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Eindhoven University of Technology

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering


Department of Production Engineering and Automation (WPA)
Defects and defect avoidance
in cold forging.
M.A.J. de Vries
TUE-MSc thesis
maart 1993
Vfcode: D3 WPA reportnr.: 1485
Summary
The competitiveness of cold forging processes in relation to other manufacturing
processes is good. To remain competitive, cold forging processes have to produce
defect free products.
In practice there is a wide range of defects which occur during metal forming proces-
ses.
Fracture IS In most cases the only defect that immediately is recognized as one.
Cracking is also the defect that has been researched most extensively. The Okamoto-
classification of cracks is used to discuss the cracks and their causes. The main cause
for cracks is a wrong tool geometry.
Surface imperfections find their main cause in an inadequate lubrication. Although
this kind of defect has not attracted much attention, it will become more important in
future.
Flow imperfections represent a wide range of defects, but they can be divided in:
dimensional inaccuracies, shape inaccuracies and positional errors. The main causes
for these defects are a wrong designed tool and inadequate lubrication.
A method of dealing with these defects is of considerable interest, since the cost to
industry in terms of lost time and material is essentially proportional to the percenta-
ge of products being rejected.
In literature there are several manners mentioned to avoid defects. Statistical process
control and various physical modelling techniques are the methods that are already
being frequently used in industry. Databases, expert systems and neural networks
however, are not being used so often but they show great potential on defect
avoidance.
A literature survey has been carried out on the subject of defects in cold forging. This
survey initially encompassed the literature of the last decade. In addition other
relevant literature was consulted.
11
Samenvatting
In vergelijking met andere produktietechnieken zijn (massief) omvormprocessen zeer
concurrerend. Om concurrerend te blijven, moeten de omvormprocessen echter
foutloze produkten produceren.
In de praktijk kunnen er een groot aantal fouten aan de produkten optreden. Breuk
is in de meeste gevallen de enige fout die onmiddellijk wordt herkend als een fout.
Daarnaast is breuk de fout waarnaar het meeste onderzoek is gedaan. De Okamoto-
classificatie van breuken wordt gebruikt om de breuken en hun oorzaken te
evalueren. De belangrijkste oorzaak van breuk is een verkeerd gereedschapsontwerp.
OppervIakteafwijkingen worden meestal veroorzaakt door verkeerde smering.
AIhoeweI aan dit soort fouten niet veel aandacht is besteed, zullen ze belangrijker
worden in de nabije toekomst
Vloeiafwijkingen vertegenwoordigen een groot aantal fouten. Ze kunnen worden
verdeeld in maatonnauwkeurigheden, vormafwijkingen en plaatsafwijkingen. De
belangrijkste oorzaak voor deze fouten is een verkeerd ontworpen gereedschap en
onvoldoende smering.
Een methode om afwijkingen te vermijden is van groot belang voor de industrie. De
kosten in termen van tijd- en materiaalverlies zijn nameIijk proportioneel aan de
hoeveelheid afgekeurde produkten.
In de literatuur worden verschillende manieren genoemd om fouten te voorkomen.
Statistische procescontrole en verschillende modellering technieken zijn de methoden
die al regelmatig worden gebruikt in de industrie. Databases, expert systemen en
neurale netwerken worden echter nog niet zo vaak gebruikt. Deze methoden tonen
echter al grote mogelijkheden voor het vermijden van fouten.
Een literatuuronderzoek is gedaan naar het falen bij massiefomvormen en naar de
manieren om afwijkingen te vermijden. Eerst is gezocht naar de literatuur, die
geschreven is in de Iaatste tien jaar, vervolgens naar andere relevante literatuur.
III
Eindstudieopdracht
Student:
Onderwerp:
Toelichting:
Omschrijving:
1)
2)
M.A.J. de Vries
Falen bij massief omvormen (Defects in cold forging).
Bij het massief omvormen kunnen veel verschillende fouten in het produkt
optreden. Voorbeelden hielVan zijn: breuk of scheulVorming, ongewenste op-
pelVlakte ruwheid, onvlakheid, maatafwijkingen, enz.. Deze fouten maken bet
produkt waardeloos of maken een dure nabewerking noodzakelijk. Het is
daarom zaak om de faalcriteria en hun achtergronden te doorgronden.
Net zoals er veel fouten zijn, zijn er veel oorzaken. Enkele voorbeelden
hieIVan zijn: gereedschapsslijtage, slechte smering, eoz.. Ook de achtergronden
hielVan zijn interessant.
In drie fasen zal worden geprobeerd om inzicht te vergroten in de
belangrijkste fouten en oorzaken bij massief omvormen.
OpsteUen van een overzicht van de meest optredende fouten en bun oorzaken
bij massief omvormen. Dit wordt gedaan aan de band van een lite-
ratuuronderzoek en gesprekken met bedrijven. Een stage van drie maanden
aan The University of Reading, zal een onderdeel van deze orienterende fase
zijn.
Analyse van een aantal van de belangrijkste faalcriteria door middel van
procesanalyses. De analyses zullen worden uitgevoerd met de methodes die
worden aangereikt bij technische plasticiteitsleer en beschikbare simulatie
pakketten. Ook zal er gebruik worden gemaakt van de dissertaties van P.J.
Bolt en W. Sillekens en de eindstudie van L. Joosten. Daamaast kan een
materiaalkundige analyse deel uitmaken van de analyse.
3) Afronding door middel van een verslag met daarin een overzicht van de
mogelijke fouten en de oplossingen hielVoor.
Plaats en Datum: Eindhoven 27 februari 1992
IV
Contents
Summary
Samenvatting
Eindstudieopdracht
Contents
ii
iii
IV
V
1
2
Introduction
Defects
2.1 Definitions
2.2 Classifications
2.3 Fracture
2.3.1 a-Crack
2.3.2 l3-crack
2.3.3 'Y-crack
2.3.4 o-crack
2.3.5 e-crack
2.3.6 t-crack
2.3.7 TJ-crack
2.3.8 K-crack
2.3.9 Wcrack
2.3.10 A-crack
2.3.11 8-crack
2.4 Surface imperfections
2.4.1 Plowing
2.4.2 Tearing of weldments
2.4.3 Galling
2.4.4 Surface layer of severe plastic flow
2.4.5 Surface roughening due to coarse grain size
2.4.6 Remarks on surface imperfections and workpiece
lubrication
V
1
3
3
4
6
6
10
10
13
14
15
16
16
17
18
19
19
20
20
21
21
21
22
3
4
2.5 Flow imperfections
2.5.1 Material stock
2.5.2 Billet preparation
2.5.3 Lubrication
2.5.4 Tools
2.5.5 Forming machine
2.5.6 Process and tool design
2.5.7 Product handling
2.5.8 Operational control
Defect avoidance
3.1 Statistical process control
3.2 Physical modelling
3.3 Mathematical modelling
3.4 Database
3.5 Expert system
3.5.1 Evaluation of defects and causes of defects
3.5.2 Advantages and disadvantages
3.6 Neural networks
Conclusions and remarks
22
23
24
24
25
26
27
27
28
29
29
31
32
33
33
35
38
39
40
Literature
VI
41
1 Introduction
Nowadays manufacturing has claimed the largest single share of the gross national
product, a measure which can be taken as an indication of the material well-being of
a countryllJ. This makes it evident that manufacturing should be competitive, on a
local as well as a global basis. Competitiveness can only be achieved by attaining a
high level of productivity, which itself is the key issue for the economic development
of a country. Nations falling behind in this respect will find their living standards
gradually eroding. Cold forging processes are processes with a high productivity.
These processes could help to maintain a high level or increase the level of
productivity.
The competitiveness of cold forging processes in relation to other manufacturing
processes is good. Cold forging processes can produce very accurate high duty
components with complex shape. These products often do not need any subsequent
machining or, if required, machining can be limited to finishing operations. The
products are made with the so-called near net shape processes. This greatly reduces
the waste of material and the cost involved with its removal. This is a reason for the
increasing popularity of the cold forging processes, not only in the automobile
industry where 80% of the cold forged products are used 1
2
) but also in other
industries.
The strong dependence of cold forging processes on the industry and especially the
automobile industry determines the economic conditions for the cold forging
technology as (3):
1. a strong pressure towards minimization of costs;
2. increased quality control leading to the demand for zero-defect;
3. decreasing order volume (order quantity) per component, due to the
increasing diversity of shapes;
4. shortening of the production life of the components due to rapid
changing of types (shorter span of life);
5. strong reduction of time between order and delivery;
6. demand for complex components, instead of using several components,
components are integrated into one product;
7. demand for products with high dimensional accuracy and a good surface
quality;
The first, second and seventh condition make it necessary to produce defect free
products. The third, fourth and sixth condition make it necessary to manufacture
1
complex components in small quantities economically. This indirectly leads to a
demand for first time right manufactured products, no defects are allowed in this case
any more. Loss of products due to defects will in this case lead to extra costs, costs
which decrease the competitiveness of a manufacturer.
There is another very important reason for defect free products: the E.C.-guidelines
about product responsibility of July 25th 1985 and the subsequent laws in the
different E.C.-countries. The forthcoming laws make the manufacturers responsible
for possible damage caused by their products even when they are not to blame for
it[4J.
The importance of manufacturing and defect avoidance is evident. In this report the
defects in cold forging processes, their causes and the ways to prevent them will be
discussed.
2
2 Defects
2.1 Definitions
As has been mentioned by Dodd/
S
), there is some confusion in the use of various
terms associated with ductility. The following definitions will be used in this paper[S.6
J
:
Ductility: the ability to deform plasticaHy without fracture in a standard test, usually
expressed by some measure of limiting strain.
Formability: the ability of a material to deform plastically without fracture in a
forming process.
Workability: the ability of a material to deform without the occurrence of any defect
in a forming process.
In sheet metal working the onset of localized necking is often referred to as the limit
of formability of the sheet material, generally presented in Goodwin and Keeler
forming limit diagrams. However, in this paper the attention is confined to forging
and when we are aware of the variations in usage of the above terms from country to
country, industry to industry as well as between individuals, we will not become
confused.
In the definition of workability, given above, the term defect is used. This term also
needs definition.
Defect[s.6
J
: the properties of a product that do not conform to the design specifications,
which make the product less suitable or unsuitable for the purpose for which it has
been designed.
This definition is very wide in scope because a defect can have such occurrences as
cracks in the component, dimensional and surface inaccuracies and buckling.
3
2.2 Classifications
Devedzic(7) has made a classification of the workability limits for all forming processes
(figure 1).
It is evident that die resistance to fracture is also of importance and although die
fracture is a defect in the cold forging tooling it is obviously not a defect in the
product. Alternatively to the Devedzic classification, defects in cold forging processes
can be classified as:
D1 Ductile fracture or cracking in the interior or on the surface of the product.
D2 Surface imperfections, other than cracking, such as roughening (e.g. the orange
peel effect), scratching, scoring and laminations.
D3 Flow imperfections: shape and dimensional inaccuracies and positional errors
such as folding, underfilling, non-concentric products, fins, flashes and
buckling.
D4 Undesirable changes in the physical properties of the work materials during
forming, including decarburization and the formation of martensite.
This is the classification that has been proposed by the ICFG Subgroup Defects in
Cold Forging
l8J
This is a simplified Devedzic classification which excludes sheet
metalworking limits and die failures.
Other classifications, e.g. the one by Okamoto et a1.
19
) can be used as well, but only as
a classification of the type of cracks that can occur in cold forging products. This kind
of classification can be very useful as a subdivision in a more complete classification.
Other authors make lists of the defects that can occur in certain processes, e.g.
Johnson
l10
) and Johnson and Mamalis
lllJ

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Figure 1 Classification of workability limits according to Devedzic.
The causes of defects can be complicated and often there may not be a unique cause
of a defect or they may be interlinked, as we will see in the following sections.
Despite these difficulties it is possible to make a classification of the possible causes
of defects
l81

Cl The metallurgical nature of the start metal, including chemical composition,


mechanical and physical properties, distribution, geometry and volume fraction
of second phases or inclusions, grain size and heat treatment.
C2 Billet preparation, including billet cutting and concentricity of the billet with
the container.
C3 Tool properties, including geometry, heat treatment, wear, tool stiffness and
mechanical properties as well as tool surface coating (if any).
C4 Tribological variables, including die friction and lubrication and billet or
workpiece lubrication.
C5 Forming machine variables, such as machine rigidity and speed of operation.
5
C6 Forming process variables or conditions, including sequence, number of steps
in the sequence and the nature of each step as well as the transfer of material
from step to step.
C7 Temperature rises in the workpiece and tooling, possibly resulting in shrinkage
difficulties.
C8 Other causes.
In this report the proposed ICFG Subgroup Defects in Cold Forging-classifications
will be used.
2.3 Fracture
Although fracture is not the only defect of importance, it certainly is in most cases
the only one that is recognized as a defect. Cracking is also the defect that has been
researched most extensively.
A classification of types of cracks which can occur in cold forging processes was
suggested by Okamoto and his co-workers
l91
This is a valuable classification because
it is probably one of the few classifications that go further than internal and external
cracks and the only one that was found in the available literature.
The cracks, the causes and the manners to prevent them from happening will be
looked at in the next paragraphs. The Okamoto classification will be used as a
guideline although it will be slightly modified sometimes.
2.3.1 a-Crack
a-Cracks (see figure 2) are defined as external cracks which appear at the midheight
of the specimen in upsetting. Depending on the friction at the die-workpiece interface
and the initial geometry of the specimen, either longitudinal or oblique cracks can
occur.
Open-die forging and heading, for example, are included in the - for industry
important - process of upsetting
l121
Upsetting is defined as the axial compression of a
workpiece in order to enlarge the cross-sectional area over either the whole or part
of its length
l13
].
6
(
I
}
)(
~ ~
)(
\ ~
)
External External shear External mixed
longitudinal cracks cracks
cracks
Figure 2 a-Crack, a crack which appears at the midheight of the specimen. Depending on
the degree of end constraint and geometry of the specimen, either longitudinal or oblique
cracks occur.
Clearly in" upsetting operations, the apparent workability of the workpiece depends on
the states of stress and strain on the expanding free surface. As soon as cracks appear
at any position on the surface, the workability limit has been passed. In such
processes it has long been recognized that the induced tensile stresses at the surface
can lead to premature fracture[
14
1. The magnitude of these stresses is dependent on
the severity of barrelling.
If these stresses are minimized by adjusting the process variables, then the workability
can be improved. The most important variables that influence the workability, in
literature also called the upsetability, are:
1. friction (interfacial).
2. specimen aspect ratio (=height-diameter ratio).
3. amount of pre-strain of the work material.
4. nature of the free surface of the material.
Effect of friction and specimen aspect ratio on upsetability
The influence of friction and the specimen aspect ratio is shown in figure 3 [1S-
25
I.
7
~ I - t t ~ h
~ . err;..
I-ttQI], IClia
External shear eras.o f) ~
cracks eCl r
alia
External mixed
cracks
External
longitudinal
cracks
CD
W
c
(\j
L
+-'
(f)
0...
o
o
I
a
AXial strain E:
z
Figure 3 Influence offriction and aspect ratio on ex-crack: the linear fracture condition.
It is clear from this figure that the locus of fracture strains is linear with a slope of
-Vz. Therefore, the fracture condition can be written simply asl13,
24
1:

e =a--!l
6j 2
(1)
where ef and zf are the hoop strain and axial strain at fracture and a is the plane-
strain fracture strain. This fracture line is parallel to the line corresponding to
homogeneous compression, for which e = - j2. This fracture condition can be easily
determined by doing a compression test. A discription of this test is given by
Dieter
l25l
.
Figures 2 and 3 illustrate the type of fracture observed by Kudo et al.
1161
, by Dodd et
al.1
24
1 and by Billigman and Feldmann
l26l
. Using the Levy-Von Mises stress-strain
increment relations, Kudo and Aoi
l151
deduced that the fracture plane coincides with
the maximum shear-stress plane. Kobayashi
I27J
, Lee
JVllll
and others
ll
2, 28-
32
1 have
confirmed that this fracture condition is valid for a wide range of materials.
Lee
JVlIl
] also shows that fracture points for bending, upsetting and edge cracking in
8
rolling, all fall on the same straight line for a given material. Therefore the linear
fracture condition is not confined to upsetting but is of wider generality.
Effect of pre-strain on upsetability
It is well-known that the ductility of a material is strain-history dependent(33). This has
been confirmed in papers by Billigman[34
1
, by Gill and Baldwinn[35] and by Luntz[36
1
,
who have shown that wire drawing after annealing can in some cases increase the
workability in subsequent upsetting operations. Similar results were obtained by
Tozawa and Kojima[37).
Effect of surface defects on upsetability
In industrial upsetting and heading operations on wire and rod, the workability limit
is often determined by the presence of longitudinal surface defects, such as grooves,
scratches or cracks. These defects may originate from the ingot or, more often, from
prior forming processes such as wire drawing[26
I
. In upsetting, such defects act as
circumferential stress concentrators and they limit the workability of the material.
Thomason
l12J
obtained similar results. He found that the greater the aspect ratio of
the cylinder, the lower the effect of surface defects. It was also found that the
upsetability decreased with increasing defect depth, and that variations in the defect
root radius only had a secondary effect.
Prevention of a-cracks
The linear fracture condition for a-cracking in upsetting and related processes can be
seen as a guide to the workability limit of a material. In the development of a new
part, care should be taken to remain within the range of permissible surface strains of
a particular material. For crack-free upsetting of the material, the surface strain paths
should always fall below the fracture line (see figure 3). In the forming of a new
shape the surface strains should be determined. If the strain paths crosses the
fracture line before the process is completed, fracture will occur. To avoid this, either
a material with a higher "a-value" should be chosen, or the process variables should
be altered. For example, if fracture is found to occur, the use of good lubrication will
decrease the slope of the strain path and possibly avoid fracture. Kuhn et al. [38-40)
show that this approach is a useful one. Kuhn[4lJ also finds that this condition is valid
for other forming processes than upsetting and open-die forging e.g. bending. The
9
other factors that influence the workability, cannot be forgotten. Although prevention
of an a-crack by an extra annealing and subsequent drawing step or the examining of
all the incoming material will always lead to extra costs, these actions can be just as
effective.
2.3.2 p-crack
(j-Cracks (see figure 4) are defined as longitudinal cracks which occur at the bottom
of the inner part of the specimen in upsetting with a truncated conical punch. This
type of crack is caused by the expansion of material under the cone punch in cir-
cumferential direction.
Inter'nal
longitudinal
cracks
Figure 4 {j-Crack, a crack which occurs at the bottom of the inner part of the specimen
in upsetting with a truncated conical punch.
Prevention of these cracks can be achieved by selecting a suitable punch shape
(diameter, height, taper). Figures 5 and 6 show the conditions under which {j-cracks
occur in upsetting with circular truncated cone punches. Okamoto et aI.(9(
demonstrate that other steels show the same distribution for the types of cracks as
the S45C steel. The other crack types in these figures are discussed in other sections.
A more detailed description of this type of defect can be found in reference [9], [42]
and [43].
2.3.3 -y-crack
A ')'-crack (see figure 7) is defined as a .shearing crack which appears at the corner of
extruded material or as a surface crack in various processes[9
J
The shear crack occurs
at the boundary between a d e ~ d metal and plastic zone.
10
do
"?l
tool
%
%
~
testpiece
10
13 crack
~
~
....
q...
~ ~ .
E
~
7.5
u;..
E
Taper (<Ill
........
.c
no crack
......,
do-d
.c
=-h-
0>
'(i)
5
.c
.c
v
c
:::>
11 crack 0..
2.5 Material: S45C
Dimension of specimen: 15d*30h
Lubricant: Johnson wax
0
<!l=1
0 5 10 15
Punch diameter d (mm)
Figure 5 Distribution chart of cracking types [91,
do
Material: S45C
Dimension of specimen: 15d*30h
Lubricant: Johnson wax
3
2
----
o-
........
'1 craCK
OJ
Cl.
<0
f-
1
o
o 5 10
13 craCK
Taper (q,)
do-d
h
15
---
tool
testpiece
Punch diameter d (mm)
Figure 6 Distribution chart of cracking types [91,
A shear crack is a very common defect in upsetting and sometimes very difficult to
detect. A possible cause can be a wrongly chosen previous heading step[261,
The surface crack has a wide range of causes:
11
Sheal clacks SUlface clacks
Figure 7 -yCrack, a crack which appears at the comers of extruded material in free
extrusion. Cracking occurs at the boundary between dead metal and plastic zone.
-y-cracks, shear cracks, that occur at the corner[9]
stresses induced by finishing processes[26]
skin inclusions or non-metallic parts[26]
previous process steps[26
1
lubrication explosion[26]
expansion of the slug surface[42]
feed marks that are produced when the slugs were machined[42].
These cracks can be prevented by selecting suitable die and workpiece dimensions
and by a careful workpiece preparation. Figure 8 shows results from tests done by
Okamoto et al.[91. They conclude that no cracking occurs when the ratio of the initial
diameter of the specimen, Do, to that of the die cavity, d, is kept below 2. The other
crack type in this figure is discussed in and other section.
12
3
'1+8 crack
..c: 2
no crack
I
'" crack
1
Material: S45C
Dimension of specimen: 15d*30h
Lubricant: Johnson wax
0
0 1 2 3
Oo/d
Figure 8 Distribution chan of "1- and o-cracks in two direction free extrusion without side
constraint [91.
2.3.4 li-crack
A o-crack (see figure 9) is defined as a crack which occurs at midheight of the
material in the flange in two direction free extrusion without side constraint
l9J
The
material is extruded forward and backward; therefore, the cracking is caused by the
depression of the material in the flange.
I
i
I
Figure 9 o-Crack, a crack which occurs at midheight of material in the flange in two
direction free extrusion without side constraint.
13
A prevention measure is to select a suitable diameter of the dies. Okamoto et aI.!9)
conclude from the chart in figure 8 that the ratio of the initial diameter of the
specimen, Do, to that of the die cavity, d, has to be kept below 2.
This type of crack occurs according to Okamoto et aI.[91 only in two direction free
extrusion. A more detailed description of this defect can be found in references [9]
and [45].
2.3.5 e-crack
An e-crack (see figure 10) is defined as a crack that occurs at midheight or just above
the bottom radius of the inside surface and advances in the circumferential direction
in upsetting[9
1
.
Internal
transverse cracks
Figure 10 e-Crack, a crack which occurs at the midheight of the inside surface and
advances in the circumferential direction.
Causes for e-cracks are the punch shape[9
1
, and the rapid change of the velocity field
in the corners of a backward extruded product[44
1
The change of the velocity induces
a high strain at the corners. This phenomenon is observed mainly if the wall thickness
of the cup is relatively large in respect to the punch diameter.
Prevention of this type of cracks can be achieved by:
an annealing operation[44)
forward instead of backward extrusion[44)
tapered slugs in the case of forward extrusion(44)
an as high as possible hydrostatic pressure[44
1
changing the punch shape[9
1
From the chart lD figure 6 can be
concluded that in case of S45C steel e-cracks occur when the taper, 4>,
of the punch is smaller than 1 and the punch diameter is between 5 and
14
10 mm. Okamoto et al.[9] also conclude that in general e-cracking is
observed between 1'/ and {3 ranges in case of a small punch taper 1).
2.3.6 r-crack
A r-crack (see figure 11) is defined as an internal crack which occurs in multiaxial
extrusion processes. The crack occurs at the center of the material[46. 47].
Figure 11 r-Crack, an internal crack which occurs in multiaxial extrusion processes.
A cause for this type of crack is a too low ductility of the workpiece material.
This defect can be prevented by:
choosing a material with a better ductility.
annealing the workpiece[4
7J

raising the hydrostatic pressure with counter-acting pressures at the


leading ends of the branches[47].
modifying the design of the cross-section of the branches[
47
1.
More information about the multiaxial extrusion process and r-cracks can be found in
references [47] and [48].
Park et al.[46) try to predict the occurrence of these cracks by using several ductile
fracture criteria. They find that the modified Cockroft and Latham criterionII] predicts
the occurrence of internal cracks fairly well. Only for the small extrusion ratio the
difference between experiment and prediction is significant. This discrepancy can be
attributed in part to the fact that the criterion is based on an approximate analysis.
15
2.3.7 J1"'crack
An l1-crack (see figure 12) is defined as a crack which appears to grow from the
upper and side surfaces of the concave portion of the upper surface of the specimen.
In cross-sections the cracks are found to be radial.
Figure 12 'f'J-Crack, a crack on the upper and side surfaces of the concave portion of the
upper surface of a specimen.
The cause for an 71-crack can be an uneven deformation(26), the punch shape or a
surface defect caused by a blunt cropping knife or sawl
91
.
This crack can be prevented by selecting a suitable punch shape(9) or by a careful
workpiece preparation. Figures 5 and 6 show the conditions under which 'f'J-cracks
occur in upsetting with circular truncated cone punches of different diameters height
and taper. Other materials show according to Okamoto et al. (9) similar results.
More about this defect can be found in references [9], [26] and [42].
2.3.8 ,,-crack
A K-crack (see figure 13) is defined as a centre crack or centre burst which can occur
in wire drawing or fOIWard rod extrusion.
16
Figure 13 ,,-Crack, a crack which is defined as a centre crack or centre burst. This crack
can occur in wire drawing or forward rod extrusion.
Avitzur[49] has done extensive research on this type of defect. He determined that
certain combinations of diameter reduction of the workpiece, friction and die angle
can lead to tensile stresses in the core of the workpiece or to disturbances of the
material flow which eventually can lead to central bursting. Other causes can be: a
too low ductility of the workpiece material due to core segregation of inclusions; or
excessive strain hardening.
Methods to prevent these cracks are: insertion of an intermediate annealing step in
the extrusion sequence; selection of another die angle for a given reduction per pass;
or selection of a different reduction per pass.
More references on this type of crack are given by Johnson and Mamalis[SoJ.
Zavaliangos et al.[Slj try to predict the formation of a ,,-crack in rod drawing. Their
numerical simulation qualitatively shows the major features of the problem. As
expected, the material is deforming plastically primarily in the reduction region of the
dies. They find that a high semicone angle and a small area reductions can induce a
substantial negative pressure along the axis of the billet, and it is this negative
pressure that promotes void growth which finally can lead to centre burst. They
conclude that their procedures can be used to check approximately whether a
particular die-design will lead to centre burst.
2.3.9 Wcrack
A J,L-crack (see figure 14) is defined as a peripheral crack that occurs at the centre of
17
a specimen in combined fOlward and backward piercing.
Figure 14 wCrack, a crack that occurs at the centre of a specimen in combined forward
and backward piercing.
Okamoto et al.[9] are the only ones that mention this crack. They give one reference
in their paper.
2.3.10 A-crack
A A-crack (see figure 15) is defined as a crack which occurs at the bottom of the
inner surface in piercing.
Figure 15 A-Crack, a crack that is caused by a too small punch radius in piercing.
The cause for this crack is a too small punch radius. This crack can be prevented by
using a larger punch radius.
Okamoto et aJ.l9] are the only ones that mention this crack.
18
2.3.11 O-crack
A 8-crack (see figure 16) is defined as a microscopic crack which occurs at the
boundary between the upper and lower dead metal zones and at a point where the
metal flow changes during excessive plastic deformation in in upsetting.
Figure 16 8-Crack, a crack which occurs at the boundary between the upper and lower
dead metal zones in upsetting.
Causes of this type of defect are:
a too low ductility of the material[26. SOl.
buckling in a previous process step[26
I
.
Some methods to prevent this type of defect are:
annealing of the workpiece.
preventing of buckling in a previous step.
More references about this crack are given by Johnson and Mamalis[Sol.
2.4 Surface imperfections
Not much interest is being displayed in literature about surface imperfections such as
roughening, scratching and laminations. These defects are most times fairly easy to
overcome by improving the lubrication. But the choice of the lubricant still is not
quite well understood. The tribological system variables and their influences in
forging processes have not been researched extensively yet, so that the choice of a
lubricant and the kind of surface preparation still is a matter of experience.
19
Friction and wear (defects) may be explained through several related mechanisms:
tearing of weldments, plowing, a thin surface layer of severe plastic deformations and
galling. While these mechanisms can provide a fundamental understanding of the
phenomena of friction and of wear, the total picture is much more complicated.
Other factors like corrosion, fatigue, erosion, cavitation, and thermal effects, can also
contribute.
In the following sections the surface defects that were found in literature will be
explained. Only other ways to prevent these defects than improving the lubrication
will be mentioned.
2.4.1 Plowing
l521
The localized high pressures cause the asperities of the hard tool to penetrate into
the deforming workpiece. With the relative motion of each asperity over the
workpiece, a deeply plowed groove is created (figure 17). These grooves expose fresh,
uncontaminated surfaces, which produce a shiny appearance of the workpiece surface.
Figure 17 Plowed groove
l53J

2.4.2 Tearing of weldments


l521
The high pressures over the relatively small areas of actual contact may cause
localized welding. The weldments must shear off instantaneously because of the
relative motion between the tool and the workpiece. As the weldments tear off,
20
localized high temperatures are created. The metals at the weld interface may form
hard intermetallic compounds. As the weldments break loose, they cause damage to
both tool and workpiece. Intermetallic fragmented particles may now move between
the two mating surfaces and cause further damage. The particles may be pressed into
the workpiece, become imbedded, and present hard cutting edges plowing into the
hard die. Thus, the die wears and roughens.
2.4.3 Galling[S2
1
When there is a strong chemical affinity between the tool material and the workpiece,
layers of the workpiece material adhere to the tool surface and may become
immobilized. The difference between tearing of weldments and galling is that the
galling material contains only workpiece material, whereas the torn of weldments
contain tool material as well.
2.4.4 Surface layer of severe plastic flOW
IS2
]
The description of plowing and tearing of weldments demonstrates tIlat a thin layer in
the surface of the workpiece is severely affected by friction between tool and
workpiece. The amount of deformation is highest at the interface; and diminishes
further from the surface. Within a very thin layer, one order of magnitude higher
than the surface roughness, the deformation changes from severe on the surface to
almost zero below it.
2.4.5 Surface roughening due to coarse grain size
The grain size is, as Dautzenberg and Kals[54) state, one of the main causes for surface
roughening. For example when forging billets containing coarse grains are forged in
closed dies, the wrinkles often fold in to cause a series of small laps. Although they
are seldomly very deep, these laps produce a poor surface appearance that often
necessitates considerable grinding and restrike forging. These wrinkles are commonly
known as orange peel.
In agreement with the plasticity theory it can be assumed that the deformation takes
place by shear in the planes of maximum shear stress. From a metallurgical point of
view, this means that the nearest closed packed planes provide for shear by means of
dislocation glide. In the Taylor theory these planes are chosen on the basis of an
21
energy criterion. Inside the material this is necessary in order to maintain the
continuity of the material. This condition is absent for the surface grains. Especially
for material with a coarse grain size this can lead to extreme surface roughening
during the deformation of the workpiece. Kudo
lS31
illustrates the effect of the grain
size of the workpiece material on the rate of roughening of the free surface of a
workpiece due to deformation.
Excessive lubrication of the tool-workpiece interface is another reason for surface
roughening of the product
IS3
]. The lubricant prevents the tool surface from making the
workpiece surface smooth and, consequently, induces deterioration of the product's
surface finish.
Extreme roughening can be overcome by choosing a workpiece material with a small
grain size or a careful heat treatment of the billet, preform or interstage in order to
refine the structure.
2.4.6 Remarks on surface imperfections and workpiece lubrication
Surface defects will become more important, especially in small quantity production
and near net shape forging. In these techniques material waste and machining
operations are to be kept at a minimum.
More about friction, surface treatment and some general guidelines concerning
lubrication can be found in several handbooks, e.g. the handbooks by Avitzurl
DlI
or by
Lange(VII. The ICFG has also published a report about lubrication aspects in cold
forging [
XI
1.
Mayrhofer
lSS1
discusses the obtainable surface roughness and the process variables
that affect this roughness for some extrusion processes.
More specific problems are discussed in journals such as Wear and Tribology
Transactions.
2.5 Flow imperfections
The flow imperfections represent a wide range of defects, including such defects as
buckling, non-concentricity, folding and the occurrence of fins and flashes.
22
Flow imperfections will be one of the most important defects in near. net shape
forging processes since in these processes as accurate as possible products and no
material waste, subsequent machining or trimming are wanted.
Three kinds of flow imperfections can be distinguished[56]:
1. dimensional inaccuracies: the inability to achieve the designed dimensi-
ons.
2. shape inaccuracies: the inability to meet the designed product shape.
3. positional error: the inability to align the several design features.
The factors and sources that result in these three kinds of flow imprecisions are listed
by Kudo[53} as:
1. heredity of bar quality (material stock).
2. heredity of billet quality (billet preparation).
3. improper lubrication.
4. poor precision, rigidity, strength and wear-resistance and thermal
distortion of forming tools.
5. poor p r e c i ~ i o n rigidity and wear-resistance of the forming machine.
6. undesirable deformation of workpiece due to improper product, process
and tool design.
7. imprecision generated during and after ejection of the workpiece.
8. insufficient operational control resulting from improper planning,
facilities and operator.
Mayrhofer[5
5l
, Leykamm
l56
] and Lange[57] use similar lists in their work.
In the following sections these factors will be briefly discussed.
2.S.1 Material stock
Heredity of the qualities of material stock and billet play an important role in
determining product qualities in metal-forming processes[57.
58
1. This is especially the
case in net-shape fonning in which preservation of the original surface is aimed for.
The mechanical properties of the material stock, i.e., bar, wire or plate are
determined by their chemical composition and previous thermal and mechanical
treatment
l53
. 55, 57,
58
1. When there is scatter in the the work-hardening characteristic of
23
the workpiece material the products will have dispersing thicknesses and other
dimensions caused by fluctuation of the forming load and springback. Consequently,
the deflections of the tool and machine will differ from one workpiece to another.
Kudo
lS3
) gives some examples of the influence of the bar quality on the dimensional
accuracy that can be achieved by a forging process.
Defects due to inadequate bar quality can be prevented by: a careful heat treatment
of the billet, preform or interstage, favourable lubricant conditions and more rigid
tooling.
2.5.2 Billet preparation
Billets are prepared by a separation process from bar, wire, plate or tube stocks. The
volume is the property of the billet or blank that is transmitted to the product. In
bulk-forming processes, over-volume billets may result in extra flashing and excessive
tool and press load, while under-volume billets lead to incomplete products.
The inaccuracies in the preform or interstage, which subsequently lead to volume
fluctuations, are a result of variations in the cross sections of the stock material.
These variations are allowed to be according to DIN 1541 up to 16% and according
to DIN 1013 about 5%. In addition, variations in the parted-off lengths, caused by the
process, also affect the volume accuracy. The fluctuation in billet length when the
billet is being sawed is 2 to 4% and in case of the billet being cropped 4 to 8%(
5
5).
The excess volume of the material must be machined from the workpiece.
Kudo
lS3
] gives some examples of dimensional inaccuracies that are caused by
imprecisenesses of the billet.
Defects that can be caused by billet irregularities are amongst others: buckling, folds
and burs, flashes and incomplete products.
2.5.3 Lubrication
High coefficients of friction due to poor lubrication generally cause non-uniform
deformations, such as surface barrelling in upsetting and additional shear strains in
extrusion and rolling, which lead to non-homogeneous properties within the material
and, in some cases, to surface or interior cracking (see 2.3.1). Poor lubrication also
24
induces high forming loads, workpiece-tool adhesion and tool wear. The high forming
load and the tool wear directly influence the product dimensions.
Poor lubrication causes fluctuation in the coefficient of friction, which brings about
variations in the shape dimensions, surface roughness (see chapter 2.4) and fracture
of the products. A good example of the influence of imperfections in the lubrication
on the material flow is given by Ramaekers and Kals
IS9
). In their paper instable
material flow in an upsetting operation is connected with imperfections in the
lubrication.
A too thick lubricant layer at the workpiece-tool interface, effects the surface finish
of the product (see 2.4.6). Excessive lubricant deposited or trapped in tool recesses or
fillet corners often prevents the material from completely filling the tool cavity. This
defect can be prevented by designing lubricant drains in the die.
2.5.4 Tools
The accuracy of tools is very important for the accuracy of the products: forming is in
a way copying. The tool can be considered an analog storage for dimensions and
shape. Deviations from the desired values in the tools show up as systematic errors in
the workpiece.
Factors that induce dimensional inaccuracies in the workpiece are:
elastic distortion of the tool componentslS3. 57.58).
This effect can be decreased by using tool components with a high
Young's modulus, e.g. tungsten carbide. Rigid tooling has a higher
spring constant, with smaller elastic deformations, for a given loading
condition. Kudo
(53
) gives an example of the influence of the insert's
material on the distortion of a tool.
temperature distortion of the tool components
IS3
). Changes in tool
dimensions due to a steady temperature rise cannot be avoided. With
the use of controls and regulations, a computer aided correction, e.g.
software correction, in the closing area of the tool is practicable. A
prototype of such a system has been realized at IFUM in Hannover
IS9
).
wear of the tool components
lS3
, 57,58). In production the dimensions of
the tool change because of wear and deformation. If sliding cannot be
avoided, the wear can be reduced by using wear-resistant tools and
good lubrication. When the wear behaviour under production conditions
25
is known, techniques such as statistical process control and sample
control can be used[57. 58).
Kudo(53) and Lange[57. 58) give various examples of the effects of the tool precision on
the final dimensions and shape of the workpiece. In general, dimensional and shape
defects can be prevented by: a high tool accuracy and small dimensional changes
during manufacturing through wear.
2.5.5 Forming machine
A considerable amount of distortion takes place in the press construction and in
driving elements that are subjected to the working load and torque. Lange[57. 58)
distinguishes three factors that affect the production accuracy:
1. ram or hammer guidances.
2. stiffness behaviour of the machines.
3. fluctuations in the work capacity of the machines.
Since the forming tool is generally made of two parts, a proper guidance of the ram
in the frame is important for good positional accuracy. The positional error of a tool
is the sum of the positional error during contact (without load) and the positional
error due to drifting (under central and eccentric loading). The latter results in ram
tilt. Ram tilt can lead to such defects as buclding[61
1
and fracture of the workpiece.
Special interest has been displayed in the layout of adjustable guide forms of
metalworking machines and of the resulting flux of force[60I. Doege(60) gives some
examples of, and alternatives to the in industry used layout of guides.
The stiffness behaviour of the machines is influenced by several elements of the
machines used: guidance of the ram, cross-head, press drive and frame, for
example
(60
). In general, the elastic deflections will be smaller in a more rigid press. It
is therefore necessary to use more rigid presses such as die forging and coining
presses, in order to obtain close dimensional tolerances on thickness in the force
direction. Closed-frame presses are to be preferred to C-frame presses for such
processes [53.57).
Fluctuations in the work capacity affect the thickness of the product. The available
work capacity should therefore be maintained constant for increased requirements on
26
accuracy. Lange
lS
7] gives some examples of how this should be done: the use of relays
in the control of drop hammers, and the control of the screw speed in the case of
screw presses.
2.5.6 Process and tool design
When the product, process or tool design is inadequate, extremely high working loads
may be required to attain satisfactory filling of the tool cavity. This may cause
distortion or failure of the tool or machine.
Kudo
lS3
) gives three examples of dimensional inaccuracies that are caused by improper
process design.
2.5.7 Product handling
Imprecision of the product generated during and after ejection can have many
reasons, for example:
improper ejection of the formed product.
elastic shrinkage of a die having no draft angle.
shrinkage of the product due to cooling.
An improper ejection method may distort the product shape
IS3
). The ejection method
should therefore be carefully chosen.
The elastic shrinkage of a die having no draft angle can cause a slight plastic
deformation of the product. This is easily overcome by designing a die with a slight
draft angle. In this way a product is pushed out of the die by the elastic shrinkage.
Although shrinkage of the product due to cooling after (hot) forming is said to be a
reason for product inaccuracies
IS3
), for example in fast cold extrusion, Leykamm
lSS
)
states that a temperature rise of the workpiece does not influence the accuracy of the
product. Leykamm explains this by saying that an expansion of the die due to the
temperature rise of the workpiece compensates the expansion of the workpiece.
Dimensional inaccuracies can, according to Kudo
IS3
), be overcome by adjusting the
die, e.g. by designing a die which is slightly oversized.
27
2.5.8 Operational control
For the reasons stated in the preceding sections, imprecision in formed parts results
from changes or fluctuations in the current workpiece temperature due to non-
uniform heating in the furnace, varying cycle time due to manual operation, etc.
Omission of occasional scouring to remove pick-up from tool surfaces or of
controlling deterioration and concentration of lubricant may cause changes in the
operational conditions and, consequently, changes in the quality of the product.
28
3 Defect avoidance
In the previous chapter the emphasis was on defects, their causes and the ways to
prevent them. These are the basic things that are needed for the avoidance of defects.
fIn literature several manners to avoid defects in products are mentioned:
statistical process control (SPC)
physical modelling
mathematical modelling (FEM, UBET)
database
knowledge based system, expert system
neural network
In the following sections the techniques involved and a knowledge based system
which was proposed by the author will be discussed.
3.1 Statistical process control
Statistical process control is in cold forging used to avoid dimensional and shape
inaccuracies. In view of the fact that cold forging processes are still primarily used for
the mass production of components, statistical process control has become
engineering standard practice in the effort to assure production quality. Here, the
word "control" means closed loop control. During production, a check is kept on the
way certain quality determinant parameters are changing. This enables corrective
action to be taken while parts are still being produced within tolerance limits.
SPC requires information on(62,
63
1:
1. systematic errors: errors caused by such factors as tool wear, elastic and
thermal deformation.
2. random errors: errors caused by uncontrolled factors.
3. quality of the production process: tolerances that can be achieved with
a certain process (process capability) and specific machine (machine
capability).
Figure 18 shows what is meant by capable and non-capable processes. In words: the
process capability is the process quality in relation to the tolerance described for a
part.
29
tolerance
C
pk
< 1
not process-capable
tolerance
process-capabIe
under certain conditions
tolerance
CPk> 1 (1.33)
process-capabIe
Figure 18 Capable and non-capable processes. The frequency distribution of a process
usually resembles a Gaussian curve. The process capability index, Cp ~ is an indication of
the process capability.
It is a matter of checking whether the scatter of a dimension is sufficiently tight
compared with the tolerance, and whether the dimension changes result from
systematic factors such as tool wear. The total of such comparisons for all of the
part's characteristics determines whether the process is capable or not. Geiger and
Perlhefter
l6
2, 63) use the C
Pk
index (process capability index) as an indication for the
process capability. TIle C
pk
index expresses the position of a dimension's mean value
in relation to the specified tolerance limits. Kirstein
l641
and Lange
l6S
) give an exact
view of the process capability of several processes. The basic precondition for SPC is
that both machine and process are capable. If not, there is no point in trying to apply
this technique. This method therefore requires testing of machine and process
capability besides the permanent statistical monitoring of the critical product
dimensions.
Advantages of SPC are:
knowledge of the manufactured product quality, due to the immediate
assessment of the quality at any instant during a production run. The
quality of a run can be documented with defined quality indicators and
inspection results.
possibility of early intervention in the production before out-of-
tolerance parts are produced.
possibility to demarcate the out-of-tolerance parts. As a result only a
small portion of the production run would have to be scrapped or
30
subjected to 100% inspection.
An effect that according to Geiger and Perlhefter
(63
) should not be underestimated, is
the strengthening of employee interest in quality matters when SPC is introduced.
This can lead to improved quality of the products.
Disadvantages of SPC are:
SPC cannot guarantee IIzero defect
ll
Slllce it is based on random
sampling. The forthcoming standard deviation is only a calculated
estimation, which itself is subject to confidence limits. The SPC
technique only tells how many products are likely to be defective.
SPC cannot guarantee the detection of random defects in the order of
p.p.m, (parts per million), e.g. defects in the original blanks or swarf.
Only 100% inspection can eliminate such defects, and, because of faulty
inspection even this cannot guarantee a zero defect result.
the size of random samples has to be chosen large enough as to
eliminate the influence of an individual measurement. Extreme figures
would otherwise throw off the results.
More details and examples are given by Geiger and Perlhefter in their papers on
SpCI62, 63).
3.2 Physical modelli ng
Development work cannot be conducted with production equipment, since it will
disrupt the work done in the plant and will cause very high expenses. It is common
practice to establish separate development laboratories with highly instrumented
equipment. In this way it is possible to record all the data needed without
interruption of the production process.
Because the use of production-scale equipment is expensive, normally all the tests are
scaled down. Scaling down is a straightforward process when the workpiece is
deformed at room temperature, and film lubrication and heat transfer are not factors
that must be considered
l661

Flow patterns, including defect formation and forming forces can be studied on a
small-scale workpiece with smaller dies, smaller equipment, and smaller forces.
31
Another simulation technique, the model material technique, has been developed by
Wanheim et al.[67-
7
ol. This technique uses model materials like wax, lead or plasticine
to replace the workpiece material.
The model material technique is a 3-D technique and is very useful for determining
flow, geometry, thrust magnitudes, pressure distributions and the effects of friction.
This makes the technique suitable for the prediction of a workability limit of a
material in a forging process. A good example is given by Yoshida and Wanheim
l681
in
their prediction of surface cracking.
3.3 Mathematical modelling
A reliable analytical model provides a determination of the dependent process
parameters such as forces and flow patterns (fracture and failure) as functions of the
independent parameters. Process design can be achieved with a high degree of
success, and trial and error with the actual production equipment or physical models
is minimized. This makes that mathematical modelling is one of the least expensive
modelling techniques.
Due to the increasing capability and availability of computers, numerical simulation
methods such as the finite element method (FEM) and the upper bound elemental
technique (UBET) have been developed to a sophisticated degree. These techniques
make it possible to determine the influence of the process parameters, e.g.
lubrication, tool geometry, punch speed.
As mentioned in the previous section, there are several modelling methods: slab
method, upper bound method, finite element method, for example. In comparison
with the experimental procedures like material modelling, it is noted that the
development of a mathematical model is more time-consuming. Whereas it
sometimes takes months to derive a mathematical criterion, the problem may be
solved in days or weeks by a trial-and-error experimental procedure. With an
experimental solution though, only the solution of a specific case is obtained while an
analytical model can give a general solution.
A complete review of these techniques is quite impossible, since it would be
incomplete or outdated. Many papers about numerical simulation of forging processes
can be found in the Journal of Materials Processing TechnologylAI. There are several
other journalslB-F] though, in which a considerable part of their articles involve
numerical simulation techniques.
32
A good example of the application of a 2-D FEM programme for the simulation of
cold forging processes is given by Dh et aV
71
]. Mielnik
l72
] gives a comprehensive
explanation of mathematical simulation of forging processes; the FEM is one of them.
3.4 Database
A database is a collection of data maintained by a database management system. The
database management system is a file management system that assists in the
operations of entry and storage of data and in linking related records of different
types together.
Johnson
llO
] and Al-Mousawi et al.
192
] emphasize the necessity for the design of a
database with data on defects. Such a database should, once completed, provide a
valuable source of information for academic researchers and process engineers. The
database has to be flexible and updated to include new information.
With a database it would be possible to anticipate or avoid defects in a product. It
would also be possible to couple such a database to an expert system as will be
introduced in section 3.5.
3.5 Expert system
Expert systems are computer programmes which model human expertise and apply
logic (inference) to the knowledge base in solving problems. The knowledge base
itself is an organized set of information, i.e. a database, in the computer memory,
obtained from people who are experts in a particular field, e.g. experts in
metalworking processes
I73
].
The benefits of an expert system are: reduced time to market, capturing of the
engineering knowledge and the ability of concurrent engineering. All these benefits
are induced by the capturing of all the needed engineering knowledge into one
integrated product model.
33
However, to make such a system operable for cold forging processes, highly
specialized knowledge must be supplied in the following three areas(73):
1. Design for production. Very specific cold forging rules must be provided,
relating to such aspects as dimensions, shapes, surface finish,
mechanical properties, in order to determine whether or not cold
forging might be used to produce the particular shape. Even just to
realize that a component might be suitable for cold forging needs
specialist knowledge, which most product designers could not possibly
possess.
2. Process planning. An optimizing system must be provided to select the
best sequence of operations from those given, that will produce the part
in the quantity desired at the lowest costs.
3. Production equipment centre layout. The proper selection, design and
development and layout of the production equipment involving such
equipment as presses, tooling, annealing furnaces, lubrication systems,
that are essential for successful operation.
These three engineering activities are closely related, as has been shown by Lange(74.
75). A fully competent component design for cold forging cannot be evolved, unless
alternative process sequences and their effects on production equipment design, costs
and the properties of the product are considered first.
As a result of the variety of cold forging processes, the products that can be
produced, the defects that can occur and the causes of the defects, the development
of an expert system must be based on several classifications. Appropriate processing
sequences, design rules, process conditions, etc. can only then be formulated for each
class of part and/or processes when these classifications are made.
The answers that are wanted from a cold forging expert system are:
the forming stages.
forming load (in each stage and total).
requirements as to forging machine; i.e., maximum load, stroke.
maximum strain and degree of work hardening in the final product and
preforms.
dimensional accuracy of the product.
shape and size of the starting workpiece.
34
requirements as to intermediate heat treatment and lubrication.
total costs, including tool costs.
Some of these answers can be derived out of already existing expert systems, but most
of these systems only give an answer to certain questions.
Expert systems have proven to be able to increase the consultation speed in the three
mentioned areas!73, 76-90) and to provide reliable results. Most of these systems have
been developed for process planning!73.76. 7S-
86
1. More about expert systems can be
found in reference [6] or in the other given references.
3.5.1 Evaluation of defects and causes of defects
A classification of defects and their causes is not used in any expert system so far.
But such classifications may provide the possibility of solving numerous problems in
this field more efficiently, not only for the computation of the workability limit, but
also its optimization, the varying of some parameters, and so forth. These
classifications make it possible to answer questions about required intermediate heat
treatment and lubricatiop; answers that are not given by the existing expert systems.
When such an expert system has a design environment, it could adjust the product
design so as to prevent some of the defects from occurring.
A possible programme structure for an expert system which includes the evaluation of
defects is shown in figure 19. In this figure, i-I, i and i+1 correspond to stages in a
generalized multi-stage process.
A programme for computer-aided evaluation of the workability limit requires
definition of the following data:
1. Process.
2. Workpiece type.
3. Workability limit.
4. Characteristics of the forming material for example, degree of prestrain
and mechanical properties.
5. Dimensional and geometrical characteristics of the initial shape of the
workpiece.
6. Dimensional and geometrical characteristics of the final shape of the
workpiece.
7. Working conditions.
35
Stress and strain
assessment
8. Die characteristics.
9. Miscellaneous data.
Initial form,
working conditions
i-1
- - - - - - - - 1/ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
~ Process
~ Workabi lity limit
L-- ,.- --' ~ Die characteristics
,.---__---"'-- ---,. / Material characteristics
Evaluation of V Working Conditions
defects criteria
Product, work ing
conditions
i+1
Figure 19 Possible program strncture for an expert system.
The assessment of the stresses and strains (see figure 19) is a very important part. In
expert systems[83, 87,87] this is usually carried out by a FEM programme. This part
calculates the strains in the product and then transfers this data to the evaluation of
defects and overall process-evaluation. Finally, if it is found possible to carry out this
stage without defect occurrence, all of the data is transferred to the next stage and
the expert system evaluates the next stage in the same way.
FEM simulation is effective in getting the correct answers, but has the disadvantage
of a long running time. Because of this, it would be better to make a good
approximation of the critical strains in the product to limit the time needed.
One of the problems associated with the evaluation of defect criteria IS the
classification of defects and their causes. Although the ICFG Defects in Cold Forging
sub-group[8] has made such classifications, realistically (see section 2.2) these may only
be a beginning.
When a combination of a defect and process classification is used, it means for the
36
expert system, that only rules related to a certain combination of defect and process
have to be consulted. This has two main advantages:
1. since the number of clauses the interpreter has to search through is
decreased, the execution time is decreased.
2. since the number of clauses in the knowledge base is decreased, the
possibility of conflicting rules is also decreased.
In figures 20-23, the global relations between the defect and its possible causes are
given in terms of the classifications used by the ICFG Defects in Cold Forging sub-
group. The major causes for a defect are highlighted.
Figure 20 Possible causes for fracture
or cracking (DI). The main cause for
this defect is the tool properties (C3).
Figure 21 Possible causes for surface
imperfections (D2). The main cause
for this type of defects is the tribologi-
cal variables (C4).
37
Figure 22 Possible causes for
dimensional inaccuracies (D3), the
main causes are the tool properties
(C3) and the tribological variables
(C4).
3.5.2 Advantages and disadvantages
Advantages of expert systems are:
Figure 23 Possible causes for
undesirable properties of the product
(D4), the main cause is the
temperature rise in the workpiece and
tooling (C7).
They have proven to be able to increase the consultation speed and to
provide reliable results in various applications[73.76-
90I

They make high level expertise available and accessible to many users
in a consistent quality, unlike the human expert who cannot always
provide the same advice in the same situation and is often not available
when needed.
Disadvantages of expert systems are:
They are not able to replace human experts.
For the development, very high efforts of time and money have to be
made. All the knowledge which is scattered throughout the company
has to be gathered; this will take a lot of time and highly educated
people.
Some of the knowledge that a human expert uses to solve a problem
cannot be made consciously accessible to him or to others without a
great deal of effort.
38
3.6
It is hard to predict the break-even point for knowledge-based systems.
You cannot point exactly where the benefits will be. In this way it is
hard to convince managers of the need for these systems.
Lack of software tools for implementing expert computer systems
l91J

Neural networks
Neural networks can be seen as expert systems since they have the same functions.
Besides, they add some human reasoning and decision making.
A good example of a neural network for cold forging is the one that has been
developed by Osakada et al.l
91J
This neural network decides which process sequence
is the best one for a new product. This decision is being made after a training of the
neural network with example products of which the process sequences have already
been determined. A problem which is caused by this need for training is the
acquisition and selflearning of reliable knowledge. When this training has been
successful, most of the process sequences of new products can be correctly
determined by the neural network.
39
4 Conclusions and remarks
1. There is a wide range of defects which occur during metal forming processes.
A method of dealing with these defects is of considerable interest, because loss
of products due to defects will lead to extra costs, costs which will decrease the
competitiveness of a manufacturer.
2. There is some confusion in literature in the use of various terms associated
with defects and ductility. The term defect is by most people only related to
fracture. However, when noticed that the term defect is only used in relation
to the term workability and not in relation to ductility or formability, terms
which are related to fracture, confusion in terms will be overcome.
3. Defects can be peculiar to some materials or associated with some forming
processes. It is a topic that, despite its importance, seems to attract little
attention from academic researchers, who deal mostly with "ideal" materials
and processes.
4. There are several possibilities to prevent defects: databases, expert systems and
statistical process control, for example. Only statistical process control and the
modelling techniques are common practice in industry; the other possibilities
have still to be developed.
5. With an ad hoc solution for a defect, only a specific case is solved. Therefore
analytical models of defects should be preferred since they give a general
solution of a problem.
6. Solutions to defects, either ad hoc or analytical, are very seldom published.
This makes it very difficult to find solutions in literature. Not publishing is
probably caused by the "We have no problems, have we?" or "Our problems
are only our concern" attitude.
40
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47
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multistage cold forging, Journal of Mechanical Working Technology, 15, 1987,
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76
[89] Raghupathi, P.S. and K. Sevenler; Formex: a computer system for establishing
forming sequences in cold forging, ICFG 12-9-86
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Recommended literature
[I] Cockroft, M.G. and D.J. Latham; A simple criterion of fracture for ductile
metals, National Engineering Lab., England, N.E.L. Report No. 240, 1966
48
[II] Avitzur, B.; Metal Forming Processes and Analysis, McGraw-Hill Inc., 1968
[III] Avitzur, B.; Handbook of Metal-Forming Processes, John-Wiley & Sons, 1983
[IV] Lange, K.; Handbook of Metalforming, McGraw-Hill, New-York, 1985
[V] Lange, K.; Handbuch der Umformtechnik, Band 1: , Springer-Verlag, 1988
[VI] Lange, K.; Handbuch der Umformtechnik, Band 2: , Springer-Verlag, 1988
[VII] Latham, D.J.; Ph. D. Thesis, University of Birmingham, 1963
[VIII] Lee, P.W.; Ph. D. Thesis, Drexel University, 1972
[IX] Mielnik, E.M.; Metalworking Science and Engineering, McGraw-Hill Inc., 1991
[X] ICFG document no. 8/91; Lubrication aspects in cold forging of carbon steel
and low alloy steels, Wire 42, no. 5, 1992, pp. 471-482
Recommended journals
Journals with analytical models (of defects) or modelling techniques
[A] Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.,
Holland
[B] Engineering Computations, Pineridge Press, Swansea U.K.
[C] Engineering Fracture Mechanics, Pergamon Press, Oxford-New York-Seoul-
Tokyo
[D] Engineering with Computers, Springer International, Germany
[E] International Journal of Plasticity, Pergamon Press, Oxford-New York-Seoul-
Tokyo
[F] The International Journal of Finite Elements in Analysis and Design
49
Recommended journals (general)
[G] Journal of Materials Processing Technology
[H] International Journal of Machines and Tools Manufacturing
[1] IEEE Computer
[K] CAE Journal
[L]
Journal of Mechanical Working Technology
[M]
Advanced Technology of Plasticity
[N]
Werkstattstechnik
[0] Wire
[P] Stahl und Eisen
[0]
Maschinenmarkt
[R] Wear
[S] Tribology Transactions
50