The Life of Robert Browning: an Introduction
Robert Browning was born on May 7, 1812 in Camberwell - a district now
forming part of the borough of Southwark in South London, England - the only son of
Sarah Anna (née Wiedemann) and Robert Browning. His father was a well-paid clerk
for the Bank of England, earning about £150 per year. Browning’s paternal
grandfather was a wealthy slave owner in Saint Kitts, West Indies, but Browning's
father was an abolitionist. Browning's father had been sent to the West Indies to work
on a sugar plantation, but revolted by the slavery there, he returned to England.
Browning’s mother was a daughter of a German shipowner who had settled in
Dundee, and his Scottish wife. Browning had one sister, Sarianna.
Browning's paternal grandmother, Margaret Tittle, who had inherited a
plantation in St Kitts, was rumoured within the family to have had some Jamaican
mixed race ancestry. Author Julia Markus suggests St Kitts rather than Jamaica. There
is little evidence to support this rumour, and it seems to be merely an anecdotal family
story Robert's father, a literary collector, amassed a library of around 6,000 books,
many of them rare. Thus, Robert was raised in a household of significant literary
resources. His mother, to whom he was very close, was a devout nonconformist and a
talented musician His younger sister, Sarianna, also gifted, became her brother's
companion in his later years, after the death of his wife in 1861. His father
encouraged his children's interest in literature and the arts.
By twelve, Browning had written a book of poetry which he later destroyed
when no publisher could be found. After being at one or two private schools, and
showing an insuperable dislike to school life, he was educated at home by a tutor via
the resources of his father's extensive library. By the age of fourteen he was fluent in
French, Greek, Italian and Latin. He became a great admirer of the Romantic poets,
Following the precedent of Shelley, Browning became an atheist and
vegetarian, both of which he gave up later. At the age of sixteen, he studied Greek at
University College London but left after his first year. His parents' staunch
evangelical faith prevented his studying at either Oxford University or Cambridge
University, both then open only to members of the Church of England. He had
inherited substantial musical ability through his mother, and composed arrangements
of various songs. He refused a formal career and ignored his parents' remonstrations,
dedicating himself to poetry. He stayed at home until the age of 34, financially
dependent on his family until his marriage. His father sponsored the publication of his
In March 1833, Pauline, A Fragment of a Confession was published
anonymously by Saunders and Otley at the expense of the author, the costs of printing
having been borne by an aunt, Mrs Silverthorne. It is a long poem composed in
homage to Shelley and somewhat in his style. Originally Browning considered
Pauline as the first of a series written by different aspects of himself, but he soon
abandoned this idea. The press noticed the publication. W.J. Fox writing in the The
Monthly Repository of April 1833 discerned merit in the work. Allan Cunningham
praised it in the The Athenaeum. Some years later, probably in 1850, Rosetti came
across it in the reading room of the British Museum and wrote to Browning, then in
Florence to ask if he was the author. John Stuart Mill, however, wrote that the author
suffered from an "intense and morbid self-consciousness". Later, Browning was rather
In 1834 he accompanied the Chevalier George de Benkhausen. canto 6 of Purgattory. J. It gained him access to the London
literary world. dealing with the problems confronting an
intellectual trying to find his role in society. set against a background of hate
and conflict during the Guelph-Ghibelline wars. gaining him the reputation of wanton carelessness and
obscurity. This was published in 1840 and met
with widespread derision. while the other failed.
As a result of his new contacts he met Macready.embarrassed by the work. looking for background for Sordello. to whom it was dedicated. Browning having fallen out with
Macready.S. It is a monodrama without action. Strafford was performed five times. being noticed by
Wordsworth. Landor. one
of which was not performed. which was
published in 1835. Tennyson commented that he only understood the first and last lines and
Carlyle claimed that his wife had read the poem through and could not tell whether
Sordello was a man. including Tennyson (already
famous). Dickens. and only included it in his collected poems of 1868 after
making substantial changes and adding a preface in which he asked for indulgence for
a boyish work. a long poem in
In 1838 he visited Italy.
. Mill and others.
The publication had some commercial and critical success. on a brief visit to St Petersburg and began Paracelsus. a city or a book.presented as the imaginary biography of the Mantuan bard spoken of by
Dante in the Divine Comedy. The subject of the 16th century savant and alchemist was probably
suggested to him by the Comte Amédée de Ripart-Monclar. Browning then wrote two other plays. who invited him to write a
some of which had already appeared in periodicals.
lived as a semi-invalid in her father's house in Wimpole Street. the position eventually going to Tennyson. Barrett disinherited Elizabeth. a series of eight pamphlets. she was a serious contender to become Poet
marriage was initially secret because Elizabeth's domineering father disapproved of
marriage for any of his children. Upon
William Wordsworth's death in 1850.
From the time of their marriage and until Elizabeth's death.
Mr. London. the Brownings
lived in Italy.Browning's reputation began to make a partial recovery with the publication. originally
intended just to include his plays. innocent young
woman who suffered endless cruelties at the hands of a tyrannical papa but who
nonetheless had the good fortune to fall in love with a dashing and handsome poet
named Robert Browning. Moxon.
1841-1846. persuaded him to
include some "dramatic lyrics". finding an apartment in
Florence at Casa Guidi. the second edition of
Elizabeth’s Poems included her love sonnets. of Bells and Pomegranates. They began
regularly corresponding and gradually a romance developed between them. Fortunately his publisher. leading to
their marriage and journey to Italy (for Elizabeth's health) on 12 September 1846. cementing her position as an eminent Victorian poet. The book increased her popularity and
high critical regard. within a year.
In 1845.” At her husband's insistence. Browning of popular imagination was a sweet. and then. as he did for each of his children who
married: “The Mrs. six years his elder. Browning met the poet Elizabeth Barrett. residing first in Pisa.
It was only when he returned to England and became part of the London
literary scene—albeit while paying frequent visits to Italy— (though never again to
Florence) that his reputation started to take off.
As Elizabeth had inherited money of her own. Browning worked on the poems that
eventually comprised his two-volume Men and Women. was born in 1849. when these were published.
In 1868. in 1855. nicknamed "Penini" or
"Pen". the literary
assault on Browning's work did not let up and he was critically dismissed further. Based on a convoluted murder-case from 1690s
Rome. In these years Browning was fascinated by and learned from
the art and atmosphere of Italy. in later life. Long. probably from early in 1853. however. However. describe Italy as his university. for which he is now well
known.Their only child. by then 12 years old. He would. Robert Wiedemann Barrett Browning. the poem is composed of twelve books. showing their individual
perspectives on events. and their relationship together was happy. The
Ring and the Book was the poet's most ambitious project and arguably his greatest
. they made relatively little
impact. for the desertion of England for foreign
lands. after five years work.
Elizabeth died in 1861: Robert Browning returned to London the following
year with Pen. essentially ten lengthy dramatic
monologues narrated by the various characters in the story. he completed and published the long blankverse poem The Ring and the Book.
In Florence. and made their home in 17 Warwick Crescent. by
patrician writers such as Charles Kingsley.
Maida Vale. even by Browning's own standards (over twenty thousand lines). bookended by an introduction and conclusion by Browning
himself. the couple were reasonably
comfortable in Italy.
artistic. According to some reports
Browning became romantically involved with Louisa. He was buried in Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey. In 1887. he revisited Italy for the first
time in the seventeen years since Elizabeth's death.
Browning died at his son's home Ca' Rezzonico in Venice on 12 December
1889. and returned there on several
especially Alfred Austin. Published separately in
four volumes from November 1868 through to February 1869.
Parleyings with Certain People of Importance In Their Day. the poem was a
success both commercially and critically. his grave now lies
immediately adjacent to that of Alfred Tennyson.
Asolando (1889). and philosophic history. published on the day of his death. engaging in a series of dialogues with long-forgotten
figures of literary. concise lyric for his last volume. In 1878. The Robert Browning Society was formed in 1881
and his work was recognised as belonging within the British literary canon. and
How He Worked in Distemper included an attack against Browning's critics. Lady Ashburton. It finally presented the
poet speaking in his own voice. Browning produced the major work of his later years. After a series
of long poems published in the early 1870s. The Victorian public was baffled
by this. of which Balaustion's Adventure and Red
Cotton Night-Cap Country were the best-received. and did not re-marry. The volume Pacchiarotto.work.
In the remaining years of his life Browning travelled extensively. it has been praised as a tour de force of dramatic poetry. and Browning returned to the brief. but he refused
her proposal of marriage. later to become Poet Laureate. and finally brought Browning the renown he
had sought for nearly forty years.
Unlike a soliloquy. partly to the subtle links connecting the ideas and partly to his often extremely
condensed and rugged expression. One of his more sensational dramatic monologues is
But he turned down anything that involved public speaking.Browning was awarded many distinctions. The Pied Piper of Hamelin. A Death in the
Browning’s fame today rests mainly on his dramatic monologues. How they brought the good News to Aix.
Browning is often known by some of his short poems. in which the
words not only convey setting and action but also reveal the speaker’s character.D. such as Porphyria's
Lover." is challenged to see through. as "juror.Rabbi Ben Ezra. A Grammarian's Funeral. the character composes a self-defence
which the reader. no doubt for the
challenge of building a sympathetic case for a character who does not deserve one and
to cause the reader to squirm at the temptation to acquit a character who may be a
homicidal psychopath. and
owing. Browning was not regarded as a great poet. extreme and even criminally psychotic characters. My Last Duchess. Browning chooses some of
the most debased. Initially. and had the offer of the Lord Rectorship of Glasgow. or "special-pleading" his case to a silent auditor
in the poem. since his subjects were
often recondite and lay beyond the ken and sympathy of the great bulk of readers. He was made LL. of Edinburgh. a life
Governor of London University. the treatment of theme was often difficult and
obscure. Rather than thinking out loud.
. the meaning in a Browning dramatic monologue is not what the
speaker directly reveals but what he inadvertently "gives away" about himself in the
process of rationalizing past actions.
that the attentive
reader discovers the most horrific example of a mind totally mad despite its eloquence
in expressing itself. high modernists. perhaps the most
frequently cited example of the poet's dramatic monologue form. because of the
simple pleasures she took in common everyday occurrences.Yet it is by carefully reading the far more sophisticated and cultivated rhetoric
of the aristocratic and civilized Duke of My Last Duchess.
But he remains too much the prophet-poet for the conceits. including T." Browning
endorses such a position because he sees an immanent deity that. finally. we learn.
These monologues greatly influenced many later poets. In The Ring and the Book Browning writes an
epic-length poem in which he justifies the ways of God to humanity through twelve
extended blank verse monologues spoken by the principals in a trial about a murder. In other monologues. All's right with the world. far from remaining
. S." an action of which his
megalomaniac pride is incapable. His is a modern sensibility. and verbal
play of the metaphysical poets of the seventeenth century. the latter singling out in his Cantos Browning's convoluted
psychological poem Sordello about a frustrated 13-century troubadour.
all too aware of the arguments against the vulnerable position of one of his simple
characters. She is reduced to an
objet d'art in the Duke's collection of paintings and statues because the Duke equates
his instructing her to behave like a duchess with "stooping. as the poem he
must work to distance himself from. that often put the speaker's
contemporaneous judges to shame. Eliot and Ezra
Pound. such as Fra Lippo Lippi. The duchess. These concerns reflected Victorian society in the
late 19th century. or life-affirming qualities. puns.
not because of a lack of gratitude for her position. and not. was murdered not because of infidelity. who recites: "God's in His Heaven.
Browning takes an ostensibly unsavory or immoral character and challenges us to
discover the goodness.
Eliot "all learned from Browning's exploration of the exploration of
the possibilities of dramatic poetry and of colloquial idiom". The play was a success and
brought popular fame to the couple in the United States. at a gathering of his
admirers. at the home of Browning's friend the artist
Rudolf Lehmann. is indivisible from temporal process.
In 1930 the story of Browning and his wife Elizabeth was made into a play
The Barretts of Wimpole Street. Rudyard Kipling.
. It was twice adapted into film.
At a dinner party on 7 April 1889.
The basis of Terence Rattigan's 1948 play is a pupil making a parting present
to his teacher of an inscribed copy of what is referred to as The Browning Version
(Robert Browning's translation of The Agamemnon of Aeschylus). with music by Ron
Grainer and book and lyrics by Ronald Millar. It
was also the basis of the stage musical Robert and Elizabeth.
In his introduction to the Oxford University Press edition of Browning's
poems 1833-1864 Ian Jack comments that Thomas Hardy. an Edison cylinder phonograph recording was made on a white wax
cylinder by Edison's British representative. assuring that in the
fullness of theological time there is ample cause for celebrating life.in a transcendent heaven. Browning recites part of "How They Brought the Good News from Ghent
to Aix" (and can be heard apologizing when he forgets the words). In the recording. it was said to be the first time anyone's voice "had been heard from beyond
the grave. which
still exists. by Rudolph Besier. Ezra
Pound and T. The role of Elizabeth became
a signature role for the actress Katharine Cornell. When the
recording was played in 1890 on the anniversary of his death. George Gouraud. S.
Stephen King's The Dark Tower was chiefly inspired by the poem "Childe
Roland to the Dark Tower Came" by Robert Browning.
. is named
after Robert Browning. Browning Close in Royston. whose full text was included
in the final volume's appendix. was
unveiled on 11 December 1993. Warwick Crescent. Hertfordshire.
A memorial plaque on the site of his London home.
at last I knew
Porphyria worshipped me. fair.
"Be sure I looked up her eyes
--Happy and proud. mine. surprise
--Made my heart swell.
That moment she was mine.
And strangled her. No pain felt she.Chapter II
The Poems of Robert Browning
Browing has always been noted for his mastery of dramatic monologue."
(Porphyria's Lover of the line 31 to 14)
. and still it grew
--While I debated what to do. In his best works people from the past reveal
their thoughts and lives as if speaking or thinking aloud.
Robert Browning was long unsuccesful as a poet and financially dependent upon his
family until he was well into adulthood. I found
A thing to do.
--I am quite sure she felt no pain.
--Perfectly pure and good. and all her hair
--In one long yellow string I wound
--Three times her little throat around.
Thus violence became a sort of
aesthetic choice for many writers. In many of his
poems. led to a morally conservative backlash. bustling shops. poverty. among them Robert Browning. along with sex. and sex became part of everyday life. the once-rural British
population had become centered in large cities. Many writers now felt that in order to provoke an emotional reaction they
had to compete with the turmoils and excitements of everyday life.
The mid-nineteenth century also saw the rapid growth of newspapers. a sense of freedom mixed with a sense
of insecurity. no longer facing the fear of non-acceptance that they had faced in smaller
communities. it also meant the loss of a
social safety net. and individuals had to take in millions of separate perceptions
a minute. So-called Victorian
. The resulting overstimulation led. By the middle of the nineteenth century. without any monitoring by
acquaintances or small-town busybodies.Browning’s most important poetic message regards the new conditions of
urban living. and brand-new
goods filled the streets.” reflect this notion. to a sort of
numbness. Thus for many city-dwellers.
This apparent moral decay of Victorian society. With so many people living in such close quarters. had to shock their
audience in ever more novel and sensational ways. However. including “Porphyria’s
Lover” and “My Last Duchess.
functioned not as the current-events journals of today but as scandal sheets. people could act in total anonymity. People felt fewer restrictions on their
behavior. violence. Hurrying pedestrians. coupled with an ebbing of
interest in religion. according to many theorists. becomes the symbol of the modern urban-dwelling
condition. thanks to the changes wrought by the
Industrial Revolution. while the absence of family and
community ties meant new-found personal independence. filled with
stories of violence and carnality. Many of Browning’s more disturbing poems.
while silent. is a poem with a
speaker who is clearly separate from the poet. but to develop the character of the
speaker. which often
feature painters and other artists. who speaks to an implied audience that. the genre provides a sort of play-space and an alternative
persona with which he can explore sometimes controversial ideas. Thus everything came under
moral scrutiny. The new findings of science. remains clearly present in the scene. even art and literature. suggesting that empiricism—
the careful recording of observable details—could serve as a more relevant basis for
human endeavor. rather musing aloud to him
or herself). He often further
distances himself by employing historical characters. particularly from the Italian
The purpose of the monologue (and the soliloquy) is not so much to make a
statement about its declared subject matter. Many of Browning’s poems. whether intellectual or artistic.
. For Browning. A dramatic monologue. try to work out the proper relationship between art
and morality: Should art have a moral message? Can art be immoral? Are aesthetics
and ethics inherently contradictory aims? These are all questions with which
Browning’s poetry struggles. an
attempt to bring things back to the way they once were. most notably evolution. (This implied audience distinguishes
the dramatic monologue from the soliloquy—a form also used by Browning—in
which the speaker does not address any specific listener.prudery arose as an attempt to rein in something that was seen as out. Abrams.
posed further challenges to traditional religious ideas.
In exploring these issues of art and modernity.of-control. Browning uses the dramatic
monologue. to paraphrase M.
Browning and his contemporaries
could not be certain that the works of canonical artists like Shakespeare and
Michelangelo would continue to have relevance in the emerging new world. and the intelligent strategies with which it handles such
era-specific material. However. and other
poems consider the matter of one’s posterity and potential immortality as an artist.During the Renaissance in Italy art assumed a new humanism and began to
separate from religion. among them
Alfred Tennyson and T. Eliot.S. concentrations of social power reached an extreme. Additionally.
Since society had been changing so rapidly. and
pointed the way towards the kind of intellectual verse that was to be written by the
poets of high Modernism.
Browning devotes much attention not only to creating a strong sense of
These concerns reflected Victorian society’s new emphasis on empiricism. Browning’s poetry has
lasted—perhaps precisely because of its very topical nature: its active engagement
with the debates of its times. but also to developing a high level of historic specificity and general detail. the monologue form allows Browning to explore forms of
consciousness and self-representation. At least two of Browning’s finest dramatic
monologues take their inspiration from moments in Shakespeare’s plays. Thus this
temporal setting gives Browning a good analogue for exploring issues of art and
morality and for looking at the ways in which social power could be used (and
misused: the Victorian period saw many moral pundits assume positions of social
importance). In its scholarly detail and its
connection to the past Browning’s work also implicitly considers the relationship of
modern poets to a greater literary tradition. This aspect of the monologue underwent
further development in the hands of some of Browning’s successors. like Eliot and Ezra Pound. Thus
these writers worried over their own legacy as well.
"Love Among the Ruins" is a
contemplation of how a pastoral landscape.Chapter III
A Short Summary of the Poems of Robert Browning
"My Last Duchess" is narrated by the duke of Ferrara to the envoy of his new
intended bride. "Fra Lippo Lippi" is the narration of a Renaissance painter and monk
whose talent is admired by the Church. Praxed's Church" is a rambling dramatic
monologue in which a dying bishop speaks to young men he calls his "sons. From Abroad" is a British expatriate's nostalgic thoughts of England. "HomeThoughts." asking
them to build him a great tomb so that he can shame his rival who is buried nearby. but whose interest in naturalism – in painting
."Porphyria's Lover" is narrated by a man who has
murdered his lover Porphyria in order to capture a moment in which they were both
happy in love. in which the narrator
bravely anticipates the journey to and through death so that he can be reunited with
"Prospice" is a contemplation of impending death.
"The Bishop Orders His Tomb at St. and
how it must be beautiful in the newly-arrived spring. where the narrator's beloved is currently
waiting for him. was once the setting of a great empire that has since fallen.
"Meeting at Night" is an intense description of a man's intense travel over land
and sea to rendezvous with his beloved.
"Soliloquy of the Spanish Cloister" is a resentful narration by a monk who
watches his professed enemy Brother Lawrence as the latter plants flowers. whom he had
killed for having been so flirtatious. "My Star" is a lover's contemplation of how
he loves a particular star even though others do not see in it the beauty he does. The duke shows the envoy a painting of his former wife.
a terrible setting almost
as bad as Roland's own memories.
"Childe Roland to the Dark Tower Came" is a deeply symbolist poem that
follows a traveling knight in search of a Dark Tower that he knows will bring
disappointment and probably death. The narrator is much excited about hearing
the story. Considering the disconnect between pleasant art and
impending death brings melancholy to the speaker.the world as it really looks – is repudiated by the Church in favor of more moral. he finds the
strength to persevere. and defends both his behavior and his artistic
aesthetic in the monologue.
"Two in the Campagna" is a contemplation of how a man cannot fully unite
with his beloved because time constantly changes his feelings. and the
narrator considers how Galuppi's music once brought pleasure to Venetians who later
died as everyone does.
. Lippo has been apprehended by some authority figures while
prowling the red light district of Vienna. In his search for
the Dark Tower.
"A Toccata of Galuppi's" is spoken to Renaissance composer Galuppi.
religious subjects. but ultimately changes his tone to accept his faults as his own doing. and reflects on how small moments can stay with us forever. Roland travels through a deserted landscape.
"Memorabilia" recounts a meeting between the narrator and another man who
had once met the Romantic poet Shelley. As he contemplates the
fall of Rome and how their bodies keep their souls from joining together. but who laments the lack of "soul" in his work.
"Andrea del Sarto" is narrated by a Renaissance painter renowned for creating
"faultless" paintings. He blames his
wife Lucrezia for not inspiring him to the soulful works of the other Renaissance
greats. but who persists nevertheless.
"Life in a Love" is a contemplation of love
as fate. The
. He anticipates rejoining her in the afterlife. and wonders how he can
make the most of life without bringing Setebos's wrath down upon him.
which attempts to constantly seize the day. whom he believes is his
creator. He praises old age as having the understanding that escapes youth. about how one ought exercise patience in life in preparation for greater
quests to come.
in which a flutist with the power to attract anyone to his music is hired to help a town
overrun with rats get rid of its rodents. about Setebos."Caliban Upon Setebos" is a monologue spoken by Caliban.
"The Pied Piper of Hamelin" is a delightful adaptation of the classic folk tale. Only the
Laboratory" is narrated by a young lady-in-waiting to an old apothecary who is
preparing for her a poison she wishes to use on her rivals for a man at court. he knows he cannot
help but continue to pursue his beloved. When the Mayor and Corporation of the town
refuse him his promised fee. "Evelyn
Hope" is narrated by a middle-aged man to the corpse of a young girl he had patiently
loved from afar. No matter what happens.
"How They Brought the Good News from Ghent to Aix" follows several
horsemen as they rush from the titular towns to bring important news. He considers the apathy and resentment of God. which the speaker must accept.
"A Grammarian's Funeral" is narrated by a disciple of a grammarian who had
renounced normal life in favor of a life fully devoted to lonely scholarship. and celebrates his horse for surviving the intense journey. he uses his music to rob the town of its children.
"Rabbi Ben Ezra" is a theological monologue spoken by a historical
theologian. the humanoid
creature from Shakespeare's The Tempest.
grammarian has died. and his body is being carried to a worthy resting place as his
memory is celebrated by the speaker.
. who wrote
the Fourth Gospel.
"Death in the Desert" is a recounting of the last days of St. and who has been accused of inventing details about Christ's life.
John admits to having lied in order to relate the more important truth: people should
accept faith based on the wonders of life rather than on rational observation. John.
since it allowed him to continue to follow his own
eccentricities without the pressure of having to subscribe to popular taste. This form fits Browning's interests perfectly.
Browning did not find much popular success until later in his life.
Much of his poetry. like "Death in
. by using the dramatic monologue. Robert Browning is arguably the hardest of his contemporaries to classify. or because they
considered imperfect some of the very qualities that are now lauded. largely
because the public either found his work obscure and difficult.
Browning is perhaps most famous for his use of the dramatic monologue. However. a
poem written from the point of view of someone who has dramatic imperative to
argue for him or herself. his interest in grotesqueness and
his refusal to espouse any consistent worldview. thereby
creating work now appreciated for its uniqueness. thereby
considering myriad human perspectives and to investigate the remarkable human
facility for rationalizing our behavior and beliefs.Conclusion
Though one of several Victorian poets whose legacy has endured long past his
Browning believed that humans are constantly changing. he
was able to explore a philosophy in the moment. These disparate elements make it
difficult to categorize his oeuvre under any simple classification. their attitudes subject to
shifts day-by-day or hour-by-hour. since it allows
him to empathize with perspectives he likely did not hold himself. Examples of
these elements were irregular rhyme schemes. however. His
work equally reflects his remarkable intellectualism. has a deliberately philosophical edge. however. contradictory characters. Again. and some of his work. Perhaps this lack of success has proven a boon
to Browning's legacy. or
imprecision about character motives.
Despite his pronounced interest in psychology.
Overall." always changing. Browning's early influence
came from the Romantic poets. or love.
. Robert Browning saw the human struggle as a noble quest
towards an impossible goal of perfection. particularly Shelley. A mercurial and
intellectually adventurous man who sought to document his ever-changing attitudes
and beliefs into art." is as much defined by their statement of belief as by
any dramatic situation. time. Reflecting this interest in human
emotions as the path to transcendence. what one can take from Browning's work is that the poet himself
lived according to one of his more prevalent themes: the quest. Browning's collections continued to feature
shorter meditations on love and individuality. memory. they too
reflect his belief that a human is always "becoming. and luckily thought to immortalize that
struggle as best he could.the Desert" or "Rabbi Ben Ezra. Even some of the more dramatic poems are difficult to engage
if the reader is not ready to engage in questions of existence. While these poems tend to be easier to
categorize than the more sophisticated monologues and philosophical poems.
http://classiclit. Robert. Voice and the Victorian Storyteller. Selected Poems.
http://www. Daniel Karlin.htm
. Oxford University Press.gradesaver. "Introduction and Chronology". Ivan. London: Penguin.References
Kreilkamp. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.com/library/bl-etexts/hcorson/bl-hcorson-intro-poems. Ed. Browning Poetical Works
1833-1864. 2004.about. (1970).