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Honors Physics / Unit 08 / OPM

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Oscillating Particle Model
Experiment: Masses Oscillating on Springs

Physical Quantity

How to Measure

Units

Objective:

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from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006

Honors Physics / Unit 08 / OPM

Lab Notes:

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Honors Physics / Unit 08 / OPM

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Practice 1: Horizontal and Vertical Oscillations Waves Unit I, Worksheet 1
1. The diagram shows a block attached to a Hookean* spring on a frictionless The diagram to the right shows a block surface. The block experiences no net force when it is at position B. attached to a Hookean spring on a frictionless When the block is to the left of point B the spring pushes it to the right. surface. The block experiences no net force When the block is to the right of point B, the spring pulls it to the left.
 

when it is at position B. When the block is to the left pulled to the left from pushes it to the The mass isof point B the spring point B to point A and released. The block then oscillates between positions A right. When point B to be zero position and right and C. Considerthe block is to the right of point of B to be positive. B, the spring pulls it to the left.
On the grid below, sketch a graph that you think reflects how the restoring force applied to the block by the The mass is pulled to the time. Start your B to point A and released. The block then oscillates spring changes as a function ofleft from point sketch at time = 0 which represents the block as it passes point B between positions after the Consider point moving to the right justA and C.block is released. B to be zero position and right of B positive.

1. On the grid below, sketch a graph that you think reflects howvs. time, position vs. time, and to the vs. Having completed the sketch of force vs. time, sketch the acceleration the restoring force applied velocity block by the spring changes as a function of time. Start your sketch at time = 0 which represents time. the block as it passes point B moving to the right just after the block is released. 2. Having completed the sketch of force vs. time, sketch the acceleration vs. time, position vs. time, quantity be zero? Maximum positive? Maximum negative?), then sketch the shape of the graph. and velocity vs. time.
B C B A B C B A B C B A B C B A B

Do this activity IN PENCIL (of course), and take your time. Plot out the points that you know (When should the

force

time

acceleration

time

position

time

velocity

time
C B A B C B A B C B A B C B A B

B

 

*A Hookean spring is one that obeys Hooke’s Law (the spring force equation you determined back in BFPM, or, as Hooke put it in 1678: Ut tensio, sic vis). Ask your teacher to tell you more about Hooke vs. Newton! ©Modeling Instruction Program 2003 1 W1 Oscillating Particle WS 1, v3.1
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from Modeling Workshop Project © 2006

Honors Physics / Unit 08 / OPM

Practice 2: Storing Energy during Oscillations
2. The diagram shows a 0.100 kg block attached to a Hookean   spring. The block experiences no net force when it is at position C. When the block is to the left of point C the spring pulls it to the right. When the block is to the right of point C, the spring pushes it to the left. 0 
A  B 
5.0 cm 10.0 cm

 

 


5.0 cm

 

10.0 cm

 

0  The mass is pulled to the left from point C to point A and released. The block then oscillates between positions A and E. Assume that the system consists of the block, spring, and the horizontal surface on which the spring oscillates.

a.

When there is no friction between the block and the surface, the force required to hold the block at rest at position A is 5 N. Calculate the spring constant for the spring.

b. Calculate the spring interaction energy stored in the system at the following positions: Position A Position B Position C Position D

Position E

c.

What is the total amount of energy stored in the system? Does it stay the same the entire time? How do you know?

d. Calculate the kinetic energy stored in the system at each of the following positions: Position A Position B Position C Position D

Position E

e.

Create a set of qualitative energy pie charts for this system starting from the instant of release at point A and ending after the system has completed one full cycle and returns to position A

 

Position A

Position B

Position C

Position D

Position E

Position D

Position C

Position B

Position A

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Honors Physics / Unit 08 / OPM

f.

Complete a set of quantitative LOL diagrams for the system. Once again, assume no frictional effects. Start your diagrams from when the block is at rest at position C (before being pulled back to position A.
Initial K Ug Us Energy Flow Diagram K Ug Final Us Etherm
K Ug Us Etherm

Position C
Ug Us Etherm Ug Us

Position A
Ug Us

Position B
Etherm K Ug Us Etherm

K

K

Etherm

K

Position C

Position D

Position E

Position D

K

Ug

Us

Etherm

K

Ug

Us

Etherm

K

Ug

Us

Etherm

Position C

Position B

Position A

g. Why have no energy flow diagrams (the “O” in the LOL) been provided after the initial transition from position C to position A?

h. Assume that the system now has noticeable frictional effects. Create a set of qualitative energy pie charts for this system (still the block, the spring, and the surface) starting from the instant of release at point A and ending after the system has completed one full cycle.

i.

Will the block return to position A? Explain!

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Honors Physics / Unit 08 / OPM

 
3. An ideal Hookean spring of spring constant 20 N/m is connected to a 0.5 kg block in the arrangement shown. The (*) represents the position of the center of the block when the spring is unstretched. (Positions are not to scale.) From this position the experimenter slowly lowers the block from (*) until it reaches point B where the system is at rest. *  For this problem use position B as your “y = 0” line for the measurement of gravitational C  interaction energy. Assume no outside forces.   a. How far does the spring stretch when the 0.5 kg block is slowly lowered to position B?
10.0 cm  

 

10.0 cm 

b. The block is then pulled to position A, 10.0 cm below position B. It is released and allowed to oscillate between positions A and C. In the space below calculate the spring interaction energy, gravitational interaction energy, and kinetic energy stored in the system at positions A, B, and C. Position A Position B Position C

Us

Ug

K

Etot

c. How fast is the block moving at the instant the center is even with position B?

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Honors Physics / Unit 08 / OPM

4.

The diagram shows a block attached to a Hookean spring on a frictionless surface. The block experiences no net force when it is at position B. When the block is to the left of point B the spring pushes it to the right. When the block is to the right of point B, the spring pulls it to the left. The mass is pulled to the left from point B to point A and released. The block then oscillates between positions A and C. Assume that the system consists of the block and the spring and that there is no net outside force. The position vs. time graph below describes the motion of this system for four cycles. Complete sketches for the other graphs shown based on this position vs. time graph.

 

position

time 

velocity

time 

acceleration

time 

force

time 
B  C  B  A  B  C  B  A  B  C  B  A  B  C  B  A  B 

kinetic energy

time 

spring energy

time 

total energy

time 
C  B  A  B  C  B  A  B  C  B  A  B  C  B  A  B 

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Honors Physics / Unit 08 / OPM

OPM Model Summary

Concept Map

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