving. Art is a jealous mistress, and, if a man have a

;

genius for painting, poetry, music, architecture, or
philosophy, he makes a bad husband, and an
vider,
ill

pro-

and should be wise in season, and not fetter himself with duties which will embitter his days, and spoil him for his proper work. We had in this region, twenty years ago, among our educated men, a sort of Arcadian fanaticism, a passionate desire to go upon the land, and unite farming to intellectual pur-

is a third he reaches out his hand to a fourth behind that. in the garden-walk. to that. stand in his way. he dare. one. Now let him tree and graft. which catch a man's coat-skirt or his hand. and finds there are two close behind the last. is like those per- we read every month. and get a juster statement of his thought. or quickset hedge. Long marches composes are no hardship He believes he easily . If a body man own hill land. mean.) could be united. his idiot dream of chickweed and redhis remember with his adamantine morning thought. and draw in his arm. and and made the some became downright ploughmen . his body. He stoops to pull up a purslain. . row of corn. his brain. He is wakes up from root. but land is worse. and to find. with one's own hands. The devotion to these vines and trees he finds poisonous. and. experiment. purposes. but all were cured of their (I faith that scholarship and practical farming. and all he means to do. he has been duped by a dandelion.: 92 suits. effected their purpose. free and serve to him. his leg. the pale scholar desk to draw a freer breath. Every owns him. in the newspapers. that is choking the young com. with firm intent. CONDUCT OF Many LIFE. With brow leaves his bent. like duns. he has done. when he would go out of his gate. nicious machineries A garden of. are four thousand and . and added a field to his homestead. a circuit of miles. heated and untuned. and his whole to irresistible destruction. In an evil hour he pulled down his wall. every all of melons. the land if leave home. Long free walks. or a dock. by and by. No land is bad.

expense has been fixed at a certain point." &c. — ing quality of debt does not relax its voracity. periods of isolation. workman for the other's An engraver whose hands must be of an exquisite Sir delicacy of stroke. income as if. When . How much more the seeker of abstract truth. is 93 a few square yards But this pottering in and drivelling. and scopic observation hold the single lens and object over your eye. and shocks the other its diffuse strength so that each disqualifies duties. like resin- ous and vitreous in sparks electricity. The after secret of success lies never in in the relation of amount of money. not by sallies and saltations. are found not to help matters the eat. and by system. as means increase. He finds a catalepsy in his poor-spirited. David Brewster gives exact instructions for micro" Lie down on your back. He grows peevish and The is genius of reading and of gardening are antagonistic. on the hills. who needs tion. large incomes.WEALTH. : — &c. Saving and unexpensiveness will not keep the most pathetic family from ruin. should not lay stone walls. wealth begins. 2. Nature goes by rule. then new and steady rills of income. spending increases faster. bones. The smell of the plants has drugged him. but . and robbed him of of garden dispiriting energy. being added. There must be system in the economies. : One is concentrative . though never so small. so that. But in ordinary. and rapt concentra- and almost a going out of the body to think! Spend after your genius. nor will bigger incomes make free spending the to outgo safe. in England and elsewhere.

is what the use of plant- ing larger crops? the universe. It is commonly observed. A single expedients are of no avail. is some fourteen thousand pounds a year etor : but. same name as in Shakspeare^s time. the richest country in great lords and ladies was assured by shrewd observers. like a prize drawn in a lottery. not need a salary. If the conformist or aesthetic farmer leaves out the and does not also leave out the want which the . have been shown a remember manor. that a sudden wealth. and the treasure quickly dissipated. and as immediately famous a virtue as it is here. Want is a growing giant large whom the coat of I Have was never still in Warwickshire. prenticeship to wealth. when the second son of the late propri- was born. It is a general rule in that country. The eldest son must inherit the manor what to do with this supernumerary? He was advised to breed him for the Church. which was in the gift of the family which was done. thing. and. LIFE. The was told. that bigger incomes do not help anybody. I In England. to come rapid claims : which they do not know how is deny. and to settle him in the rectorship.. system must be in every economy. or a shop. fair rent-roll. the father was perplexed how to provide for him. or the best A farm is a good when it begins and ends with it itself. 94 the cholera is CONDUCT OF in the potato. with the rapid wealth. away than other people that liberality with money is as rare. does They have served no apnot permanently enrich. to eke cattle are out. that had no more guineas to give . and does Thus. or a large bequest to a poor family. . the noncatcattle. a main link in the chain-ring. to in the I enough to cover.

tea. and will keep his cow. So is it with granite streets. and gives a pail of milk twice . It requires as much watching as if you were decanting wine from a cask. — tin-ware. Nor is any investment so permanent. the farm it. is A master in each art never with still required. sugar. . : : or timber townships. his neighbors came in to his aid each gave a day's work or a half day or lent his .: . You think farm-buildings and broad acres a solid property but its value is flowing like water. a farmer could without selling his land. yielded everything that was consumed on The farm yielded no money. as with fruit or flowers. reaped his rye well knowing that no man could aiford to hire labor. turns all the streamlets to one reservoir. but they change in your hands. and get a little money to pay taxes withal. yoke of oxen. When men now alive were born. Cockayne takes a cottage in the country. he thinks a cow is a creature that is fed on hay. and decants wine but a blunderhead comes out of Cornhill. mowed his hay. he must fill the gap by begging or stealing. and it all leaks away. tie 95 must supply. tries his hand. sell an ox or a hog. When Mr. or his horse. all he consumes. The farmer knows what to do with it. Now. fish. coffee. and the farmer got on without. railroad -tickets. In autumn. If he fell sick. and kept his work even hoed his potatoes. as the history of each attempt to lock up an inheritance through two generations for an unborn inheritor may show. WEALTH. and newspapers. coal. the farmer buys almost cloth. because the prac- tice is or dead subjects. stops every leak. that it can be allowed to remain without incessant watching.

But the cow that he buys gives milk for three months then her bag dries up. when bought. long beforehand. to is how it shall be. but to learn practically the secret spoken from all nature. nor what settled field. tate. or to corn it. Nobody need stir The custom of the country will do know not how to build or to plant neither foot. But how can Cockayne. that things themselves refuse to be mismanaged. or whether to clay it. oxen ? The farmer fats his. the grass must be turned up and ploughed now what crops ? Credulous Cockayne 3. how the it to buy wood. . and kills daily in the cars. if we . Nature has her own best mode of doing each and she has somewhere told it plainly. who has no pastures. to grass. What to do with blown and lame . at business hours. and leaves his cottage done. whether to sand. whether and you cannot help or hinder thing. but will have grass. after the spring-work is them in the fall.! : g6 a day. be pothered with and killing oxen? He plants trees but there must be crops. The rule is not to dic- nor to insist on carrying out each of your schemes by ignorant wilfulness. and how to dress. when to plough. After a year or two. : the rule of Impera pareiido. . I their own law. all do with the house-lot. Help comes in the custom of the country. in the custom of the country. to keep the trees in ploughed land. . and will show to the watchful hand or it all. CONDUCT OF LIFE. Never fear or the wood-lot. What shall be the crops? He will have nothing to do with trees. What to do with a dry cow? who will buy her? Perhaps he bought but they get also a yoke of oxen to do his work blown and lame. and fatting .

When street. but with cost to his knows the way. and over the hills lers and Indians know the value of a buffalo-trail.WEALTH. own way How often when we prefer our we must remember the replacing the broken art of the surgeon. first a citizen. Well. and the peaks of Monadnoc and Unca- . and so arriving at company. and turned out to be the safest and cheapest engineer. Of the two eminent engineers in the recent con- stmction of railways in England. his end. keep our eyes and ears open. Wachusett. will 97 If not. crossing highways. : which is sure to be the easiest possible pass through the ridge. itself with releasing the parts from into they fly place by the action of the muscles. fresh from Dock-square. through moun- over streams. which. lar. followed Western Railroad follows the Westfield River. Mr. to hers. Every pedestrian sion in our pastures has frequent occa- to thank the cows for cutting the best path and travelthrough the thicket. On this art of nature all our arts rely. bathing the shoulder of Blue Hills. Mr. contents false position . she will not be slow in undeceiving us. at great pleasure to geometers. from terminus to terminus. as implicitly as our out Boston. on the contrary. Stephenson. his : thought to a fine outlook his library must command from his windows a sunset a western view : every day. Brunei went straight tains. there are worse surveyors. or Milkin the comes out and buys land is country. cutting ducal estates in two. in bone. We say the cows laid believing that the river his valley. and shooting through this man's celand that man's attic window.

citizen learns to take his counsel. He proceeds at once. ing out acre. a system settles itself paramount and tyrannical over master and mistress. These are matters on which I neither know. thinks gravel to fill will take the hollow man who is to level the many hundred loads of to the road. From . tears of joy. cousin and acquaintance. or lay- rebound to you. fifteen fifty LIFE. cence for CONDUCT OF What. and this It magnifi- hundred dollars would be cheap at thousand. So Docksquare yields the point. The stonedoubts he shall never the practical neighbor mason who should to dig forty feet like to drive : build the well thinks he shall have the baker up to the door : cavils at the position of the barn . and the citizen comes spring. servant and child. and the convenience to the and the road. but the You may ask me of building as often as you will. the garden. the field. orders The citizen farmer affects to take his says. Not less. to know that his predecessor the farmer built the house in the right spot for the sun and wind. step to step he comes at last to surrender at discretion. and the foolish pasture. all ! thirty acres. but the my . within doors. the and water-drainage. This is fate. Use has made the farmer wise. to fix the spot for his But the it ground. his eyes dim with corner-stone. and things have their own way. These are questions which you and not I shall answer. for and in an opinion concerning the mode my wall. or sinking ball will my well. 'Tis in vain that genius or virtue or energy of character And 'tis strive and cry against it.98 noonuc. nor need to know anything. what ingenious forms.

which his is is not repeated as in a celestial sphere is in mind : then. ships. is poor The odd circumstance is. the other. there nothing in his brain. It is a doctrine of phi. which sphere. Hotspur. economy is. The good merchant large gains. losophy. 99 very well that the poor husband reads in a book of a new way of living. 4. or. I have not at all completed my design. Yet there is commonly a confusion it . But we must not leave the topic. justice. military military Good husbandry finds wife. of expectations on these points. 5. . that Hotspur thinks it a superiority in himself. and literary credit . and money. without casting one glance . not repeated in body his body being a sort of miniature or summary of the world then that there is nothing in his his : body. stocks. that he does not. Friendship buys merit. Now these things are so in Nature. Another point of economy is to look for seed of the same kind as you sow and not to hope to : let : buy one kind with another kind. of course. children. justice .WEALTH. if he dare. . which . this improvidence. that is man is a being of degrees is that there nothing in the world. and Furlong a good provider. The good poet fame. in not repeated in a higher his moral system. that it whatever we do must always . which ought to be rewarded with Furlong's lands. All things ascend. into the interior recesses. and resolves to adopt it at home him go home and try it. but not either. Hotspur lives for the moment praises himself for and despises Furlong. friendship success. and the royal rule of should ascend also. and household.

Well. Thus it is a maxim. in higher laboratories. have a higher aim. ness by itself. absorb and he is to be capitalist the scraps and filings must be gathered back into the crucible the gas and smoke must be burned. — literary. that money Pecunia alter sanguis : or. increase expense. by that law of Nature whereby he invest? under the same law. that to say. " "The in tools of your trade " or the is . Will he spend his income. Will he not spend. So there " Best use of money is no maxim of the merchant. His body and every organ is His body is a jar.erchant has but one rule.g.y " Every busiis to pay debts " . The way to ruin is short and facile. The counting-room maxims liberally expounded are laws of the Universe. but to capital again. eats is first The bread he : strength and animal spirits it becomes. The : : . e. to is a coarse symbol of the souPs economy. everything climbs to higher platforms. spend and not is for pleasure. the man must be or will capitalist.lOO CONDUCT OF LIFE. present time. and earnings must not go to ment. in which the Will he spend for pleasure? liquor of life is stored. for power. The merchant's economy It is. emotive. to take up particulars into gen- days into integral eras. the estate of a man is is only a larger kind of body. and bodily vigor becomes mental and moral vigor. is another kind of blood. of its and still to ascend in its invest- invest m. . " " Best time right investment like. imagery and thought and in . which does not admit of an extended sense. life. but hoard for power? It passes through the sacred fermentations. practical. It is to invest in- come erals . and admits of regimen analogous to his bodily circulations. .

courage and endurance.WEALTH. with keener avarice. to invest and invest. . he knows himself by the actual experience of higher good. Nor is the man enriched. nor unless through new powers and ascending pleasures. and not in augmenting animal existence. The true thrift is always to spend on the higher plane. quadrupled. to be already on the way to the highest. man raised to his highest power. centupled. the right compound interest . still lOi This is higher results. that he may spend in spiritual creation. in repeating the old experiments of animal sensation. this is capital doubled.

.

IV. to his native centre fast. Alive to gentle influence ? He Of landscape and of sky. Can rules or tutors educate The semigod whom we await must be musical. Tremulous. CULTURE. impressional. And tender to the spirit-touch or maiden's eye . Shall into Future fuse the Past. And the world's flowing fates in his own mould recast. . Of man's But.

.

" said and of plots to circumvent is full them. CULTURE. it and if a man have all his is apt to leave its impression on performances. . and of wealth as a means of power. and by appealing to the rank of powers. talent A for A man is the prisoner of his memory makes him an almanac a debate. " of poniards. no man can write but one book a defect. that is. a disputant skill to get money topical . For performance. Culture reduces inflammations by invoking the aid of other powers against the dominant talent. contiguous part. makes him a miser. overloads him with bias. and any excess of power in one part is usually paid for at once by some defect in a these . The word ture. Nature has no mercy. It watches success. and sacrifices the performer to get it done makes a dropsy or a tympany of him. sent into the world. he made up of suspicions air. sacrificing his symmetry to his working It is said. she makes one at the cost of arms and legs. culture corrects the theory of success.. power. of ambition at the present day all is Cul- Whilst the v/orld is in pursuit of power. that depends so much on our concentraNature usually in the instances where a is marked man power. "The Fouchd." 105 The physician Sanc- . is If she creates a policeman like Fouchd. a beggar. Our efficiency tion. If she wants a thumb.

I06 CONDUCT OF LIFE. finding themselves of no account when grown people come in. They like sickness. I saw a man who believed the principal mischiefs in the English state were derived from the devotion to musical concerts. and continues to spin slowly on one spot. V. will cough till they choke. as we have seen children. 'Tis a disease that. The sufferers parade their miseries. loid of this egotism a metaphysical vario- malady ? The man runs round a ring formed by his own talent. against alchemy. This distemper is the scourge of talent. Chap. reveal their indictable crimes. But worse than the harping on one string. like influenza. that you may pity them. of artists. and loses relation to the world. that the principal cause of the success of General Washington. coarse and fine egotists. pest of society is The There are dull and bright. to draw attention. A torius spent his food. falls into an admiration of it. tear the lint from their bruises. 4. who. weighing his Lord Coke valued Chaucer highly. freemason. because physical pain will extort some show of interest from the bystanders. One of its annoying forms. was. It is a tendency in all minds. because the Canon Yeman's Tale illustrates the statute He?i. Eminent spiritualists . falls on all constitutions. is a craving for sympathy. — inventors. set out to explain to this country. sacred and profane. Nature has secured individualism. and philosophers. not long since. In the distemper known Is to physicians as chorea^ the patient sometimes turns round. the aid he derived from the freemasons. by giving the private per- son a high conceit of his weight in the system. egotists. life in a pair of scales.

at the risk of perpetual crime and disorder. but is never subdued and lost in them. God forbid but to train away all impediment and Our mixture. only is a well-made man who has a good determination. of poets. facilities. philanthropists. And the end of culture is not to destroy this. critics. Every valuable nature and the student we speak to must have a motherwit invincible by his culture. " I ing it is. arts. but is is not only not inconsistent with it. if Religious literature private has eminent examples. such as we see in the sexat ual attraction. persons. shall 107 have an incapacity of putting their act or word it aloof from them. So egotism has its root in the cardinal necessity by which each individual persists to be what he is. and leave nothing but pure power. the basis of right. which uses all books. and by treating the patient tenderly." as this habit invites speedily punished. The preservation of the species was a it point of such necessity. which we ought to have tapped. to shut him up in a narrower selfism. This individuality culture. and list we run over our and philosophers. Let us rather be we are insultable. Beware of the man who It is am on the eve of a revelation. and elegancies of interHe course. we shall find them infected with this dropsy and elephantiasis. cheerful fallible insulted. that Nature has secured all hazards by immensely overloading the passion.CULTURE. is there in its own ! . and seeing bravely for the nothsays. inasmuch to men humor it. whilst and exclude him from the great world of God's men and women. that This goitre of egotism is so frequent among notable we must infer some strong necessity in it nature which subserves .

student must have a style and determination. Webster. Though they little talk of the object before them. two ? Have you seen a few or three capitalists. he still panions. Theodore Parker? Have you talked with Messieurs Turbinewheel. Mr.Io8 CONDUCT OF LIFE. or twenty. and Lacofrupees? well die. that. when we have discharged ourselves of a dozen personalities. charged. merchants. Allston. having this. Garrison. All conversation is at an end. and without affection a master in his or self-reference. or a few compersonalities that are famous in his neighborhood. or ten. and be own specialty. In Boston. In New York. whilst does not connect with their themselves. But. Greenough? Have you question of heard Everett. and their vanity self-love. they are thinking of is laying traps for your admiration. — perhaps converses with his family. the question Then you may as is of some other lawyers. an incuriosity. Mr. he will find the fewest who will give most men are afflicted with a coldness. eight. But after a man has discovered that there are limits for to the interest which his private history has with half a dozen man- kind. He must have a catholicity. two or three editors of newspapers New York is a sucked orange. he must put it behind him. as soon as any object him that satisfaction . a power to see with a free and disengaged look every Yet is this private interest and self so overobject. Summitlevel. — two or three scholars. domestic or imported. which make up our . Adams. if a man seeks a companion who can look at objects for their own sake. Doctor Channing. and brokers. Have you seen Mr. the life is the names of some eight or ten men. Father Taylor. Mr.

and succor him against himself. puts him among his equals cious sense of sympathy. 109 to Nor do we expect anybody be other than a faint copy of these heroes. or on eating. or on books. from the dear society of the poets. and. American existence. Culture redresses his balance. man has a range of affinities.appears. whenever h. and he awaking to sober perceptions. In the Norse heaven of our five five forefathers. 'Tis not a sult a compliment but a disparagement man only on horses.CULTURE. intelligent men together again after ten years. considerately to turn the conversation to the bantling he is known . or on steam. and superiors. Tariff or Democracy. Whigism or Abolition. through which he can modulate the violence of any master-tones that have a droning preponderance in his scale. from truth. what a confession of The " causes " to which we insanities would come up have sacrificed. revives the deliand warns him of the dangers to con- of solitude and repulsion. which had whisked him away from the presence of ! : fortune. or on theatres. some bias. Bring any club or company of Life is very narrow. Culture that a is the suggestion from certain best thoughts. and only when he was now gray and nerv^eless. some zeal. Temperance or Socialism. Thor's floors floors. was it relaxing its claws. and if some penetrating and calming genius could dispose them to frankness. would show like roots and our talents of bitterness and dragons of wrath are as mischievous as if each had been seized upon by some bird of prey. house had and man's house has His excellence is facility hundred and forty hundred and forty of adaptation and of . to fondle.

your chemic skin. your history. Your man of His head runs up into a spire. — here is is he to afflict us with his personalities. (the foun- tain of wisdom. Each animal out of habitat would To the physician. You analysis. your gazetteer. your syllogisms. a locksmith. And here is a pedant that cannot unfold his wrinkles. Nature is reckless of the individual. if their conversation do not fit his impertinency. when we go into the street. Cleanse with healthy blood his restore to his eyes If parchment he left which you are the victim of your doing. nor conceal his wrath at interruption by the best.no trasts CONDUCT OF many related Culture LIFE. must leave and meet men on broad grounds of good meaning and good No performance is worth loss of geniality. fadir did not get a drink of Mimir's spring. is the destiny of certain birds. each man. starve. each woman.) until he left his eye in pledge. We our pets at home. who cares what you do? We can spare your opera. To wade in marshes and sea-margins genius pays dear for his distinction. sense. he is some mad dominie. his conceit of his village or his city. A soldier. Draw him him out of this limbo of irritability. kills his exaggeration. When she has points to carry. in pledge at Mimir's spring. 'Tis a cruel price we pay for certain fancy goods called In the Norse legend. that each of them fancies he pointedly odious in his community. . and instead of a healthy man. is an amplification of one organ. merry and wise. Allfine arts and philosophy. points. that they are imprisoned in its those places. she carries them. 'Tis incident to scholars. to transition through wide con- and extremes. and they are so ac- curately made for this.

: We know Lannes said to a French officer. with classes of society. And Ill a bank-clerk. will not " de^iy the validity of education. by systematic discipline all men may be made heroes Marshal that an . and men is are valued precisely as they exert onward or meliorating force. and a dancer could not exchange functions. society." A great part of courage is the courage of And. in the '• same spirit. those faculties will be strong which are used. since to meliorate. in all human action. or. soHtude. or the exhibition of the Industrious Fleas. with travel. the old English poet Gascoigne says." says Plato. Colonel. travel. who who has seen a horse broken. the range and variety of attractions. are. boy. as gained by acquaintance with the world." 'Tis inhuman to want faith in the power having done the thing before. that none but a poltroon will boast that he never was afraid. The antidotes against this organic egotism. army which can be confided in. another .CULTURE. Robert Owen said. the sea. a boy is better unborn than untaught. of education. Incapacity of melioration is the only mortal dis- . "Know. art. the back-country a different style . with eminent persons. with men of merit. The hardiest sceptic a pointer trained." The city breeds one kind of speech and manners. A '^ is the most vicious of all wild beasts . a fourth. religion : and books. may be formed by discipline that. and I Avill educate him. " and. the army. thus we are victims of adaptation. and with the high resources of philosophy. poltroonery the acknowledging an inferiority to be incurable. is the law of nature . has visited a menagerie. "Give me a tiger. On the other hand.

ten. Politics is an after-work. or. Our arts and tools give to him who can handle them much the same advantage over the novice. or any after hearing the music. the law passed. think it the part of fifty. namely. and of that of enacting. The evil is done. and poetry. help of noticed surgeon or clergy. or a hundred years. that forty years. and rhetoric. temper. And good sense to provide every fine it soul with such culture. or any second or expanded sense given to your vi^ords." But it is conceded that much of our training effect that all success is hazardous and rare . We are is always a little late. intemperance. of that a part of our cost and pains is thrown away. of seventy or humor but remain literalists. in But even fire ! these can understand pitchforks and the cry of some of this class and I have a marked dislike of earthquakes. What we the our root-and-branch is reforms of slavery. Nature takes the matter into her own hands. a poor patching. shall not. There are people who can never understand a trope. wit. itics we begin the up-hill agitation for repeal which we ought to have prevented the We shall one day learn call to supersede pol- by education. We must begin higher up. we can seldom be sure that it has availed much. though we must not omit any jot of our system. gambling. as if you extended his I life. They are past the . \ Let us make our education brave and preventive. " This which might do fails . war. in Education. and eighty years. and. only medicating symptoms. at thirty or I have to say. is made hopeless through my want of weapons.112 CONDUCT OF LIFE. that large .

Their opinion has weight. were wellread. as containing the finest records of ent system. on his way to school. Gradtis. Archery. human Plato. Shakspeare. must always enter best into our notion of culture. I like people who like Plato. are gun and fishing-rod. I to riority of Good criticism is am always happy meet persons who perceive the transcendent supeShakspeare over all other writers. as 113 differ- much good would not have accrued from a Books. letters. He sometimes gets ready very slowly. You send him to the Latin class. from the shop-windows. are not to direct his bringing up. very rare. cricket. be- cause they had means of knowing the opposite opin- We look that a great man should be a good reader. Well. The heads that ever existed. But books are good only as far as a boy is ready them.CULTURE. universally educated men. and boats. the boy is right and you . Because this love does not consist with self-conceit. fit and loves guns. fishing-rods. or. dress. Julius Caesar. and always precious. liberalizers. if your theory all leaves out his gymnastic training. Milton. and quite too wise to undervalue ion. horse and edu- cators. and refuses any for . boat. but 'tis the schoolboys who educate him. and so are dancing. in proportion to the spontaneous power should be the assimilating power. companions but of his choosing. and . Pericles. You send your child to the schoolmaster. wit. He hates the grammar and horses. but much of his tuition comes. Goethe. You like the strict rules and the long terms and he finds his best leading in a by-way of his own.

(for we are not tickets of proposing to make a statue out of punk. There is also a negative value in these Their . He and theatricals. on which. than from all the misfortunes and miseries of my life put together.) football. only the boy has re- — provided him less and is of a noble and ingenuous strain. riding." Besides. "I have suffered more from my bad dancing. he would give a pedantic squint.— 114 the street-talk sources. as you did. of which Lord Herbert of Cherbury said. . The father observes that another boy has learned algebra and geometry in the same time. and the being master of them enables the youth to judge intelligently of much. boat. the gun. archery. are chess. . '' a good rider on a good horse is as much above himself and others — as the world can ing-rod. make him. are lessons in the art of . skating. and has its due weight in his experience. dancing. CONDUCT OF and. forward it takes place with other things. use them. and despises himself. belonged to one club. swimming. LIFE. ing. He is infatuated for weeks with whist and chess but presently will find out. But the first boy has acquired much more than these poor games along with them. fish- and horse. These minor skills and accomplishments. constitute. dancing. admission to the dress-circle of mankind. among all who They are as if they arts. whist. for example. otherwise. these will not serve learns than the books. specially. that when he rises from the game too long played." Provided always the boy is teachable. which it is his main business to learn riding. cricket. he Thenceis vacant and forlorn. fencpower. secret freemasonries. climbing. Landor said.

class fixes its We are full eyes on the advantages has not. but to be and not to remain to him of superstitions. fine . pass to a and romantic. who. Who are you that have no task to acters travel. 115 known Each on for what they are. is. which they are not and a free admission to them on an equal footing. I think. only once or twice. because they pass for nothing in the For the most part. first or of last. chief use to the youth. character. and I am not much an advocate for I observe that men run away to other countries. if it were possible. there is a restlessness in our people. because they are not good in their own. tice. as the invalid habits An eminent teacher of this country might suggest. it occasions of heart-burn. poor boy for something . which argues want Americans. only the light charnew places. of girls said. His easy superiority to multitudes of professional men could never quite countervail to him this imaginary defect. travelling. wine-parties. is. and birth lege education missed his it. and run back to their own. and breeding. on rude strength. I knew a leading man in a leading city. by undeceiving him. the democrat. could never quite feel himself the equal of own brothers who had gone thither. and billiards. riding. "the idea of — a girl's education. having set his heart on an education at the university. to show the boy its little avail. because it is their mental home. go to Europe. . not amusement. keep you at home ? I have been quoted as saying captious things about travel but I mean to do jusBalls. One of the benefits of a colis. All educated perhaps.CULTURE. the refined. would be worth ten times its cost.

locomo- we must follow and furnish But full with that breeding which gives currency. Naturalists."" Can tape-worm of Europe from tlie brain of our countrymen ? One sees very well what their fate must be. discoverers. its let not be pedantic. And let him go where he will. framed tion. but allow to travel eflfect. as sedulously as with that which gives worth. light And the man for is of a and social turn. travel may be useful. Of course. Some Do you suppose. is the farm. envoys. He only goes there to hide his insignificance in a larger crowd. he can only find so much beauty or worth as he carries. exchangers. and Nature has aimed her hint. there men are made for couriers. for some men. California . to their said in the country to have peddling trips to the Southern States. for going to Europe. Poor country boys of Vermont and Connecticut formerly owed what knowledge they had. to make him us a legged and winged creature. and broil the fish ? What is true anywhere is true everywhere. cannot abroad. and burn the brushwood. which he has never had no cliance^ and boys and men of that condition look upon work on a railroad. The boy grown up on left. and swaddle the infants. He that does not fill a place at home. mis- sionaries. as opportunity. bearers of despatches. and sailors are born. as if others are for farmers and working-men. You do not think you will find anything there which you have them we never extract this not seen at the same. or drudgery in a city.Il6 whatever CONDUCT OF qualifies LIFE. home ? The stuff of all countries is just is any country where they do not scald milkpans.

"To have soma their word. my by the most prodigal amusement and occupation which the human race in ages could contrive and accumulate.] and another. lockjaws. as languages as he has. the books and works of home. friends. at least. at Naples. For. when there required some some diversion or alterative to prevent stagnatravel tion. so knowledge and fine And thus." or to travel. travel offers advantages. " If I should be driven firom ray thoughts own home.CULTURE. here. says. and the chance " Pacific 117 Coast is now the university of this class. cancers. [we go to Europe to be Americanized . mend of the six or seven teachers whom each man wants among his contemporaries. or at London. a new fruit in every degree. men's and No doubt. A foreign country judge his a point of comparison. ideas of advantage synonymous with superiority. it often happens. effect man witnessing the admirable of ether to lull pain. to a man and of sense. as trades. so a man who looks at Paris. is in every constitution a certain when the stars stand is still in our inward foreign firmament. Moreover. wherefrom to One use of travel. to recomown. and force. moral quahty she lodges in distant men." can be consoled . so is many is As many many arts many times he a man. Just as a seems one of the best. as Virginia is was in old times. there solstice. to find men. And. Jackson's benign discovery. is And the phrase " to know all the world. as a medical remedy. that one or two of them live on the other side of the world. rejoices in Dr. and meditating on the contingencies of wounds. is. as Nature has put fruits apart in latitudes.

want of good conversation. In town. the na- orators. the shooting-gallery. the gymnasium. the dancingmaster. and his old shoes moors for game. In the country. there was a good library and books enough for him. repel quite much of agreeable city. and panorama. that. to the benefit of foreign travel. the and his club. he can find the swimming-school. the chemisfs shop. it will as because. A let man should live in or near a large town. of fine arts.Il8 Akin CONDUCT OF is LIFE. like an old paling in an orchard. in a the total attraction of the citizens is sure to conquer. London and New York take the nonsense out of a man. the gallery . he can find and reading. and valuable talent as all it draws. and his lordship stored the library with what books he thought fit to be bought. the museum of sion. In the country. and. his own genius be what it may. a very great inconvenience. manly labor. "I have heard Thomas Hobbes say. yet he found a great defect. A great . and. though he conceived he could order his thinking as well as another. opera. in long time. in Derbyshire. in the Earl of Devon's house." for Cities give us colHsion. But the want of good conversation was libraries. first or last. and groves for devotion. theatre. 'Tis said. the aesthetic value of railroads to unite the advantages of town and country life. neither of which we can spare. its walls natural tional history. one's understanding and invention contract a moss on them. hills for geology. cheap living. solitude . every repul- and drag the most improbable hermit within some day in the year. in their turn foreign travellers. Aubrey writes.

Especially women women. every time he put off his hat. reading women. pictures. Fuller says. Besides. and the hero may hope to confront their counterparts. elegant. in such a vast va- people and conditions. that. and to elegant society. sculpture. the mystic. He does not make a speech all brag. part of our education is 119 social. sympathetic and Boys who have been brought up with wellinformed and superior people^ show in their manners and girls an inestimable grace. poetry. can youth. and that the poet. that "William. and those too the driving-wheels. I wish cities could teach their best lesson. one can believe there is room for persons of romantic character to exist." You cannot have one well-bred man. . — requires a great many cultivated — saloons of bright. it accustomed to ease and refinement. is he takes a low business-tone. in order that you should have one Madame de Stael. the world — pretension. promises not at .CULTURE. They keep each other up to any high point. won a subject from the King of Spain. Earl of Nassau. dresses plainly. to spectacles. avoids nobody. The head of a commercial house. is . prehensive to-day to the imagination. or a leading lawyer or politician is brought into daily contact with troops of men from all parts of the country. we must remember the high social possibilities of a The best bribe which London offers million of men. the business men of each section. It is — of of quiet manners. riety of is. without a whole society of such. and one can hardly suggest for an ap- man a more searching culture. the foible especially of Ameri- The mark of the man absence of pretension.

like wine it unlocks the tongue. An old poet says." i Not much otherwise Milnes the Humble. CONDUCT OF performs LIFE. I have heard. they think. as a king in gray clothes. How the imagination is piqued by anecdotes of some his fact. and men say what preferred trifling subjects . yet he allows himself to be surprised into thought. great man passing incognito. The poorer and the baser you appear. and the unlocking of his learning and philosophy. " Go far and go sparing. speaks in monosyllables. affecting a plain suit at his glittering of Burns. in the " Lay of Beaumont and Fletcher : The Tamer Tamed. and so takes from evil tongues their sharpest weapon. but dress makes a little restraint: men But the box-coat is will not commit themselves.I20 all. " who . that. it For you'll find certain. throughold hat and box-coat. and common Goethe. who expressions in intercourse with strangers. but will listen eternally " of . or Wellingor any or Goethe. His conversation clings to the weather and the news. He calls his — of Napoleon levee ton." 1 writes. passing for nobody container of transcendent of Epaminondas. and to appear a little more There are advantages in the capricious than he was. or Beethoven. power. or Scott. never says anything. worse rather than better clothes. a certain respect is paid to good broadcloth. . much. out this country. The more you'll look through still. hugs employment by its lowest name. .

a wide range of topics. a trick of self-disparagement. They have piqued themselves on governing the whole world in the poor. To be sure. no marked manners or features. the love of the scarlet feather. " 121 To me men are for what they are. cities Whilst we want as the centres where the . "whatever they say has a little the air of a speech. the street was in a blaze with The English have a plain taste. plain. among a million of good coats. — but a — not water shrewd for- little gas there. A eigner said of the Americans. Mr. a man with find humorists. in old. a fine coat comes to be no distinction.CULTURE. A gorgeous new and awkward city wealth. remember one rainy morning of Palermo. vvdth a face like red dough. and tinsel ? — The Italians are fond of red clothes. and personal familiarity with good men in all parts of the world. until you think you have fallen upon some illustrious personage. that. They wear no masks with me. learning. The equipages livery indicates Pitt. thought the title of Mister good against any king in Europe. of beads. Pym. and you In an English party. unexpectedly discloses wit. before the fire. and embroidery. dark Committee-room which the House of Commons sat in." 'Tis odd that our people should have on the brain. like of the grandees are plain. and in the city scarlet umbrellas. in the books as distinguishing the Anglo- Saxon." Yet one of the traits down is. I peacock plumes. Mr. dense countries. Can it be that the American forest has refreshed some weeds of old Pictish barbarism just ready to die out.

: . by magnifying best things are found. Against the gods. of the horizon. 122 CONDUCT OF LIFE. . Life is dragged down ful cares and life disasters. Mirmidons. hills and and v/ith them. a barber's shop. lic who live for show. The' countryman finds the town a chop-house. When Our We spawning. and people ? who scream east. What who is odious but noise. race feconde. servile to pubto a fracas of piti- opinion. on the padded chair. Suffer them once to begin the enumeration of their infirmities. and the sun will go down on toast their feet who who coddle register. Enfin nous commandons Jupiter livre le monde Aux mirmidons. You say the gods ought to their respect a cities whose objects are own . Jove gives the globe into the hand Of myrmidons. but in they have betrayed you to a cloud of insignifi- cant annoyances " Mirmidons. people whose vane points always live to dine. who intrigue to secure a the unfinished tale. and bewail themselves. and elevation. and a corner out of the draught. He has come among glib-tongued tribe."! 'Tis heavy odds they will match with myrmidons. soa supple. who send for the doctor. 1 turn to-day we take command. aux mirmidons. spawning myrmidons. cities degrade us trifles. of myrmidons. Let these 1 triflers put us out of Beranger. briety He has lost the lines of grandeur plains.

and then goes back social benefits of cheerfully to work We can ill spare the commanding . The least habit of dominion over the palate has certain good effects not easily estimated. and the right in the library. when you think how paltry are the machinery and the workers ? Wordsworth was praised to me. or salutes or compliments. Let us learn to live coarsely. the wind. but builds the late. . in. six looms. without display. the but a color : the rain. or even the bringing things to pass. A man How can in pursuit of greatness feels no little wants. All made at last of the same chemical atoms. works early and the paternal again.CULTURE. Neither will we be driven into a quiddling abstemiousness. frost is 123 a To man at work. conceit with petty comforts. three looms. but that keeps the earth sweet that saves on superfluithat goes rusty. dress. you mind diet. in Westmoreland. for having afforded to his country neighbors an example of a modest household where comfort and culture were secured. is educated to some purpose. or wealth. and ties. and never will. that sells the horse. or the figure you make in company. he forgot them when he came dress plainly. There is a great deal of self-denial and manliness in poor and middle-class houses. And a tender boy who wears his rusty cap and outgrown coat. and spends on essentials . but pays off the mort- gage on farm. that has not got into literature. school . educates the boy . takes two looms in the factory. that he may secure the coveted place in college. insist 'Tis a superstition to is on a special diet. lie and hard. bed. in town and country.

CONDUCT OF LIFE. . as she does never in favorite company. Milton. from living. morning. but do not think needful at home." wrote Neander to his sacred friends. breathing. Newton. Plotinus. and not less noble. it is happier. is to genius the stern friend. and that her those may make which acquaintdisclose "'TIS divine strengths themselves to serious and abstracted thought. We say solitude. Her- mes. life is The high advantage of university- mere mechanical one. the cold. reading. it farther than suns and He who should inspire and lead his race must be defended from travelling with the souls of other men. which parents will allow the boy without hesitation at Cambridge. 1 may call it. Archimedes. but descended into benefactors: it from time to time as and the wise instructor will press this point of securing to the young soul in the disposition of time and the arrangements of living. but the habits should be formed to retirement. periods and habits of solitude. . the safeguard of mediocrity. very certain that Plato. " will enjoy at Halle the inward blessedness of a civitas Dei^ whose foundaoften the — . "We four. that Nature solitude " said Pythagoras — . Wordsworth. tude. did not live in a crowd. time-worn yoke of their opinions. Keep the town for occasions. and haughhim who best Soli- — and they must be used . obscure shelter where moult the wings which will bear stars. yet cautiously.124 cities tily. to mark the character of the tone of thought but if it can be shared between two or more than two. will yield their best values to can do without them. and writing in " In the the daily. of a separate chamber and fire. . may speak ance with to the imagination.

and not in the censure. is only interested in the praise accorded to him. the depreciation ure in the currency of Curfew. and humane relations may and poet seek privacy to ends the most public and universal: and it is the secret of culture. tions are forever friendship. as his interest in the former gives him pleasFor. — — and in the humanity stock . to elimi. in the main. companies. at last. the more I dissatisfy and dissatisfy my wonted companions. with joy. I must have children. And the poor little poet hearkens only to that. But the poet cultivated becomes a stockholder in both in the Curfew stock. of his Curfew stock only shows the immense values of As soon as he sides with his the humanity stock. critic against himself. I must have events. elicits a good many comments in the journals. than Here is a new poem. The poet. which in his private quality. nate the verdict which readers passed upon it and that is. to interest the man more in his pubhc. and. exults as much in the demonstration of the unsoundness of Curfew. The common understanding withdraws itself from the one centre of all existence. Their very presence stupefies me. in the last. 125 I The more must know all you. or my thinking and speaking . as proving incapacity in the critic." Solitude takes off the pressure of present importunities that appear. say Mr. and in more catholic The saint conversation. or they are nought. and rejects the censure. as a crafts- man. From these it is easy.CULTURE. though it be just. unfavorable. I must have a social state and history. Curfew. he is a cultivated man. We erty must have an intellectual quality in all prop- and in all action.

sea-captains. We see this abstraction in scholars. and could look at every object for Though an egotist a without affection. ? and who shall say that he is not their sport We only say. or of a partisan journalist. however he may serve I as a pin or rivet in the social machine. he could criticise a play. every day. gains largely in our esteem if we discover that he has as some intellectual taste or skill when we learn of Lord Fairfax. civil and engineers sometimes betray a fine insight.. that is vary the phrase. his sublime genius in mathematics . In callings require roughest energy. tics on universal grounds. if only through a certain gentleness when off duty . as a matter of course but what a charm it adds when observed in practical men. his passion for antiquarian studies or of the French regicide Carnot. a just opin- character. any value. I must know them as contingent and rather showy possessions. or of a living banker. Bonaparte. when we A man a beggar who only lives to the useful. suffer. a building. and give a A man known to us only as a celebrity in poli- or in trade. and. that we should wish to hug him. But to give these accessories v/ant body or basis. not the doctrine. ion. : rotit?-a7ice. soldiers. . a good-natured admission that there are illusions. like Caesar. culture opens the sense of beauty. ment's general. if in travelling in the dreary wilder- Calderon. So. 126 CONDUCT OF LIFE. was intellectual. which pass for more to the people than to me. the Long Parlia. cannot be said to have arrived at self-possession. itself. his success in poetry. his devotion to ornithology.

will never quite lose . or of politics. the charm with which all moments and objects can be embellished. over all. the charm of man- They do not know ners. have I have heard that stiff a sensible effect on manners. that the consideration of the great periods and spaces of astronomy induces a dignity of mind. The influence of fine scenery. of benevolence. and abolish hurry. that it falls with- A cheerful. loftiness of a certain thought and power to marshal and adjust particulars. in energy. But. culture. retain a battle-pieces The Greek . and an indifference to death. I think. and the expansive interior of a cathedral. and awkwardness and discomfort give place to natural and agreeable movements. 127 from the want of perception of beauty in people. Repose and cheerfulness are the badge of the gentleman. as we say of Niagara. — repose heroes. are serene aspect out speed.CULTURE. Even a high dome. is noticed. or of trade. the presence of mountains. sculpture and painting have an effect to teach us manners. The orator who has once seen things in their divine order. culture must reinforce from higher There is influx the empirical skills of eloquence. For it indicates the purpose of Nature and wisdom attained. in calm. we It are domesticated. When our higher faculties are in activity. people lose something of their awkwardness under high ceilings. and in spacious halls. intelligent face is the end of and success enough. appeases our tations irri- and elevates our friendships. and the useful arts. their which can only come from an insight of whole connection. of self-command. the whatever violent actions engaged.

128 sight of this. a wise man who knows not only what Plato. A man who good footing with the heads of ton. Archimedes will look through your Connecticut machine. under ugly masks. from a higher in dealing come to affairs as ground. the court's ill-will. which thou brought'st me. blessed Poverty. CONDUCT OF and will LIFE. and right judge of its fitness. but for proficients. at a glance. And. and sees well enough where all this will end. stood on a fine humanity. Almost all ways to any better course . Franklin. what is worse. and an incapableness of being dazzled or frighted. he will say nothing of phi- have a certain mastery with them. for the apprentices. and the guesses of provincial politicians. and. Make him lose all his friends. With me thou And a better Muse than thee. parties at Washing- reads the rumors of the newspapers. with a key to the and wrong in each statement. can easily raise the to a certain majesty. but what Saint John affair can show him. which will distinguish his handling from that stands on a of attorneys and factors. And much more. The calamities Ben Jonson " specifies in his address to the Muse : — Get him the time's long grudge. But there are higher secrets of sons only for the brave. culture. Pericles owed this ele- Burke descended from a higher sphere when he would influence human affairs. he deals with. of modern senates are but pot-house politics." leav'st . Jefferson. and. Adams. Washington. keep him suspected still. which are not These are les- We must know our friends are our friends. though he will losophy. Plato says. before which the brawls vation to the lessons of Anaxagoras. reconciled.

Rough water can teach lessons worth knowheroism. 129 rote. The finished man of the world must eat of He must hold his hatreds also at every apple once." said Porphyry. We wish to learn philosophy by and play at But the wiser God says. aims high. and not remember spite." Open your Marcus Antoninus. as the any great and will not come at the or the second nor in the shape of fashion. and who contested the frowns of ease. They preferred the noble vessel too late for the tide. and let the populace bestow on you their coldest contempts. are friends ncjr enemies. " Steep fortune. dismantled and unrigged. He has neither arm's length. Popularity is for dolls. ing. Be willing to go to Coventry sometimes. must dread an easy home and Heaven sometimes hedges a rare fruit. He who popular manners. and odium. call. and craggy. smooth. Fear not a revolution which will constrain you to hve five years in one. There is none of not be purchased too dear. may . Don't be so tender at making an enemy now and then. Take the shame.CULTURE. When the state is unquiet. to her with colors flying and guns the social goods that companion borne into harbor firing. the poverty. but values men only as channels of power. that belong to Try the rough water as well as the truth-speaking. " is the path of the gods. and city drawing-rooms. In the opinion of the ancients. personal qualities more than ever decisive. character about with ungainliness burr that protects the If there is it good thing first in store for you. he was the great man who scorned to shine. contending with winds and waves. and the penal solitude.

And I think it a presentable motive to a . in our poor Frankfort. and that these boys who now grow up are caught not only years too late. but have their redress in being illusWhat forests of laurel we bring. in Who wishes to resist the eminent and behalf of the poor. live. the tears of mankind. and impolite ? and who that dares do it. that the chance for appreciation is much increased by being the son of an appreciator. too." almost too costly for humanity. and never allow it to dictate. "are Who wishes to be severe polite. — "If who chides her I I cannot do as I its have a mind. I find. " All that class of the severe and restrictive virtues. of we we must endure the elementary existence men and women. can keep his temper sweet. to make the best scholars of. lost me say here. far. and mere amiableness must not take rank with high aims and self-subsistency. that culture cannot begin too I In talking with scholars. Bettine replies to Goethe's mother. ! Let early. and every brave heart must The the more treat society as a child. observe that they on ruder companions those years of boyhood which alone could give imaginative literature a religious and infinite quality in their esteem.130 CONDUCT OF LIFE. and trious at last." shall not carry things And the youth must rate at true mark the longer inconceivable levity of local opinion. but two or three births too late. disregard of dress." ? said Burke. his frolic spirits ? The high virtues are not debonair. and low. to those who stood firm against The measure the opinion of their contemporaries of a master is his success in bringing all men round to his opinion twenty years later.

— the age of the The brain and of the heart is to come in. red Love. as the higher appear. scholar. We melioration by which refined. which will jeopardize this social and secular accumulation. as fast as the earth was fit for their dwelling-place and that the lower perish. with tears and joy. The fossil strata show us that Nature began with rudimental forms. can break its walls. and . as. If Love. and shun every expenditure of his forces on pleasure or gain. a well-born first proprietor to usually found. can set his dull nerves throbbing. and by loud taps on the tough chrysalis. engaged in the soil. and to feel a habitual desire that the estate shall suffer no harm by his administration. CULTURE. after the heats of youth. millions We call these Half- men. a considerate man will reckon himself a subject of that secular will mankind is mollified. but they are not yet men. still carry sticking to us some remains of the preced- ing inferior quadruped organization. — ! go out. and sing paean The age of the quadruped is to . time will come when the evil forms we . man needs all the music that can be brought to disengage him. . . but shall be delivered as down it to the next heir in as .. pawing to get free. in is 131 an old community. be a careful husband. good condition he received — so. and let the new creature emerge erect and free. . and rose to the more complex. Very few of our race can be said to be yet finished men. that. if Want with his if War with his cannonade scourge if Christianity with its charity if Trade with its money if Art with its portfolios if Science with her telegraphs through the deeps of space and time. make way. cured.

and the correspond- ing impulse to the Better in the shall dare affirm that there is human being. all The formidable mischief will enemies into power.132 CONDUCT OF LIFE. ture can spare nothing. Man's cul- have known can no more be organized. . until at last culture shall absorb the chaos and gehenna. And if one shall read the future of the race hinted in the organic effort of Nature to mount and meliorate. we nothing he will will not over- come and into Muses. He convert the Furies and the hells into benefit. He impediments into instruments. to convert all only make the more useful slave. wants is all the material. convert.

. their forms Beset his solitude.. BEHAVIOR. of rest. So dances his heart in his breast. V. of words. he says to them. His eyes explore the ground. Beauty. Grace. chosen men : Dazzle every mortal Their sweet and lofty countenance His enchanting food He need not go to them. The much deceived Endymion Slips behind a tomb. Their tranquil mien bereaveth him Of wit. The green grass is a looking-glass Whereon Little their traits are found. too fond to shun The tyrants of his doom. and Caprice Build this golden portal Graceful women. . Too weak to win. He looketh seldom in their face.

BEHAVIOR.
The
soul

which animates Nature
figure,

is

not less sigvehicle of

nificantly

published in the

movement, and
its last

gesture of animated bodies, than in
articulate speech.
;

This silent and subtile language is Manners not what^ but how. Life expresses. A statue has no tongue, and needs none. Good tableaux do not need declamation. Nature tells every secret
once.

Yes, but in

man

she

tells

it

all

the time, by
of the

form, attitude, gesture, mien, face, and parts
face,

and by the

vi^hole

action of the machine.

The we

visible carriage or action of the individual, as result-

ing from his organization and his will combined,
call

manners.

What
feet,

are they but thought entering

the hands and

controlling the

movements of the
if

body, the speech and behavior?

There
it

is

always a best way of doing everything,

be to boil an egg. Manners are the happy ways of doing things each once a stroke of genius or of
;

love,

— now repeated and hardened into usage.
at last

They

form
life

a rich varnish, with which the routine of
its

is

washed, and

superficial, so are the

If they are details adorned. dew-drops which give such a

depth to the morning meadows.

Manners

are very

communicable

from each other. Consuelo, in the romance, boasts of the lessons she had given the nobles in manners, on the stage and,
:

men

catch them

;

135

136
in real
ior.

CONDUCT OF

LIFE.

life, Talma taught Napoleon the arts of behavGenius invents fine manners, which the baron and the baroness copy very fast, and, by the advan-

tage of a palace, better the instruction.

They

stereo-

type the lesson they have learned into a mode.

The

pov/er of manners
fire.

is

incessant,

— an element
any

as unconcealable as

The

nobility cannot in

country be disguised, and no more in a republic or a

democracy, than in a kingdom.
their influence.

No man

There are

certain

can resist manners which are

learned in good society, of that force, that,

if a person have them, he or she must be considered, and is everywhere welcome, though without beauty, or

Give a boy address and accomhim the mastery of palaces and fortunes where he goes. He has not the trouble
wealth, or genius.

plishments, and you give
of earning or owning

them

:

they

solicit

him

to enter

and possess.

We

send

girls

of a timid, retreating

disposition to the boarding-school, to the riding-school,
to the ballroom, or

wheresoever they can come into

acquaintance and nearness of leading persons of their

where they might learn address, and see it The power of a woman of fashion to lead, and also to daunt and repel, derives from their belief that she knows resources and behaviors not known to them but when these have mastered her secret, they learn to confront her, and recover their
sex
;

own

near at hand.

;

self-possession.

Every day bears witness to their gentle rule. Peowho would obtrude, now do not obtrude. The mediocre circle learns to demand that which belongs to a high state of nature or of culture. Your manners
ple

BEHAVIOR,
are always
little

137

under examination, and by committees

suspected,

—a

police in citizens^ clothes,

— but
when

are awarding or denying you very high prizes

you

least think of

it.

We

talk

much

of

utilities,

— but

'tis

our manners

that associate us.

In hours of business,

we go

to

him

who knows, or want, and we do
the way.

has, or does this or that

which we

not

let

our taste or feeling stand in

But this activity over, we return to the indolent state, and wish for those we can be at ease with those who will go where we go, whose manners do -not oiTend us, whose social tone chimes with ours. When we reflect on their persuasive and cheering force how they recommend, prepare, and draw people together how, in all clubs, manners make the members how manners make the fortune of the ambitious youth that, for the most part, his manners marry him, and, for the most part, he marries manners when we think what keys they are, and to what what high lessons and inspiring tokens of secrets and what divination is recharacter they convey
;
; ; ;

;

;

;

;

quired in us, for the reading of this fine telegraph,
see what range the subject has,

we

and what

relations to

convenience, power, and beauty.

when they are the Their first service is very low, to minor morals but 'tis the beginning of civility, make us, I mean, endurable to each other. We prize them for their rough-plastic, abstergent force to get people out of the quadruped state to get them washed, clothed, and set up on end to slough their animal husks and habits compel them to be clean overawe
:

;

;

;

;

;

their spite

and meanness, teach them

to stifle the

138

CONDUCT OF

LIFE.

base, and choose the generous expression, and make them know how much happier the generous behaviors
are.

Bad behavior the laws cannot
infested with

reach.

Society

is

rude,

cynical,

restless,

and

frivolous

persons

who prey upon

the rest, and

whom,
:

a public

opinion concentrated into good manners, forms accepted by the sense of
dictors
all,

can reach

— the

contra-

and

railers at public

and private
it

tables,

who

are like terriers,

who
at

conceive

the duty of a dog of

any passer-by, and do the honors him out of sight I have seen men who neigh like a horse when you contradict them, or say something which they do not understand
honor to growl
of the house by barking
:

:

— then the overbold, who make
to

your hearth

:

the persevering

own talker, who
their
;

invitation

gives you

his society in large, saturating doses

the pitiers of

themselves,
deus,

—a

perilous class; the frivolous
find
;

Asmosand

who
;
;

relies

to twist

on you to the monotones

him

in ropes of

in short, every stripe of
inflictions

absurdity
istrate

— these are social

which the mag-

cannot cure or defend you from, and which

must be intrusted to the restraining force of custom, and proverbs, and familiar rules of behavior impressed on young people in their school-days. In the hotels on the banks of the Mississippi, they
print, or

that

used to print, among the rules of the house, "no gentleman can be permitted to come to the
his

public table without

coat

;

" and in the
little

same

country, in the pews of the churches,

placards

plead with the worshipper against the fury of expectoration.

Charles Dicliens self-sacrificingly under-

A prince who is accustomed every day to be courted and deferred to by the highest grandees. the book ought not to need to look over fine en- print in a reading-room a caution to strangers not to speak loud. If you look at the pictures of patricians and of peasants. canes. and in Roman coins and statues. or see in the manners the degree of homage the party is wont to receive. of different periods and countries. that they should be handled like cobwebs and butterflies' wings nor to persons who look at marble statues. But. 139 took the reformation of our American manners in unspeakable particulars. so that the churls could see the deformity. city. nor to persons who gravings. even in the perfect civiHzation of this such cautions are not quite needless in the Athenaeum and City Library. and grow out of circumstance as well as out of character. that they shall not smite them with . had its own deformities. will see nice gradations of rank. It Unhappily. you will see how well they match the same classes in our towns.BEHAVIOR. too. but also in the pictures which Commodore Perry brought home of dignitaries in Japan. and a becoming mode of receiving and replying to this homage. I think the lesson was not that it held bad manners up. A keen eye. . Manners are factitious. There are always exceptional people and modes. Broad lands and great interests not only arrive to such heads as can manage them. quite lost . The modern aristocrat not only is well drawn in Titian's Venetian doges. but form manners of power. acquires a corresponding expectation.

Every man. mainly. Claverhouse English grandees is be farmers. : Manners are partly factitious. Tender men sometimes have strong wills. and held on to his chair with both hands but underneath all this irritability. experience. and bearing when he spoke. an old statesman. and never fail to leave their mark. a facile exterior. and levity But Naand Destiny are honest. his voice would not serve him little cared he it wheezed. voice. We had.I40 CONDUCT OF affect to LIFE. that disengaged Don't be deceived by manners are commanding. it cracked. there must be capacity for culture in the blood. it broke. he seemed in a sort of fit. was a puissant will. or screech his argument and his indignation. it piped he knew that it had got to pipe. soldier. but. and under the control of his will. and of behavior. The lies obstinate prejudice in favor of blood. Else all culture is vain. It is much to conquer one's face. — looks with confidence for some and talents in his own . and a memory in which lay in order and method like geologic strata every fact of his history. : . . which at the base of the feudal and monarchical fabrics of the old world. a fop. has some reason in common artist. after speaking. ture perhaps the ambitious youth thinks he has got the whole secret when he has learned. — . under the finish of dress. and. who had sat all his life in courts and in chairs of state. When he sat down. in Massachusetts. hides the terror of his war. -— mathema- tician. firm. without overcoming an extreme irritability of face. to hang out a sign for each and for every quality. or wheeze. or traits merchant. and advancing.

or.BEHA VIOR. Wise men read gait all your private history in your look and and behavior. it Take a the date-tree. and the thoughts were written on steel tablets within. 141 which he would not dare to presume in the this point. dox on The Orientalists are very ortho"Take a thorn-bush. it could not publish more truly its meaning than now. They carry the liquor of life flowing up and down in these beautiful bottles. The have a longer ." said the emir Abdel-Kader. it has already ascended. It almost to utter violates the proprieties. what aims it has. child. and is will always produce dates. were made of glass. "and sprinkle it for a whole . and A Arab populace is a bush of thorns. The very sharply eyes indicate the antiquity of the soul. The whole economy of nature is bent on expression. Nobility the date-tree. child of a stranger. through how many forms here. a late traveller found seems imperfect. leave without culture. Men are like Geneva watches with crystal faces which expose the whole movement. year with water — it will yield it nothing but thorns. how old it is. The tell-tale body is all tongues. and so far In Siberia. beside the excel us. Man cannot fix his eye on the sun. if we say above the breath what the confessing eyes do not hesitate to every street passenger. and announcing to the curious how it is The face and eyes reveal what the with them. or of air." main fact in the history of manners is the If it wonderful expressiveness of the human body. men who their could see eye. lairds the satellites In of Jupiter with unarmed some respects the animals sight. spirit is doing.

nor sex. which the " An artist. There is no nicety of learning sought by the mind. but in the eye " and there . a thought strikes us. but intrude. that " they look over the whole ground. far and near. and hunting. neither learning nor power. or rank neither poverty nor riches. virtue.142 CONDUCT OF LIFE. in its altered mood. or to lie down and hide itself. eye. by secret signal. — roving. or.) strained Eyes are bold as lions. They wait for no introduction they are no Englishthey respect men nor . languages. to run away. Germany. probably of the eye.) or and labor. whether in indolent vision. They speak all . Spain. An eye can threaten like a loaded and levelled gun. and come again. and go through and through you." The outdoor life. it can make the heart dance with The eye obeys exactly the action of the mind. at each new name." said Michel eyes do not vie in acquiring. . as France. by beams of kindness. . the eyes wink hand. (that of art and beauty. is no end in to the catalogue of its performances. When fix. or can insult like hissing or kicking. leaping. and remain gazing at a distance in enumerating the names of persons or of countries. and labor. " must have his measuring tools not in the Turkey. in a moment of time. The jockeys say of certain horses. Angelo. advantage by their wings of a higher observatory. running. What inundation of life and thought . give equal vigor to the human A his farmer looks out at you as strong as the horse eye-beam is like the stroke of a staff. ask no leave of age. here and there. A cow can bid her calf. joy. (that of health vision. the eyes .

and the observer shall seem to feel the stirring of owls. know if this other form another and the eyes will not lie. The revelations The confession of a low. When If the a practised the eyes say one thing. is 143 discharged from one soul into another. One comes away though dissembled by the lips it. ! from a company. going to say a good thing. too. that the spirit that appears at the windows of the house does at once invest himself in a new form of his own. and the tongue another. usurping devil is there made. whether your argument hits him. are sometimes terrific. it may easily happen. man relies on the language of the first. with the advantage. though his tongue will not confess There is a look by which a man shows he is it. 'Tis remarkable. the eyes show it. of hospitality. he . through ! The glance is natural magic. and bats.BEHAVIOR. but make a faithful confession what inhabitant is there. You can read in the e3^es of your companion. in which. and a look when he has said offices Vain and forgotten are all the fine offers and if there is no holiday in the eye. It is the bodily symbol of identity of nature. We look is into the eyes to self. How many furtive inclinations avowed by the eye. moves all the springs The communication by the glance is in of wonder. to the mind of the beholder^ The eyes of men converse as much as their tongues. but is understood all the world over. is man off his centre. where he looked for innocence and simplicity. the greatest part not subject to the control of the will. that the ocular dialect needs no dictionary. The mysterithem ous communication established across a house between two entire strangers. and horned hoofs.

take all too much notice. There are eyes. A man finds room in in the immense scale of the few square inches of the face for the traits of his ancestors. wells that a man might fall into others are aggressive and devouring. is because they see the mud at the bottom of our eye. prowling eyes full of fate. before it can be signified in the eye. . and out from him. asking eyes. — — security of millions. to be sure. asserting eyes. seem to call out the police. such a stream of Hfe has been flowing into him. of Lacedaemon 'tis a stack of bayonets. has said nothing. and we are always learning to read it. society. all for the expression of all his history. being certified that his aims were generous and universal. now darkly sparkling 'Tis the city under clerical. now under . If the organ of sight is such a vehicle of power. and no important remark has been addressed to him. A complete man should need no auxiliaries to his personal presence. no more admission into the man than blueOthers are liquid and deep. and some of sinister power to charm down insanity. rustic brows. The military eye I meet. and require crowded Broadways. through the eyes.144 CONDUCT OF if LIFE. to protect individuals against them. The reason why men do not obey us. 'Tis very certain that each man carries in his eye the exact indication of his rank men. . The or ferocity in beasts. Whoever looked on him would consent to his will. — some alleged There are and eyes omen. and the that give berries. . in sympathy with the he shall not have a sense of this fact. is a power behind the eye. the other features have their own. of good. It must be a victory achieved in the will. and yet.

of Dante. to remember faces and names. tell you how significant a feature is the how its forms express strength or weakness of and good or bad temper." What refinement. It is reported of one prince. watch that one which speaks out the truth." Balzac left in manuscript a chapter. and Roederer." said the the teeth betray wise mother. it is a if you wish. said of the late Lord Holland. are essential to the courtier: and Saint Simon. will instruct you. and an encyclopaedia of Memoires. that his head had the air of leaning downwards." Palaces interest us mainly in the exhibition of manners. and Winckelmann. and nose will. 145 his wants. in order not to humble the crowd. Thus. suggest " the terrors of the beak. and Lavater.'''' in which he says: "The look. The sculptor. the power to stand guard. in those potent secrets. are raised to a high art. point of pride with kings. and what limitations. and you will know the whole man. But. and of Pitt. and the attitude or walk. that he always came . There are people who come in It was ever like a child with a piece of good news.BEHA VIOR. The maxim of courts is. " Beware you don't laugh. and Cardinal de Retz. as it has not been given to man. the respiration. over these ! '-^ four different simultaneous expressions of his thought. The nose of Julius Caesar. the voice. and the art of hiding all uncom- fortable feeling. which he called Theorie de la demarche. are identical. A calm and resolute bearing. "for then you show all your faults. will . that manner is power. at once. a polished speech. an embellishment of trifles. which. in the idle and expensive society dwelling in them.

wherein. and chilled and silenced by finding himself not in their element. for men and women meet mutual entertain- . after the close of the day's business. and manners up to it. senates. to breakfast with the air of a man who had met with some signal good-fortune.. manners has a formal importance is not with us a court. it seems. or he down just ^'- may not. and the scholar has no defence. but dresslest The theatre in which this science of circles. See him approach his man. But we must not peep and eavesdrop at palace-doors. A scholar may be a well-bred man. ought to But if it he finds the scholar apart from is companions. In Noire Daine^'' the grandee took his place on the dais. furnish good-natured reasons to his victim to cover up the chain. : 146 CONDUCT OF LIFE. then the enthusiasfs turn. Fine manners need the support of fine manners in others. marts. with the look of one who is thinking of something else. but must deal on his terms. all — the What is the talent of that character so successful man of the world. Now they must fight the battle out on their private strengths. 1 — in Manners manners of power sense to see his advantage. he be shamed into resistance. common. — perceives that he has the key of the situation. and . The enthusiast is is introduced to polished scholars in society. at leisure. He knows that troops behave as they are handled at first that is his cheap secret just what happens to every two persons who meet on any affair. not. that his will the comprehends the other's will. and drawing-rooms — . as the cat does mouse and he has only to use courtesy. They all have his somewhat which he has have. and. one instantly .

nor brilliant sayings. talkative company. ment." said Fuseli . "he looks like a rat that has seen a cat. that all the talkers were brained and it exhausted by the deoxygenated it spoiled the on stilts. Here are the sweet following eyes of Cecile it seemed always that she demanded the heart. Of course. : . Nothing can be more excellent : in kind than the Corinthian grace of Gertrude^s man- ter and yet Blanche. it has every variety of attraction and merit earnest persons. . easily excited. is A dressed. but. where each bent to amuse the other. . Here is Elise. and on his guard. . here is the columnar Bernard: the Alleghanies do not express more repose than his behavior. and are healthful. who has no manners. put all . Look on this woman. who caught cold in the invalids. . coming into the world. and has always increased it Here are creep-mouse manners and thievish since. nor distinguished power to serve you but all see her gladly her whole air and impression Here come the sentimentalists. There is not beauty.BEHAVIOR. Yet here are the The aspect of secret biographies written and read." In the shallow company. in 147 ornamented drawing-rooms. — yet the high-born Turk who came woman seemed air : hither fancied that every to be suffer- ing for a chair best persons: . "Look at Northcote. has betmanners than she for the movements of Blanche are the sallies of a spirit which is sufficient for the ners. . manners. to who have great well- we cannot extol it highly. shy. The youth looks humble and manly I choose him. that man is repulsive I do not wish to deal with him. easily tired. to youths or maidens objects at heart. The other is irritable.

— an immunity from all the observances. which society so tyran- . yea. self-possessed. attacked the second is still more effective. if you do not belong to it. and seldom wastes her attentions. to perceive that for A person of strong mind is comes him an immunity so long as he renders to society that service which native and proper to him. to any cause but the right one. and she can afford to express every thought by instant action. They fear to offend. Ne. and never suspect the truth. as the date of the transaction is not People grow up and grow old under easily found. this infliction. obtrude. The basis of good manners is self-reliance. but is not to be resisted. Those who are not us. and duties. As we sometimes dream that we are in a welldressed company without any coat. if he suffered from some mortifying circum- The is hero . belong to her train. Manners have been somewhat cynically defined to be a contrivance of wise men to keep fools at a disFashion is shrewd to detect those who do not tance. . ever as stance. cessity is the law of all who are not self-possessed. moment. should find himself at to all beholders. resists and sneers at you or quietly The first weapon enrages the party drops you. and. and pain Some men appear to feel that they belong to a apologize. home. so Godfrey acts Pariah caste. Society is very swift in its instincts. wherever he security is should impart comfort by his and good-nature own The hero secured is Guffered to be himself. ascribing the solitude which acts on them very injuriously. they bend and and walk through life with a timid step.148 CONDUCT OF LIFE.

out of People masquerade before us in their fortunes. is But through ever shining. all power to watch Yet nothing is more charming than to recognize the great style which runs through the actions of such. " has not the fine manbut. and not crushed into corners. 1 titles. Landor : Pericles and Aspasia. all the past. — edly. The core will come to the surface. because instantaneousness. 'Tis men a great destitution to both that this should not be entertained with large leisures. done. " Euripides." she adds good-humormovers and masters of our souls have surely a right to throw out their limbs as carelessly as they please. but contrariwise should be balked by importunate affairs. greater value than acter. Here comes to me Roland. nically 149 imposes on the rank and file of its members. Friendship should be surrounded with ners of Sophocles . " the ceremonies and respects. on the world that belongs to them. the reality 'Tis hard to keep the what from breaking through this pretty painting of the how. as nothing is more vulgar than haste. and before the creatures they have animated. with a delicacy of sentiment leading and inwrapping him like a divine cloud or holy ghost. Strong will and keen perception overpower old manners.BEHAVIOR. In persons of charof their we do not remark manners. . We are surprised by the thing the way of it." ^ Manners require time. and create new and the thought of the present moment has a ." says Aspasia. Friendship requires more time than poor busy can usually command. this lustrous varnish.

A man who is sure of his point. but everything around him becomes variable with expression. that even the size of your companion seems to vary with his freedom of thought. or great lawyers. A little integrity is better than any career. The things of a man for which we visit him. and a good deal on each other. and impose on the frivolous. as academic or dents. CONDUCT OF LIFE. because he was not lying in wait for these. and they know him . is seen to be done for effect what is done for love. or give received. as when in Paris the chief of the police enters a ball- room." said a sibyl. . and his thoughts generous. . it is a point of prudent good manners to treat these reputations tenderly. is felt to be done for love. when at ease. Nature forever puts a premium on reality. no rod and chain. by these fames. No carpenter's rule. civil presi- and connections. So deep are the sources of this surface-action. so many diamonded pretenders shrink and make themselves as inconspicuous as they can. which everybody reads. A man inspires affection and honor. and conAnd you cannot rightly train one to an air and manner. " I had I had received at birth the gift of penetration:" and these Cassandras — are always born. carries a broad tented expression. " fatal him a supplicating look as they pass.150 offices. At least. Manners impress as they indicate real power. except by making him the kind of man of whom that manner is the natural expression. But the sad realist knows these fellows at a glance. Not only is he larger. or professors. were done in the dark and the cold. What is done for effect. as if they v^^ere merited. or senators.

BEHAVIOR. yet formidable like the Egyptian colossi. nor Leibnitz. of each power and dispositions One would say. rapid other's How ? do they get this knowledge. Under the humblest roof. until by and by it gets into the mind of some weighty person on the community. other's measure. but the argument is scouted. and at home. 'tis of no importance but the house. all : — you quickly come is how large his end of if man is self-possessed. . the roof and dome buoyant as the sky. in- happy. when they meet for the first time. Neither Aristotle. will lot : 151 measure the dimensions of any house or housego into the house if the proprietor is constrained : and deferring. and what already strong A man and everything he says is applauded. education is In this country. to the how beautiful his grounds. and a profusion of reading and writing and expresuniversal. older than Sanscrit. by they said and did heretofore. as it is the guaranty that the powers are not squandered in too much demonstration. Another opposes him with sound argument. cheerful. who they are. can read this. then it begins to tell the basis of behavior. listened to. where school we have a superficial culture. and interesting. — and every time they meet. that — is the persuasion of their speech or. that is not in what they say. men do not convince by their argument. nor Junius. but they who cannot Men take each yet read English. even before they speak. the commonest person in plain clothes sits there massive. nor Champollion has set down the grammar-rules of this dialect. his house definitely large deep-founded. Self-reliance is . — but by their personality.

There — has always very great value. his climbing. record of manners . the wedding day is fixed. the point is gained. that books derives from the to penetrate the surface. We watched sympathetically. We is parade our nobilities in poems and ora- tions. at last. until. has fully expressed his thought. and had a quite vulgar tone. he has somewhat less it. whilst poets have often nothing poetical about them except their verses. a man does not write his poetry. that. CONDUCT OF LIFE. 152 sion.— . and we follow the gala procession are home to the castle. he to explains himself: but when he opens it for show. a whisper out of the ages to him who can " whatever is known to thyself alone. instead of the one vent of writing clings to his form and manners. He was in want of a wife and a castle. Novels are the journal or and the new importance of these fact. step by step. instead of working them up into happiness. What and a man In it is irresistibly urged to say. helps him us. understand it. Jacobi said. that "when the rule a man is. The novels used to be all alike. when the doors is left slammed in our face. The boy was to be raised from a humble to a high position. explaining his thought to others. and the object of the story was to supply him with one or both. it There is some reason when . it corrupts him. The novels used to lead us on to a foolish interest in the fortunes of the boy and girl they described. escapes by other vents through him. the novelist begins part of life and treat this more worthily." possession of One would say." to believe. is Society the stage on which manners are shown novels are their literature. and the poor reader .

not what talents or is genius a man how he to his talents. and with a profound trust in each other. or send tokens of I on him as on myself: if he did was right. not enriched by so idea. Bibles.BEHAVIOR. of malformation. as if everything of obstruction. and deal loyally. it and they may chance has. or perfect understanding between 'Tis a sincere people. is if The novels are as useful as they teach you the secret. I notice directness. had been trained away. — : we need not remembrance: thus or thus. and the greatest suc- confidence. I reinforce ourselves. from the first. is. good understanding. The highest " Let there compact we can make with our fellow. is on sincer- ity and uprightness. or write to him rien que s'entendre. namely. greatness enlarges all. talents and meet on a skills ground than the For. French definition of friendship. In all the superior people I have met. I need never meet. that the heroes mutually understand. . that constitutes friendship and character. as it is the charm in all good histories. or a virtuous impulse. What have they to conceal ? What have they to exhibit ? Between simple and noble persons. The man that stands by himself. there rely know it is always a quick intelligence better : they recognize at sight. the universe stands by him also." That is the charm in all good novels. outside in the cold. Its and vic- tories for all. or speak. It is sublime to feel and say of another. 153 much as an But the fortified victories of character are instant. truth spoken more truly. We are by every heroic anecdote. that the best of cess is life conversation. be truth between us two forevermore. but to possess.

to see him. wherever he went he was received gladly. that. The angel that was sent to find a place of torment for him. saying. he was. It is natural. that. you as he did But his feelings towards . of the monk Basle. though in At last the hell. am sorry. and made a kind of heaven of it. that he found something to praise in every place and company. that at forty. they took his and even good and adopted his manners came from far. when he came instead of contradicting or forcing him. and : treated.154 It is related CONDUCT OF LIFE. angels and. but. and was canonized as a condition. such was the eloquence and good-humor of civilly the monk. at his death. escorting angel returned with his prisoner to them that sent him. even by the most uncivil to discourse with them. remained incorrigibly Basle. The legend says. Basle saint. his sentence was remitted. and take up their abode with him. and he was allowed to go into heaven. : angels . attempted to remove him to a worse pit." replies Napoleon. . but with no better success for such was the contented spirit of the monk. and complained that he letters missed in Napoleon's the affectionate tone " I which had marked their childish correspondence. he should not feel towards at twelve. that no phlegethon could be for that. when the was King of Spain. "you think you shall find your brother again only in the Elysian Fields. being excommunicated by the Pope. There latter is a stroke of magnanimity in the correspond- ence of Bonaparte with his brother Joseph. sent in charge of an angel to find a fit place of suffering in hell . in whatever found that would burn him part.

How tenaciously we remember them Here is a lesson which I brought along with me in boyhood from the Latin School. denies it. of arts. President of the Senate. but king over your word and every gesture and action shall indicate power at Then they must be inspired by the good heart. Marcus Scaurus was accused by Quintus Varius Hispanus. has the features of his mind.. excited the allies to arms Marcus Scaurus. Which do you believe. 'Tis good to give a stranger a meal. be or leaky. or form. or a night's rest. . Romans ?" " Ut?'i creditis. : When I he had said these words. you have greater truth and strength. or behavior. have seen manners that make a similar impression . defended himself in this manner: "Quintus Varius Hispanus alleges that Marcus Scaurus. There is no beautifier of complexion. that he had excited the allies to take arms against the Republic. full of firmness and gravity. There is no witness. President of the Senate. . like the wish to scatter joy and not pain around us. that superfluous and ugly. But he. ! BEHAVIOR. and refine us like that and. they are suddenly better than beauty. the acquaintance with real beauty. with personal beauty that give the like exhilaration. Quiritesf'' rare spectacle of heroic manners We them the want of books. and make But they must be marked you shall not by fine perception. apologetic. : They must always show self-control facile. he was absolved by the assembly of the people. in memorable experi- ences. and which ranks with the best of Roman anecdotes." 155 His friendship yield us the How much we forgive to those who ! will pardon and even of the gentler virtues.

for it. said to me. a maid. For positive rules. An old man who added an elevating culture to a large distempers. respecting the divine communications. is so delicate. or sciatica. or thunder-stroke. manners mean able. to If rational mortals. by corruption and groans. and give courage to a companion. Special precepts are not to be thought of: the talent of well-doing contains them all. Every hour will as that of — that all my whim is just show a duty as paramount now and yet I will write it. experience of the room. 'Tis better to be hospitable to his good meaning and thought. CONDUCT OF LIFE. there one topic peremptorily forbidden to all well-bred. which we are willing to give the advantage of a good light. to perfect difficult. by all angels. " I When to think will study how you come into make humanity I beautiful to you. The oldest and the most deserving person should come very modestly into any newly awaked company.156 lodging. do not think that any other than negative rules can be down. out of which all must be presumed to have newly come." As laid respects the dehcate question of culture. unattain? dare assume to guide a What hands would not be clumsy to . I beseech you. namely. I life. or if you have slept. to hold your peace. or if you have headache. We must be as courteous to a man as we are to a picture. and not pollute the morning. to which all the housemates bring serene and pleasant thoughts. Come out of the azure. suggestion. their you have not slept. . or leprosy. Love the day. Na- ture alone inspires Who youth. Do not leave the sky out of your landscape. finest — the golden — say frankly.

and surprised with graces and able.. But Nature her and without knowing it. There must not be secondariness. over these impossibilities. we are continually felicities not only unteach- . sketch the genial precepts of 157 the young girl's demeanor? The chances seem infinite against success and yet success is continually attained. and 'tis a thousand to one that her air and manner will at once betray that she is not primary. but undescribable. but that there is some other one or many of her classj to whom lifts she habitually postpones herself. easily. BEHAVIOR.

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.VI. The crouching lion kissed his feet Bound to the stake. Mountain chains he can unlock : : : Thrown to lions for their meat. : Threading dark ways. Floods with blessings unawares. who. which divine. More near than aught thou call'st thy own. Severing rightly his from thine. Yet. Which is human. Sprung harmless up. Disconcerts with glad surprise. who. refreshed by blows He to captivity was sold. But him no prison-bars would hold Though they sealed him in a rock. But ever coming in time to crown The truth. felled by foes. if thou canst. no flames appalled. He is the oldest. This is he. This is he men miscall Fate. This is Jove. arriving late. and best known. Draw. deaf to prayers. and hurl wrongdoers down. But arched o'er him an honoring vault. greeted in another's eyes. WORSHIP. the mystic line.

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that we discussed Fate. in war. but has stated itself out in passions. nor corrupt society. told man knev/. when the gave too too preceding papers were read. Power. as we say. If the Divine Providence has hid from men neither disease. . . many cakes to Cerberus that we ran Cudworth's it. much line to the evil spirit of the times .6i pleasure. We are of different opinions at different hours. risk of making. when me he dared not look at his razor. who. though I should be dumb. the deviPs attorney. have no infirmity of I faith no it : is of much importance what or any will man may say I am sure that a certain truth be said through me. in the love of power and . in trade. Nor do I fear skepticism for any good soul. or though I should try to say the reverse. the argument of atheism so strong. because into am not afraid of falling my I inkpot. Some of my friends have complained. and Wealth. in hunger and . on too low a platform . I I dip my pen in the blackest ink. see not why we should give ourselves such sancti- fied airs. nor deformity. that he could not answer fears of I have no being forced in belief that my own I despite to play. by excess of candor. I have no sympathy with a poor suicides abounded. A just thinker will allow full swing to his skepticism.WORSHIP. but said to be at heart I we always may be on the side of truth.

A man bears beliefs. facts is be so nice that we cannot write these coarsely as they stand. make is all its square. so are they inclined for a ride or a jourat ney the same instant. it is said. as caterpillars a web. spirit will return.1 62 CONDUCT OF LIFE. being put. as a tree bears apples. formal. at the same time. The whole creation is made of hooks and eyes. The solar system has no anxiety about reputation. which the doctrine of Faith cannot down-weigh. and whether your community is made in Jerusalem or in California. and as they go with perfect sympathy to their tasks in the field or shop. and honesty as safe nor have and the I any can be given by leaning hard on the sides of fate. of practical power. We are born believing. are affected in the same way. which which. and the horses come up with the family carriage unbespoken to the door. naturally If it coheres in a state. counterbalances any accumulations of power. fined. or of trade. and fill us. it would be nervous. or doubt but there down and a counter- statement as ponderous. of saints or of wreckers. fear that a skeptical bias : We The It may well give skepticism as much line as we can. who. of bitumen. it they were more re- would be less like that of the shakers. " Heaven kindly gave our blood a moral flow. . The strength of that principle is not measured in ounces and pounds it tyrannizes at the centre of Nature. of sticking-plaster." We are born loyal. Men as make a a church. from long habit of think- ing and feeling together. or perfect ball. will credit of truth we can arrive at. It drives the drivers. to work and to play. A self-poise belongs to every parti- .

'Tis a whole population of gen- tlemen and ladies out in search of religions. . The builder of heaven has not so is. and south. that the public nature. or Wesley. Pike's Peak. adhere to every soul. or which prevails now on the slope of the Rocky Mountains or live. as that which existed in Massachusetts. No Isaiah or Jeremy has arrived. There is . not less a harmony in faculties. and is the Nemesis and protector of every society. I and my neighbors have been bred in the notion. unless we came soon to some good church. is we treated some particulars of a state of culture . ill constructed his creature as that the religion. and. like and centripetal. or Fenelon. like inside and outside. or Worship. except the soul is dissipated. or Mormonism. Tis as anarchy in our ecclesiastic realms. need give us no uneasiness. or Channing. Nothing can exceed the anarchy — — that has followed in our skies. The stern old faiths have flat all pulverized. are Nature has self-poise in her works certain proportions in which oxygen and azote combine. there would be a universal thaw and dissolution. 163 cle and a rectitude to every mind. should like fall north centrifugal the public and the private element. and out : cannot be subdued. But the whole state of man and its flowering and completion may be described as Religion. that. in the Revolution.WORSHIP. God builds his temple in the heart on the ruins of churches and religions. the question of culture. Calvinism. Yet we make shift to all Men . loyal. In the last chapters. or Romanism. The decline of the influence of Calvin. or Behmenism. a fitness in the spring and the regulator.

are speedily dragged into a savage interpretation. and demanded their price. 455. Christianity. . souls out of time. down The interior tribes of our Indians. up to the song of the Elders in the Apocalypse. extraordinary. and of the merchants a merchant. These announce absolute truths. let The Greek poets did not hesitate to loose their petulant wit on their deities also. The god of the cannibals will be a cannibal. Laomedon. who are rather related to the system of the their world. And to marry a pagan wife or husband. some hope and fear extended from the bhnd boding which into the invisible.^ Among our Norse forefathers. than to particular age and locality. who had built Troy for him. lent faith. are born. Eyvind. in his anger at Neptune and Apollo. in excelAnother argument was an adder put into the mouth of the reluctant disciple Rand. all ages. Heaven always bears some proportion to earth. 1 Iliad. with what- ever reverence received. believe in Christ?" asks Olaf. always some religion. prophetic. of the crusadIn ers a crusader. signified Euro- pean culture. flog gods. and their some of the Pacific islanders. King Olaf's mode of converting Ey vind to Christianity was to put a pan of glowing "Wilt thou coals on his belly. — the grafted or meliorated tree in a crab forest. now. 1. when things take an unfavorable turn. Book xxi. — nails a horseshoe to the mast or the threshold. in the romantic ages. does not hesitate to menace them that he will cut their ears oflf. which burst asunder. who refused to believe. religion cannot rise But the above the state of the votary.1 64 CONDUCT OF LIFE. v/hich.

as thou art mine. and not Richard thy vassal. art thou thyself. And was For he cursed in Christian all his life let wed heathen." Moths or worms. " A Hengist had verament daughter both fair and gent. my standards advocate. : King Richard ! taunts God with forsaking him I " O be to forsake thee. so That lusty. if that God that heaven and earthe made Would have a love for beauty and goodness. truth. not through any cowardice of my warfare. . not through my fault. and voluntarily to take a step backwards towards the baboon. will in future be despised. with her eyen glad. And womanhede. So young." What Gothic mixtures the Christian creed drew from I. so devout and so blasphemous." The religion of the early English poets is anomalous. but through thine in sooth. in the twelfth century.. my king and my God unwilling should : O how conquered. may show. But she was heathen Sarazine. were I thy lord and In sooth. in so forlorn and dreadful a position. Whom There should he loven but this lady sweet ? n' is no woman 1 to him half so meet. and seemliness. 165 was to marry Beast.'s the pagan sources. Vortigern for love fine to fere And Her took and to wife. Richard of Devizes's chronicle of Richard fie crusade. this day. " She was so fair. l And mixed our blood as flesh and mathen. Such is Chaucer's extraordinary confusion of heaven and earth in the picture of Dido. WORSHIP. in the same breath.

and wine. but hungers. The lover of the old religion complains that our contemporaries. These are not men. our — indififerentism as bad as superstition ? We live in a transition period. find the religions of men at this moment very credit- able to them. turbine-wheels. With these grossnesses. materi- timorous conservatism. to a great despair. and in public opinion. and believe in nothing. on. when the old faiths which comforted nations. in meat. succumb our large alized. — have is corrupted into a In godless. fevers. no fellow-feeling.. There is faith in chemistry. or unmanly and effeminating. but made I do not nations. thirsts. 1 66 CONDUCT OF LIFE. but not in divine causes. in the steamengine. We think and speak but is not with more temperance and gradation. and not any worthy pur- There is no faith in the intellectual. Here are knownothing religions. and not only so. we complacently compare own taste and decorum. the population no bond. . no enthusiasm. none in the moral universe. seems as if the lime in their bones alone held them together. but either childish and insignificant. The fatal trait is the divorce between religion and morality. scholars as well as merchants. cities. in wealth. and How is it people manage to live appetites walking. pose. intellect slave-holding and slave-trading and. or churches that proscribe scortatory religions religions tries . even in the decent populations. sewing machines. in machinery. — — so aimless as they are it ? After their peppercorn aims are gained. idolaritual covers scarlet wherein the whiteness of the indulgence. galvanic battery. seem to have spent their force. A silent revolution has loosed the tension .

"it has been a proverb. tianity. the maundering of Mormons. The architecture. the ''- activity. that he has erected the negation of God into a system of government. the periodic matics. the ^' revivals. in place of the gravity and permanence of those societies of opinion. By the irresistible maturing of the general mind. partake : of the madness believe. What proof of infidelity. as all persons must. and. thumps in table-drawers. His impossible to maintain the old emphasis of his personality . and the phrase " higher law " became a political jibe. the prayer. the arts sink into shift and maketo do. and it recedes. the retrogression to Popery. In creeds never was such levity witness the heathenisms in Chris.WORSHIP. they run into freak and extravagance. there is a feeling that religion is When " Paul Leroux offered his article Dieu'''' to conductor of a leading French journal. the music. the like stupefaction was in the air. hold. the Christian traditions have lost their The dogma of the mystic offices of Christ be- ing dropped. Mr. Gladstone said of the late King of Naples. the rat and mouse revelation. and black art. before the sublimity of the moral laws. he replied. tors . the deliration of rappings. La question de Dieu manque d''actnalitey In Italy. this From change. the squalor of Mesmerism. Not knowing what the churches stagger backward to the we ape our ancesmummeries of the dark ages." In this country. like the toleration and propagandism of . and he standing on his genius as a moral teacher. and in the momentary absence of any religious genius that could offset the rial immense mategone. 167 of the old religious sects." the Millennium mathepeacock ritualism.

It prietors that there believed by well-dressed prono more virtue than they pos- that the solid portion of society exist for the arts of comfort : that life is an affair to put somewhat between the upper and lower mandibles. and all America will acquiesce that the best thing has happened to him that. " Well. after the education has gone far. then let him die by sea-storm." says the man in the street. like the externality of churches that once sucked the roots of right and wrong. Another scar of this skepticism is the distrust in is is human sess . or other accident. that the best use to put a fine person to." See what allowance vice finds in the respectable and well-conditioned a pickpocket intrude into the society of gentlemen. like like LIFE. How prompt Certain patriots in the suggestion of a low motive England devoted themselves for years to creating a ! public opinion that should break down the corn-laws and establish free trade. of ? slavery the direction education ? What. virtue. " Aye." Kossuth fled hither across the he could rouse the of New World to a sympathy with European liberty. to drown him to save his board. " Cobden got a stipend out ocean to try if of it. "he made a handsome thing it. is. and now have perished away ? till they are a speck of whitewash on the wall highest mental and moral gifts are held attain the highest What man proof of skepticism like the base rate at which the ? Let a and broadest culture that any American has possessed. If for life. such is the . expensiveness of America. they exert what moral . enough to make him comfortable class. railroad collision." says New York. the facility of conversion What.1 68 ? CONDUCT OF What.

gentlemen who agree to discountenance same rogue. but we appeal to the sanctified preamble of the messages and procla- mations of the public sinner. Even well-disposed. — the faster we counted our spoons . But if an adventurer go through the forms. to stand for this which they uphold. Forgetful measure is a great error. Only action. force they have. good sort of people are touched with the same infidelity. We vate adventurer. will be forward to : — though by the — the same the private show civilities and marks of respect to the public one and no amount of evidence of his crimes will prevent them giving him ovations. this that On call the whole. .WORSHIP. complimentary dinners. as of senator. forgetful that a wise mechanic uses a sharp tool. opening their own houses to him. we homage have said don't know about is you honesty . were not deceived by the professions of the prithe louder he talked of his honor. and he finds himself uncomfortable. they deriving entirely fi-om the old dead things. or presidant. before they into the world. But the official men can in nowise help you in any question of to-day. It must be that they who pay this to themselves. and priding themselves on his acquaintance. as the proof of sincerity. they go on choosing the dead men of routine. and for brave. but who came were appointed by God Almighty. a bird in the hand better. 169 and glad all to get away. procure himself to be elected to a post arts as of trust. use half-measures that a ilittle those can help in counsel or conduct who did not make a party pledge to defend this or that. straightforward and compromises. we detest in the house-thief.

which all speech aims to all action to evolve. consists in an avoidance of acts and engagements which But this it was once their re- ligion to assume.. do . but to . the moral sense reappears to-day with the same morning newness that has been from of old the founand strength. which is say. there religion now." and terrors. You say. The religion of the culti- vated class now. becility In spite of our imreligion. has been charged that a want of sincerity in the a vice general throughout American shall not leading society. dwelling very peacefully in us. It is the order of the world and the underand the enginery at work to draw out these powers in priority. undescribable presence. when at that moment we are witnessing one. there is no 'Tis like saying in rainy weather. real being. but to be worked ujDon is and to this homage a consent of all thoughtful and just men in all ages and conditions.lyo It CONDUCT OF men is LIFE. has its office. To this sentiment belong vast and sudden enlargements of power. 'Tis remarkable that our faith in ecstasy consists with total inexperience of it. to be sure. But we are never without a hint that these powers are mediate and servile. and "universal decay of &c. — essences with essences. and There is a principle the basis of things. no doubt. quiet. tain of beauty of his superlative effects. unde- scribed. a simple. Even the fury of material activity has some results friendly to moral . is no sun. &c. avoidance will yield spon- taneous forms in their due hour. not to work. and that we are one day to deal with to educate with accuracy the senses standing . But the multitude of the sick make us deny the existence of health. let our rightful lord there : we are not to do.

but the wilder it is. will certainly bring back the words. a religious training." We think say. not saved in bundles. ity. and which cannot be of spiritual conceived as not existing. it is everywhere the same. with nobody to help him. to be invaded. so much. The cure for false theology motherwit." I find the omnipresence if — which is^much as Men talk of "mere moral- . age after age." is a lasting essence. and. the more virtuous." one should say. The true meaning is real. Forget your books and traditions. " poor God. that law which executes itself. deals with us Heaven Souls are on no representative system. health.: WORSHIP. I esteem this a step in the right direction. and the religious appear isolated. it — religion a happiness to escape is of character so apt fruit Religion must always be a crab its cannot be grafted and keep wild beauty. with whatever illusions we have loaded them. to I know no words that mean their ancient meaning. a skepticism devastates the community. words "moral" and "spiritual. and obey your moral perThat which is signified by the ceptions at this hour. In our definitions. " I have seen human nature in all its forms. which works without means. ? How ?" is it with thee thee personally it is is it well is it ill For a great nature. we grope after the spiritual by describing it as invisible. it I and that do not can be cured or stayed by any modification of theologic creeds." said a traveller who had known the extremes of society. " The ? Spirit saith to the ? man. 171 The energetic action of the times develops individualism. " I have seen. the old forms of religion decay. much less by theologic is discipline.

to the bad. in the reaction of every atom in can best indicate by examples those reactions by which every part of Nature replies to the pur- pose of the actor. when we have taken of the sun. the year to the day . if the come know. It is true that genius takes . being to doing to . pervade and govern. thoughts on spiritual with as strict a grasp as that of the hands on the sword. Every man takes care that his neighbor shall not But a day comes when he begins to care that he do not cheat his neighbor. the source of intellect. its rise out of the mountains of rectitude that all beauty and power which men covet. He has changed his market-cart into a chariot What a day dawns. our genius slow. to display .172 CONDUCT OF I LIFE. to heart the doctrine of faith ! to prefer. life character to performance justice will — and have and. when fixed arts appeared. the term will be long. mean. in some manner. as a better . cheat him. I All the great ages have been ages of belief. investment. when great national movements began. that be done us . and to his highest powers. — beneficently to the good. when poems human soul was in earnest. or the pencil. 'Tis certain that worship stands in some command- ing relation to the health of man. were made. so as to be. and dare to uncover those simple and which. Then all goes well. and the almightiness Nature. are somehow born out of that Alpine district. when there was any extraordinary power of performance. and had verities. that any extraordinary degree . penally terrible laws Let us replace sentimentalism by realism. be they seen or unseen. being to seeming logic : rhythm and to the year to is . or the trowel. the its when heroes existed.

WORSHIP. There is an intimate interdependence of intellect and morals. we set no limit to our expectation of his genius. that talent uniformly sinks with character.— . prior. a finer conscience. where others are vacant. elegance of rhetoric. The bias of errors of principle carries away men into perilous courses. the . visions. that is. to all question of the ingenuity of arguments. the or the amount of intimate facts. man or woman involves we very slowly admit man a higher degree of moral sentiment than our own. which marks minuter degrees an ear to hear acuter notes of right and wrong. — of sanity or of insanity. the good. will does not control their passion or final Hence the extraordinary blunders. once satisfied of such superiority. in another Thus. can we share and know the nature of things. of course. But. they see. with which the understanding is not acquainted. For such . usually which men spoiled by ambition Hence the remedy for all blunders. than we can. which will form the most reliable judgments. I think. wrong head. and into fall. persons are nearer to the secret of are bathed . more impressionable." For the heart is at once aware of the state of health or disease. or. which is the controlling state. as is this alliance of soon as their talent. of beauty in 173 a moral charm. God than others by sweeter waters they hear notices. Given the equality of two intellects. I think we listen suspiciously and very slowly to any evidence to that point. So mind and heart. because not by our private. but by our public force. We believe that holiness confers a certain insight. or the bad hearted ? " The heart has its arguments.

the redeemer and instructor of is souls. and congratulate you on your increased common sense. " As cure of blindness. so much mind. the continuation of the inflexible law of matter into the subtile in kingdom of ball sidereal ages. can be determined to the fraction of a Well. your intellect will grow. to him the book of history. and of your descent. If on the eternal. —a never loses way in its Vvfild path secreter gravitation. its weight neither the The path of a star. or solstice of genius. The moral must be your eye is the measure of health. opened : and the next lesson taught. moment an eclipse. the sequent retrogression. The vulgar are sensible of the change in you. though they clap you on the back. Our recent culture has been in natural science. and loses nor gains. will. if. the cure of crime. rains. and your opinions and actions will have a beauty which no learning or combined advantages of other men can rival. The moment of your loss of faith. gravity and of thought that. Man of has learned to weigh the sun. of the and the and elemental kingdoms. much love. and the inevitable loss of attraction to other minds. and the of duty are commandments is. as it is their primal essence. . will be marked in the pause. of the mineral We have learned the manners of the sun and of the rivers moon. The superiority that has no superior. love. and projection keep their its craft. the lures of passion. and the through space. second. and acceptance of the lucrative standard. a secreter . of plants and animals.174 CONDUCT OF LIFE. the book of love." said the Latin proverb. is love.

A man : does not see.WORSHIP. the nature of things works for truth and right forever. in a boy's game. or in the strifes of races. 'Tis a short sight to limit our faith in laws to those of gravity. it. but it was all a problem in arithmetic. Strong men beThe man was born to do lieve in cause and effect. And this appears in a class of facts which concerns all men. and so forth. Those laws do not stop where our eyes lose them. who that. by looking narrowly. of chemistry. intimacy. that. and his father was born to be the father of him and of this deed. it was so then. and weight. you shall see there was no luck in the matter. things go by number. Shallow stances : men believe in luck. a perfect reaction. and. see this unity. and ultimate right is done. as he eats. a perpetual judgment keeps watch and ward. For. so he thinks as he . or. are in search of justice. It The and curve of the flight of the all moth is preordained. rule not less tyrannically in 175 human history. and sincerity all who see appearances. so that. of botany. within and above their creeds. believe in circum- was somebody's name. projection. yet the primordial atoms are prefigured and predetermined to moral issues. and keep the balance of power from age to age unbroken. or he happened to be there at the time. but push the same geometry and chemistry up into the invisible plane of social and rational life. Religion or worship against is the attitude of those . or an experiment in chemistry. is Skepticism unbelief in cause and effect. though the new element of freedom and an individual has been admitted. and another day it would have been otherwise. look where we will. rule.

176 deals. because they are the native colors of the fleece . but method. it is Nature. is a battery. and knowing all things largest of the large . is the basis of the out there in inspiration made alive. no exemption. but everywhere and always . Let me show him that the dice are loaded that the . and all. balked and vain. and how real. by a few examples. we see its fatal Scriptures a definition of We call it the moral sentiment. that was put in. which hears without ears. so CONDUCT OF he son is. that his is the son of his thoughts and of his actions . once for all. " Law it is. or hands. — . . sees without eyes. human mind. that the globe . that fortunes are not exceptions but fruits and connection are not somewhere and no miscellany. are. so is it done to us we are the builders of our fortunes cant and lying and the attempt to secure a good which does not belong to us. . moves without feet. . colors are fast. or feet which is smallest of the least. In us. . We owe to the Hindoo Law. . . As we are. and seizes without hands. But. in the human mind. no margin for choice. that relation sometimes. this tie of fate is The law strength. no anomaly. LIFE. so we do and as we do. and an even web and what comes out. and so he appears he does not see. or color. because every atom and that the police and sincerity of the Universe are secured by God's delegating his divinity to every particle that there is no room for hypocrisy. which is without name. what kind of a trust this is. . is a magnet ." If any reader tax me with using vague and traditional phrases. let me suggest to him. which compares well with any in our Western books..

rule for Littleton or Portland. fly will The smallest to draw blood. If the artist succor his flagging spirits by opium or wine. of London. is lost. as in Littleton or Portland that the gossip is as prompt and vengeful. external penalties.WORSHIP. for the and going abroad. put to and the reaction of his fault on himself. — . or Lutheran. men in the solitude . There is no concealment. You cannot hide any secret. selectest. his sect. none large enough to hide in that the censors of action are as numerous and as near in Paris. and devastation of his mind. What! it is not then necessary to the order and existence of society? He and the commanding eye of his neighborhood. but for the Universe. or nothingfor nothing. as Quaker. . In a new nation and language. resentments. reaction. . God From has delethese low Next come the . he makes the discovery that there are no large cities. Na- ture created a police of many ranks. a several vengeance that. is not a misses this. and gossip is a weapon impossible exclude from the privatest. his work will characterize itself as the effect of opium or wine. We cannot spare the coarsest muniment of virtue. The countryman first 177 leaving his native village. We are disgusted by gossip yet is of importance . This is the peril of New York. the scale ascends. highest. If other . it to keep the angels in their proprieties. which held him to decorum. to young men. which injustice calls out the false relations in which the offender is then. and. the fears. of New Orleans. of Paris. time. for each offence. or. things are as broad as they are long. gated himself to a million deputies. But after a little experience. finds all his habits broken up.

There is no privacy that cannot be penetrated. without disclosing to intelligent ears precisely where he stands in life and thought. and things themselves are detective. A two or three sentences. If a man wish to conceal anything he carries. whether in the kingdom of the senses and the understanding. or of Bonaparte. He a strong man who can utter hold down his opinion. it will so appear. in that of ideas duty. No is secret can be kept in the civilized where every one it by hiding. If you follow the suburban fashion in building a sumptuous-looking house for a little money. namely. and reveals bury in his breast ? is 'Tis as hard to hide as fire. you make a picture or a statue. world. a masked hides his real character. characterizes only see what are. man cannot and imagination. or on pictures. when you made it. in the realm of intuitions and People seem not to see that their opinion of is the world also a confession of character. it will appear to all eyes as a cheap dear house. or. or gardening. Each must be armed — not necessarily with musket . We are all physiognomists and penetrators of character. we those who give it. and usually know what he conceals. Is it otherwise if there be some belief or some purpose he would Society ball. The fame of Shakspeare or of Voltaire.178 CONDUCT OF LIFE. on building. of Thomas k Kempis. so the universe protects itself by pitiless publicity. We can and if we misbehave we suspect others. As gas-light is found to be the best nocturnal police. it sets the beholder in that state of mind you had. If you spend for show. or on equipages. those whom he meets know that he conceals somewhat.

179 and pike. — . — there are the working-men. the blows were aimed at and told on look on that man as happy. are the result of strikes this feeling. whilst the foreign workas really vanquishing that man only strikes one. Let him accuse none. force. if I foreigner. a good while. . And the Crys- Palaces and prizes World Fairs. To is every creature is his own weapon. how- ever skilfully concealed from himself. he can feel that he has better muskets and pikes in his energy and constancy. mechanical and in the fine arts. with their committees and on all kinds of industry. The way to conquer the foreign artisan. and as badly as they dare. the bad world. The way to mend Here is to create the right world. The American workman who is ten blows with his hammer. him injure none. giving preference to worse wares of ours. WORSHIP. seeing these.. as in farming. looks into his work for a reply. there are bers who do among the numwe say. in navigation. But the is. His work let is sword and shield. Happy. in legislating. not into patronage. when there is question of success. their task perfunctorily. if. not into the market. real. or making war on them tion. or just to pass.and lasting victories are those of peace. on ness falls. a low political economy plotting to cut the throat of foreign competiexcluding others by and establish our own or. as his person. and love to see rightly done. not to tal kill him. in the In every variety of human employment. who. but to beat his work. and not of war. that has the . — those who who whom the burden of the busiit love work. by cunning tariffs. not into opinion. finish their task for its is own sake and the state and the world happy.

As men get on in life. felt may the occasion of that it making not it and appreciated. our word or act sublime. guage you will. I can- not see without awe. things. What I am. you have your own. is conveyed to you. and a whilst He has heard from . LIFE.l8o most of such CONDUCT OF finishers. and report it. victory is There is no chance. there is an increasing faith in the moral sentiment. There was never a man born so wise or good. this sincerity is the property of all To make real. you can never -say anything but what you are. in spite of I my efforts to hold it back. Men talk as if victory Work is victory. but one or more companions came into the world with him. but the divine assessors life. now under walk with all who came up like a police in citizens' clothes. Wherobtained. step for step. and somewhat less solicitude to be lulled or amused. me what I never spoke. through the kingdom of time. and will loiter. you are secure of the yet. not the Use what lansingle word or unsupported action. with him into another. What am has been secretly conveyed from I me to another. and what I think. if You want but one verdict: rest. that no man thinks alone. and no man acts alone. — — now under one disguise. if And witnesses are wanted. work is done. him. will The world : always do juswait securely tice at last to such finishers it cannot otherwise. In the progress of the character. they acquire a love for sincerity. were something fortunate. who delight in his faculty. was vainly making up my mind to tell him it. This reaction. we must make it It is our system that counts. witnesses are near. He who know ever has acquired the ability. and no blanks.

man. of the wonderful powers shown by her novice. any longer here is no miracle. for here is no humility. and.WORSHIP. Philip Neri. decreasing faith in propositions. of these The Pope did not new claims. and pierces to the doer an ear which hears not what men say. and ascertain her character. and a new standard an insight which disregards what is done for the eye. Young people adAs we grow spirit. one had appeared. all travel-soiled He threw himself on his mule. who claim to certain rare gifts of inspiration and prophecy. Philip under- took to the nun. drew back with anger. and visit well know what coming to make Philip in from a journey. in the . and particular excellences. There was a wise. and refused the doors." mounted : his mule. older. as soon as she came into the apartment. and the abbess advised the Holy Father. at Rome. Among the nuns in a far from Rome. The nun was sent for. devout man who is called. Holy Father. . one day. We have another sight. and desired her to draw off his boots. mud and mire to the He told the abbess the wishes of and begged her to summon the nun without delay. his Holiness. i8i mire talents. as he was. as the or quality of the . Catholic Church. office : Philip ran out of and returned instantly to the Pope " Give yourself no uneasiness. . St. The young nun. and hastened through the distant convent. Philip stretched out his leg all bespattered with mud. of whom many anec- dotes touching his discernment and benevolence are told at convent not laid Naples and Rome. we value total powers and effects. but hears what they do not say. he consulted him. who had become the object of much attention and respect.

and choke that word. or persons. and on all its feaNot only does our beauty waste. puts instead of thinking how it really is. or against their will : — we are always looking through you behind you. long after we have forgotten all his words How it comes to us in silent ! . Yankee understandings try to hold back. but what they must say . what they thing different. whether touching natural facts. An anatomical observer remarks. on the face. tell at last tures. Even children are not deceived by the false reasons which their parents give in answer to their questions. is said. and to articulate someIf we will sit quietly. We — ought to say will. them off with a a traditional or a hypocritical answer. with their will. civilly Whilst your habit or whim and impatiently wait until that wise superior shall speak again.1 82 CONDUCT OF LIFE. that the sympathies of the chest. tion. And now sciences of broader scope are starting up behind these. We do not we care for you. it is really of little importance what blunders in statement we make. so only we make no wilful departures from the truth. Physiognomy and phrenology are not new sciences. And so for ourselves. though their busy. the children perceive that it is traditional or hypocritical. but declarations of the soul that it is aware of certain new sources of informa- and pelvis. To sound constitution the defect of another is at once manifest and the marks of it are only concealed from : us by our own dislocation. When the parent. need not much mind what people please to say^ what their natures say. let us pretend what to the we dim dictator chatters. artful. abdomen. but it leaves word how it went to waste. How a man's truth comes to mind. or religion.

can we see without. to as whom all things are immortal. that truth is our only armor in all passages of life and death! Wit is cheap. because I cannot answer an objection to it ? Consider only. Where ? is the service which can escape is its remuneration all vulgarity. 183 hours. That only which we have within. it is because we harbor none. but if you cannot argue or explain yourself to the other me. Why should I give up my thought. and you gain a station from which you cannot be dislodged. me ? I am well assured that who brings me so many problems. so long any are incomplete . If there is grandeur in you. The Buddhists say. he shall have it all his me. He only is rightly very cheerful Giver that he own way. is I have read somewhere. The man whose office. " No seed will die " every seed : will grow. If we meet no gods. that the happiness of one can- not consist with the misery of any other. The other party will forget the words that you spoke. not on the nature of his act. is. or or fame. cleave to the truth against Why life should I hasten to solve every riddle which the Queswill offers tioner. against thee. but the part you took continues to plead for you. that none accomplished. What and vulgar. very potent. party. bring the answers also in due time. whether it be money. and the essence of ? but the avarice of reward artist. but on the wages.WORSHIP. of eyes are nailed sinner and saint. and anger is cheap. whether it remains in my life the same it was. 'Tis the dif- ference of artisan of talent and genius. for immortal. you will find grandeur in porters and sweeps. — is almost equally . Very rich.

defends its him. just employment. as It is long as am in my place. humility. love. as be- ing also the intimacy of Divinity in the atoms that. that constitute a necessity of existing. A great man cannot be hindered of the effect of his act. and where you go. The conviction that work is dear to God and cannot be spared. painful body. great. which bears its own fruit. like every other tree. guaranteeing task. because he is transformed into his action. — is it ? if it has no generous. The genius of life is friendly to the noble. far. A poor. Thus man made equal to every event. The lightning-rod that disarms the cloud of . soon as the man is right. with duty for his guide. no duties or affections. because it is immediate. whose eyes are opened the reward of actions cannot be escaped. when flowers reach their ripeness. men shall think so I they walk in hallowed cathedrals. and. assurances and previsions emanate from the interior of his body and his mind . to see that low. the glory of the human being. He can face danger for the right. he can run into flame or bullets or pestilence. and taketh its nature. tender. Life is hardly respectable. strange that superior persons should not feel that they have some better resistance against cholera.1 84 CONDUCT OF He is LIFE. as. And look on those sentiments which make . Every man's task his is his life-preserver. incense is exhales from them. and in the dark brings them friends from Fear God. faith. as and. I I He feels the insurance of a am not afraid of accident. as a beautiful atmosphere generated from the planet by the averaged emanations from all its rocks and is soils. than avoiding green peas and salads.

under the guidance of a deeper instinct. he ventured to go where he was. "but my duty brings me and yours does not.WORSHIP. He all shall work in the dark. in order to prove that the fear." King. " visited those sick of the plague. Thus can the ings faithful student reverse all the warn- of his early instinct. he is insulted. threat is 185 high aim reacts on his body in its duty. learns that adversity the prosperity of the great. " than your Majesty. whilst he was besieging a town on the continent." said the here." It is related of William of Orange. " Napo- A leon. that. having explained his errand." In a few minutes. 'Tis incredible right. . on the days. which repels all hurtful influences whilst fear invites them. he can be insulted his affair is not to insult. : . man v^ho could vanquish and he was what force the will has in such it penetrates the body. work against Hafiz writes. and. that every moment you spend here is at the risk of your life?" "I run no more could vanquish the plague also. high aim is curative." replied the gentleman. learning that the King was before the walls. and puts it in a state cases of activity. . and. failure. on the organs of the body. and ill-will. "Yes. and received his answer." says Goethe. He found him directing the operation of his gunners. sir. as well as arnica. the King said. a gentleman sent to him on public business came to his camp. " Do you not know. a cannon-ball fell on the spot. risk. He learns is to welcome misfortune. pain. and the gentleman was killed. He If learns the greatness of humility. A the means.

that I have never been . They think they have defeated me. I life said. cannot yet make so. all the^time. to fail in be prospering: we are may be sick. neither for what he should do He to men. neither in his memory. designs on the future. He had hoarded nothing from the past. " I am I never beaten until I know that I am meet powerful brutal people to whom I have no skill to reply. Under the whip and of the driver. I have not been weaponed for that and have been historically beaten know. in all the encounters that have yet chanced. . He had no in his cabinets. recall some traits of a remarkable person whose and discourse betrayed many inspirations of this Benedict was always great in the present sentiment. in the journals I am defeated in this fashion. ends meet. It is so pubHshed in society. I seem my friends and clients. My children worsted.1 86 " CONDUCT OF At the last day. it their pocket." The moral It is equalizes all. and van- quish the enemy My race may not unpopular. men shall wear heads the dust. ugly. the coin which buys empowers all. neither time. nor for what men should do for him. on a dozen different lines. surprises man with a feeling of elasticity which makes nothing of loss. and yet. in all men's sight. too. . That I is to say. LIFE. My ledger may show that my I am in debt. the slave shall feel his equality with saints In the greatest destitution calamity. perhaps beaten. obscure. As ensign and as ornament On Of their their lowly trust. and which all find in and heroes. particular occasion. enriches^ all.

but he exthe other On hand. Thick-starred Orion was my only companion. I kept company wi-th every man on the road. when my hour comes. my memory thought come. with will my friends." spent. I am sure I can spare it. I would give it entertainment. I ate whatever was set before me I touched ivy and dogwood. When I went abroad. loveliest.WORSHIP. for I knew that my evil and my good did not come from these. seek his friend. have never yet fought." he said. He had the whim not to make an apology to the . and he was home. shall certainly fight. ever a squirrel or a bee can go with security. not at if door of his friend. and shall beat." " A man. who put their I life into their fortune and their company. and met him on the way pressed no surprise at any coincidences. had misinterpreted the intimations. If the would not for a degrade myself by casting about in thought. he did not go again concluding that he he called at the . It shall be the same . as they did. " his who having well compared own strength or weakness with that of others. me. For I could not stoop to be a circumstance. I will never woo the it." says the Vishnu Sarma. is after all doth not know the difference. whose servant I was. we shall both know will be asked or to be granted. easily over- come by " I his enemies. it comes not rightly at all. I I not ask any friendship or favor. nor by waiting for one. It should. " ten months in the country. go into my hands and feet but if it come not sponIf it can spare taneously. Whercan go." Benedict went out to . but from the Spirit. as it ought. 187 beaten. When Nothing come be to to my own. I .

Honor him whose Hfe is perpetual victory." In the Shakers. if they have truly learned thus much wisdom. and you thrust your babe out of doors. And not in vain have they worn their clay coat. to the next person he should meet. I find one piece of belief. he was a piece of personal vanity but he would correct his conduct in that respect in which he had faulted. the Spirit will presently manifest to the man himself. whether it so seem to you or not. that encourages them to open their doors to every wayfaring man who proposes to come among them for.1 88 CONDUCT OF LIFE. "Why ask? One thing will clear itself as the thing to be done. now sickening. The milk and meal you give the beggar. instead of praise. they say. was like to be bedridden on her hands. and whether he belongs among them. what manner of person he is. Thus. from year to year. Thrust the woman out. finds same said. who. . he said. whether to put her into the street? Just as much whether to thrust the little Jenny on your arm into the street. when the hour comes. Mira came to ask what she should do with the poor Genesee woman who had hired herself to work for her. and shufiled in their Bruin dance. Should she keep her. . by sympathy with the invisible and real. Is it a question. and to the society. so called. For this. and not another. at a shilling a day. and drudged in their fields. universal justice was satisfied. individual whom he had wronged. him. who does not . they do not reject him. and. or should she dismiss her? But Benedict said. in the doctrine which they faithfully hold. support in labor. will fatten Jenny. They do not receive him.

It is when it is well employed. at our table by day." replied the King. the insatiable curiosity and appetite continuation. "that " all the army wilt not hear the trumpet? . not to the arithTalent and success interest me but moder- the The great class. Of It immortality. The Spirit does was another. asks no questions of the Supreme Power. metician. they who affect our imagination. — namely. 189 and would rather not. and not love cripples and malformations. the lost. he makes the choice of virtue. which outrages the virtuous of religion.WORSHIP. the terror of its being taken for its away . men who could not make their hands meet around their objects. the rapt. Miracle comes to the miraculous. so in relation to that future hour. The whole revelation that is vouch- safed us. so well. there be more. the soul. that spectre And clothed with beauty at our curtain by night. to the ages. With eyes open. in our experience we find. shine. which churches stop their discords to burn and exterminate for the highest virtue is . They speak If there ever and are heard from afar. of Antiochus asked his father. the assurance of a coming change. the gentle trust. which. was a good man. The race of mankind have always — offered at least this implied thanks for the gift of existence. — they suggest what they cannot execute. will cover also with flowers the slopes of this chasm. it is incurious. the fools of ideas. that sure will be well. ately. battle? The son when he would join thou only in "Dost thou fear. is. the apprehension. . be will certain. always against the law.

if is best should we shall live. they suffer bad neighbors. that is. it 'Tis a higher thing to confide. which imply an interminable future for their play. is pleasant to die. on any man's experience but our own. Higher than the fit question of our duration ing. or. there be none. — we 'tis higher to have this conviction. . the all choral song which rises from elements and . is called religion effeminates are. You shall not wish for death The weight of the Universe is down on the shoulders of each moral agent to hold him to his task." if if And so I think that the last lesson of all life. far as it is The only path of escape known God is performance. from their obvi- ous inequality to their own necessities. the question of our deservfor it. or from sickness. out of pusillanimity. if at all. or dismissed pressed when they die. than to have the lease of indefinite centuries and millenniums and is aeons. gods themselves could not help are too often unfit to live. You must before you shall be released. " It gods and sad to live. any legend. " How will death help them ? " These are not from politics. LIFE. What you. Immortality will come to such as are in future. from our own activity and designs.I90 CONDUCT OF live. It must be proved. in all the worlds of do your work. But the wise instinct asks. And as fact respecting the a question of governthere be ment of the Universe. the Such as you Men and demoralizes. that. Marcus Antoninus summed the whole in a word. and he who would be a great soul must be It is a doctrine too great to rest on a great soul now. and they would gladly know 'that they were to be dismissed from the duties of life.

or psaltery. with knowledge.WORSHIP. The scientific mind must have a faith which is science. supplicating manners. and make him know that much of the time he must have himself to his friend. "There are tw6 things. the nameless Power. . and specially of the last. he throws himself joyfully into the sublime order. There is surely enough for the heart and imagination in the religion itself. send man home to his central shame these social. at first . tion . and the fool in his devotions. is." Our times are impatient of both. nameless Thought. when his heart ' kind. a babe in a manger again. the algebra and mathematics of ethical law. with Let us not be pestered with assertions and emotions and snufiie. Man and destiny. angels. what the stones do by structure. he shall walk with no companion. or sackbut but it will have heaven and earth for its beams and rafters science for symbol and illustra- There ence. He shall expect no coThe operation. it will fast poetry. The religion which is to guide and fulfil the present and coming ages. predispositions. 191 a voluntary obedience. whatever else it be. the learned in his infidelities. is. Let us have nothing now which is not its own evidence. without shawms. and does." said Mahomet. music. the superper- . half-truths. is When his mind is illuminated. must be intellectual. a necessitated free- dom. the church of men to come. solitude. is made of the same atoms as the world he shares the same impressions. " which I abhor. will be a new church founded on moral scicold and naked. never stoicism so stern and exigent as It shall this shall be. Was enough gather beauty. picture.

they animate him with the lead- ing of great duty. He fame can help. the if No good The Laws good Laws themselves are alive. on that. CONDUCT OF LIFE. always feels himself in the pres- ence of high causes. solers. are his con- — he shall repose alone needs only his own verdict. they know he have kept them. fortune exist to Honor and him who always recognizes the neigh- borhood of the great. and an endless horizon. .192 sonal Heart. no bad fame can hurt him.

But for a friend is life too short. yet hit the white. Of all wit's uses. Cyndyllan's son ! To falter ere thou thy task fulfil. The music And cure all can deepest reach. can beware Ponderous gold and stuffs to bear. that ill. is cordial speech Mask thy wisdom with delight. Hear what British Merlin sung. . an hour for sport. the chiefs who first arrive Usurp the seats for which all strive The forefathers this land who found Failed to plant the vantage-ground Ever from one who comes to-morrow Men wait their good and truth to borrow. and nations gay. And ruddy Where The richest of all lords is Use. has little. — Only the light-armed climb the hill. CONSIDERATIONS BY THE WAY.: . Of keenest eye and truest tongue. swim the sea.: . Loved and . Cleave to thine acre the round year Will fetch all fruits and virtues here Fool and foe may harmless roam. day for toil. Live in the sunshine. But wilt thou measure all thy road. Who And him who has less. Health the loftiest Muse. A lovers bide at home. to spare. thou. VII. the main one Is to live well with who has none. Shepherds are thankful. Drink the wild air's salubrity : the star Canope shines in May. Toy with the bow. Say not. See thou lift the lightest load.

.

decides as he can. So much fate. and. client. us. Although this garrulity of advising is born with L confess that life is rather a subject of wonder. only an advocate after And so is all life a timid and unskilful spectator. . he is men before. dictation from . which he has applied with various success to a hundred the patient mends. if of ten. the same tonic or sedative to this new and peculiar constitution. 195 We do what we must. But he walked to the church without any assurance that he knew the distemper. The physician prescribes hesitatingly out of his few resources. is and given satisfaction to the all. that we doubt we can say anything out of our own experience whereby to help each other. or could than of didactics. The as lawyer advises the jury. 'tis a signal success. All the professions are timid and expectant agencies.CONSIDERATIONS BY THE WAY. and if it tells his story to the is and leaves it with them. justice. and hopes he has done community but . and as gay and much relieved as the client. since there must be a decision. and puts a brave face on the matter. The judge weighs the arguments. If glad and surprised. turns out that he has a verdict. heal it. so much irresistible temperament and unknown inspiration enters into it. The priest is glad if his prayers or his sermon meet the condition of any soul if of two.

and elegance in trifles. That in any passage. " A few yards in London cement or dissolve friendship. is a profound secret to every other being in the world. What we have. to us or to any. Fine society. 'Tis an exclusion and a pre- Sidney Smith said. or. and fortune on the cast of an act of justice to those who have added new sciences to those who have refined life by elegant pursuits. cards. has neither ideas nor aims. and enlarges our field of action. There are other . of gloves.196 CONDUCT OF call it LIFE." 'Tis little we can do for each other. and manifold old sayings of the wise. society is only a self-protection against the vulgarities of the street and the tavern. renders the service of a perfumery. Yet vigor is contagious. . is rather description. he known by which a man conquers celebration. if you please. or of the old sayings. 'Tis the fine souls who Fine serve us. not of a farm or factory. therefore. and it is only as he turns his back on us and on all men. or a laundry. to the gate of the arena. than available rules. to every fine genius have a debt to every great to those who have put life . We like very well to be praised for our action. and by the best names. in the It common acceptation. to say of life. and whatever makes us either think or feel strongly. . but our conscience says. and not what is called fine society. cinct. We accompany the youth with sympathy. but 'tis certain that not by strength of strength ours. an affair of clean linen and coaches. and draws on this most private wisdom. un- must stand or fall. We heart. but only on of his own. adds to our power. that any good can come to him." It is an unprincipled decorum. " Not unto us.

But this is not the tone and genius of the men in the street. in- valids. loaded. A person seldom . See what a cometary train of auxiliaries man from carries with him. — sediment.! CONSIDERATIONS BY THE WAY. Let us infer his ends Mirabeau said. and reason. I wish that life should not be cheap. everywhere. the first falls sick. than the number I of clean shirts he puts on every day. nor feel that anything can be out of your power." Whoever said it. That is beneath 7?te. epicures. Now we reckon them as bank-days. love. pomp of means. fragrant. but sacred. triflers and of both sexes. might be advantageously spared itself into Mankind divides and malefactors. or some pleasure we are to taste. antiquaries. unless it be to succeed in everything. this is in the right key. The finest wits have their this and imponderable elements. to be Society wishes amused. of animals." The babe in arms is a channel through which the energies we call fate.sures of self-respect for a man. or which we are to pay. gases. I do not wish to be amused. "Why should we feel ourselves to be men. we grow cynical. out again is Porphyry's " Life that which holds matter together. paupers. In the streets. plants. a handful. What quantities of fribbles. 197 mer. visibly stream. wish the days to be as centuries. two classes. stones. The men we meet are coarse and torpid. Nothing is imposIs that necessary? sible to the man who can will. You must say of nothing. by some debt which is to be paid us. politicians. That shall be: this is the only law of success. is Is all it we have ? to do to draw the defi- breath nition and blow better . thieves. — benefactors but the by- The second class is vast. in.

198

CONDUCT OF

LIFE.

standers are animated with a faint hope that he will
die:
lids
;

— quantities

of poor lives;

of distressing inva-

of cases for a gun.

Franklin said, " Mankind
:

are very superficial

and dastardly

they begin upon
they
if

a thing, but, meeting with a
it

difficulty,

fly

from

discouraged

:

but they have capacities,

they would

employ them." Shall we then judge a country by the majority, or by the minority ? By the minority, surely. 'Tis pedantry to estimate nations by the census, or by square miles of land, or other than by their importance to the mind of the time.

Leave this hypocritical prating about the masses. Masses are rude, lame, unmade, pernicious in their demands and influence, and need not to be flattered but to be schooled. I wish not to concede anything to them, but to tame, drill, divide, and break them up, and draw individuals out of them. The worst of charity is, that the lives you are asked to preserve are not worth preserving. Masses the calamity is the masses. I do not wish any mass at all, but honest
!

men

only, lovely, sweet, accomplished

women
If

only,

and no shovel-handed, narrow-brained, gin-drinking
million stockingers or lazzaroni at
all.
it

govern-

ment knew how,

I

should

like to see
it

check, not
its

multiply the population.

When
that
is

reaches
will

true

law of action, every
as essential.
let

man

born

be hailed

Away

with this hurrah of masses, and

men spoken on their honor and their conscience. In old Egypt, it was established law, that the vote of a prophet be reckoned equal to a hundred hands. I think it was much under-estimated. " Clay and clay differ in digus have the considerate vote of single

;

CONSIDERATIONS BY THE WAY.
nity," as

199

we

discover by our preferences every day.
is
!

What

a vicious practice
off

this of our politicians at

Washington pairing

as

if

one man who votes

wrong, going away, could excuse you, who mean to vote right, for going away or, as if your presence did not tell in more ways than in your vote. Suppose
;

the three hundred heroes at Thermopylae had paired

hundred Persians would it have been same to Greece, and to history ? Napoleon was called by his men Cent Mille. Add honesty to him, and they might have called him Hundred
off with three
:

all

the

Million.

Nature makes fifty poor melons for one that is good, and shakes down a tree full of gnarled, wormy, unripe crabs, before you can find a dozen dessert apples and she scatters nations of naked Indians, and nations of clothed Christians, with two or three good heads among them. Nature works very hard, and only hits
the white once in a million throws.
is

In mankind, she

contented

if

she yields one master in a century.

The more

difficulty there is in creating
I

good men, the
once counted

more they are used when they come. in a little neighborhood, and found

that every able-

bodied man had, say from twelve to fifteen persons to whom he is dependent on him for material aid, to be for spoon and jug, for backer and sponsor, for nursery and hospital, and many functions beside nor

:

does

it

seem

to

make much
;

difference whether

he

is

bachelor or patriarch
the duties that
will in
fall

if

he do not violently decline

to him, this

amount of helpfulness

one way or another be brought home to him. This is the tax which his abilities pay. The good

200

CONDUCT OF

LIFE,
and
for

men

are employed for private centres of use,

larger influence.

All revelations, whether of mechani-

cal or intellectual or

moral science, are made not to
All the

communities, but to single persons.
events of our day,
all

marked

the

cities, all

the colonizations,

may be
of a few

traced back to their origin in a private brain.

which make our civility were the thoughts good heads. Meantime, this spawning productivity is not noxious or needless. You would say, this rabble of naAll the feats

tions might be spared.

But no, they are

all

counted

and depended
it

on.

Fate keeps everything alive so

long as the smallest thread of public necessity holds

on

to the tree.

The coxcomb and

bully

and

thief

class

are allowed as proletaries, every one of their

vices being the excess or acridity of a virtue.

The

mass are animal, in pupilage, and near chimpanzee. But the units, whereof this mass is composed are neuters, every one of which may be grown to a queen-bee.

The
think

rule
:

is,

then,

we are used as brute atoms, we use all the rest. Nature
Nature provided
all

until

we
all

turns

malfaisance to good.

for real needs.

No
is

sane

man

at last distrusts himself.

a perfect answer to
is

sentimental cavils.

His existence If he is,

he

wanted, and has the precise properties that are

required.
here.

We

right to

That we are here, is proof we ought to be have as good right, and the same sort of be here, as Cape Cod or Sandy Hook have to

be there.

To
malice,

say then, the majority are wicked, means no

no bad heart

in the observer, but, simply, that

the majority are unripe, and have not yet

come

to

CONSIDERATIONS BY THE WAY.
themselves, do not yet

201

know
for

their opinion.

That., if

they

knew

it, is

an oracle

them and

for all.

But

in the passing

prone to

moment, the quadruped interest is very prevail and this beast-force, whilst it makes
:

the discipline of the world, the school of heroes, the

glory of martyrs, has provoked, in every age, the satire

of wits, and the tears of good men.
to be in the interest,

They

find the

journals, the clubs, the governments, the churches,

and the pay of the

devil.

And

wise

men have met
;

this obstruction in their times, like
like Bacon, with lifeErasmus, with his book "The
;

Socrates, with his famous irony

long dissimulation
Praise of Folly
;

like

" like Rabelais, with his satire rend-

ing the nations.

"They were

the fools

who

cried

against me, you will say," wrote the Chevalier de Boufflers to

Grimm;

"aye, but the fools have the advan-

tage of numbers, and

'Tis of 'tis that which decides, no use for us to make war with them we shall not weaken them they will always be the masters. There will not be a practice or an usage introduced, of which
; ;

they are not the authors." In front of these sinister
history
is

facts,

the
is

first

lesson of

the good of

evil.

Good

a good doctor,

but

Bad

is

sometimes a

better.

'Tis the oppressions

of William the Norman, savage forest-laws, and crushing despotism, that made possible the inspirations of

Magna

armies, castles,

Charta under John. Edward I. wanted money, and as much as he could get. It was
call

necessary to

ways,

— and the

the people together by shorter, swifter

House of Commons

arose.

To

ob-

he paid in privileges. In the twentyfourth year of his reign, he decreed, " that no tax
tain subsidies,

2 02

CONDUCT OF

LIFE.

should be levied without consent of Lords and Comwhich is the basis of the English Constimons "
;

tution.

Plutarch affirms that the cruel wars which
the march

followed
civility,

of Alexander,

introduced

the

language, and arts of Greece into the savage
;

East

;

introduced marriage

built seventy cities

;

and

united hostile nations under one government.

The

barbarians
arrive a

who broke up

the

Roman

empire did not
selfish despots

day too soon.

Schiller says, the Thirty Years'

War made Germany
serve

a nation.
as

Rough,
no

men immensely,
; ;

Henry VIII.

in the contest
less

with the Pope
czars 1789.

as the infatuations

than the

wisdom of Cromwell
;

as the ferocity of the Russian

as the fanaticism of the

French regicides of

The

frost

which

kills

the harvest of a year,

saves the harvests of a century, by destroying the

Wars, fires, plagues, break up immovable routine, clear the ground of rotten races and dens of distemper, and open a fair field to new men. There is a tendency in things to right themselves, and the war or revolution or bankruptcy that
weevil or the locust.
shatters a rotten system, allows things to take a

new

and natural order. The sharpest evils are bent into that periodicity which makes the errors of planets, and Nathe fevers and distempers of men, self-limiting. Passions, resistance, ture is upheld by antagonism.
danger, are educators.

We

acquire the strength

we

Without war, no soldier; without enemies, no hero. The sun were insipid, if the unihave overcome.
verse were not opaque.
is

And
:

the glory of character

in affronting the horrors of depravity, to

new

nobilities of

power

as Art lives

draw thence and thrills in

" The more trouble. fraud. and yield oil. real Romes and their heroisms a short way to wealth. and all of them with the very commonplace wish to find all But Nature watches over all. and most of the great results of history are brought about by discreditable means. out of robbers' forays. new 203 use and combining of contrasts. are effected. and. California gets civilized in this immoral peopled and subdued. The agencies by which events so grand as the opening of California. a real prosperity is rooted way. and turns this malfaisance to good. and conspiracy : . or what would poet or saint. and grown. of Texas. but a poor washer- woman said. in 1849. my principle. are paltry.CONSIDERATIONS BY THE WAY. but the men the inventions are excellent. What would painter do. — — come in fulness of time. is In America. and the junction of the two oceans. the geography are not ors : sublime. with honest purposes." I the more lion . but the invent- one is sometimes ashamed of. Not Antoninus. a general jail-delivery of Some of them went the rowdies of the rivers. Tis a decoy-duck. that's doings of the people It do not think very respectfully of the designs or the who went to California. in the western country. out of Sabine rapes. and. was a rush and a scramble of needy adventurers. and whales that And. 'tis tubs thrown to amuse the whale: but real ducks. magnificence and rats. some with very bad ones. but for And evermore in the world crucifixions and hells? is this marvellous balance of beauty and disgust. on this fiction. — coarse selfishness. are caught. of Oregon. and mining into the dark evermore for blacker pits of night.

less or larger. and then swim there are to the top. all — seriously said Vol- lowering them in social rank. Yet one suffice as would say. by dint of some egotism or infatuation. he repUed. What is the benefit done by a good King Alfred. but. 'Tis a sentence of ancient wisdom. they would soon touch bottom. or Florence Nightingale. When the friends of a gentleman brought to his notice the follies of his sons.204 CONDUCT OF LIFE. or Pestalozzi. — what are so quickly seen to be men like least. Michigan. obstacles from which the pru- . and vastly exceeding any intentional philanthropy on record. that he knew so much mischief when he was a boy. " Croyez inoi^ Verreur aussi a son taire. befalls every day in private houses. he thought. that a good understanding would . compared with the involuntary blessing wrought on nations by the selfish capitalists who built the Illinois. and. and had turned out on the whole so successfully. The benefaction derived in Illinois. or any lover. " that God hangs the greatest weights on the smallest wires. failures to This is bold practice." What happens thus to nations. or Elizabeth Fry. or by a Howard. from railroads is inestimable. well as moral sensibility to keep one erect fications the grati- of the passions damaging. and the network of the Mississippi valley roads. Then talent sinks with character. with many hints of their danger. inerite^'"'' We see those who surmount. but the energy of millions of men. that he was not alarmed by the dissipation of boys 'twas dangerous water. which have evoked not only all the wealth of the soil. and many a good escape. . and the great West.

and seems inspired. that there is no moral deformity. Mirabeau said. but is a good passion out of place. certainly. which kill the disease. and think they are going to die. and save the life. he prefers it to the universe. Better. sees some one thing with heat and exaggeration. or on objects which have a brief importance." And this is the reason. if he falls among other narrow men. mainly rely on this stuff. said to me. and twists and wrenches our evil to our good. " I want none of your good boys. the late head of the Farm School in Boston harbor. — " 'Tis said. who. and leaders of colonies. I suppose. and a godsend to those who wish to magnify the matter. and especially generals. quite clear of their But who dares draw out the linchpin from the Wagon-wheel ? 'Tis so manifest. bonds of men " that the poisons are our principal medicines. A man of sense and energy. give me the bad ones. and carry a point. and great educators and lawgivers. " There are none but — . best men are moulded of their faults " . He causes the wrath of man to praise him. as soon as the children are good. as some trade or politics of the hour. dent 205 The right partisan is a heady narrow recoil. In the high prophetic phrase.. man. Shakspeare wrote. the mothers are scared. because he does not see many things. " the Furies are the . and esteem men of irregular and passional force the best timber. and. that there is no man who is not indebted to his foibles that. passionate vices. why. according to the old oracle. men bring into society. CONSIDERATIONS BY THE WAY. if we could secure the strength and fire which rude.

and first addresses in society. better for the heart. is a spring. The wise workman is will not regret the poverty or fine air the solitude which brought out his working talents. gratitude." none but such capable of meriting the public Passion. and convert the base into the better powerful effect to deliver : nature. energy. and accomBut all great 'Tis men come for out of the middle 'tis classes. We only insist that the man meliorate. when once it is begun. The youth charmed with the plishments of the children of fortune. there is no man who is not at some time indebted to his vices. though a bad regulator. " that the socalled high-born are for the most part heartless whilst nothing is so indicative of deepest culture as a tender consideration of the ignorant. that exertion we are not to expect from men in affluent circumstances the vigilance. and the most meritowithout which the rious public services have always been performed . easy to continue. " The history of country proves. In short. overcomes the friction of crossing thresholds. Marcus . men ness of strong passions capable of going to great. Charles this James Fox said of England. Human nature is prone to indulgence. that Fronto told him. and House of Commons would lose its greatest force and weight. and gives us a good start and speed. and that the plant grow upward. Antoninus says. as no plant that is not fed from manures. Any absorbing passion has the from the little coils and cares of the heat which sets our human 'tis every day atoms spinning." 2o6 CONDUCT OF LIFE. better the head.

yet he to be wise for many. by loss things for thee. address. A rich man was never in danger from cold. is to Supply.CONSIDERATIONS BY THE WAY. and take his degrees perhaps : he can give wise counsel in a court of law. or war. No. or he : is a shrewd ad- viser in the insurance office perhaps he could pass a college examination. Indians. learn a wider truth A and humanity than that of a fine gentleman. most kind gods! this defect in which puts and let me be like the rest whom I admire. but this rich man was never insulted in his life man must be stung. by defeats. or hunger. plant Now him down among farmers. from the moderation of who is : his ideas. Shakspeare. a little out of the ring : supply Fifth-Avenue landlord. firemen. and much cake. and the chores which poor men do. Set a dog on him set a highwayman on him try him with a course of mobs send : : : . of sympathy. not the highest style of hearts is man : and. though good and sound minds are of no condition." ventional. must not be protected. ^sop. Cervantes. What tests of manhood could he stand? Take him out of his protections. and on good terms with them. we have better By humiliations. in my fortunes. and you can see he was not. Franklin. and emigrants. it. a West-End householder. in my me my form. by persons lence. to eat too He is a good book-keeper . The first-class minds. 'Tis a fatal disadvantage to be cockered. Socrates. in a condition of life 207 removed from opube con- And yet what we ask daily. But the wise gods say. He must know the huts where poor men lie. or ruffians. by gulfs of disparity. A had the poor man's feeling and mortification.

folly and blunders. human life.. passion. if he have true faculty. — in his laboratory. converting his old shirts into pure white sugar. : him to Kansas. and when you pay for your ticket. plains. Nature is a rag-merchant. this may be the element he wants. ever since our memory. who works up every shred and ort and end into new creations like a good chemist. What had and genesis. Regnard. and comes in use. or revolution. and bad company. have been taken by sold for slaves. and not less. left for dead. If now in this connection of discourse. to be played upon by the stormy winds and strong fingers of enraged patriotism. You buy much that is not rendered in the bill. 2o8 CONDUCT OF LIFE. Men achieve a certain greatness unawares. and discloses its composition We learn geology the morning after the earthquake. and get into the car. on ghastly diagrams of cloven mountains. yawns apart. bankruptcy. In our life and culture. national bankruptcy. These are Bad times have a scientific value. you have no guess what good company you shall find there. so is a fanatical persecution. everything is worked up. Cervantes. upheaved and the dry bed of the sea. insult. solid continent. and corsairs. ennui. ^Esop. Life is a boundless privilege. and he will come out of it with broader wisdom and manly power. to Oregon and. more rich in the central tones than languid years of prosperity. been. war. when working to another aim. revolt. As we occasions a good learner would not miss. to Pike's Peak. know the realities of go gladly to Faneuil Hall. Saadi. whom I found. the other day. we should . civil war.

and with Dr. that every shall maintain himself. temperance. I aid. No that can gain them." Drop the cant. but withholding ouronce asked a clergyman in a retired town. We must treat the sick with the same firmness. every selves. first first 209 down the obvious rules of rule of will not here repeat the economy. losing its soul. giving labor. get health. as far as I had observed. . must be grudged. " When is fine am old. distracted phantom. but. and afflicting other souls with meanness and mopings. they were as frivolous as the rest. nor exercise. essential than talent. — but man I will say. who were his companions? what men of ability he saw? he repHed." It is And more the best part of health disposition. rule me.CONSIDERATIONS venture on laying life. already propounded once and again. that he spent his time with the sick and the dying. Let us engage : for if people we would leave our companions not to spare us. Nothing supply the want of sunshine to peaches. I said. Johnson ministration to its voracity of trifles. For sickness is a cannibal which eats up all the life and youth it can lay hold of. poverty. pains. heedless of what is good and great. and all the more that he had — this pose. In dealing with the drunken. absolutely selfish. he seemed to me to need quite other company. wailing. of course. I figure it as a pale. and sometimes much more frivolous. it. " Every man is a rascal as soon as he is sick. I BY THE WAY. said severely. attentive to its sensations. were sick and dying to any purall and go to them. and treat it sanely. I knew a wise woman I who said to her friends. and absorbs its own sons and daughters. we do not affect to be drunk. even in the will works of talent.

you must have the are sincerely valuable. far and for use. . fellows. indicates its The joy of the spirit strength. that whoever sees the law which distributes things. to "Be merry and wise. to CONDUCT make knowledge k)F LIFE. sunshine costs spent. does not detempered. than the dungeons in the air that are daily dug and caverned out by grumbling. . All healthy things are sweet- Genius works in sport. spond. And it is so of cheerfulness. but is He who desponds such are its animated to great desires and endeavors. discontented people. and goodness smiles to the last and." Tis a Dutch proverb. and the power of happiness of any It is not to be computed or drained. the more more of it remains. and better for comfort glittering dreams. sapiens an old commendation of right behavior. Well. I know those miserable and I hate them.2IO and. finer pigment. betrays that he has not seen it. observed that a depression of spirits develops the germs of a plague in individuals and nations. cheerfulness of wisdom. who see a black star always riding through the light sky overhead : waves of light pass over and colored clouds in the and hide it . Whenever you pleased. " Aliis sibi^'' which our English proverb trans- lates. or a good temper. that " paint costs nothing. the less." I know how easy it is men of the world to look grave and sneer at your its sanguine youth. preserving qualities in yet is damp climates. But I find the gayest castles in the air that were ever piled. is The latent heat of an ounce of wood or stone a hundred times soul is inexhaustible. It is IcEtiis. for the reason. you are nourished. You may rub the same chip of pine to the point of kindling.

An old French zenith. and untunes the active powers. cravers of sympathy. excellent family party just arriving in their well- ." The Turkish cadi said to Layard. he should put at the head this class of pitiers of themselves. but the black star keeps fast in the But power dwells with cheerfulness hope puts us in a working mood. " Anywhere but here. One day we shall cast out the passion for Europe. whilst despair is no muse. who provoke pity like that All barking for Europe. Already. are not less infatuated with the rococo America seems on the point of emBut we shall not always traverse seas and lands with light purposes. : the traveller.. by the passion for America. And the sharpest you still have survived But what torments of pain you endured From evils that never arrived ! There are three wants which never can be satisfied who wants something more that of the sick. verse runs. or he had better never been born. as we say. A man should make life and Nature happier to us. . bewailing imaginary disasters. . When the political economist reckons up the unproductive classes. until thou art happy and content in none. CONSIDERATIONS BY THE WAY. " After the fashion of thy people. who wants something different and that of that of the rich. for a 211 moment. and for pleasure. who says." My countrymen toy of Italy. Culture will give gravity and domestic rest to those who now travel only as not knowing how else to spend money. thou hast wandered from one place to another. . in my translation : — Some of your griefs you have cured.

do not like the sea-shore. they reach Vermont farm is . as tant travel. and anticipate the question at the gates of each town. as end as ever? " far from home and any honest Each nation has asked successively.212 CONDUCT OF LIFE. or broadswords. every sum- recommenced in this neighborhood. I doubt not this was the meaning of Socrates. on their travels . not apparently so. secret as their hearts. by a glass and doubted not. in search of a They set forth deep in the mountains. home : they reach Berkshire . mer. or canals. and power of accommodation to any circumstance. find the same illusion in the I search after happiness. — whether nounced artists the only truly wise. appointed carriage. they will go find a dear cottage inland . Genial manners are good. experiment. soon after the pairing of the birds. the crowning fortune of a bias to man is to be born with a which finds him in employment it be to make baskets. tered On bell. like the The young people do not town. of a protecting I domestic horizon. or statutes. mountain-sides: near this is the seclusion? 'tis near that they have got far . What are they here for ? " until at last the party are shamefaced. — good farms. they look at the farms but where . we fancied ourselves walled in by the bell. and leaves us on an endless common. which observe. the horizon flies before us. and happiness. or songs. when he pro- some pursuit. shel- by no glass Yet 'tis strange how tena- ciously we cling to that bell-astronomy. In childhood. by dis- we should reach the baths of the descend- ing sun and stars. but the high prize of life. high The . horizon. as being actually.

As. and short it but . When be deep with persons Yes.. a block- head makes a blockhead of his companion. and hard : have when found : they are flit- going away they too are in the whirl of the and have engagements and necessities. slow to learn the lesson. . then city shopmen and cab-drivers. : — — unfathomable heaven. much sky. impound and imprison us. but or near Montreal. too much outThe youth aches for solitude. WonderWhen ful power to benumb possesses this brother. is 'tis 213 near Albany. explore a farm. The and uses of travel are occasional. this year. When joy or calamity or genius shall show him it. but there is . CONSIDERATIONS BY THE WAY. he comes to the house. then farms. "it must house. from Boston. is conversation a main function of life. of friends to hard to just find. there needs man in a company. friends only can give depth. that there is but one depth. . and all are wise. Others are involuntarily hurtful to us. but one interior. soon. old. or near Burlington. Slow. thin : and are gone doors ." he says. They are just starting for Wisconsin have letters from Bremen see you again. when there is sympathy. its populous solitude. . the best fruit this is finds. — discontented people lived there. and bereave us of the power of thought. will mirror back to him its ting world. and that is his purpose." a great dearth. when it finds it. "Ah! now. then woods. but the house They . What a difference is in the hospitality of minds! Inestimable he to whom we can say what we cannot say to ourselves. I perceive. there's too too public. small. — but one wise so. indifferently with prophet or friend. he passes through the That does not make the deep recess he sought.

life is for the most part spent: and experience teaches little better than our earliest . and he only is right. victims of such a rogue. " . not only the foolish pilot or driver. the only safety is in amputation as seamen say. with whatever virtues and industries they have. with such. the society one after another slips out. explainers. I recommend phlegm and truth let all the truth that is spoken or done be at the zero of indifferency. or dawdling can . he comes into the office or public room. you shall cut and run. But. sensible people unhinged themselves. when the case is seated and malignant. but let their . — : . into contradictors. For remedy. namely. and the apartdissolves . but everybody on board is forced to assume strange and ridiculous attitudes. or a carriage run away with. accusers. I find nonsense singularly refreshing " but a virulent. Hence all the dozen inmates are soon perverted. What is incurable but a frivolous habit? folly in the A fly is as untamable as a hyena. — instinct of self-defence. and relike a boat about to be pairers of this one malefactor overset. fooling. whilst the case is yet mild. have seen a whole family of quiet. not to engage. easily be borne as Talleyrand said. that Nature who believes and gravitation are quite wrong. sense of fun. aggressive fool I taints the reason of a household. best But re: sistance only exasperates the acrid fool. and beside For the steady wrongheadedness of one perverse person irritates the since we must withstand absurdity.214 CONDUCT OF LIFE. not to mix yourself in any manner with them . or truth itself will be folly. to balance the vehicle and prevent the upsetting. How to live with unfit companions? for. ment Yet is at his disposal.

new men. and we shall say. sciences. and am I. This is forlorn. indispensable each . rise. a legacy. a marriage. Conversation is an art in which a man has all mankind for his competitors. it is poor and squalid. exag- gerated bad news. Our habit of thought. we come down hands effect to the shore of the sea. religion. — then we come out of our egg-shell exist- ence into the great dome. There is no book and no pleasure in life comparable to it. new arts and their native riches. new books. a patrimony. — you are you. With : these objects. show them what gifts they have. for it is that which all are practising every day while they live. an advantage gained over a competitor. and the powers which constitute character he wakes in them the feeling of worth. The success which will content them. . feel sore and sensitive. his suggestions require new ways of living. and see the zenith over and the nadir under us. a few pieces of plainwere. common I fear. is. and if one comes who can illuminate this dark house with thoughts. their conversation deals politics. . Now. and the rain. Instead of the tanks and buckets of knowledge to which we are daily confined. how what magical powers over nature and men what access to poetry. and the like. trade. a bargain. with surfaces they personal defects. They are not the men they They have all been to California. madness spend I 215 itself unopposed . in the — take men as they experience. — is not satisfying. Ask what is best in our experience. and dip our in its miraculous waves.CONSIDERATIONS BY THE WAY. 'Tis wonderful the on the company. is. a lucrative employment. and all have come back millionnaires.

somebody who shall make us do what we can. dealing with wise people. since to the unsound no heavenly knowledge enters. There is a sublime attraction in him to whatever virtue is in us. to which the memory goes back in barren hours. writes with sad truth. test who : indicates this relation as the until thou " Thou learnest no secret knowest friendship.2i6 CONDUCT OF LIFE. has one enemy shall meet him everywhere. itation. " — He who has And he who a thousand friends has not a friend to spare. we have glimpses of the Universe." this But few writers have said anything better to point than Hafiz. With him we are easily great. Ali Ben Abu Taleb. conversation." Neither is life long enough for friendship. Our chief want in life. far-darting lights landscape. such as we can the doors of existence! What questions we ask of him! What an understanding we have! how few words are needed! It is the only real society. that a mental power invites whose generalizations are more worth for joy and . and there exists the covenant of friendship. That is a serious and majestic affair. This is the service of a friend. An Eastern poet. How he flings wide soul. and not a of mental health . or a religion. hints of power native to the and shadows of an Andes hardly attain in lone medHere are oracles sometimes profusely given. again has apprised us that Our conversation once and we belong to better circles than we have yet beheld us. like a royal presence. is. for effect than anything that In excited is now called philosophy or literature. Add the consent of will and temperament.

these. long shall know that all we do not take we sit and wait back five years. whether you have had gardens and baths.. have been carried in a ridiculous truck : in a neat equipage. that makes our home. You cannot deal systematically with this fine . yet we do not provide for the greatest . do not name accidents of With the first class of men our friendship or all good understanding goes quite beliind estrangement. CONSIDERATIONS BY THE WAY. take care of our health we lay good of life. And . as about love. postilion's dinner to 217 is be eaten on the run. We up money we make . and though fine souls never lose sight of it. congenial. and the step towards it. — a few people who lives near us of equal at convenient distance. and by many an oath of the heart. in that time almost as much as what we have been doing. whether we have had good companions. it. of condition. our roof tight. of reputation. or these things are forgotten so — But it counts much quickly. are gradually and totally : — lost. so social degree. in looking how you have been dieted or dressed have been lodged on the first floor or the attic. for these benefactors? It makes no difference. sacramented to you. good cattle and horses. fit — friends? How We our training is to us for this. whether you . fit or unfit. As it it is is marriage. and our clothing sufficient best property of but who provides wisely that he shall not be wanting in the all. and leave no effect. yet they There a pudency about friendship. no matter how bad company. And see the overpowering importance of neighborhood in all association. and all those who shall be your life's companions are native. and these only.

good. and yet no result come of it. train. though the measured by money. Few ing on the other. sary to somebody. and one may good deal of pains to bring people together. take a element of society. This point is acquiring new importance in American Let not the service is social life. and clothe with the advanYet the old rules hold tages we have earned. tie be mercenary. in the what was his errand in the city ? He replied.oney. and to organize clubs and debating societies. The obvious land. and for m. and the other was absentAnd the evil increases from the ignorance bodied. people discern that tress it rests with the master or the mis- what service comes from the man or the maid . when one goes But we live buy house and with people on other platforms . fracas of unreasonable Our domestic service is usually a foolish demand on one side. and hostility of every ship-load of the immigrant population swarming into houses and farms. we live with dependents. . But it is certain that there is a great deal of good in us that does not know itself. and shirk- A man of wit was asked. a little useful deliberation to and preconcert. " I have been sent to procure an angel to do cooking.. of her two maidens." A lady complained to me. not only with the young are to teach all whom we who serve we know. that. but also with those us directly. Make yourself necesDo not make life hard to any. and that a habit of union and competition brings people up and keeps them up that life would be twice or ten to their highest point times life. if spent with wise and fruitful companions. one was absent-minded. 2l8 CONDUCT OF LIFE. inference is.

whatever art you select. planting. will make an exception in your favor. and there must be adherence. — . even to the miraculous triumphs. All sensible people are tract to selfish. — take all the steps in order. When I asked an iron-master about the slag and cinder in railroad " O. 219 that this identical hussy was a tutelar spirit in one house. which Nature never pardons. If — be had: if there's cinder in the iron." But why multiply these topics. Wherever there is failsome superstition about luck. and nature it is tugging at every conIf make the terms of fair. all are atarchitecture. There must be Our prayers are prophets. as to braid straw. hardly by you. for the pledge that they are within your reach. and braid cannons. as easy to twist iron anchors. I fear. you are proposlittle ing only your own. and a haridan in the other. and deal truly with you. " there's always good iron to iron. that cHngs to its How respectable the life objects! Youthful aspirations are fine things. algebra. there is some giddiness. and their illustraLife brings to each his which are endless? task. The happy terms. tainable. step by step. poems. commendable in that : — but will you Not Common full of peo- . the other. proceed in order. 'tis because there was cinder in the pay. on the same begin terms. the other party must deal a you deal generously. politics. conditions of life may be had on you is the same Their attraction fidelity." he said. ure. of selecting that for which you are apt 'Tis at the beginning. some step omitted. your theories and plans of stick? life are fair and one. commerce. though selfish and unjust. and.CONSIDERATIONS BY THE WAY. to boil granite as to boil water. if you tions.

what was said The more you took from him. The populace says. " them not " or. The hero is he who is immovably centred. The main dilference between people seems to be. but the The and unsure. plus il est grand. and remind them of resolutions. and another is not. in CONDUCT OF LIFE. and for the culture of talent. Fancy prices are paid for position. and in the act of ing something else. but forces. with the old prophet. and of But all rests at condition. not on set not feats. " If you would be powerful. — . : — the greater he looked. and to exaggerate them. pretend to be powerful. and in repose alike as in energy. alike in the poverty of the obscurest farm. with Home Tooke. or. The secret of culture is to learn. 'Tis inevitable to name particulars of virtue. As he has not a law is obligable within him. but. when you tax them with treachery. that one man can come under obligations on which you can rely. becomrace is The individuals are fugitive. that a few great points steadily reappear.220 pie. the ideal fair. and that these few are alone to be regarded. they have forgotten that they their high made a vow." whiffling men — . and not to be disposed of. still formidable. is his attitude. and irresponsible." Plus on ltd die. days and public occasions. and in the miscellany of metropolitan life. at all hours. great. — — — I prefer to say. " Seekest thou great things ? seek of a Spanish prince. a thousand^ but one: and. there's nothing to tie him to. and can Sanity consists in not being subdued by spare it. last on that integrity which dwarfs talent. it superficial success is of no account. The man. your means. but to the grand interests.

to add somewhat to the well-being of men. the escape from are . . these. and the wish to serve.. CONSIDERATIONS BY THE WAY. and cheerful relation. we — — . 221 all false ties courage to be what and love of what is simple and beautiful independence. these are the essentials.

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heard a voice none else could hear From centred and from errant sphere. Seas ebbed and flowed in epic chime. The quaking earth did quake in rhyme. Thieving Ambition and paltering Gain He thought it happier to be dead. How spread their lures for him. in clouds of air. In flame. Beauty chased he everywhere. To sun the dark and solve the curse.. than live for bread. and pits of He wo. in vain. Oft pealed for him a lofty tone From nodding pole and belting zone. BEAUTY. scorning praise. ! . in storm. In dens of passion. He saw strong Eros struggling through. And beam to the bounds of the universe. To die for Beauty. VIII. While thus to love he gave his days In loyal worship. He smote the lake to feed his eye With the beryl beam of the broken wave He flung in pebbles well to hear The moment's music which they gave. Was never form and never face So sweet to Seyd as only grace Which did not slumber like a stone But hovered gleaming and was gone.

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BEAUTY. The a dull dictionary. the road by the whole distance of his fancied advance. not from its objects! powers poets and romancers talk of herbs of grace and healing but what does the botanist know of the : . The geologist lays bare the weeds? and can tell them all on his fingers but does he know what effect passes into the man who builds What effect on the race that his house in them? inhabits a granite shelf ? what on the inhabitants of marl and of alluvium? We should go to the ornithologist with a new feeling. when they sit in the autumn council. What a parade we make of our science. and how far off. but in its relaand the skin or skeleton you show tions to Nature me. than a heap of ashes or a bottle of gases into which his body has been reduced. and at arm's length. bird is not in its ounces and inches. The naturalist is \&difro7n is Dante or Washington. The also. His result is a dead bird. talking together The want of sympathy makes his record in the trees. or the flowers in the meadow. it is Our botany is all names. is no more a heron. The boy had juster views when he gazed at the shells on the beach. if he could teach us what the social birds say. 225 . spiral tendency of vegetation infects education Our books approach very slowly the things we most wish to know. virtues of his strata. unable to : .

and larger than can be measured by pompous figures of the astronomer. and of the he feels the : antipodes and the pole. and. 2 26 . that climate. CONDUCT OF their LIFE. Alchemy which sought to transmute one element into another. its century. A man believes . as drops of blood they are the extension of his personality. The human the heart concerns us is more than the pouring into microscopes. the gar. to prolong life. Instead of an isolated beg- and he felt the star. are finalities. remote natures. 'Tis curious that we only believe as deep as We deep do not think heroes can exert any more awful power than that surface-play which amuses us. more than on which we and man. as well as near. the farthest star felt him. All our biography. His duties are measured by that instrument he is his and a right and perfect man would be we live. tied man Astrology interested us. are just so frivolous : themselves cheap and vile of thunderbolts. to arm with power. : and skeptical. However rash and however falsified by pretenders and traders in it. when is powers unfold in order. that was in the right direction. We system fire . felt to the centre of the Copernican system. the hint was true and divine. will take Nature along with him. soul's avowal of its large relations.. — science lacks a the house. many years. for it to the system. than the man in the pride of his nomenclature. call them by names. and emit light into all her recesses. Men hold and yet a man is a fagot fire All the elements pour through his he is the flood of the flood. are part of Chemistry takes to pieces. The tenant Bugs and stamens and not spores. lavish so his human side. but it does not construct.

in America. but science has done him and has put the man into a bottle. of science was the extension of man. and wine. in miracles. and the sense of the wind and. is jealous of theory. I do not wish to be such a kind of lector has dried lost all man as my professor is. but he has weight and humor. waits for 227 them. that the heart's blessing can heal odds. in his phials. till into Nature. astronomies. that the orator will decompose believes that the evil eye can wither. good son. believes his adversary . The motive on all sides. his eyes see through the earth.BEAUTY. But we prize very hum- ble utilities. perhaps reckon only his money value. music. seem to make wise. He says. science. . The invention is of use to the inventor. can overcome all From a great heart secret magnetisms flow in- cessantly to draw great events. his affection. through his sympathy. The col- the plants in his herbal. that love can exalt talent . a and deprecate any romance of character and . a citizen. chemistries. hates the name of love and moral purpose. his ears understand the language of beast and bird. a voter. But that is not our These geologies. of questionable help to any other. but they leave us where they found us. easily con- — vertible into fine chambers. He has got all snakes and for lizards also. believes in magic. There's a revenge for this inhumanity. and earth should talk with him. as a sort of bill of exchange. pictures. heaven . value to any but the owner. a prudent husband. What manner of man does science make? The boy is not attracted. The formulas of science are like the papers in your pocket-book. his hands should touch the stars. of no Science in England. his intellect. Our reliance .

Thou hast ceased to take recreation. or only the reactions of the mill. of the wares. The clergy have bronchitis. lawyer. also amuse Returning home. dedicate themselves to their own details. which does not seem a certificate of spiritual health. I at the termina- shall put thee to death. " these Why should not priests. grand aims. conferred the sovereignty on him. on the physician is a kind of despair of ourselves. has fascination for us only . more than others. of the chicane? No object really interests us but . The monarch and be wise. my child. lodged elks are browsing and fed comfortably in the temples. of soul. saying. ! reflection to the king.2 28 CONDUCT OF LIFE." he said. saying to thyself." At the end of the seventh day. : administer this empire for seven days tion of that period. " Prince. and do not come out men of more Have they divination. in seven days I shall be put to death." " Live. saw a herd " See how happy. on the next day. the and the merchant. and the equality to any event. science or the doctors or the clergy are not victims of their pursuits. he imparted this themselves ? " of elk sporting. Tisso. " rejoined : He From the horror of death. The miller. and in man are aware of a perfect law in Nature. which we demand in man. only his superiorities and. The king. falsetto of their voicing. Macready thought it came of the prince. An Indian one day riding in the forest. the king inquired " From what cause hast thou become so emaciated?" answered. hospitality force. These priests in the temple incessantly meditate on death how can they But the men of enter into healthful diversions?" . though it we man.

whose teachers and subjects mental. inspire. through its 229 it relation to him. never go out of fashion. So inveterate is our habit of criticism. enlarge us. as is rooted in the mind. of manners. — we that well-known know how and these forms paralyze. and the varied power in company that escort us through thrill. post mortem . knowledge of manners. of general nature. Knowledge of men. for there are many beauties . provoke. the passionate histories in the looks and manners of youth and early all life. of brain. well-bred boys. of human face and form. or. as. moral beauty. the . Beauty is the form under which the intellect prefers All privilege is to study the world." the lofty air of well-born. the beauty of school- " the sweet seriousness of sixteen. or method. rose an enthusiasm in and perhaps some sparks from it may yet hght a conflagration in the other. more than a hundred years ago. departscience. and our sensibility to personal influence. .BEAUTY. delicious faces of children. or beauty of the soul. that of beauty. man- hood. At the birth of Winckehnann. the study of Beauty are always near us. that much of our knowledge in this direction belongs to the chapter of pathology. they The crowd in the street oftener fur: nishes degradations than angels or redeemers all but Every spirit makes its house and we can give a shrewd guess from the house to the inhabitant. prove the transparency. the power of form. These are facts of a science which we study without book. The girls. side by side with this arid. But not less does Nature furnish us with every sign of grace and goodness.

They thought the same genius. since the first step into thought lifts this mountain of necessity. We fancy. mixed with his substance. which are say. everybody sure and beautiful. could we pronounce the solving word. is the friendly fire which expands the thought. whereof we take no heed. They know too. and who. The ancients believed that a genius or possession at birth of each mortal. never impress us with the it air of free agency. The question of Beauty takes us out of surfaces. with all degrees of ability. and they pretended to guess the pilot. and disenchant them. We be valued by his best moment. Thought is the pent air-ball which can rive the planet. eyes to see if " The beautiful is a manifestation of secret laws of . the sailing of the ship. and peep with their you detect their sad plight. but wait the reappearings of the genius. knows people who appear beridden. they have intervals of folly.. these genii were sometimes seen as a flame of fire — immersed in the bodies which they governed on an evil man. Goethe said. The remedy seems never to be far off. at the death of its ward. and the beauty which certain objects have for him. the cloud would roll up. and acquaints the prisoner that liberty and power await him. by partly . to thinking of the foundations of things. the little rider would be discovered and unseated. We know. We measure our friends so. entered a newborn child. We it recognize obscurely the same fact. resting on his head in a good man. 230 CONDUCT OF LIFE. and they would regain their freedom. that every is man entitled to On the other side. to guide demon took him that . though we give our own names.

yes. It is which is the mean of many the most enduring quality. for finding what he seeks. would remain unsatisfied. but for this appearance. all eyes. as fast as he sees beauty. to call attention to the fact." deep instinct superficial And the working of this makes ail the excitement much of it and absurd enough about works of art. love is blind. an immortal child. that Vulcan was painted lame. Greece. We say. . because he does not see what he does not like. the forms and colors of Nature have a new charm for us in our per- . most ascending quality. . But. and the . related to all things extremes.BEAUTY. Love is the other. will rather enumerate a few of its qualities. and Egypt. We ascribe beauty which has no superfluous to that which is simple parts which exactly answers its end which stands . life acquires a very high value. I am warned by the ill fate of many philosophers I not to attempt a definition of Beauty. so long as only commodity was served. Beauty is the pilot of the young soul. but the sharpest-sighted hunter in the universe is Love. and Cupid blind. which. and Beauty leads him as a guide — : nor can we express a deeper sense than when we say. . and the mythologists tell us. 231 Nature. The most useful man in the most useful world. had been forever concealed from us. and In the true mythology. that one was all limbs. and only that. and the figure of Cupid is drawn with a bandage round Blind: his eyes. above his possessions. Every man values every acquisition he makes in the science of beauty. their Beyond sensuous delight. — — which leads armies of vain travellers every year to Italy.

that in the construction of any fabric or or- ganism. that gives grace of outline and the finer grace of movement. for orna- ception. or more figure. It is the soundness of the bones that ultimates itself in a peach-bloom complexion health of constitution that makes the sparkle and the power of the eye. excellent action. : — joining of the sockets of the skeleton. grain of the that support of the house necessary or leading organic action pleases the beholder. true in a loaf of bread. its The tint of the flower proceeds from and the all : lustres of the sea-shell begin with its existence. a farmer sowing seed. the labors of . that all beauty was worth all the research. 'Tis a law of botany. marks some excellence of structure or beauty is only an invitation from what belongs to us.master can never teach a The cat The badly built man to inelegantly. and the deer cannot move or walk root. Every shifts. that in plants. Elegance of form in bird or beast. its end is an The Gothic lesson taught by the study of Greek art. It is a rule of largest application. 'Tis the adjustment of the size and of the . namely. well. but or in the a sign of some better health. must be organic that outside embellishment is deformity. A man a horse to water. and and shows the original wood refuses pilasters and columns nothing. Hence our taste in building rejects paint. any real increase of fitness to increase of beauty. true in a plant. human : the same virtues follow the same forms. sit dancing. and allows the real supporters honestly to show themselves.232 CONDUCT OF is LIFE. that not one ornament was added ment. and of of antique and of Pre-Raphaelite painting.

fixedness. he set it turning. haymakers 233 in the field. or a temple gives the eye. becoming seen. Another text from the mythologists. that an order and method has been communicated to stones. — a long is on one fea- nose. I saw a boy seize an old tin pan that lay talion of troops and poising it on the top of a and made it describe the most elegant imaginable curves. and a festal procession gay with banners. or concentration Any ture. The Greeks fabled that Venus was born of the foam of the sea. — or on the sea! ships kept for pictur- esque effect on Virginia Water. the carpenter building a ship. and one of our independent companies on a holiday! In the midst of a mihtary show. Beautiful as the symmetry of any form. it is to the wise eye. by George IV. and therefore deformed. we seek a more excellent symmetry.. whatever useful labor. and a difference in effect between a bat- men hired to stand in fitting costumes at a penny an hour! — What marching to action. and drew away attention from the decorated procession by this startling beauty. . become tender or sublime rusting under a wall. if the form can move. a hump-back. — is the reverse of the flowing. a sharp chin. but only what streams with life. what is in act or endeavor The pleasure a palace to reach somewhat beyond. the smith at his forge. is But if it is done to be are ships mean. The interruption of equilibrium stimulates the eye to desire . or. as if Beauty is the moment of transition. so that they speak and geometrize. is. with expression.BEAUTY. How beautiful but ships in the theatre. stick. heaping. the form were just ready to flow into other forms.Nothing interests us which is stark or bounded.

and are never arbitrary. the Pa- who dresses the world from her imperious boudoir will know how to reconcile the Bloomer costume to the eye of mankind. not by abrupt and angular. It is necessary in music. The new mode movements. in woman may if speak. all argue causes. I suppose. mode and a cultivated eye is prepared for and predicts the new fashion. how wide the same law ranges and how much it can jbe hoped to effect. the restoration of symmetry. born of good sense. to let down the ear by an intermediate note or two to the accord again and many a good experiment. and most naturally grees. to recover continually in changes the lost equilibrium. fails. Thus which the circumstances may the de- easily imagined. This fact suggests the reason of all mistakes and offence in our own modes.234 CONDUCT OF it LIFE. I ence in matters of is always only a step onward in the same direction as . This is the theory of dancing. legislate. All that is a little harshly claimed by progressive parties. This is the charm of running water. vote. and the locomotion of animals. and make it triumrisian milliner phant over Punch himself. I need not say. in the world. and destined to succeed. and to watch the steps through which is attained. the circu- . the flight of birds. that the fashions follow a law of gradation. only the last : because it is offensively sudden. may be easily come to be conceded without question. To this all streaming or flowing belongs the beauty that circular movement has . by interposing the just gradations. if this rule be observed. only it come by as. . when you strike a discord. but by gradual and curving have been told by persons of experitaste. sea-waves. and drive a coach.

lies in vrai. but there casual. the circulation of the blood. the purgation of superfluities. and reaches beauty by taking every superfluous ounce that can be spared from a wall. with the least weight. : is for every novelty of color or form and our art saves by more skilful arrangement. There There is not a particle to spare in natural structures.BEAUTY. this demand in our thought for an ever-onward action. in general. In all design. is the argument for the imperiodical : mortality." said Michel Angelo. the action and reaction of Nature and. the annual wave of vegetation. a compelling reason in the uses of the plant. I have noticed a block of . this art of omission it a chief secret of power. poetry of columns. I a house that know. and keeping all its strength in the material. — . The line of beauty is the result rests on necessities. of perfect economy. lation 235 the of waters. and. Beauty is the quality which makes to endure. if we follow it out. and is forever. same purpose. but spring a prior art in choosing ob- jects that are prominent. art Rien de beau que making your object prominent. to say the greatest matters in the simplest way. One more text from the mythologists is to the Beauty Beauty rides on a lion. The fine arts have nothing from the instincts of the nations In that created them. motion of planets. is proof of high culture. is In rhetoric. Veracity le first of all. The cell of the bee is built at that angle which gives the most strength with the the bone or the quill of the bird gives least wax " It is the most alar strength.

but any beautiful is copied and improved upon. How many copies are there of the Belvedere Apollo. is and that scrap of paper is danger. and. hope. Some favors of con- . the Psyche. simply because the tallow-man gave it the form of a rabbit . an ugly building is soon removed. cart." A beautiful woman is a practical poet. spermaceti lying about closets and mantel-pieces. and sends them to a newspaper. ness to building In our is cities. taming her savage mate. I suppose. in proportion to the beauty of the lines drawn.236 CONDUCT OF LIFE. As is the flute heard farther than the see how and surely a beautiful form strikes the fancy of men. the Venus. the the Warwick Vase. it may continue to be lugged about unchanged for a century. planting tenderness. the Parthenon. men are its lovers. and everything It permitted to reaches its height in woman. "To Eve. Let an of a artist scrawl a few lines or figures on the back is rescued from framed and glazed. are shadows or forerunners of that beauty which reaches All its perfection in the it human goes." say the Mahometans. creates it. in all whom she approaches. it form. and eloquence. Wherever is joy and hilarity. and never repeated. so that all masons and carpenters work to repeat and preserve the agreeable forms. put in portfolio. letter. or in works of Nature. whilst the ugly ones die out. for twenty years together. and the human race take charge of them is that they shall not perish. will be kept for centuries. and. Burns writes a copy of verses. "God gave two-thirds of all beauty. and Temple of Vesta ? These are objects of tenderall. The fehcities of design in art. copied and reproduced without end.

I am willing to attract. elsewhere. " the concourse was so great. and. Walpole says. but we love its reproofs and superiorities. Elizabeth married the Duke of Hamilton and Maria. Nature wishes that woman should attract man. the crowd was dangerous to life. little better kind of a man than any I French memoires of the fifteenth century celebrate the name of Pauline de Viguiere. dition 237 serenity is must go with it. to get places at the theatres. " Yes. was the fame of the Gunnings. as often as she showed herself. who so fired the enthusiasm of her contemporaries. in the last century. will when it is known they be there.BEAUTY. the Earl of Coventry. There are mobs at their doors to see them get into their chairs. that seven hundred people morning. since a certain essential. which seems to say. that the citizens of her native city of Toulouse obtained the aid of the civil authorities to compel her to appear publicly on the balcony at least twice a week. when the Duchess of Hamilton was presented at court. that even the noble crowd in the drawing-room clambered on chairs and tables to look at her." sat up all night." he adds." " Such crowds. yet she often cunningly moulds into her face a little sarcasm. and people go early but to atfract a yet behold. "flock to see the Duchess of Hamilton. or the Duchess of Hamilton? We all know . Not less. in Yorkshire. a virtuous and accomplished maiden. in and about an inn. or Corinna." . on Friday. by her enchanting form. to see her get into her post-chaise next But why need we console ourselves with the fames of Helen of Argos. or Pauline of Toulouse. of whom. in England.

238 this CONDUCT OF magic very well. Women stand related to beautiful Nature their around with us. should have been beautiful. mincing steps. we fear to fatigue of expression which passes from conversation into habit of style. and the enamored youth mixes form moon and stars. short legs. They refine and clear his mind. are a kind of personal insult and contumely to the owner. and force him to stoop to the general level of mankind. that a sight of him would derange the ecstasies of the orthodox. strain us to short. That Beauty is the normal state. Martial ridicules a gentleman of his day whose countenance resembled the face of a swimmer seen under water. They heal us of awkwardness by words and looks. We observe their intellectual on the most serious student. an ugly face on a handsome ground and we see faces every day which have a good type." Faces are rarely true to any ideal type. : as every lily and every But our bodies do not fit us. is shown by the Mirabeau had perpetual effort of Nature to attain it. with woods and waters. which concature and satirize us. but are a record in sculpture of a thou- ancestors had kept the laws. rose is — well. and wish to be listened to them. . but cariThus. or LIFE. and acquire a facility . put him at perpetual disadvantage. if our . teach him to put a pleasing method into what is dry and difficult. and the pomp of summer. and long stilts. can divine It does not never hurt weak eyes to look into beautiful eyes so long. it. again. but have been marred in the casting a proof that we are all entitled to beauty. We talk to their influence them. Saadi describes a schoolmaster " so ugly and crabbed.

without expression.BEAUTY. 239 Portrait painters say that most faces and forms are irregular and un. and a misfit from the start. all the beauty out of your — affirm. who is illwho have from chanced to suffer some intolerable weariness who have seen cut flowers to some profusion. that the secret of ughness consists not in irregularity. borrowed unequally from good and bad ancestors. was thought secret favor of the impride. or moves. art. A beautiful person. We love any forms. the hair unequally distributed. eloquence. or woman sits for possesses such a figure. how the least pretty people. among some the Greeks. nothing but to sit for his portrait. from which great qualities shine. The man is physically as well as metaphysically a thing of shreds and patches. sand anecdotes of whim and symmetrical folly. And petulant gentlemen. and one gray the and one shoulder higher than . . Beauty without grace is the Beauty. or . hook without the tires. to betray by : this sign mortal gods and we can pardon when a wall. If however ugly. or who see. another . And yet — artist. but in being uninteresting. but inflamed for one old when the like desire favored." A Greek epigram intimates that the force is of love is not shown by the courting of beauty. or mistake in sentiment takes clothes. command. bait. after a world of pains have been successfully taken for the costume. nose not straight have one eye blue. Abbe Manage "that he was fit said of the President for Le Bail- leul. etc. it is she confers a favor on not beauty that inspires the deepest passion. that wherever she stands. or leaves a shadow on the a portrait to the the world.

he had the perspicacity of an It was said of Hooke. Cardinal De Retz says of De Bouillon. eagle. " was no pleasant man in countenance. as it ought to be. degrading beauty. charming us with a power so fine and friendly and intoxicating.240 CONDUCT OF that LIFE. If a man can raise a small city to be a great kingdom. . exist in the most deformed person." " he is the most. and of high blood. can enlarge knowledge. the darling of mankind. usually displease. the friend of Newton. please. the accidents and raise esteem and wonder higher. and advantageous on the whole. 'tis no matter whether his nose is parallel to his spine. can organize victory. that it makes admired persons insipid. or whether he has a nose at all whether his legs are straight. This is the triumph of expression. insignificant person. and the thought of passing our lives with them insupportable. his face being spoiled with pimples." Sir Philip Sidney. can make bread cheap. that we can hardly find what the mere the delicious beauty of features really are. or whether his legs are amputated his deformities will come to be reckoned ornamental. There are faces so fluid for thousands of years. The great orator was an emaciated. can subdue steam. so flushed and rippled by the play of thought. can join oceans by canals. but he was all brain." Those who have ruled human destinies. and promises the least. . "it behooves that be bold. Ben Jonson tells us. "With the physiognomy of an ox. all invention. of any man in England. can lead the opinions of mankind." said Du Guesclin." "Since I I am so ugly. When . and long. with expression. can irrigate deserts. like planets. were not handsome men.

instead of expense . than their own. is only a burst of beauty for a few years or a few months. Still. lineaments loses licious its 241 because a more deinterior power. It is not yet possessed. until they ful. estate The radiance of the human form. — . tapping a mountain for his water-jet. and inscrutable meaning build a plain cottage with such symmetry. that an Still. as before. durable form has been disclosed. Proclus says. as to make can take all the fine palaces look cheap and vulgar such advantage of Nature. Things are pretty. it is beauty has appeared. seem only the decorations of his this is still the legitimate dominion of beauty. lion. . graceful. good if a man can nature. This is the reason . causing the sun and . it cannot be handled. handsome. " it swims on the light of but. and in But we remain lovers of it. But the sovereign attribute remains to be noted. rich^ elegant. If a man can cut a finer method. such a head on his stone gate-post as shall draw and keep a crowd about it all da}'. not yet beautiwhy beauty is still escaping out of all analysis. BEAUTY. that all her powers serve him making use of geometry. And it is not only admirable in singular and salient talents. only transferring our interest to interior excellence. and Beauty rides on her tists.. speak to the imagination. but also in the world of manners. at the perfection of youth." The mobs lives of the Italian ar- who estabhshed how loyal a despotism of genius amidst of their stormy epoch. though sometimes to moon astonishing. the dukes and kings and prove men in all times are to a finer brain. most. " it was for beauty that the world was made. rapidly declines. by its beauty.

and their face and manners carry a certain grandeur. sky." meaning. flowers. but of a humane. would lovely. musical tone. — — justice. like time and virtue The new a certain cosmical quality. rainbow. For the imagination and senses Wordsworth was on sea or land. is or. and the Welsh bard warns his countrywomen. and spiritual character. Facts which had never before left their stark common . and manners. properly not in the form. All the facts in Nature . instantly deserts possession. If I and flies to an object in the horizon. catholic. has in it somewhat which is not private. suddenly figure as Eleusinian mysteries. that it was supplied by the observer. My boots and chair and candlestick are fairies in disguise. speech.242 forms. Every natural feature. They have a largeness of suggestion. which is not of their person and family. and so lift the object out of sea. a power to suggest relation to the whole world. but in the mind. and thereby And. I find is beautiful. rightly speaks of " a light that never — " half of their charms with Cadwallon shall die. sense. when we bathe the beauty forsakes the near water. meteors and constellations." It is CONDUCT OF It LIFE." which constitutes a thing beautiful. that cannot be gratified at the same time. but all be as beautiful in it. speaks of that central benefit which is the soul of Nature. somewhat in form. but universal. a pitiful individuality. in chosen men and women. it could put ? my hand on The sea is the north star. and we love them as the sky. The feat of the imagination is in showing the convertibihty of every thing into every other thing.

showed the secret architecture of bodies when the second-sight of the color or form or gesture. ! ! clothed about with immortality. light Polarized . and stars of night. somewhat forbidden and wrong. but the fact fine is familiar that the touch of the eye. like mountains on the horizon. treble. and just as much into form bounded by outlines. or a grace of manners. or centuple use and meaning. There are no days in life so memorable as those which vibrated to some stroke of the imagination. which no bare fact or event can ever give. in his approaches. or depths of space. and 243 the make grammar ! of Every word has a double. The laws of this translation we do not know. gems. deep holdings in the frame of things. or a . rainbows. is as into tones of music. the eternal language. as disclosing a more interior ray had been emitted. since all beauty points at identity.BEAUTY. has a pungency. of a The poets are quite right in decking their mis- tresses with the spoils of the landscape. What has my I cry you stove and pepper-pot a false bottom I did not know you were a mercy. and mind is opened. flushes of morning. phrase of poetry. And there is a joy in perceiving the representative or symbolic character fact. now one and now another. plants wings at our shoulders the Divinity. and what- me the sea and sky. soever thing does not express to day and night. good shoe-box Chaff and dust begin to sparkle. there enters somewhat immeasurable and divine. or why one feature or gesture enchants. why one word if its or syllable intoxicates. Into every beautiful object. lifts as if away mountains . are nouns of the intellect. flower-gar- dens. and are jewel-case.

temple of the Mind. All high beauty has a moral element in it. and I find the antique sculpture as ethical as Marcus Antoand the beauty ever in proportion to the ninus Gross and obscure natures. howdepth of thought. — .244 of obstruction. : . — under " vis siiperba fonncE. truer line. up to the perception of Newton. features of the human and form. signs and tokens of thought and character in manners. thither our steps the intellect. seem impure shambles gives splendor to youth. that the globe on which we ride is only a larger apple falling from a larger tree up to the perception of Plato. Thus there is a climbing scale of culture. and the woman who has shared with us the her locks must appear to us submoral sentiment. up to the ineffable mysteries of Wherever we begin. from the first agreeable sensation which a sparkling gem or a scarlet stain affords the eye. An adorer of truth we cannot choose but obey. of beauty. tend an ascent from the joy of a horse in his trappings. and awe to wrinkled skin and gray hairs. but character ever decorated. draw a This which the that haughty force calm and precise outline. that globe and universe are rude and early expressions of an allthe first stair on the scale to the dissolving Unity. lime. CONDUCT OF and deigns to LIFE. the immeasurable and divine Beauty hiding all wisdom and power in its calm sky. is the mind knows and owns. : : . up through fair outlines poets praise.^'' which — and face details of the landscape.

Flow. Accursed. Cannot be moored. And to endurance. That in the wild turmoil. fire-fly's flight. Fleeing to fables. Old man and young maid. And. fugitive also. The waves of mutation No anchorge is. flow the waves hated. death is not Who seem to die live.— : . The lambent And When thou dost return On the wave's circulation. Thou ridest to power. Know. And Is endless imbroglio law and the world. The wild dissipation. ILLUSIONS. And emulate. Horsed on the Proteus. out of endeavor To change and to flow. Through treacherous marbles. See the stars through them. vaulted. The gas become be solid. House you were born Friends of your spring-time. Then first shalt thou know. adored. And phantoms and Return to nothings things. heat-lightning. in. IX. . Sleep is not. Day's toil and its guerdon. the stars yonder The Are stars everlasting. Beholding the shimmer. They are all vanishing.

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I lost the light of one day. I saw high domes. innermost recess which tourists grotto —a . limestone. with which Nature. on new instruments. I years ago. Some party. and time. gravitation. icicle. the six or eight black miles from the mouth of the cavern visit. and snowball. .une dignity that belongs to natural objects. whose waters are peopled with the blind fish crossed the streams " Lethe " and " Styx " plied with music and guns the echoes in these alarming galleries saw every form of stalagmite and stalactite in the sculptured and fretted chambers. water. We shot Bengal lights into the vaults and groins of the sparry cathedrals. and Wdich shames the fine things to which we foppishly compare them. acanthus. We traversed.ILLUSIONS. Serena's . grapes. . niche or I made of one seamless stalactite. and called. could make in believe. Bower. The mysteries and scenery of the cave had the all s. I remarked. and examined all the masterpieces which the four combined engineers. through to the spacious galleries affording a solid masonry foundathe town and county overhead. in spent a long in company with an agreeable summer day in exploring the Mammoth Cave tion for Kentucky. — the dark. especially. hums 247 . and bottomless pits heard the voice of unseen waterfalls paddled three quarters of a mile in the deep Echo River. the mimetic h^bit. orange-flower. .

we do not yet deduct the rounding. and I sat down on the rocky floor to enjoy the serene picture. we fancied the earth a plane. coordinating. rainbows. had many experiences like it. and chem- But I then took notice. pictorial pow. I saw or seemed to see the night heaven thick with stars glimmering more or less brightly over our heads. Our musical friends sung with much feeling a pretty song. The senses interfere everywhere. " The stars are in the quiet sky. reflecting the light of a half-hid lamp." &c.. the sunrise and sunset glories. I did not like the cave so well for eking out But I have sublimities with this theatrical trick. and remember. before and since and we must be content to be pleased without too curiOur conversation ously analyzing the occasions. ers of the eye. and. own. northern lights are not quite so spheral as our child- hood thought them and the part our organization plays in them is too large. that the best thing which the cave had to offer was an illusion. All the party were touched with astonishment and pleasure. rack. yielded this magnificent I effect. Some crystal specks in the black ceiling high overhead. and extinguished or put aside. LIFE. and its . and mix their own structure with all they report of. and stationary.248 CONDUCT OF ape vegetation. on looking upwards. and even what istry to still chiefly seemed a comet flaming among them. Once. The cloudwith Nature is not just what it seems. On arriving at what is called the " Star-Chamber. her old tunes. making night to mimic day. . In admiring the sunset." our lamps were taken from us by the guide.

some leader in the state. is Life . tion has got Health and appetite impart the sweetness to and meat. than Scott. We fancy that our civiliza- on far. but who dare affirm that they are is full more real. Shakspeare. ! ! The man streets lives to other objects. and Homer. by our admirations. or in society weighs what . 249 crefirst The same ates the interference from our organization most of our pleasure and pain. Our mistake ecstasy. is the belief that the circumstance gives the joy which we Life give to the circumstance. sweet as nitrous oxide all is an and the fisherman dripping day over a cold pond. the farmer in the negro in the rice-swamp.ILLUSIONS. of people eyes. In the Hfe of the dreari- est alderman. which they themselves it. them with rosy hue. the hunter in the woods. the belle at the ball. how sweet to him is his fancy how dear What a hero he is. the barrister with all the jury. give ascribe a certain pleasure to their employment. He wishes the bow and compliment of . Plutarch.? Even the prose of the of refi-actions. The child walks amid heaps of illusions. He imitates the air and colors and actions a poor whom he admires. fancy enters into all details. but we still come back to our primers. by our sentiments. the fop in the street. which he does not like to have disturbed. We live by our imaginations. bread. at the railway intersection. The boy. the story of barons and battles! whilst he feeds on his heroes What a debt is his to imaginative books! He has no better friend or influence. and is raised in his own He pays a debt quicker to a rich man than to man. the switchman the field. sugar.

and the key to a riddle is another riddle. never hushed. All is riddle.. Society does somewhat by D'Alembert. the goddess of Mocking. in Boston. frenzy. in San Francisco. stronger than Apollo. In London. and old men. are various. the fictions of would be an impertinence very long. with music and banner and badge. or many names. Children. youths. Few have overheard the gods. The unities. . The paint chapter of fascinations nay. said tims of illusion in adults. the masquerade is at its No- body drops the piece it his domino. the carnival. to The into another dream. the sots are easily amused. perhaps he never comes nearer to him for his fancy. . another. Gylfi's are led by one bawble or illusion. But everybody is drugged with his own and the pageant marches at all hours. all parts of all life. if bitterly. critic Great is God who is and we It rightly accuse the destroys too many illusions. was wittily. in Paris. the painter to break. We wake from one dream toys. — — as many pillows of illusion as flakes in a snow-storm. height. be sure. life is but dies at last better contented for this amusethe din of ment of his eyes and The world rolls. " qii'uii etai de vapeiir etait un etat trh fdcheicx^ parcequ'il nous faisait voir les choses coinme elles sonty I find men vicnot love its unmaskers. for the Power has is stronger than the Titans. There are Momus. or Yoganidra. 250 he says that. Life is a succession of lessons which must be lived to be understood. and are graduated in The intel- refinement to the quality of the dupe. Proteus. CONDUCT OF LIFE. or surprised their secret. lectual man requires a fine bait. is .

company by maintaining were two. but we all have kind When the boys come into . but whose sympathies were cold. a friend of mine complained that all the varieties of fancy pears in our orchards seem to have been selected by somebody who had a whim for a particular kind of pear. 251 Amid the joyous troop who give in to the charivari. And I remember the . — must not carry comity too impulses in this direction. who. comes now and then a sad-eyed boy. God risibility duty of every pious man to and that it was the keep up the comedy. quarrel of another youth with the confectioners. Fair. unluckily. in all his wit to choose the best comfits in the endless varieties of sweetmeat he could only find three flavors. We colleges. and only cultivated such as had that perfume they were all alike. whose eyes lack the requisite refractions to clothe the show in due glory. . and the At the State scientific whim is lurking in all corners. and act with Bible societies.ILLUSIONS. I — power and that the attributes of . why need you spoil the comfort which the rest of us find in them? I knew a humorist. that. and missions. Science is a search after identity. And have known gentlemen of great stake in the commupresidents of nity. and who is afflicted with a tendency to trace home the glittering miscellany of fruits and flowers to one root. have an eye or nose too keen. far. — who held and governors. What then? Pears and cakes are good for something and because you. and cry Hist-a-boyl to every good dog. or two. when he racked the shops. and senators. in a good deal of He shocked the rattle. and peacemakers. themselves bound to sign every temperance pledge. had a grain or two of sense.

its is the region of af- atmosphere always liable to mirage. and some great joys. We find a delight in the beauty fection. that makes the heart too In the worst-assorted connections ever and his jade get some mixture of true marriage. . Their young life is Bare and grim to tears is the lot of the children in the hovel I saw yesterday yet not the less they hung it round with frippery romance. Teague some just relations of mutual respect. I my yard for leave to gather horse-chestnuts. . Women.252 CONDUCT OF LIFE. But the mighty Mother who had been so sly with us. own I enter into Nature's game. they imposture of that showy quite unnecessary But this tenderness is the enchant- on very thick. like the children of the happiest fortune. and happiness of big for the body. and affect to grant the per- mission reluctantly. and ceremonies. and all are tripped up first or last. pluck away the coulisses^ stage effects. more than all. too pitiable. they fascinate. as if she felt that she owed us some indemnity. live ? Too and pathetic. there is children. if he could. are the element and kingdom of illusion. and fostering of each other. this thatching of hovels is the custom of the country. learn . Being fascinated." Well. We are not very much to blame for our bad marriages. We live amid hallucinations and this especial trap is laid to trip up our feet with. And how dare any one. kindly observation. by which they ments are laid thatched with them. fearing that any will find out the moment chaff. and talked of " the dear cottage where so many joyful hours had flown. . insinuates into the Pandorabox of marriage some deep and serious benefits. They see through Claude-Lorraines.

'Tis the charm of as they led the good horse Power by the bridle. who have all my life heard his library is none. 'Tis like . and intellectual.ILLUSIONS. which they know how to interest us. it Then at once will I will daub new paint . is best soldiers. Bonaparte gentleness. though they can ride so fiercely. the cement which the peddler sells at the door he makes broken crockery hold with it. and would carry themselves wiselier. if other. a good-natured admission that there are illusions. or Hugh. unless they But they never deeply is lift a corner of the curtain. read poems and miscellaneous books. 'Tis fine for us to point at one or another fine mad- man. and who he is not their sport? We stigmatize the cast-iron fellows. Men who make themselves use. felt in the world avail themselves of a certain fate in their constitution. or Moosehead. but you can never buy of him a bit of the cement which will make it hold when he is gone. behind if it. The scholar in I. and the and railway men have a shall say that when off duty . preferred to walk. 253 if something. they were now to begin. which I had not thought with this of. or any mythology. as " dragon-rid- . am still the victim of any new page I . as if there were any exempts. sea-captains. that outside of their practicality are a certain poetry and play. be all brave and right. as well as Caesar. if Marma- duke. or practical betray never so slightly their penetration of what men. invent a new style or fancy that the world will dressed in these colors. who cannot so detach themselves. conversed with many and. any number of orations and debates. but not stick. geniuses.

den. Life will Is not time a pretty toy? that are worth all your carnivals. show you masks Yonder mountain must migrate into your mind. deceptions of the passions." " thunder-stricken. horse and gun. and rise to the most The red men told Columbus. There are deceptions of the senses. that there is method in it. estates and politics . and men were swal- lowed up. with what- Since our tuition tions. fate. but there are finer games before you. 'tis is through emblems and indirec- fixed scale. balls. We are coming on the secret of a magic which sweeps out of men's minds all vestige of theism and beliefs which they and their fathers held and were framed upon." and fools of ever powers endowed. cities.254 CONDUCT OF LIFE. beneficent illusions of sentiment and of the intellect. There is the illu- . and all trace of them gone. "the portentous year of Mizar and Alcor. "they had an herb which took away fatigue . a and rank above rank in the phantasms. Is not our faith in the impenetrability of matter more sedative than narcotics? You play with jackstraws. and that the sun borrows his beams? we are learning to ask! magic. What if you shall come to discern that the play and playground of all this pompous history are radiations from yourself. and the structural. subtle and beautiful. The fine star-dust and nebulous blur in Orion. We begin low with coarse masks." must come down and be dealt with in your household thought. What terrible questions The former men believed in by which temples. bowls." but he well to know found the illusion of " arriving from the east at the Indies" more composing to his lofty spirit than any tobacco.

One after the other we accept the mental laws. and each thought which yesterday . so that the soul doth not know itself in its own act. itself. is entire. or condition. and Anna Matilda gets the credit of them. still resisting those follow. who has disposed of it ? or come to the con- what seems the succession of thought is only the distribution of wholes into causal series? The intellect sees that every atom carries the whole of Nature. when that act is perfected. if. it. As if one shut up always in a tower. with one window. that shall deceive even the elect. which is very deep . 255 sion of love. with the human mind which the lover loves. in the endless striving and ascents. even our thoughts are not but the incessant flowing and ascension reach these also. avails And what that science has come to treat space and time as simply forms of thought. There is There is illusion illusion that shall deceive even the performer of the miracle.ILLUSIONS. and withal our pre- tension of property and even of self-hood are fading with the finalities . Though he make his body. rest. at last. age. There is the illusion of time. he denies that he makes Though the world exist from thought. that the mind opens to omnipotence that. which all which however must be accepted. sex. should fancy that all the marvels he beheld belonged to that window. it But our concessions only compel us to new profusion. which attributes to the beloved person all which that person shares with 'Tis these his or her family. nay. the metamorphosis viction that . through which the face of heaven and earth could be seen. and the material world as hypothetical. thought is daunted in presence of the world.

and to run with the runner Lok. can we penetrate the law of our shifting moods and susceptibility? Yet they differ as all and noth- We How ing. long hereafter we shall see it was no cotton tape at all. . . story of Thor. great affairs and the best wine by and by. amid these seeming trifles.256 was a tion? finality. with We fancy we have the supreme energies of Nature." says the good Heaven " plod and plough. and if we weave a yard of tape in 'tis all phantasm all humility. and now it covers a county. broken glass to pay for. and coal. who was set to drain the drinkinghorn in Asgard. We must work and affirm. great task. " Set me some butcher's meat. Instead of the firmament of yesterday." " Not so. milk. pots to buy. and that the threads were Time and Nature. fallen into bad company and squalid condition. and wrestling with Time. cannot write the order of the variable winds. yielding to a larger generaliza- With such volatile elements to work in. The cloud is now as That big as your hand. and as well as we can. CONDUCT OF to-day is LIFE. describes us who are contending. and to wrestle with the old woman. low debts. sugar. but we have no guess of the value of what we say or do. ye gods! and I will show my spirit. shoe-bills. vamp your old coats and hats. weave a shoestring. us in : to-day an eggshell which coops see what or where our stars we cannot even . which it is our eyes require. but some galaxy which we braided." Well. and racing with Thought. and presently found that he had been drinking up the sea. 'tis no wonder if our estimates are loose and floating.

lifted from bed to bed. and all the summits. pay your debts of all kinds.ILLUSIONS. Like sick men in hospitals. we must play no games with ourselves. or distues of veracity . But these alternations are not without their order. . but quite out of mind. we lose our hold on the central reality. but deal in our privacy with the last honesty vir- and truth. from one folly to another and it cannot signify much what becomes wailing. I prefer to be owned as sound and solvent. A sudden rise in the road shows us the system of mountains. 257 From day to day. and we think how much good time is gone. which have been just as near us all the year. and my word as good as my bond. the capital facts of human hfe are hidden from our eyes. be what you are. I look upon the simple and childish and honesty as the root of all that is sublime in character. we change only from bed to bed. When we break the laws. Speak as you think. — — life to the nothing of death. that might have been saved. tures. from the nothing of . stupid. of destiny are. and reveals them. and a severe barring out of all duplicity or illusion there. Whatever games are played with us. dreams. had any hint of these things been shown. and to be what cannot be skipped. and we are parties If life seem a succession of to our various fortune. The visions of good men are good it is the undisciplined will that is whipped with bad thoughts and bad fortunes. yet poetic justice is done in dreams also. In this kingdom of illusions stays we grope eagerly for and foundations. comatose creaof such castaways. Suddenly the mist rolls up. There is none but a strict and faithful dealing at home.

The early Greek philosophers Heraclitus and Xenophanes measured their force on this problem of identity. For we transcend the circumstance continually. and with fate or fortune. "The notions. to all the eclat in the universe. in their sacred writings. But the Indians say. But the Hindoos.' and . Riches and poverty are a thick or thin costume. or undermined. never to be in a false position. has any advantage of them. and keeping within doors. but to have the weight of Nature to back him in all that he does. with strangers. set the cheat leads us to bottom of all work and all live for appearances. afraid of heat and cold. religion. that riches and poverty were a great matter and our civilization mainly respects it. One would think from the talk of men. that what we really are that avails with friends. . poetry. — — . sipated. which wear no silks. express the liveliest feeling. they could never blend and act with one another. Diogenes of Apollonia said. in spite of our conviction. and know the savor . '/ ^»/. and our life the life of all of us identical. We see God face to face every hour. and taste no ice-creams. of Nature. The permanent interest of every man is. and of that illusion which they conceive variety to be. that unless the atoms were made of one stuff. but express the same laws or in our thoughts. At the top or which at the still illusions. that they do not think the white man with his brow of care. and taste the real quality of existence as in our employments. which only differ in the manipulations. both of the essential identity. This the foundation of friendship. in it is sane hours. and I art.258 CONDUCT OF reality is LIFE. always toiling.

not of vice. gifts. and the elements oifer the same choices to each new comer. The mad crowd drives hither and thither." There All is is no chance. or in the obscurest hamlet in Maine or California. there is Every god there sit- ting in his sphere. In a crowded life of many parts and performers. in the universe. insignificant. though wisest of the wise Then be the fool of virtue. are but deDispel. on a stage of nations. fall snow-storms of illusions. and beckoning him up to their thrones. and whose movement and doings he must they pouring on him benedictions and obey: he fancies himself poor. ! they hold to lie in being freed from fascination. tal : — " Fooled thou must be.: ILLUSIONS. There need never be any confusion in these. the same intellect is stimulated The in a trope. The young of the firmament : mortal enters the hall he alone with them alone." And the beatitude of man This is minej'' lusions of the mother of the world. He fancies himself in a vast crowd which sways this way and that. according to his election. But the unities of Truth and of Right are not broken by the disguise. On the instant. and no anarchy. he fixes his fortune in It would be hard to put more menand moral philosophy than the Persians have thrown into a sentence absolute Nature. '• 259 which influence mankind. O Lord of all creatures the conceit of knowledge which proceeds from ignorance. and incessantly. now furiously commanding this thing to be done. orphaned. is system and gradation. and. will by the statement of truth by clothing the laws of life in illusions. now .

the air clears. CONDUCT OF What is LIFE. and new showers of deceptions. and the cloud lifts a little.26o that. new changes. And when. — . they alone with him alone. to baffle and distract him. by and by. he that he should and think or act for himself ? Every moment. resist their will. there are the gods still sitting around him on their thrones. for an instant.

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JUL 9 190? .

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