SEEPNM: (Strategy of Energy Efficient Protocol in WSNs based on Non-Uniform Ring-Zone Model

Rab Nawaz Base Paper Summary Main Points: • • • • • • • • • • • Nodes deployed uniformly in the field. Sink is located at the center of the sensing region. Network is organized into tires around the sink (BS). In this protocol the nodes in the nth tire relay their messages to BS in n hops. This protocol utilizes the twin problem of routing and MAC layer in an integrated fashion. In this protocol all the nodes of ith tire share the same network address i which is ID of tier i. MAC is chosen randomly from a set, and it will be shorter. Rings around the BS are formed by broadcasting messages from the BS. All nodes which receive this message, recognize that they belong to tier n, where n is the message ID. The routing in this case is hop by hop. The packet is transferred from upper level rings to lower rings on the basis of tier ID. Only lower ring ID’s nodes will relay the message to BS.

Communication When a node s has data to send, it chooses next hop node. Before sending any thing the transmitting node waits for a guard time Tg. When this guard time (Tg) expires or channel become idle (free), the node s wait for random listening time (Tl) before transmitting any thing. Guard time It is used for channel listening either busy or free. Listening time  It is used for collision when more than one nodes attempt to transmit at the same time (resulting collision). Mechanism: When a node s send an RTR (Request to Relay) packet. Upon receiving this RTR by nodes in lower tier ID reply with a CTR (clear to relay) i.e. next hop nodes. In order to avoid contention with other next hop nodes, the next hop node chooses a random Back off time Tb and listens to the channel. If next hop nodes hear a CTR message with the correct SMI (source MAC identifier) and STI (source tier identifier)from other next hop node or data from the source node, they reset their timers and goes back into the listening state, otherwise it replies with a CTR which has a correct SMI and STI. Now it is waiting for data and is in receiving state.

When a source node s sends an RTR packet, and starts a timer Tw (waiting time). If this timer expires and the source node does not receive a CTR it rebroadcast RTR. For each rebroadcast the source node selects new SMI. Loss of Data and acknowledgement can be detected through time outs of duration of receiver and sender. The pictorial representation of the SEEPNM protocol can be depicted as,


Base Station (Sink)

n …2 1

SEEPNM Protocol Architecture.

Proposed Strategy:
In this approach we remove the RTR and CTR mechanism and also try to reduce the number of hops between sender and receiver. In the proposed strategy, when a node has data to send, it sends immediately, only those nodes will receive the packets which are in the radio range of the source node.


3 3

S 4 3

2 2 1 1



Tier 1

Tier 2

Tier 3 Tier 4

Figure: Proposed Strategy A node s in the ring 4 broadcast the data. Four nodes are in the radio rang of s, one from its own ring, two from ring 3 and one from ring 2 will receive the packet. The source node s sends the data with ring ID4 because it is in the ring 4. The node with the same ring ID will discard the packet. Three nodes in this case will take the packet and start the time on the bases of existing energy and ring id. The node will higher energy and lower ring id get priority for the relaying the packet. The timer of such node will expire quickly as compare to the nodes which has low energy as well as high ring ID. In the above diagram the timer of node 2 in ring 2 will expire earlier as compare to other node. When this node send the packet, in its vicinity all the node will receive it, and the nodes which timers not yet expired, upon receiving this packet with correct source will kill their timer and discard the packet. The next hop node 1 in the tier 1 will be selected for relaying the packet to BS. Through this strategy that packet is transferred to BS will less no of hopes. In the SEEPNM the packet is routed to BS through all the rings. But in this strategy the path contains only three hops.

The timer is a function of the residual energy of the node and the ring ID in which the node is lying.

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