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AFCRL62341
STUDIES IN IONOSPHERIC PROPAGATION
PART I  The Exact EarthFlattening Procedure in Ionospheric
Propagation Problems
by
M. Katzin and B. Y.C. Koo
PART II  VLF Signal Enhancements and IfF Fadeouts During
Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances
by
M. Katzin
Final Report
on
Contract AF19(604)7233
Project 5631
Task 563109
Prepared for
ELECTRONICS RESEARC".d DIRECTORATE
AIR FORCE CAMBRIOOE RESEARCH LABORATORIES
OFFICE OF AEROSPACE RESEARCH
UNITED srATES AIR FORCE
BEDFORD, MASSACIIDSETTS
Report No. CRC72331
15 April 1962
ELECTROMAGNETIC RESEARCH CORPORATION
5001 COLLEGE A"'ENUE
COLLEGE PARK. MO. J
L _
AFCRL62341
STUDIES IN IONOSPHERIC PROPAGATION
PART I  The Exact EarthFlattening Procedure in Ionospheric
Propagation Problems
by
M. Katzin and B. Y.C. Koo
PART II  VLF Signal Enhancements and HF Fadeouts }:Alring
Sudden Ionospheric Disturbances
by
M. Katzin
Final Report
on
Contract AF19(604)7233
Project 5631
Task 563109
Prepared for
ELECTRONICS RESEARCH DIRECTORATE
AIR FORCE CAMBRIOOE RESEARCH LABORATORIES
OFFICE OF AEROSPACE RESEARCH
UNITED STATES AIR FORCE
BEDFORD, MASSlI.ClIDSETTS
ELECTROMAGNETIC RESEARCH CORPORATION
5001 COLLEGE AVENUE
COLLEGE PARK. MD.
Report No. ORC72331
15 April 1962
Requests additional copies 1l,1 Agencies of the
Department of Defense, contractors, and other
Govermnent agencies should be directed to .. _ ,.
Armed Services Technical Infomation Agency
Arlingtoo Hall Station
Arlington 12, Virginia
Department of Defense must be established
for !STIA service or have thei};" I'Ineedtoknow" certi
fied by the cognizant military agency of thei:.c' Pl"Oj ect
or contreot o
All other Pe'l'SOIlS and o!'ganizat5.on should apply to
UoSo Depa..""blent of CCIlIIlerce
Office of Technical Services
Washington 25, D.C.
THE JWCT
PROPAGATION PROSY1.§
The exact earthflatt8T'd.J:1.g procedure previousJ'.T developed for an iso
tropic sphericallystl"'dtified atmosphere, is exten0:3d to the nas€ of a
spherical eal'th cu'J.d atmosphere enveloped by a sha.1"plybounded ionof:.lphE:'re. The
general soluti.on of the problem is formulated as an integral representation,
frau which may be derived eh..ber a J:ayopt.ical series or a normal modE: senes.
In the latter case., t1:J.p. nO!!nlll modes involve the nc'rmalined spherical Hankel
function and its derivative, .A....·1 method 0;'.' obtEdning th8 seKS of
these functions is derived v/hieh is rlOt of as:yrullto'cic clta:tactE::T,
A geollietry is 5.nvestigated as a s for deaUn:r w5+.t
of stret.ii'icat:.i,n. Soluti0n8 f •.))' tht mgulal' fl.mc:t5:(1.l as an
:infi,n:i:te s8r:i·]S of. &;·;:3eJ. nLt1t:.
t
,loj1] a::.e tCJtlJ:1Jl., oj' I;:': ml
T
.l16 t.hO:
s,t}hedcnl
spherical 1.t8 € '\';he Cl'r;:f:'lCJ.':IDt.il c.1' 1ne;J';: r).nlC
timID being ; =_ic:.:: tE C;:;}3 ',f t :'0 xoti) ::,f r.E.J.J5. focal
di2tance to I"'d.dius. .11', i:'1 sbu,Jll t':l2.t r.eros of' j he :Crtd. al as a
funct:i.on of ');.'dE:l',1 wtd'm tr..e !.1·):trile:· '!i\..,1£ ;oluti·:)l1,. rJ'..ay be
f fJund the :llL'(' \"<c,s 'ie'lelcfjad i he 13ghp.ri Cb,'Je
"f.ART II
y.!¥ ENHANCEMENTS. AND HF ..!LURING
SUDDEN IONOSPHERIC DISTURBANCES
Simultaneou.s observations of shortwave fadeouts of 8 1305Mo/s signal
and sudden signal enhancements of a 3lol5kc/s signal ovel:' substantially the
same transatlantic path of approximately 5400 km show no correlation
between the magnitudes of the two eff'ects 0):' the SIDo This absence of correlation
is understandable on the basis of 8 Dl"egiono
The relative intensifications of' the two Dz'egio138 'Will depend on the
spectral distribution ot hard Xrays in the 110 A range tted dU1"ing a nare,
which can be expected to vary :from fiBre to fla?eo Since the increase in
absorption is the evl!!. of the incxoee.ses in thE": tuc l:'egions
J
'While the vlf
enhancement is occasioned only by changes at the lowel:' level, no correlatilOD
should result between the two effects 0
Ck1 the other hand, an adequate of the mechtmiSlll. of the vlf
enhancement is not available on the basis of present knowledgeo Phase measl.U"eme.."ts
ahow that a te decrease in height of' the lO'JeA' boundal:"Y of the Dregion is
caused by the flare<. This reduced haight. causes Z'eflection to take place at. 8
level of highet" collision frequency, iThich should result in a decrease in the effec
tive conductivity of the layer if the ionization the Conse
quently, it appea2"s that an inc:ease in the shs.7pness of thl;l lOWEr boundary of
the Dregion is dUl"ing t.he onset of a solar .flab'Go The mechanism by
which this takes place needs to be determinedo
iv
of Contents
Page
ABSTRACT  PART I
iii
ABSTRAOT  PART II iv
PART I
1. INTRODUCTION 1
2. SPHERlCALLY8TRATIFIED IONOSPHERE
2
2.1 ;:"onnulation of the Problem
3
2.2 The Angular Fimction T 6
2•.3 The Radial Function U
9
2n4 Evaluation of the Xntegral Representation
13
205 The Complax of u(2) :z)
16
30 NON5PHERICALLY STRATIFIED IONOSPHERE 22
301 Fonnulation of the Problem 22
302 The AngulBJ.' Function T 23
303 The Radial Function U
24
40 SUMMARY 28
REFERENCES 29
PART II
1. INTRODUCTION
30
DESCRIPTION OF MEASUR»1ENTS :n
3. RESULTS 31
40 DISCUSSION 32
4.1 Hf Effects
33
402 V1f Effects .36
4.2,,1 Short Distance Characteristics
37
v
,
"
1
\'
I
II
II
1\
I
\
,
;,... 2.. 2 J.O]lllg Distance Characteristics
J 53]:> Bffeots
4.4 Comparison W:I.th SID Results
404.1 Absence of Correlation Between
39
41
43
43
44
44
46
Magilltudes of SWF and SSE
4.4.2 MechsJ1\:lsms Associated With SSE
50
6. fnBtIQARAPHY
: '1.QURES 1  26 (PART II)
vi
4'7
47
50
52
58  71
,..HE EXACT IN
PROBLEMg
1. INTRODUCTION
In an earlier paper [1]*, an earthflattening procedure
given for propagation in an inhomogeneous atmosphere over a spherical eartho
Th'.a formulation led to the realization of the physical nature of the approxi
mations introduced by the usual earthflattening pt'ocedureo In particular it
was shown that th9 differential equation for the heightgain function in the
usual e81"thflattening approT.wIIB.tion wa.s equ5.valent to Ii 8lllB.11 change in the
refractive :.tndex va:<"iation with heighto In other wo:;:ds, the physical problem is
changed by the ea:rt.hflattening apPToximat.ionn The amount of 'chis change
deviation increases height, but should not be of great consequence in
of propagation.
Xn the case of ionospheric t.he important heights involved (in
wavelengths) may be e·:>nside,..ably COD.aeql.1eJ.t.J.y" it appea.":"ed desirable to
in':estigate whether the exsct ea1"t.hflatt'3.r".1ing could ionospheric
propg,gution analysiso This is one tJb;;ective of thE res'9arch conduc'i;ed undeX' this
pa:l·t of the contxact, and is accompl::'shed in Ssc, 2 1;.,,'.1 additional objective is
the extension of theory to take into account l&terpl veriations of the re
fractive index BtTatilicationJ. For this purpose a
gBc.met:ty is considel'edo 1MB is car.:ied ou'li iu Sec, 3.
The subject of :tonosphe:dc p1"Opl1gation
1
i:::rvolr1.ng la)"er diet"ribut.ions$
magnetoionic splitting and propagation at angles to the magnetic
fie:.ld
9
coupling betYeen modess; eucomp.'f.B<.!ea m!.u'Iy :ramifications \ihich probably
never "Jill be capable of a complete t.;>ea(.ment. Consequently, for
*Numbers in brackets refer to the co:rrespondi1lg numbers in the References on po 29 0
1
purposes of the present study we shaH adopt an oftenused idealization of the
ionosphere in order to confine attention to the specifio objectives stated aboveo
For this purpose the ionosphere will be considered to be sharply bounded and of
unifom electrical properties 0 This assumption is the Oille usually made in study
ing v1f ionospheric propagation, so that the results will be of chief interest
in this frequency rangeo It is then logical to consider only a vertioal dipole
source, since this is the only effective form of radiator at these frequencieso
20 SPHERICALLY8TRATIFIED IOLOSPHERE
A rigorous formulation of the field due to a vertical electric or
magnetic dipole in an inhomogeneous isotropic atmosphere over a spherical earth
was given by Friedman (2] 0 For plane geometry, this was extended by Wait [3] to
include the essential mixed polarization effects due to the anisotropy of a sharply
bounded ionosphere0 For completeness, a rigorous formulation of the spherical
problem (with a slh:rp .ionC1sphere boundary) will be sketched hereo This formulation
will be given in a form adapted to direct introduction of the earthflattening
procedure 0
In the isotropic case "treated by' Friedman, it is possible to formulate sep81'ate
ly the cases of vertical electric and vertical magnetic dipole sources, corresponding
to vertically and horizoI&tally polarized fields, In each case, the
various field components are derivable from a Hertz vector whose direction is
radial. Actually this Hertz vector (within an appropriate multiplying factor) is
nothing more tlwl the radial component of the electric (magnetic) :rield in the case
of the radial electric (magnetic) dipole source, since all components are
derivable from the radial components (eee, for example, Schelkunoff [4]) 0 In the
anisotropic case, however, electric and magnetic modes are coupled in the ionosphere,
2
so that the problem must be formulated in terms of mixed components from the
outset.
201 Formulation of the Problem
The geometry of.' the problem is shown in Fig 0 10 A. vertical dipole of
(infinitesimal) length i and current I is located at R =b
J
the boundaries of
Ionosphere
Air
Earth
Fig0 1  GeometrJ of spherical earth, 'oI'ith sharply
bounded ionosphere, by dipole sourceo
earth and ionosphere bei.ng at R = a and R = h, respecttvely.
Consideration of the physics of the pxoblem will assist a proper formulationo
Thu.s, the priDuu'J' field due to the somce will give rise to a field which has a
polarization determined by the direction of the Cllrrent o primary
in turn, will give rise to reflected components a.t. the boundaries of the earth and
ior\ospherec The ionosphere will introduoe magnetoionic splitt.1ng
p
so that new
;3
polarization components will arise there. From these facts it is that a
combinati.on of electric and magnetic Hertz vectors must be used for darivatioDI
of the fields. '!'he two components, in general, will differ in amplitude and
phase, so that we must represent the radi.al Hertz vector by a column matrix of
the form
(ll] = [fi:] = .!R
where !R is the unit radial vector, and the subscripts e and m refer to electric
and magnetic modes, respectively.
Consider first the electric component fie and write it as the SUID. of a
primary and a secondary field
Now put
= (203)
fil is st1mulllted by the vertical source current, whUe noS arises from reflection
at the boundaries. 'lhen the corresponding fields are derivable from the equations
providing that Pl is a Boluticln of the inhomogeneous reduced wave equation
2 a J.UJf:l
V P. 1" k Fr:: kR Jl
and is a solution of the homogeneous equation
......
4
First consider (206) 0 The CUITeI.lt densit,y J:i. may be x'elated' to the
moment Il.. by integrating over the SOUl"ce :region:
Ii = dv = Jjj'J'i. Rtt sinO cAe olq> dR,
., !l c
so that
Sin':;e the righthand side of (206), in vlrt,'Y2 of (208.), :1s zero every....here
outside the point (bjjO,O)] the solut.ioDs of (206) can. be assembled froN solutions
of the corresponding homogeneous equation
Hence we can separate P1 in the fo:rm
(2,,10)
where T, li, and V are functions only of S, R, and '.p, respectively. (2,9) then
separates into the equations
(
s2.\
!''U:::·O
" R2.) I ,
in s and It are separation whIch as yet are arbitrs.J."Y, and
ultirr... "'l.'cely ...i11 be fuea by the bounQ8.J.7' ·:ond!t:i.or:8. The VB.!'ious solutions of
(2.9) 8.:"."e by different of s and In, :i.llcluding, possibly, complex
valuesc.
Consequently all solutions of (209) with 2'ltperiodicity in cp may be obtained
trom the representation
00
RPt :; L rA(6) TC8HJ.(R)V
m
(<v) lAs, (2.15)
",1:og
where the Ulplitude function A(s) md the path C ill the complex splane are as yet
unspecified. In general, C will extend oVeJ't" an infinite range. A(s) and C mEi.y be
determined by integrating (2.6) around an iDi'initesimal region enclosing the dipole
•
source9 It can be shown that A(s) =s and J=J , provided ths:'li T(O) = 1, so that
c e
00 110
Rp, = r. Js T U
I
V", ds, (2.16)
"'.0 0
where T is a solution of (2.11), Ul is a solution ot (2.12), and V
m
is given by
(2.14).
2.2 The Ansvlar Function T
In [lJ it was shown that a solution of (2.11) for m=0 is
where
nI
T
2n
::. 2: tL . (58)21\)1z. .,(s6),
6n¥
in which Z,(s9) 18 a cylinder function. !n order that (2017) have the property
T(O) = 1 as required, we JIll.1St choose the nylinder function to be the BAssel function
J,(se), and =L Consequently the required solution of (2.11) for m=0 may be
written as
00
T= 1: (2.18)
,,0
It may be shown that a lower bolmd for the absolute convergence of (2.18) 1s 191 =2,
so that this covers a sector greater than ±'It/2.
We now extend this type of solution 1;0 the case m# 00
Introducing the new independent "larif.ble
6
and denoting the dependent variable by y, (2,,11) becomes
. 'flt+* C4t8'I' ... (,  :..:;;l1S} 'f =o.
We write (2.20) in the torm
L('I). 'I" +* If' + (. 11: [**cot(t)]'1' .... 
=! CL .•
fl«' .... Jt& 'tI 5 ,
\oIhere
Cly. =Sa.,. 6",,;1ZJoA)! •
tbe l\.L being tbe Bernou1ll1 nUlllber80
Assuming a solutioD ot (2021) ot the torm
• a"
tt & 1:. oS 'till ,
yao
\ole obtain
(2020)
• to co
1..(•• \ =z:. 5
2
"'L..(11.) = Z (2,,24)
7" "0 .. ".0 fA:' ,. ""
By' equating coefficients ot like powers ot 8, \ole obtain the s;ystem ot equations
1..('fo) =OJ
1. =(I., ex ...
o o
1
0
= Za(x),
.
where Zm is any cylinder function" The Becond equation then becomes
L(Ya) =
=al(m(mtl)ZmxZm+l]
By' intraducing the function
C/Il,n{)() :: J("ZIlt+t1 (x),
\oIhich has the property
7
(2.25) becomes
L(Ya) 41[m(mtl)Cm,oCm,1]0
Now using the property (2.27), the solution of this equation is seen to be
_ fm(m...t> I 1
ttl  (lIL 2. C",p  ";fC""Ij.
By induction, we infer that
"
tfz.'I1 =1:, GC)r..... em v+4 •
4>0 'lJ > "lI
Hence the Bolution of (2021) should be expressible in the form
10 ClD" ,
'f =1:An C",,,, CJC) =1: An (58) LIn+"
/laO ,,0
The following recursion formulas for Cm,n a:.'e eadly obtained from the
recursion formulas for the cyl:JI.ndsl" functions:
= [(m+Zrt}C
m
,,.,  em,,,... I],
J(2
A
Cm." = t 'n,>.,p CIft,n+;\+p,
pc...
where
(2.28)
(2.)0)
If we
powers of x on the righthand side, we obtain
_ lEI 10 If. 2( +/) ( )
.£."2,(n+I)A
n
+,C
m
,,  r. 1: YAp OP.+15 ).L DC:,LlJ' C
IlIP
+U+
J
'  c
P
+
I
" J" em P+a.l+J·+' ,
1\=0 • p"o tJ'lOpO Ir. ,r ,,.'. ,..
where
A
o
= I,
:83. equating coefficients of like orders of the function Cm,n on the two sides of
this equation, we obtain the recursion formula
_Lf" ...." _III npI 2{fol+
l
)
A"+l ZCn+J) 11: 2:.!!:f DCp.ll,npp. L
o
5 •
p'*O.,.1.. 2 ,..
Consequently, the required solution of (2011) is
8
The advantage of us1ug an expansion for T :in terms of Bessel functions,
instead of the standard expression :in terms of the associated Legendre functions,
1a that a more accurate calculation is possible than by the use of the 88ymptotic
expansion for the latter f'lmo'!iicms.
2.3 '!'he Radial
With T as given by (2.35) the solution of (2.9) is
...
RPt =Z"" (An (sI)" J
rM
" (58) V, 5
1IpO,,o"
where A
o
=1 and An is given by the (2.34).
The integral along the positive real saxis in (20)6) may be transformed into
ElJ1 iIitegral along the entire real axis in the following way:
Write
J.,Mn(!'I8) =i [H:
n
(58) ... =i[H:>n'S9)  e<m+"hr.lH:l
n
(S8e":
ofr
)],
and note from (2011) and (2012) that T and U are even i'unctions of so In the
(OIl • ) I '1r
integral corresponding to ...1t make the substitution 5 =se , whereupon
the integral foZ" that term becomes
o &>
is···
_lID
view of the fact that the integrand is an even function of s. Then (2036)
becomes
, «l '" raD n (a)
RP, = i'I., Z At (56) H
m
+
n
(58) cos (m<p+ ""m) U, s ds•
...cO RIO_to
This form is adaptable to evaluation by residues 07' by stationary phase, depending
on whether a normal mode representation, or a representation in terms ot rays ls'
desired"
The function Uj, is to be fixed by the bolD'ldary conditions. These require
that the tangential electric and magnetic fields be continuous at R =a and R =ho
For this purpose both the electric and magnetio components of (yJ will be required.
9
Hence we now consider the magpetic component D
1Il
in (2.1), and write
Da = Jc8BPa·
Then PI satisties the homogeneous equatiC?n
t O.
'lbe correepol1cU.Di fields thea are derivable tram the equations
(2.39)
(2.44)
E.
m
 e&.\\"l (Bf\),
H", =: i,.(kzgpz + grAd ;R(RP
z
)].
Solutions of (2.9) and (2.39) may be written in, a form similar to (2.30) as
f'ollowsl
4ll
RP2 =! t 1t&A
n
(sS)" H:::" ($9) U.5d5.,
tI'lIO"Co
RP3 s t t raAn (58) e05(mcp+7'",)U
a
s tLs.
",aollo...
The constents Jj am i are to be dete1'llined by the bound&ry' conditions at R a
and R =h.
Corresponding to the pb;yaical picture of' renection at the boundaries, we
expect a mixture of' upgoing and downgoing waves in the region a<R<h. We then
pick the two independent solutioos of' (2.12) to correspond to upgoing and downgoing
waves, and denote these by U
1
(2) and U
1
(1) , respectively. A s1JDilar choice is made
f'or U
a
and U3. The total field in the VariOUB reg,ions then can be derived f'roJIl a
radial P function which has the matrix f'1)rm
B[P] =13 ,
in which
n =1,2,).,
The boundary conditions, being independent of' 8 and 9' J lead directly to the
statements
T1 =T
a
=T"
V
1
= Va =Va
10
)
J
Now we put
U
1
=U
t
(l) + U
1
(2) ,
Us = U
a
(l) + UsC
a
),
U
3
= Us (.1) + 11,(8).
and introduce the retlection coef't:lcieot at the ground
[<'4] ::
where f'. and P. are the reflection coefficients for vertical and horizontal
polarization, reepect1ve17. Then
U.ca,)(oJ· e,
t2.> Uti)
U2 a fl. & (4),
=e. uA
'
)(0.).
At the ionosphere the refiection coefficient is a tensor
so that
U;'(h):I (711 +' + @,'l. ,
U:'(h):' pt. US:L)(h)] + p:u •
Flnally, at R =b we have the discontinuity condition for the first derivative
of Ul in terms of the dipole JIloment (2]
dU
I
RSP+': • Il
l :: AUJf.L = K
dR R,b6 21tk.iJ  ,
while U
1
itself is continuous at R = bo
The radial f'unctions Us, Us satisfy the same type of differential equation as
U
1
, i.e. (2.12) 0 If we denote the two independent solutions of this equation by
u
(1
) aDd u(a), respectively, where u(l) represents a downgoing wave and u(3) an
upgoing wave, then we JIl8.y write in the various height regions
u. =", u")+ '2o\A'z>.
U
z
= •• u'll ...
11
(2,,49a)
(2049b)
(2,,49c)
o.(R<h.
The boundary conditiona then yield
:a Pa U'I)(co/"''')(a.).
"ale. • £I, U.")CA)/U.
C
a)(4).
"'/'. = e, u"'(a.)/UCI)(o.),
.9. u.u'(h) =[fal (.... t ...) .. u''')(h)
"',1A'
II
Ch>= iJ r
I I ,
e. u.(e) (b) =6, + 'e u,al Cb) + K,
e
a
u,t,){b) :: ".u'''(b) +'Ca u.(a)(b).
(2050a)
(2.5Qb)
(2.. 5Oc)
(205Qd)
(20,Oe)
(205Of)
(2050g)
(2051e)
(2,,51£)
(2051g)
(2.. 518)
(2051b)
(2051c)
(2051d)
e. =(Ply.. + tWb)
= p.\fa..e, =fa'h.M ""
"t = e..  Pa'taA M'4
I fa't", It
 = (tll
The seven equations (20508g) are suftic1eot to determine the seven constants
1&" "'" 'Ct' 49., it' ,. They are given by'
,", II: K/[('i'b 'I.I.,tJ'(b>} =i1Ku.':l)(b).
where
\.Ct)(a,)
U'&)ca,.> '
_ J,J.,J) (b)
lfb 
. ll"'(h)
If'h c 1.ll aJ(h) •
1J/  UCl\/( b)
D"b  uct.r'Cb).
1"1 = faI'j:Jalp
I
1o.i''t
b
) >
<iN  fl 'tAA)  (Ia. f&'
6. = pu  fl2. e..1
(2052b)
(2052c)
(2052d)
12
primes denoting Rderivatives evaluated at the argument ..
We DOW evaluate the form of the radial l'.:.tlctions u U) and u(a) 0 These
are solutions of
The solutions of this equation corresponding to downward and upward waves are
the normalized spherical Hankel functions (5]
uct) ::. c
u.ta) = ":;)(IcR>.
respectivel:j, where
(2,;6)
With th$se functions werted in (2049), the expressions (2.37), (2042), (2.43)
give the values for HPj in the space from \.h1ch the fields may be evaluated
b,y (2.4), (2.5), (2.40), and (2041)0
2.4 Evaluation ot the Integn,I._!j.epreseate.t1OP
Two different methods are available for evalue.ting the integral expres
sions ter BPo B.1 the Ilethod of stationary phase, the l"'esu1t :may be expressed as
a BUll of rays refiected alternately a number of times from the ionosphere and the
ground.. By' the method of residues, on the other band, the result is obtaioled as
a SUIIl of normal modes, or waveguidetype waves. We shall j.nvestigate the latter
type of solution in order to bring out the fact that the approximations usually
Jll8de actually change the physical problem. troll that ot a homogeneous atmosphere
to that of a slightly inbomogeneous atmosphere..
Since the coefficients in the integrand (!:a  fa) involve the yfunctions
defined above, which are ratios that are functions of s, the integrand has poles
at zeros of denominator in these ratios.. Oonsequently, if we deform the
integrand from the original contour along the real saxis into the appropriate
13
half of the complex plane, the integral may be evaluated in terms of the
singularities of the integrand in that halfplaneo In addition to the poles
just mentioned, there is also a branch point \o,here the order of the spherical
Hankel functions, p, is zero. This can be seen from (2056) 0 This has branch
points at
s =± ii,
The integrand vanishes at infinite values of s in the lover halfplaneo
Consequently the integrat:lon path is d6tormed i;nto the contour show in Figo 20
The integral then is the negative sum of the residues at the poles in the lover
halfplane, plus an integral around a branch cut along the negative imaginary
axis from i/2. Friedman [2J baR discussed the importance of the brancncut
integral and bas shown that it is negligible in pl·sctical oases. Wait [3J, on
the other hand, attempts to avoid the brancheut integre1 by making a double tra
verse in the lover halfplane, but his procedtire, in effects is equivalent to
neglecting this integralo This integral l'epresents the effect of the currents which
penC3trate into the ground, and thus is essenM.ally 8. part of the groundvave fieldo
In the case of a perfectlyeonducting grOlmQ the integz'al vanishes 81together 0
The natrlx IUPj in (2.44) has an integral which can be assem
bled fran. (2037), (2.42) and (2.43) by using the Ui'unctions given in (2.49). Poles
of the integrand are those of the ftmctiollS Pu'fh and M. The principal poles of in
terest in detennining the normal modes are those of M. The investigation of 't.hese
poles is a separate problem in its O't7n right which we shall not go into here. The
poles of since eal ultimately can be expressed in tems of yfUnctions and the
properties of the reflecting medium, can be expressed in tenns of the tV/o limiting
cases PsI S a:nc'l. {)u =!fk, similar to the wa:y in which Bre1mner (6] treated the tropo
,
spheric case. These can be detennined from the of uGU(h) and (ll), respea
tively. Thus we consider the method used for the detemination of these zeros.
1
splane
Fig, 2  In'!: eg;:at lQU Contou:·· :!..D. aplane
*"';
205 The Complex Zeros or uCS)(z}
The zeros of uUI> and uun' are the same as those of H
p
(2) and Up (2) I 0
These are found by the Deb,ye method of steepest desoent, and are usually ex
pres.ed in terms of Airy !\mctions, or Hankel !\mctions of order onethirdo The
procedure 1s to write
s .;J T p(w",/s)] dw & *SeF(w) ow, (2057)
W& Wz
expand the exponent F(v) in a series about the point where = 0,
and draw the contour W
a
so as to pass through the two points (stationary points)
at whioh FI(W) =O. By trunoating the TaylorVs Bleries expansion of F(w) at the
third derivative term, we obtain
F(w) =F(w.} ... (ww.) F/(w.) ... F'"(W
O
).
Since
we have
W
o
=7t/2,
and
F(w
o
) =0,
Fl(W
O
} =i(zp),
=izo
Consequently, upon putting wv
o
=u, (2057) beCODleS
1r4 d",
where the contour U
a
is merely \ria shifted to the right by 'fC./2c A simple change
of variables
16
results in
'IS lAo
J (2.59)
L"
where the oontour La in the tple.ne is shown in Fig. 3. The integral in (2.59)
may be expressed in terms of the Airy Functions, or KJdified Hankel Funotions of
order onethird [7]. Using the notation for the latter,
h.(Z;) =(I; J
&.2
we obtain
I t pla.ne
I
I
0.
(2.61)
Fig. J  Contour for Mx1ified Functions
Then from (2.55)
l/a
uta) '= :. ('ITt)
% e·;"S1f!6 rtz
Consequently the zeros of haC;) (tabulat.ed in [7]) give, in first approximation,
the zeros of H
p
(2)(z) and of
It was pointed out in [lJ that the approximation (2.61) 1s equivalent to a
change in the physical problem. This is inmediately evident from the fact that
iti 8. solution of (2012). while is a soluticn of Stokes
l
equation
d
2
h
a
d.;2. + h2, O. (2062)
17
The physical problem corresponding to (2061) may be found ,as folloW's:
We first s<;;parate (2.9) by 'Riting Pl ir:, the form
PI '= T ($) 0
0
(R) V(<p),
W'hereb,y the radial equation becomes
d
2
Uo 2. dUo (a $l&' .•
dg2 + R d R + k.  Ri) U &) .... O.
NoW' b,y introducing the transforms. tion
YJ :::. a.loq(R/a.),
the radial equation becomes
+1. dUD + (k2.
e
2'7
10
,_ V
o
=: o.
a. dYj '\ a.lI.
Next, putting
 rL (a.)".
0
0
D \Lee &i. :: if Lto,
we obtain
where
r:2. = (s" + 1,4.) a pVo.g.
To reduce this to StQkes' equation, we must have
J<2.e 2'l/a. '" 1<;(I+<trz),
where leo and q are constants., It is evident from (2063) that q :; 2/a in order to
sat.isfy the equation for small 17 In tW.s case, if we put.
we obtain, finally, Stokes g equation
d'"uo
d + lJ.c>l; 0,
a solution of which
In order to arrive at this solution, hOlo.1sver, k :.nust be !'. function of which
18
satisfies (2.64). In t01'Dl8 ot the variable R, this requires that k have the fom
(R) (I of tt.a..lOta R/.,.)'It. _ (I + 2 Zog (2.65)
ko .".. rt!{J..  RIo.
If we put
then we have
]". (I + &
>1.(R) c J+B I  + ••••
CL
Thus the retractiv6 index (2.65), corresponding to Stokes' equation, decreases
JIIODOtonically with increasing height H above the ground level a, whereas the
orig1na1 problem dealt with a constant refractive index.
To obtain a higher order approximation tor the zeros of IIp(2) (z), one .y
follow a procedure due to Olver (8] and Chester, Friedman, and Ursell (9], whereby
a change of variable is htroduced so that F(w) in (2.57) beCQllleS precisely the
exponent in the integral of (2.59)1
F(w) z ct + ty,.
dw !j +t
a
 = •
dt F'ew) l(ZfhtW p) •
Then (20 57) becomes
• *f e'CtTt'/s dt. (2066)
Loa
B,y expanding in a double series of the forJl
II: ! Pttt(t:ltl;t" + f tfmt(t&tl;)m, (2067)
pt mO mC'
aDd integrating (2.66) terJlwise, an asymptotic expansion is obtained in terms
,
of ha(.;) and ha(.,)
H(a>,z>_ 3...
116
z
V5
e';'!hr!6{h (I;)!A ... hi (ad! B 'l. (2.68)
p & ",so m II "'00 m J •
in which the coefficients Am and Bm involve, in general, inverse tractional powers
of z, except that Ao =10
The above procedure is as)'DlPtotic because the series expansion (2067) has a
radius of cODvergtmCe which is lbdted by the next zero of ,I·(W), which occurs at
19
w = 'Itsin
I
(p/z) , while the interval of integration extends to infinity"
An alternative evaluation of (2u57) which is not of asymptotic character
may be developed, however 0 This does not appear to have been reported previouslyo
We write
F(w) = st
where 8I1d t are given by (205S), and
111 f Uz/zf
n
/5 F(I1\wo) tl'l
I'
"" I n. ,.... tal'l+l
• 21: (_)tI+ _ e. (1ni.&n+
I
•
".e (2n+ I)] ::"
Next we write
and expand in the absolutely convergent series
eR ::I f.«:.  ! :!r[ " o.nt&r\+I]l'l'\
m#O ml ",&0 rn.
GO
it P(t) • I + tIft.
integral (2.57) then becQll1es
= i: (lz{z(/'J f Plt)e';i ... dt.
1.a
Termw1se integration then yields an expression of identically the same form. as
(2068),
where
0( ::I 1+ t, bmArn{a;),
m&5
(3 =. Bm{;),
Am(;) and being polynomials in of degree m/2 or less"
Then
(z) iff%0)1/1. (ll)
h
p
lZ):' T H
p
(z),
= +/3(1:;)
It is evident from (2.69) that the zeros of at) (z) J for given z, differ
20
slightly from the zeros of where; is related to z and p by (2058) 0 In
order to find the values of p for which H
p
<:3) (z) is zero, we can proceed as follows:
Denote the zeros of by so that
=O. (2071)
From (2.69) we then find
(z) ;a e • O.
The value of p corresponding to is near a zero of (z). We denote this zero
(z) =0,
end put
p = CT  Clo
(j, which as yet is unlmow, corresponds to a value of a; which we denote by
t; =l;c t'
so that is small compared to CO" Then by (2.09)
tC)C:t.): 0 :& l;,} T
p
now expand c(, h
2
, end in Tayloris series about l;o' and make use of (2071):
I /I
0( (.;) :: oCo + «0 +"it' OCO + •.• ,
I
(;) c Po + OS. f'Cl + 2' Po + ., •,
• 3 S
I ( { <: 2 .;, }
:. hI. 3i  2.:ij",y. '1;'0 sr+'"
5. "1]! 1
I I , .s. £ }
s h2 (..;0)'1
1
 ""0it £ +.;0 4
'
1 of'"
5 Yla.
Consequently we obtain
Yll Ol{.;) + 1]2 = o.
This is a series in whose coefficients are knoWllo 'l'he value of 15'& then may be
obtained 'bf successive approrlmationso Then from (2058), (2072) and (207),
21
we obtain
Cl = ZIIJ<r.I!s e.i. t.1t'/'! ~ I • (2.74)
The required zeros of ar (z) then are
p= (1"'1.
These likewise are the zeros of the modified spherical Hankel function hp(Ja) (z)
given by (2.70) ..
The detailed results obtainable by this procedure will be reserved for a
later investigation.
3. RONsPHERICATJ,I STRATIFPm IONOSPHERE
In the treatast in Sec. 2, the earthionosphere region was a8SUIIled to be
spherically syDIl8tr1cal (socalled "horizontallystratified" mediUlll). This
situation is not strictly true, in general, so that the above type or analysis is
an idealization which should be considered as only a first approximation to the
true state of affairs. For example, there are situations of practical interest
where the reflecting layers are tilted with respect to the horizontal.
In order to introduce a form of nonspherice.J. stratification which may be
applicable to such situations, we consider the case of a spheroidal geometry,
where the earth and ionosphere are coordinate surfaces of a .:family of spheroids,
either oblate or prolate in form. We give below the extension of the exact earth
flattening procedure to this nonspherical gtlODletry.
3.1 Formulation of the Prob'\!m
The reduced wave equation
V2.p ... k:tP =a
may be separated in spheroidal coordinates into radial and angular d.tfferential
equations 8S in the spherical case. For the oblate spheroid, these are
22
coordinates
)(, s of cosh!; cos ecos <P t
Y=fco.sh Sc.o!c9 $ il1 cp,
to = sinS.
The corresponding equations of the prolate spheroid are
T  • 0,
18I T cote ff + (k2f:Lsil1l1.e + srl._ = 0,
.ato rn"V;: 0
cl q>a. ,
for 'Which a typical space point has the rectangular coordinates
)( .. fsinh _j118
)'fs'"hS SiVl8 !>il1cp,
z· f
We shall treat the oblate case in detail, since a comparison of the
ing equations of (3.1) and (302) shows that a change from (30l) to (302) can be
effected by simple transformations.
30 2 The Angular Function T
We consider first the angular function To Introducing the new indepen
dent variable x =se, as in Seco the second equation of (301) becomes
+ i :: + [1 k;rsi nll.@  w: T;: O. (303)
This may be written as
L(T) a Til + T'+ [t fcot(i)]T'  fm&[ia + Jc;;:* sin2ff)/T
23
(3010)
(3.8)
'\
.\
i
'
"
w:: .... kf, : <:3.5}
,
0.",'" (3.6)
IS (t":, ,e.""''/(214)! (3.7)
I
is similar in t01'll 1 fo (2.21), and difters tNu it only in the presence
,I
on i1he righthand sids ot the 11'·dd1,tional term 0 This term has the
t
SUtl power of x as the immediately preced1Dg U in (3.4). Consequently
we iDmediately write the tf.,'Hi,lution of ().4) 8S
410 ..,\
T 'II k 0."'1' ,
whe:r'El the 'eoetricient8 an &rlEl /S, ;1.ven by the recursion tOl'lIiUla
a.
:I' A . I _i b tcaA, 5
n+\' MI + 2(l1+1) .. 14·'
•• {t .. Q.f4+l
paD ,:
tM .,p..1 1(" } .J..)
'I'.?: L .,jli b... tc:,!  ...,) (3.9)
P'''C I!
The1:'ej?ore the form of solution in (2035) is applicable to (303),
whic:h thUl4 has the solution 1\\
4V 1\
T = I, Cl
t
" (sS).
rlJaO t
3: 0 The Radial Function U t
I'
I
We DOW consider the r'i61dial function U, which !satisfies the first
equstioo of (J.l) 0 Our aim will to obtain a solution 13f this equation similar
\
'i
to that found in Seco 203. 'fhen t/'IV} fields will be obtailable in terms or an
integr'al reprf)sentation of the given in (2.)6)0 We !llhall be interested in
the .01'lIl81 mode solution, which obtainabls f'rall the re,iduea of the
representation0 These residues, in the spherical case I ultimately JII8y' be based
on the zeros of the function U'Wbi\\C:h represents an upgoiDU wave, and its first
derivative., Confjequently, we sha1.\\l seek solutions of the radial equation similar
I
I
(
I
to those given in and (2.55) for the spherical case, and then id.ll investi
gate their complex zeros as a f'uDction of order.
'!'he radial equation in question is
t tClJ1h" ... $:&i ·0.
We seek to cast this :lnto a fOl'll which resembles the spherical equationo
We first Dote that the transition to the spherical case is effected by allowing
f cosht ...R as r... o. Hence we are ad to introduce the change of independent
variable
fcoshl; = R,
and the Dew dependent variable
u =RU.
Then (3.11) becomes
dau... fA Jbi +....l ... + =o.
R(RY.) dR R;&
Next, we put
z = kR,
a =lef,
whereupon (3013) becomes
u" ... q.1. lJ! T L(1 ... s: 0
z{zaa,&) c·a.· t4 '
primes denottng derivatives with respect to z.
To eliminate the £1rstder1vative term, we put
1A 11: 1>;
(3016) then is replaced by'
1.1"" + [z&aa T + 3 (
2 Z
t._a.a.)CJ,&]..,. 0
z a.' ZSIs..a.&) ct.(z.ta.&)i ==.
We DOW rearrange (3.17) in the form
)
II (10) {l.a ( m
2
_sao... 1/.. '3)J 0." J
L(v IE V ... ,il \J" tIC  Z"ttl& I + + .z*(ztLa.&) lJ'"
to('i)f4+
a
(1+ mtL_::+'M (tt
25
(3016)
<:3017)
or
where
,01
.,. •  [ 1+ 00&::... = ..[ I + rna.. '07 , <:3019)
ttl   [I + ')4].. (fl
I
)], Z.
If the rightbaDd side of (3018) were zero (i.e., a = 0), solutions of the
equation would be the normalized spherical Hankel functions given by (2.. 54) and
(2.55). Hence we seek a aimilar solution to ().l8). Solutions of the radial
equation as a series of' solutions of the spherical Bessel differential equation
are available in the literature (see, for example, (10]), but we shall find it
D1Dre convenient to deduce directly a special form which is suitable for the nOl'lI8J.
mode problemo
The form of' (3.18) suggests a series solution in a/zo Such a solution 'I'/JIJ.Y be
formed in the form
«I I." ( ,1
V' • (t) 1',(z) i 8)1 E) (3.20)
where ';, is a solution of the normalized spherical Bessel equation LC,.,> =0 and
Be = 00 SUbstituting (3.20) into (3.18), reducing by means of the differential
equation for ip to terms containing only 'tp and and equating coefficients of
like powe:rs of ';', and 'b on both sides of the equation, we obtain the two equations
+[ It B
w
c (3.21)
1\0
[I
t
. t 2(2\1fol) g  4"S& a.  A oJ ('::l 22)
tJ.Z a. 10'''+1 '" A'y." . J •
.\_0
These are two simultaneous equations which comprise recurrence relations for the
,. coefficients A
y
and By in ().20) c If we choose Ao =1, then the first few coeffi
olenta are
26
Thu8 combining (3.20) and (3.16), we have found a solution ot (3015) of the
torm
where
= of (3024)
)faD
of' . \J.Jl
8(:1) = fn 6)1 (tJ . (3025)
In order to conform to the typa of integral representatiOll given for the
spherical case in Sec. 2, we choose the function 1', to be the normalized spherical
Hankel function nt> or hf'. Then in finding the n01"lD81 mode solution tor the
spheroidal problem we are led to a determination of the zer08 of the function
• + (3026)
We can reduce this problem to OIle of exactly the 8ame kind a8 Bolved in
Sec. 2.5. Fro. (2070), we can replace hr' (21) by a suitable sum of haC;) and
aa follows:
From. this,
 + (3028)
n
where use has been made of (2.62) to eliminate
Introducing (3.27) and (3028) into (3.26), we obtain
II: c24f"?r
ft
z,*e
4S1r
,6 +
where
t; pc!];)] (3030)
PI (C);:: a3 (3031)
(3.29) now is of the same fona as (2070)0 Consequently the procedure by which the
zeros of (2070) were found may be applied directly to 0.29), the only change
required being the replacement of «(lIS) and fJ(r,) by and #,(;,), resp8ctive17o
4. SUMMARY
In this report we have shown how the exaot earthflattening procedure,
developed in (1] for an isotropic sphericallystratified atmosphere, mai be
extended to the caae of a spherical earth and atmosphere enveloped by a sharply
bounded ionosphere. The general solution of the problem is formulated as an
integral representation, i"roa which JDay" be derived either a rayoptical series or
a normal mode series. In the latter case" the nomal modes involve the nonnal
1 ~ e d spherical Himkel f\mction and its derivative. An improved. method of obtain
1Dg the ~ e r o s ot these !'unctions is derived which is not of asymptotic character.
In order to deal with problems of nonspherical stratification, a spheroidal
geometry is investigated. The developments for the fJpheroidal case are pursued
in a way similar to that for the spherical geometry, and carried out in detail for
the oblate spheroido Solutions for the angular function are fotmd in the form of
an infinite seriea of Bessel functions of the same type as totmd for the spherical
caseo The radial function is expressed as a sum of the solution of the normalized
spherical Bessel equation and its derivative, the coefficients of these functions
being infinite series in terms or powers of the ratio of semifocal distance to
radius 0 It is shown that the zeros of the radial function as a ftmction of order,
which are required in the normal mode solution, 'IlJAy be found by the S8Jlle procedure
that was developed for the spherical case.
28
REFERENOES
ll] B. Y.o. Koo and M. Katzin, "An Exact EarthFlattening Procedure ill Propaga
tion Around a Sphere", Jouro Res. NBS  D. Radio Propagation, Vol. 640,
No.1, pp. 6164, Jan.Febo 1960d
(2] B. Friedman, "Propagation in a Nonhanogeneous Atmosphere", Comm. on Pure
and App. Math., Vo10 IV, Noo 2/3, pp.. 317350, 19510
(3] J. R. Wait, "Terrestrial Propagation of VeryLowFrequency Radio Waves 
A Theoretical Investigation", Res. NBS  D.. Radio Propagation, Vol. 641>,
No.2, pp. 153204, MarchApril 19600
(4] J .. c. Slater, "Microwave Transmission", pp. 197199, McGrawHill Book Coo,
Inc., Nev York, 1942..
(5] S. A" Schelkunoff, "Advanced Antenna Theoryfi, po 8, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
New York, 19520
(6] H. BnmIIler, "Terrestrial Radio Waves", Elsevier Publishing 000' Inco, Hew
York, 19490
{7] The staff' of the Computation Laboratory, of the Modified Hankel Func
tions of Order OneThird aDd of Their Derivativesl'l, Harvard Univ. Press,
Cambridge, Masso, 19450
(8] F. W'. J. Olver, 'liThe Asymptotic Expansion of Bessel Functions of Large Order",
Philo Trans. Roy. Soc., Series A, Vol. 247, pp. 328367, Deco 1954.
[9] C., Chester, B. Friedman and F. Urse11, !'IAn Extension of the Method of steepest
Descents", Fraco Cab. Phil. Soc., Vol. 53, ppo 599611, 1957.
[10] O. FlSDDer, "Spheroidal Wave Functions", Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, Calif.. ,
19570
29
PART II
VI3 ENHANCEMENTS AND HF FADEOUTS DURING
SUDDEN IONOSPHERIC DISTURBANCES
1. INTRODUCTION
One of the spectacular phenomena of the ionosphere is the sudden
ionospheric disturbance (SID), which drastically stfects highfrequency communi
cation circuitso This phenomenon was first reported by' MOgel (1]* and later
investigated in detail by Dellinger (2]. Dellinger sUIIII18rized the various phenomena
associated with the SID and concluded that the distmobance must be caused by solar
ultraviolet radiation. One of the associated phenomena occurs on very low fre
quenciea, and it is this phenomenon that forms the subj ect matter of 1ihe present
study0
In 1936, Bureau and Maire (3] reported that abrupt shortwave fadeouts (denoted
by SWF her'esrtexa) usually were accompanied by siJllultaneous sudden increases in the
strength or atmospherics received on very low frequencies (v1f). They reported
that atmospherics from all directions were reinforced simultaDeously, that frequencies
from 27 to 40 kC/S showed the sudden increase, but on 12 kC/S the effect was rarely
obsel"Ved. Later, Budden and Ratcliffe [4] reported that measurements at Cambridge
of the phase of the alm01'll8.l (horizontallypolarized) component of the downcoming
waves from GIlt on 16 kC/S showed an anomaly at times of hf fade<>ut. They concluded
that an SID "has a marked effect at the level of reflection of the lowfrequency
waves (70 km), this effect being most evident as a decrease in reflection height
of the waves
u
• They did not observe "any clear indication of a change in reflected
wave 8Dlp1itude at the time of the phase anomalies" (SPA) 0 Bureau (5] then pointed
*Numbers in brackets refer to the corresponding references in the Bibliography
on po 52.
30
out that hil'J obsel"Vations on the sudden enhanC"Eldl€int of {SEA) accompan.y
ing SID showed that such incl'eaaes 'were not o'bsal."'VeCl balo\( abo1.1ii 17 kc/sc
An investigation was undertakezl in 1938 t.o (,etemine vhethHJr S!D
9
'WM.ab. had
been show to produce SEA, also produced sim:Uar enhancement of vlf signals,
and, if so, whether any quantitative cOR're1atloil existed between the v1f' and hf
effects of the SID. The experimental phase of ·the investigatiolA vas completed in
1940, and a preliminary report of the results wae presented in 1947 [6], but has
not been pub1ishedo
The purpose of this report is to present essenti&l results obtained, and
to discuss the implications of these results respect to layer
structure and the modifications pTOduced b,y the SID mechanism.
20 DESCRIPTION OF MtASUREMENTS
The measurements reported here were MC3 at the Riverhead transcontinental
receiving station of RCA Communications, Inc. liteA'" several months v observations
of the signal from SAQ (1702 kc/s), with negati'.re l'9sults, the equipnent was set up
to :zoecord GLC (310l5 kc/s). Some of the subeequ6nt 00' ",eroe accompanied by
signal (SSE) of GLOo Consequently" '.>b3ei""'ations W'el"e continued, extend
ing over the pel"iod 31 October 19.38 to 25 June :94.0,
FOT compal"lson of the v1f SSE lolit.ll SWF) ·:.he signal received from GtH (13.5.3 Me/a)
'Was selected, since t,bia signal t).'"averaed apP1'QJ:illa·l;el;f the sam.e and continuous
recording of this signal 'WRS being csrdec1 out Riverhead for other The
great cirole path length was about 5400 kIne B?+·h the GLC and the GLE: equipments
weTe at least once each day b:r l:lean3 of ::ltandard signel
3e RESULTS
Sample records of a simultaneou.s SWF an1 SSE are reproduced in Figso 1
31
and 2, respeotively. These records are rather typical of the data obtained,
although the magnitudes of the signal change V81<>1.ed rather widely from one event
to the next. In general, the characteristic behavior was a rather sharp initial
cbange, followed by a trough (or crest), and then a gradual recovery. Invariably,
the l'ecov817 was iiiore rapid for the hf signal.
Fig. 3 shows histogr8Dl8 of the number of coincidences between SWF of GLH aDd
SSE of GLe during the period of the observations, and of GLH SWF over a longer
period0 Coincidences were observed only during the daylight hours when the hf
fades were more numerous 0
Figo 4 shows similar histograms of tbe number of GLH fades of intensity classi
fied as l'lmode:rate" or greater ~ d GLe enhanceIIlents which occurred during the same
period of observation. This shows a high degree of correlation, so that the proba
bility of a vlf enhancement is very high if the bf effect is pronoucedo
Fig. 5 represents a teat to determine whether ~ correlation exiats between
the apl1tude l'8Dges ot the vlf and hf signale during an SID. The points are
plotted with the increase in GLe signal (in decibels) as abscissa and the correapond
1Dg decrease (in decibels) of the GLH signal as ordinate. Points ..11th IU1 upward
arrow attached correspond to cc:lllplete fadeout of the GLH signal.
Exam1.11e,tion of Fig. 5 IIOOwS tlult in DO case was the GLC increase as great as
tlult of the GLH decrease, and that no evident correlation between tile magnitudes
of the two effects exists. The largest GLe increase (14.1 db), for exaaple, was
associated with only a moderate fade on GLH. Conversely, the deepest fade ot GtH
(57A 5 db) was aCCCllllpanied by only a small increase (2.3 db) OIl GLe.
4. DISCU§§ION
In the years since the observations described above were completed, a
considerable body of infomation has aucum:ulated concerning SID effects, solar
32
phenomena, and ionospheric structure" Observations of the type pI'esented abo'Y'e,
however, bave not been published previously" It is of interest, therefore, to
examine the results obtained in the light of presentday knowledge. In particular,
it appears that these results hl!Ve 1mportant implications on the type of solar
evet which causes the SID, and on the layer structure and respm1sive mechanisms
in the upper atmosphere"
A plausible qualitative explanatic»i tor the hf and vlf effects was advanced
at an early datel The hf waves are refiected by the E and/or Flqers; absorption,
however, takes place JU.1JllY' in the intermediate Dregiono Vlf waves, on the other
band, undergo a waveguide type of propagation between the conducting earth and
the conducting Dregion, the attenuatiClll depending on the conductivity of the guide
"walls" " Since an enhancEment of Dregion ionization should increase the "wall
conductivity, this will reduce the attenuation of vlf waves, but will give rise
to increased absorption of ht waves passing through the Dregion"
It wUl be shown below that the above qualitative explanation must be modified
and _de more precise in order to fit the observations" In particular, it will
appear that a sharpening of the lower boundary of the Dregion must result from the
fiare" In order to bring this out, it is necessary to examine the absorption and
reflection processes, as well as the changes in ionospheric layer characteristics,
which take place as a result of a solar fiare"
401 Hf Effects
Appleton and Piggott [7J have made s. co.mprehe1: sive study of hf' absorption
at vertical incidence during a Period extending over a sunspot cycleo They found
that absorption was definitelY' under solar control, since it varied in a regular
manner with solar zenith angle" They showed that the bulk of the absorption is of
the nondev1ative type, and that it must take place in a layer below the reflecting
33
(1)
level or the Eregion.. Furthermore, they showed that the absorbing region cannot
be mereq the lower portion or the Eregion, but must be an independent ionized
region, which they identit;y with the Dregiono
The mdence which led Appleton and Piggott to the above concluaicma was
obtained trom three t ~ e s ot behaviorI
(1) The diurnal variations or absorption for two different frequencies,
one of which is refiected by the Elayer and the other by the Flayer, have sub
stantially the HIle dependence on the solar zenith angleo
(2) Por a f'requency whose refieotion level shirts during the day tram
the Plqer to the Elayer, or to a sporadic Elayer, the abaorption is the same
tor refiectioo t1'aa either layer (apart f'rca the period when the frequency is in
the neighborhood of fE, WeD additional deviative absorption takes place)"
(3) The variation of absorption with frequency caD be explained only on
the u8UIIlptiOl1 that the same medium is responsible for absorption over the entire
frequency range..
For nondeviative absorption (ioeo, in a regicm where the reh'&ctive index is
eubstantially unity), Appleton [8] gave tor the absorption coefficient ac: in a region
of ionization density N and collisior. frequency v, under conditions where the quasi
long!tudinal approximation holds,
Z
1fe
a. Nl1
t<: = me y ~ +lWt (A)&.)2
where wL is the mageitude of the longitudinal component of the angular gyro tre
quency, and the + sign is for the ordinfU7 wave, the  sign for the extraordinary
wave. The absorption of the ordinary wave is appreciably less than that of the
extraordinary wave when w/wL is not too large, so that it is the ordul&ry wave
which then is measured" It can be seeD that the dependence of = on the collision
frequency v tends to a proportionality to either v or 1/v, depending on whether
34
"a is small or large compared with (w + wL)2 0 In the former case, the integrated
absorption at vertical incidence for a wave which pemetrat8s the absorbing region
and is refiected (with negligible deviative absol"ption) at a higher level then 1s
given by an expression of the fom
where A 1s a constant and F(X) is a function of the solar zenith angle, X, which
depends on the rate aDd process by wh1,ch free electrons disappear (eogo, recombina
tion, attachment) 0 Appleton and Piggott showed that the frequency dependence of
the total absorption (as measured by an effective refiection coefficient) is in
very good agreeaent with (2)0 This is shown by F1go 60 Thus ~ t follows that
,,2«(w + "'L)2 throughout the absorbing regiono Appleton aDd Piggott thus placed
an upper limit for v of 2
0
10
7
/ sec in the absorbing DregioDo
Information regarding the electron production aDd removal processes in the
absorbing region can be derived from a l!Itudy of the dependence of absorption on the
solar zenith angle X0 In particular, the theol"etical relation a!lhowa that the
effective refiection coefficient p depends on X in a relation of the form
where n depends on the ionosphere model 0 For a Chapman layer (constant scale height
and recombination coefficient), n = 105, while i£ the recombination coefficient 1s
proportional to the ambient pressure, n = 1000 Nicolet (9] showed that a region
of mounting t.emperature with height would have a lower value of n than ODe of
constant temperatme0
The experimental values ern determined by Appletcn and Piggott range from
about 004 to 1010 Taylor [10] found values £rom 007 to 10.300 Furthermore, Appleton
and Piggott (7] found a winter anomaly, the absorption in winter being distinctly
higher than for the same zenith angle at othel' seas011So
35
The experimental values, although not completely understandable on the basis
of present theoretical knowledge, det1nitely show that the absorbing layer is not
of the Chapun type (tor .which n = 1.;), and suggest that the region bas a positive
temperature gradient.
The above studies of ionospheric absorption have been concerned ch1efiy with
vertically incident wavese Since the path length through the absorbing region
increases as the secant of the angle of incidence on the absorbing layer, the types
or variation described h'11d substantially for an oblique path of constant lengthe
It should be pointed out that Appleton and Piggott I IS tindings relate to normal
h.;.r absorption, and that the height region wherein the additional absorption during
SID occurs C8l1Dot be localised from their measurements 0
402 'lf Eftect,
Although the main features ot ht absorption are tair1y well understood,
this is not the case tor '1'lt waV.So The requisite theory is Rch more coaplicated,
since variations in the properties ot the important regions ot the ionosphere take
place in a distance comparable with a waveleIDgthe This necessitates full wave
theory, which is made complicated by the anisotropy ot the mediumo An ana1;rtiC'l81
theory has been worked out only tor special variations of electron density and criti
cal trequenc;r with height, and then only for the case of a vertical magnetic field
or ot vertical propagatiOllo More recently, numerical procedures have been introduced
to handle more general situations, but results are available only tor a limited
number of combinations ot parameters.
Our present knowledge ot Dregion structure has been promoted by studies of the
propagation characteristics of vIf waveso These characteristics will be summarized
here in order to provide a background for the subsequent discussion of Dregion
mechanisms 0
36
Although some measurements of layer height have been made at very low
frequencies with pulse techniques (Brown and Watts (11], Helliwell (12], the
Pennsylvania state Universit;y group (13)), the most extensive and detailed
studies have been carried out on cw tr8nBJDissions, pi"incipal1y by English workers
(1422]. rheae measurements have been made at various distances extending out
to about 1000 kIl.
The print ipal characteristics of the ionospher1calll wave (the
socalled "sky wave") are its phase, amplitude, and polarization. The phase
depends on the length of the tranBJDission path and the height of reOection. The
apParent height ot retlection is deduced from observation of the amplitude pattern
versus distance produced by interference between the ground and sky waves, and
also by measuring the phase difference between ground and sky waves for difterent
frequencies. Variations in reflection height with time can be deduced from measure
ments of the phase variation of the sky' wave at a given receiving pointo 'For this
Purpose the sky wave is isolated .trOll the grolD1d wave by means of a special .'!ltenna
arrang_ent. Observations ot the change in phase of the sky wave are especially
useful. in testing solar control 01' the reflecting medi\lll"
MeasurElllents at a trequenc;y ot 16 kC/S, for example, show that a distinct
change in the character ot the sky wave takes place in the neighborhood of 400 km,
corresponding to an angle 01' incidence on the iono_phere or about 6,0. Consequently
it will be convenient to discuss the short end long distance measun\lllents separate
ly, and then the modifications observed during SID.
4.2.1 Short pi_tapce Characteristics
The measurements at short distances may be s'iJJlllUlrlzed as follows:
(a) Reflection Heisht
Typical results of the phase lag of the sky" wave relative to
37
I
I
I
the ground wave are ShO"'ll in Fig. 70 The height of ref'lection shows marked solar
control during the dey, in accordance with the relation
h. k
o
1" AU:) log [C.h{X)}) (4)
where he i8 the value corresponding to X = 0, and Oh(X) is the Chapman function,
which reduces to sec X tor X less than about 85
0
0 An average value ot ho is
73 ±2 m. It refiection took place from a ChaJD8ll layerJ the slope A( t) ot the
height VSo log (Ch(x)] curve would be the scale heighto Figo 8 shows curves ot
bo ad A(t) at 16 kC/S through the course of the yearo The apparent heights at
noon and night, near Calabridge, England are shown in Figo 90 Values ot A(t) run
around 6 laD, which is a reasonable value for the scale heighto Consequently this
result was used for some time to infer that the reflecting layer was of the ChaJII8D
type0 On 30 kC/S, however, a mean value is 505 ± 001 km, on 4.3 kC/S, 4.8 ± 001 km,
end at 70 kC/S 81"Ound .3 laD, with greater variability at the higher frequencieso
This variation of A(t), h o w e v ~ , is not explainable on the basia ot a ChapII&D layero
It should be noted that the descent from the nighttime height starts at a time
very close to ground sunrise at the midpath pointo
(b) Polarization
For short distances ot 100.300 km, nearly all observations
show that the sky wave on all frequencies from 16150 kC/s is approximately circular
ly polarized with a letthanded sense of rotation. The polarization remains the
same through an SID0
(c) gplltude
In view of the approximately circular polarization of the sk;y
wave, the components P22 and Pl2 of the tensor reflection coefficient (see Part I,
po 11] are approx1lllately equal. The diurnal variation of the component PU' called
the "conversion coeff'iclent
fl
" is shown in Figo 10, and its seasonsl variation in
Figo 11, for a frequency of 16 kC/so Fig. 12 shows the frequency trend of P12
for different seasons.
Figs. 13 and 14 show the diumal variation of P12 on 16 and 70 kc/s, respective
11', 1D s\BIer and winter. It is seen that a presunrise cirop 8I1d postsunset rise
in amplitude takes place, with an e8sentially constant level during the d81'o (The
811811 ripples in the winter dayt1Jle curve are coneidered a8 probably being due to
a twohop waveD) The drop 1D amplitude begins at a solar zeDith angle of close
to 9SOo
It i8 evident that the daily 8JIlplitude variation is distinctly different from
the daily height variation at short distanceso
40202 LoPg Pittance Qh'Tloteristic,
'the characteristics inferred from meaeurementa over longer
distance' will be 8U1111U'ized 1D this section0 '1'heae principally cover distances
of about 400950 ka, but will also include some deduotiCl1s made traa observationa
over di8tances of several thousands of kilometerso 'l'hese have beeD derived froIl
tour sources; (1) 16 kc/a observations at 540 kJIl, (2) a series ot observations over
the Decca navigation chain at frequencies frail 70 to about 130 kC/S, and distances
up to 950 kJIl, (3) phase variations at 16 kc/a and lower frequencies in counection
with basic studies of naVigation syat.., and (4) observations ot the vlt spectral
characteristics of atmosphericso
(a) Reflectiop Height
The reflection heights determined from the ground interterence
pattern fit in with a reflection height of 70 :t :2 km at midday, with DO apparent
variation of height with trequencyo This agrees within a few kilometers vith the
measurelll8llts near vertical incidenceo
The diUrnal variation of reflection height is illustrated by Figo 15, tor a
39
j
,
I
I
frequency 01' 16 This is completely different from the diurnal variation at
vertical incidence shown in Fig" 7 In fact, the height variation is very much
like the amplitude variation near vertical incidence show in Figo 10" Similar
types of variation were observed at higher frequencies, the sunrise drop in height
being substantially complete at midpath around sunriseo This 1s show in 16,
for which it was assumed that the nightti1D.e height was 90 laIlo
Pierce (23] reported a normal diurl!8.1 phase variation at 16 kC/S of 2000 ± JOo
over a 5200 km path, while Casselman, Heritage, and Tibbals [24] measured a diurnal
clumge of about 350
0
± at 120 2 kc/s over a 4000 km path"
(b) .Polarization
MeasurEllll.ents of the polarization of the sky wavs showed this
to be linear at about 45
0
to the vertical" This represents a change from the abort
distance measurements, whieh gave the polarization 8,S approximately
(c) AJBp1itude
The refiection coefficient at oblique incidence is :tound to
be greater than at verlica1 incidence" For 16 kC/S, &10, et 81 l19] found a
value of 0 0 27 at sUDler Jlidday, and Q,,55 at night, COIIlpared to vertical incidence
values of Oe15 and 0,,50, respectivelyo For higher frequencies, Weekes and Stuart
(21] obtained the results shown in Figo 17" This shows an increasing reflection
coefficient with distance, but smaller values at increasing Also, an
increase of about 2:1 takes place between summer and winter...
The drop in amplitude al"ound sun:i'ise is show. in Fig.> 180 This 1s similar to
the behavior of the refiection height shown in Fig., 15, and to the 8JIIplitude be
havior at distanC8fJ,o Again, smaller values of refieotion coefficient are
found at the higher frequencies 0
Fran measurements of vlf transmissions on available frequencies analyzed by
Eckersley (25], combined with observations of the spectrum of individual atmos
pherics, ChapDaD' and Macario (26] deduced the attenuation VSo frequency curve
8howD in Fig. 19. This shows a 1liD1muIIl around 1; kc/a, and a maximum around 2 kc/s.
402.3 SID Iffegt.
The ertecta ot SID usoc1ated with solar tlares bave been
observed both at the short aDd long distances used to obtain the results discussed
above. In general, a change both in phase and amplitude of the sky wave is
associated with aD SID. The change in phase corresponds to a decrease in reflection
height. This change in phase appears to be a verr sensitive way to detect nares
(27]0
NeAr vertical incidence, the decrease in reflection height is subatantially
the ... tor frequencies in the range 16135 kC/S. This is illustrated b7 Fig. 20(_) 0
The aJlPlitude near vertical incidence sutters a decrease duriDg aD SID, the cbaDge
in 8Dl.plitude being greater at higher frequeocies, as shown in Fig. 2O(b). The
relative change in aap1itude is roughly proportional to the decrease in refiection
height, as shown by Fig. 21 for 16 kc/••
The above characteristics, observed near vertical incidence, undergo a drastiQ
change at oblique incidence associated with the longer ranges (>500 0). The phase
change associated with the reduction in height ot reflection decrel.aes with increas
ing frequency, while the 8 l I p ~ i tude !ncrease, markedly0 The UK>UIlt ot this increase
111 greater, for example, at 70 kC/S than at higher frequenciaso Fig. 22 ,hows an
example ot the relative phase and amplitude obanges observed at a distance of about
900 km during an SID. FraIl observations of SEA, it appear. that the ampl1tude
j.ncrease u.y be a maximtm for frequencies around 30 kC/so
Pierce [23J showed an example of a phase advance at 16 kc/s over a 5200 km path
during an SIDo This SID
ll
ot importance 3, accompanied a solar flare of 1lII.portance 2+.
41
A phase advance of 100
0
was observedo This is half the normal diurnal change, or
equivalent to a reduction in height of reflection of about 9 m. No amplitude
change was observed, however. On the other hand, during a 3 SID, accompanying a
2 nare, • 60 kC/8 signal over the same path experienced a phase advance of only
70°, correoponding to a height change of about 106 laD, vh.tle the amplitude increased
0 Pierce suggested that the primary physical phenanenon produced by
the SID might be a steepening of the ionization gradient, with an accompanying
reduction in the phase lag at reflection.
Gardner (28] and Obayashi, et a1 [29,30] showed that an SID shifted the
__ aquency spectrua of atmospherics upwards, eo that the frequency of m1DiDrum attenua
tion was raised. Also, the lowfrequency cutoff of the ionospheric waveguide was
raised, corresponding to a decrease in height of the reflecting region.
To slJEl1arize the SID etfects observed on v·lf wave propagation, the SID
produces a reduction in reflection height and a change in amplitude of the sky wave.,
Near vertical inoidence the reduction in renection height apPears to be substan
tially independent of frequency, while the amplitude change is a deCl"88seo The
amount of this decrease is progressively greater at higher frequencies, and roughly
proportional to the decrease in renection height. At 100 kC/S the decrease rJB.y
be by a factor of about 100. At oblique incidence, on the other hand, the decrease
in renection height is less for higher frequencies, while the sky wave 8IIplitude
increases markedly. This increase, which may be a factor of 5 or more, appearll
to be a max1mum. at frequencies arcnmd JO kC/S, and becomes less for higher fre
quencieso
40204 Eclipse Effects
Observations of the phase of the sky wave on 16 kC/S at steep
incidenoe were made during a partial solar eclipse by Bracewell [31] 0 AIthough the
42
greatest eclipsed area was only 0•.3 of the solar disk, a definite phase anomaly
was found, as shown in Fig. 2.3. The fo1'Dl can be Been to agree roughly with the
shape of the obscured area curve.
Fraa this result, Bracewell deduced that the relaxation time of the refiecting
reg1cm probabl.v did not exceed 6 minutes 0 Furthermore, the Jl8lDltude of the phase
change  about 3S degrees  represented an increase in height of retlection of
about 1 kIl, while for a Ohapll8l1 layer a change of only about 0.2 kDl would be
expected.
4•.3 {lLqer Production and structure
A proper interpretation ot SID effects on ionospheric propagation
ultiaate:Qr requires a knowledge ot the COJDpOsiticm ot the ioniZing agents, and ot
the reacti0111l!l which lead to the pr8'lailing ionization densities. In this Sect1CXl,
some of the pertmant available info1'Dlation will be l!Iumarized.
4•.3.1 The TwoLaYE Model
In order to explain the diurnal phase and 8IIplitude variationa
dil!lcusl!Ied in sec. 402.1 and 4.2.2, Bracewell and Bain (.32] proposed an ionospheric
model conte:' ning a twolayer Dregion0 The height of the upper layer, which they
denoted by na, was supposed to be lmder solar control in accordance with the fol'lllUla
h = 72 + 5.5 log sec X D. (5)
This is shown by the upper curve in Fig. 24.· Below this layer, a layer deaoted by
~ was pol!ltulated to exist, with height variations as show in the lower part of
Fig. 240 The upper layer was supposed to be the ref'lecting layer fer 16 kC/S waves
at steep incidence, while the lower layer was considered to be responsible for
absorption of the waveso At sufficiently glancing mcidence, however, reflection
would take place at the lower layer.
Bracewell and Ba1n based their twolayer model entirely on the observations of
16 kC/s propagation at short e.nd medium distanoes" They gave tW sugges·tiona as
to the mechanisms by which tvo layers oOlud be fomed"
403.2 Bracewel1
9
s Exhaustion Region
In order to explain the observed type oraolar flare and eoU.pae
effects on the Dregian, Bracewell (31] postulated the existence of a socalled
"exhaustion region
lV
, in which the ionizable constituent exists in a small concentra
tion" With respect to s twolayer Dregion, this mecb.anism was supposed to take
place in the upper region, denoted by Da in Sec" 403010
Bracewell showed that an exhaustion region :.rould explain ·the amo1.U1t (If change
i.n reflection height. observed during a partial sQlar eclipse, whereas a much
8Dl8ller change would result from a ChaplllQl region 0 HE< also shoT:red that aD exhaustion
region would produce hf absorption whose variation with cosx agreed in general with
experimental observations"
Bracewell also showed that the characteristics of an exhaustion region would
explain satisf'actorlly the observed reductions b r.eflection height during solar
flares" For exaaple, a reduction of 1; km in height would require an :!.ncl'ease 17.l
intensity of the incident ionizing radiation by' a factor of 15" Ro...·ever, no attempt
waa made to deduce the accompanying effect on t.he amplitude of vIf' wa/es"
4")03 Ionization Mechanisms
The existence of seversl separate n:.echanisms for the formation
of ionization in the Dregion bas been brought O'lt in the last 0:;:" so" Brown
and Petrie l32], pursuing a suggestion att.ributed to Ratcliffe, have evaluated the
role of photodetachlnent o:r. electrons fran Oi lens" This ion, formed by attach
ment of an electron to a neutral oxygen molecula1 staxts buildirlg up in cot
1
oentration
8l"cund sunset, resulting in the disappearance of the Lormal Dlayer. The nightt1.ille
level of ionization below the Elayar is maintained by cosmic rs:ys, 'Which 'V'ary in
44
intensity with latitudeo Visible light, extending down into the can
supply the energy required to break up the attachment, and thus liberate free
electrons0 Since visible light can reach the altitudes >50 km appreciably before
ground sunrise, electrons released by the photodetachment process build up
ionization appreciably before sunrlseo Brown and Petrie (33J, and Moler [34]
showed that this explained satisfactorily the presunrise drop in amplitude dis
cussed in Sec. 4.2.10 Aiken [35] verified the fact that a Dregion
be produced at sunrise, the lower layeJr being due to cosmic rp,;ys, and the
upper layer to photoionization of nitric oxide by Lymana radiationo Thus, in the
twolayer model of Bracewell and Be.1n discussed in SeCo 403.1, these mechanisms
'Would account for the layers and Da, respectively.
Nicolet and Aikin (36), in a discussion of the formation of the Dregion,
pointed out the following mechanisms of ionization which are possible at levels
below 85 km.:
(1) Xrays ot < 10 Ai
(2) Lymana radiation =1215.7A);
(3) Ultraviolet radiation, > 1800 Ai
(4) Cosmic rays;
(5) Photodetacbment CrJ visible radiation.
The normal Elayer, which is ascribed to the combined affect of soft Xrays in
the range 30100 A and ultraviolet radiation is penetrated by cosmic rays,
ultraviolet radiation of >.. >1800 A, Lymana and hard Xrays (:>.. <10 A).,
Of these, cosmic rays and hard Xrays are capable of ionizing all atmospheric
constituents 0 In addition, LYJ1Is
t1
a, due to a narrow windo'W in O
2
absorption at the
Lymana line, can penetrate to 10\01 levelsc A minor constituent, NO part in 10
10
was proposed by Nicolet (37] as the ionizable constituent responding to Lymana to
45
account for the daytime Dlayer 0
In view of the presentlyaccepted view that the upper part of the Dregion,
Del, is due to photoionization of NO by Lymanu, it is tempting to suppose that NO
is the ionizable constituent reeponsible for the exhaustion region postulated by
Bracewell. The concentration of NO has been estimated by Nicolet (.38] as about
10
10
of the total concentratioo below about 85 kill, or about 10
5
cm3 at 75 km
(36]. In order to give ionization densities to fit the vlf observations, however,
the NO concentration would have to be lower than this by about two orders of magni
tude, or about 10
3
CIl3 at 75 km.
Although Bracewell believed the exhaustion region would also explain solar
flare effects, this JlUst be rejected on the basis of later evidence. For example»
Friedman and collaborators [11] observed no large increases in Lymana during
flares, whereas B.t"acewell requires a factor of about 150 In a recent report, Chubb,
et al [40] stated that no increase in Lymsnu occurred during a 1+ flare, but Xrays
in the r a n g ~ 110 A were observed. As mentioned earlier, the solar flare enhance
ment of ionization has been shown to be explainable by the appearance of hard Xrays
in the wavelength r1ADge 110 A, which ionize all atmospheric constituents, and can
penetrat& to low levels because of the low absorption coeff:tcients in this spectral
region. The resulting ionization would be even less sharply distribut.ed in height
.. than a ChaJlll8I1 region.
4.4 CoIlparison With SID Results
The two features of the experimental results shown in Fig. 5 which
require explanation are the following ~
(1) The lack of correlation between the magnitudes of SWF and SSE;
(2) The mechanism which produces the SSE.
It vill now be shown that the fhst is explainable on the basis of Dlayer stncture
46
8Dd solar tlare radiation, but that an adequate explanation of the second is
not available on the basis of present knowledge.
4.401 ARJr1epce or Correlation Between Magnitudes of SWF and SSE
'l'he absence of 8J11 correlation between Sill and SSE in Fige ;
1s UDderstandable within the framework of the twolayer model discussed in
SeCo 40301. For example, if the fiue produces a burst of hard Irqs without
aD)" enhancement in Lymana radiation, then both the regions of the Dc and ~
layers will be intensifiedo The relative intensifications of these two regions
will depend on ~ spectral distribution of the Xradiation. There is no reason
to believe, at prfJsent, that all solar nares have the S8IM spectral distributim,
so that the rel&t1ve increases can be expected to change from flue to flare. The
increase in ht absorption leading to SWF is the sum ot the increases in the two
regions, while the vlf SSE would respond only to changes in the lower layer, ~ o
Consequently, this would result in the absence ot any clearcut statistical correla
tion between the vlf and hf effects ot flares 0
40402 Mecb'n',,' ASlogiat?d With S S ~
The observations reported in Sec0 :3 shoW' that SSE on vlf is one
of the pheoQaena accompanying SID produced by solar flareso It was also stated
that such enhanc.ents can be understood in a qualitative way as due to reduced
normalmode attenuation as a result of increased conductivity of the ionosphere,
acting as the upper wall of a waveguideo It will now be shoinl that this qualitative
explanP.1.tion cannot be substantiated on the basis of presently accepted ionization
proceu8s and present theoretical knowledge concerning vlf propagationo
For the ranges involved in the observatiCll8 reported here, the normalmode
theory of propagation is more advantageous than the ray theory, since only one DIOde
is effective. A Dumber of analytical treatments of this theory have appeared [4155],
47
)'
,1\
but DOne treats the problem. in a general way to definit:be
conclusions to be drawn pertinent t.o the present ,Analytical solutions
have been obtained only tor epecil!u distributions of density aDd colli...
:!
dOD floequency w1th height, aDd t'l1r special direotiODs ot I .. magnetic
1,\
field (ueua1ly taken to be verticlll). Becau.se ot the iDabil,;;i.'l t.o produce an
:(
analytical solutioD of wrficient i'IIuerality, eftorts have b'I,'lelA directed towards
obta1D1ng Dumerical solutions (56.6(») 0 This appl"oaoh 1s not. '. "ted tc.\ 3pecial
II
height distributions, but a very JLtu"ge number ot special C8S/;' needs to be worked
Ii
out in order to produce a suttic:i oatly extensive catalog £rc.wi\ wMch deductlQD8 ot
II
a general nature can be dravno A.IS yet, only a rather small of example8 has
I
been worked out, so that the rell1llt.1J floom which ODe must dra,./\ general
&. .... rather scant,. Nevertheless, these tend to show that» th1Dgs reuiDing
unchanged, the atteDuatioo decrNI3eCf sa the ionosphere boundeil!7 becClle8 sbarpero
Also, tor a OOIlataDt collision tr\8qllenay, the attenuation deC1:1eaaes as t.he height
ot the boundary decreases.
One of the idealizations wM,m reduces greatly the COIIlpleJ,rty or the calcula
tions ie that ot a sharply bolmdfd homogeneous 10n08phe1"Ga Ca:u\culatiCllIJ using
\\
II
such a model have been lIade, aJIOf,g o'thers, by Spies end Wait under the further
"
assumption that the approrll'lation ot ,Booker may be used.
The ionospherio p&r8Jllsters then (inter the analysis in an cODchlCtiv1ty w
r
given by
(6)
where <UN'
"':
Co\) _._.:::..........
,  Lv:!. .;o.wt;)1/t. i
v, (oiL are the pla.., collision, and longitudinal gyre \ S.D5"U1ar trequencies,
1\
I
respectively.
rigo 25 (from (53]) shows the attenuation of the first mode\ in db/1OOO km as a
II',
, :
\ i
t
It can be seen from these curves that a reduction of height from 75 to 60 lan, say,
wuld result in a reduction ot slightly more than 002 db/1000 kill for a frequency
ot 30 kc/10 For a 5J;;OO km path, the total reduction 11'1 attenuation would be about
102 db, it the height reductioD oocurred UD1tormlT over the whole path. This
atteouatioo deena.e is the reeult ot a deorease in the gru11'1g angle ot the tirst
mode to the iono8Phereo HoweYer, this decrease in is baaed on a
COIlstent ertective conduct!vit1. ""r' so that the collision frequency, y. i8 assumed
to l'elmn unchsnged0
The eleotron density distributions in the Dregion shown v.! Fig. 26. calculated
by Nicolet and Aiken [36]. &bow no appreoiable ohange 111 shape at a density ot
about 10
3
cm) between a quiet SUD aDd a strong fiareo CrJnaaquently. a solar en
hancement will cause. given ionization density to appear at a lower level, but
with sUbstaDti'.41ly the same gradiento Hence one might argue that it is reasoDe.ble
to suppose that. a decrease in 'Attenuation as a result of a decrease of 15 kIl in
renection height of the same order as that tor the sharply bounded
ionosphere would oCCm"o However, in virtue of the approximately exponential
in critical frequency with suoh a height decrease, the value of ""1'" the eftective
ionosphere conductivity, would be decreased 0 On the basis of Kane 9s (62] measU!'EIDent
of collision frequency, a 15 km height decrease would bring about. an increase in y of
a faoto1" of 100 Assl;fIling a value of lolL of about 5
0
10
6
as a representative value
for the transatlanM.c path in the me&iluremente with whioh we 8.l"e conoerned, then the
effective conduetivity would decrease by a factor of about 2030 Thus the qualitative
expectation of an enhanced ionospheric conductivity would not be realized. Instead,
an appreciable decrease in effective conductivity would resulto
The above conolusion, it must be emphasized, is, at most, semiquantitative,
since it is based on the behavior of an idealized sharply bolDlded ionosphere bavi,ng
49
"avetrage
lt
properties given by the Nicolet and Aiken reaults ~
In order to obtain an increased conductivity at the low'ered height8 due to
the CDset ot a nare, an increased gradient at these lower heights appears to be
requ1redo In other words, in adcU.tlon to increasmg the ionization densities at
all levels in the Dregion, it appears tIu,t the flare JllU8t increase the aharpae8s
ot the lower boundary. Thi8 would result. in a deerea8ed penetration ot the waves
r.tlected theref'rom, and hence, tor a sutticiEllltly aharp boundary, could outweigh
the effect of' the increased collieian treqU8DCT eDcountered at the lowered retlec
tion heighto Again, it must be eaphasized that this line ot arguaent is only
qualitative, and that an adequate quantitative theory is needed betore a tim COlD
elusion ce be reached 0
If we grant, f'or the t1Dle being, that an increased sharpness of' the lower
bO\1Ddary of'the Dlayer 1s required to explain the SSE produced by the flare, then
it is necessary to adduce the _chan1.s1l which produces this ef'recto As mentioned
above, the electron density di8tribu't·i,OIU!I ealculated by Nicolet and Aiken, which
are shown in Fig0 26, show no appreciable change in shape at the electron dena!ties
requil"ed.
50 CONCLUSIONS
Simultaneous observatioos of' shortwave fadeouts (SWF) of a l305Mc/s
signal and sudden signal enhancements (SSE) of' a 31ol5kc/s signal over substantially
the 88Dle transatlantic path of approximately 5400 len show no evident correlation
between the magnitudes of' the two effects of the SIDo This abseDce of correlation
is understandable on the basis of a twolayer Dregion" The lower layer is produced
by comc rays, while the upper layer is due to photoionization of nitric oxide by"
Lymano. radiationo Hard Xrays (in the range 110 A) emitted by a solar tlare
penetrate to the lov levels of the Dregion and ionize all constituents (primcipally
0. and Is) D The relative 1:Iltenaificaticms of the two Dregiona will dep8Dd on the
spectral distribution ot the XradiatiCM1. On the assumption that the spectral
distributiClll varieii tl'cla tla1'e to flare. the relative increases also can be expected
to vary hem tlare to f'lare. Since the increase in hf absorption i. ~ e .. ot
the increases in the two reg1ooa. vhile the vlf eDbanCell8Dt is occasioned OIlly
by the changes at the lower level, no correlation should reault betveeD the two
etfects.
On the o ~ e r baDd. Gil adequate explanatiQll ot the mechanism ot the vlf
eDbanCellellt ia not available on the buis of present lm01iladgeo Phase .aur..ts
ebow that a definite decreaae in height of the 101i8r boundary of the Dreg1oD is
caused by the fiare0 This reduced height causes reflection to take place at a
level ot higher collision frequency, which should result ill a decrease in the eftec
tive conductivity of the l&y'el" if the ionization gradient remains the same. Conse
qUfllt11, it appaars that an increase in the sharpless of the lover bomdSl"1 of the
Dregicm i8 required during the onset of a solar flare. The mechan1811l bY' which
this takes place needs to be determined.
51
BIBLICXiRAPBl
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52
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it
f
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over short distances
li
, Proco IoE.,Eo, Vo 102, Pto C, ppo 122133, 195'0
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(20] Ro No Bracewell, .J 0 Harwood, and To Wo Straker, 'YThe ionospheric propagation
of radio waves of frequency .306, kC/s over short distances
W
, Proc. I.EoEo,
Vo 101, pto IVo, ppo 154162, 1954.
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lV
, Nature, V0 177, pp. 930933, 1956.
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very long radio waves
Pl
, MoNoR.A.S., V. 109, pp. 2845, 1949.
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[29] To Obeyaahi, So Fujii, and Kidokoro, IlAn experlmental proof of the mode
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54
(31] Ro N. Bracewell, "Theory of formation of an ionospheric ls.yer bel\w E layer
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Terr. P ~ s . , Vo 2, pp. 226235, 19520
(32] R. H. Bracewell and W. C. Bain, "An explanation of radio propagation at
16 kC/••e in terII8 ot tvo layers below E layer", Jour0 Ataos. & Terro
P ~ s o , V. 2, pp. 216225, 1952.
(33] S. Bo Brown and W. Petrie, "The effect of sunrise on the refiection height
of low treqUeDC)? waves", Omo Jour. P ~ s . , Vo 32, pp. 9098, 19540
(34) wo Fo Moler, "VLF propagation effects of a l)..,region laler produced by cosmic
%'qSD, Jour. Geoph. Res., V. 65, ppo 1459l468, 1960.
[35] Ao Co A1keD, itA prel1ldnU'T study ot IIUIl1'1H effecta in tbe Dreg1on", Pam,
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Inat. Royo Meto Belgo, Boo 19, ppo 83244, 1945.
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lt
, po 199, Academic
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55
[43] J. P. Stanley, liThe absorPtion of long and verylong waves in" the ionosphere
u
,
Jour. Atmos. & Terr. Phy's., V. 4, pp. 6572, 1950.
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(52] J 0 Ro Wait and Ko Spies, "Influence of earth curvature and the terrestrial
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tt
, Jouro Geoph. Res .. , Vo 65, ppo 23252331,
1960..
(53] K. Po Spies and J .. R. Wait, IlMede calculations for VLF propagation in the
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1v
, NBS Tech.. Note No.. 114, U"S. Dept. of Como,
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(54] J" l1t. Wait. "A new approach to the mode tb.eor.r of VU propagation", Jour.
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(57] I. Gel Budden, "The numerical solution of differential equations governing
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iotiospbere is not sharply bounded", Mag., VO 4, pp. 10681081, 1959"
(60) D. Wo Barron, "The solution of differential equations governiDg
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V. 260, pp.. 393408:0 19610
(61J H. G. Booker, "The app1ioation of the magnetoionio theory to the iono6phere
ii
,
Froo. Royo Soc.. l' A, Vo 150, pp.. 267286, 1935"
[62] J .. Ao Kane, t9Arctic measurements of electron collision frequencies in the
DRegion of the Ionosphere
'v
, JOttro Geopbo Res., Vo 64, pp.. 133139, 19590
57
 . 1
I
I
GLH 13,530 kef
54.2
20.1939 1
0
.

.
en· ,
.
>
.,
J
I!
46.2
I

fl
•
• y
I
w •
II
>
.,'
Nl
,
38.2
1';I'lf
if
I'
«
..Q 30.3
c1
21.6
:
!
0
13..6 I
7.6 ,
1.6
4.4
SAME.S.t 9
10 II 12M
I PM
Fig. 1Record of GLH signal showing fade due to SID at 1510 U.T., March 20, 1939.
GLC  31.15 kc
March 20,1939
VI
~
Fig. 2 ~ R e c o r d of GLe signal showing enhancement due to SIn at 1510 U.T., March 20, 1939.
I·"
••• __ t_
: ..L
. .. _+.
."'
,_.
.. .. ,...
t .
".:.1. .:.
: .1.:." .::::
. _ ... ! t ;.; ..
.
• J._
l .__
.J '._.: :.. _I. .•..: . I .J. _ ., _ I :. l
, ..... "." ':. L .. l  .i_ ." .•".;"
I.. • ..... _ •• t I·· __to. •
. . ". l' '" ..... _.....
t > J I I . 'f" •
• , .• J. , .• L ...1 •.•
 ( • J • t .I •
. .'   '1
. .
i
a:: 1,rY"'t++11It++++++
L\J ._,_ ...
m
:E
::>
z 0 .... '
.J....
0::)1._..•
!e:! .+'!'. .•. L. ..
... 
:E
::>
z ='.+'''':':'':'
." t· .   ·_1 •• ,,_•.__• ...
NUMBER OF GlH FADES
AUG. 1936JUNE 1940.
. .. .... ..
•  1
...
_ L
• .0 _1
_. t ....
4 _.  I.  
 t..1  
os 06 07 08 09 10 II III 13 14 IS 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 01 02 03 04 OS
UNiVERSAL TIME
Fig. 3Histogram of GLH fades, and of coincidences
between GLH fades and GLe enhancements.
60
z 0
I
ENHANCEMENTS
l
0::10
! GLH
06 07 08 09 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
UNIVERSAL TIME
. ::t: 1 :ll+++I
_! I _ I
_ 1. _ _ 1._
l
+ 1. : r _I
;: f i=+ >t t
FADES
_1
l
22 23 24 01 02 03 04 05
Fig. 4Histograms of GLe enhancements and GLH fades of
intensity "moderate" or greater, during common
operating periods.
61
•
r · ~ r 12 4 6 8 10
DECIBELS INCREASE IN GLC SIGNAL
2
q:)
10
60
ci
z
~ 5 0
:::E:
..J
"
z
40
~
IJJ
a:::
(.)
~ 3 0
~
I.Ll
CD
(3
~ 2 0
0'
l\.l
Fig. 5Correlation plot of decrease in GLH signal vs. increase in GLe signal.
!
I
b Me/s
Ii
1
t C>O 'I 0
J:: eF<> ?o 0
tr 0 I v.L, I ,
'   . S F. Ie
. E Ie E. Ie 1
ECHO, TYPE  I , I
I I
tI 0 I 2 J .. !>
FL (THEORETICAL! FREOUENCY 
2
JULY 11TH rq!>O
Pic........tatt..r br .,,"on v, .... ,...._Cl7.
(OJ
" ...... 1..1 9.,.1aUon t. &8IlI be of er;. {4} •
x Observations made in 1948.
o Observatiolll made in 1949.
C)'\
\.t.)
i
.X>O
.... .::.
. " ..
..,.' ....
!
''
:;:
"'9
i
.
. .. : "
. .
JUL SEPT N\."JY JAN MAR MAl(
AUG OCT DEC FEe APR JUN
.' .
1206
"",,",S COMT
2400
pta. _i ....,.u. or !lorla..taLl,.,..: ,... '"
.t ..,. .u.; '8 J ......7 'uw'. 1" .
90
..00
•
• •
.Il
•
K
•
I
...
i
...
75
1
• Kill
na AN JUN AUG ocr Ctt
'lg•. 9.o1! Seasonal variation of the apparent height of at
"night (upper curve) and at local noon (lower curve).
x 0bIerftd0aa 1941.
o Oblenadoal ill .,..,.
'tc. lODlurual .arlat1on or cODyerl1on coott101..
'1. on 16 Ju1l. 1948.
o
I=":s...;;::.'
 
 ===:

.
1._

.
""
:J.T
I
\
'"
 1: '
.

.
.:.::
_.

1._
I .
•
E:;
\
I
"
[l.\'.
.
1
10
50 20
frequency. 'At/.
'S.. 121be variation of conversion coclflcient , 18 with
freqUCllC)' I«W different seasons.
() 0 0 Wimer ni.ht.
x )( x Winter noon.
••• SUlDmer nooa.
t t t Rcpraenll an ue.... r limit when mcuuremcn", arc c:oan.4 ." ....'
0·6,
...
......I:'K'
'1.. 11 The aeasonai variauon 01 .12 observed on a frequcaey of
16 b:/t for midniabt (upper curve) and midday (lower c:une).
••• a.obeonailoM .adelll 1941
000 made Ie I.,.,.
1600 55 5R06OO
.....

\16kcJ•
7
\ I
\\;\ 77
I J
. \4
=v
0'6
0'5
...
E0'4
8 0,]
0'2
·S
S
1200
Loc&1 lime. h
14'Ibc daily variatlOd or'lI in midsummer u oblCrvcd on
16 kc/. (upper CUfYC) and 70 b;Ia (lower cunoc).
Ple.
r:E
: 0·5..,..,...,
.5
0'3
g O·21f'o.,.+,k£
·S ol ......
I 0'
c:s 0600 SR 1200 55 1800
Loc&! lime.h
11 'Ibc daily variation of'lI in winler U observeli on 16 kc/s
(upper curve) and 70 kc/s (lower curve).
65
."
l!l
iii
0
II
I
11
1
0
0
;:
jaoo
r
..
..
1
a
1200
T IM[. HOURS
151)1111'11a1 Vll..1at.1oa or pbue or ,..nen*
011 10 ke/. at S40 ....
dtnotC:1 time's of sunnse .nd sunK!
____ 2nd 4UIU". 1')49.
• • • • 71h IQ49.
. • • .. 51h O<:I0""r. 1949.
••+
+
'"
a 75 'i:
! f
< 70'J......l..............
0000 0100. 0200 t.l300 OlGO 0500
G.M.T.
If> OIar.;a in apparent height of reflection, ncar aunrise.
over seven days in July. 1949.
. . . . At 71'14 kc/•.
++++ At .',37 1<.,/•.
• x,,"', At 113'13 ke/•.
The arrow incIicalClthc lim. 0( Iround IUn" a. th. midpoint 0( the pMh•
0'8
...
0'6 c
....
l.:
...
I
....
0'4
c
0
.;>
...
u
c
&! 0'2
OL_"_....._........"'.&.&=:
0000 0100 0200 0300 U400
G.M.T.
l'Variation of reftoction coeflkient with time near sunrise;
iveralCS of seven days' obIccvations durina July, 1949.
x " x x All rauUa.1 7l·t4tr.e/s.
, (.) At 71·IUe/a.
(b) At IS Ju:Ia.
(0) AtIl3·Hc/s.
'Ole &nOW indica... lIIe time 0( ......,.s ......1 UIe mid·poiat of the path.
coefficientl at
0'10
c:
.2
/
./....
I
r"I"!
/ ...
000
f"om aendtr, kll
17EAperimenlal determmatlon of reflection
various distances from the sender.
e ee AIlS kC/!. in "'"ller.
.•  T  I At 70 8J k.:{•• on ,ummer.
'l(  x  X 'kt./s. In ..
y Y __ • 4t 127$ ke/., in ,um_r.
Ii< AI70·U ke/.. in 'U""l'Cf.
66
a
:lie
z ...
.....
..
.. 0
c·
Q
I()
I()()C"
\LOWTAIL
• • I • I t _I • • I I •• _I
1Ol(C" 1OOkC"
P
0
1(. 19Varlllt.lch ot" .tt....)\...
wit.h
67
.'
00011 4.. I I
(b)
x::,·lCex1':c
h,)
.....
::::a+Jl.+
G_'.1.T.
GJ,I.T.
..
At 71'141u:1L
++++ At 85·37 kclL
).XX'" Atll33lu:1L
..
1200
I.e· •
A
.xx )[
..
.
.
+ •
I .: : : •
• + •
•
0 1 I ; I I
1200 1300
I 1 J I
0' 1300
2:1Change. 1n s1gnsl and ph..e
dletances bet.ween 85C and
950 lea frua the senden. dur1Dr a tj"piell1
sudden disturbance, 1.
1950.
20
:<
::
I
'" h1r
:;
oj
"'i 100
]
E
301l
2001
.:
...
;.
10
0
c::
1'0
0'2
15
})
S
9
...
.;
:;6
..
..c
..
c:
•
3
::l
0"
..
...
2 0
..
..
..
..
l
v
..
c::.
0'4 I)'f,
AA/A
2IThe rel.tolon between the chADS of aap11tude!'11'
obserwed on le kc/e aDd tha elae of the
phAse anoaaly dur1ng • Budden Ionospheric
disturb"","e... 1>. ..epresente t.he ....1a...
change In sapl! t ..de duril1l tbe SIL. 1
rapresents the .an aMplituda berore aDd
aftar t.be SID.
1'1,.
1700
(b)
..
..
.
.
.,
.
.
I
I
.....
o'
.•·•..·r·..._...:
.. .
.
 ••, w.
·. .
...
...........
1530
10()
II
0
·
...
.
·
to'
.
+
:::
.
.
.
..
2
.
.
. .....
.'
...
.:
...
.. .
m: 4 .;
'os
./
I
to
.•1:
'.'
6
if:
e
1530 !GOO 1630 1700
(i.M.T.
.;
tl 0·1
..
l': 0·01
.S:
::
j
1600 1630
G.M.T.
2OA betwHll the cheDC" or pIlue
ud _pH toude abaeneel durin« ••1XId..
10nospher1e dllll.urbuc. on 16 "C/IS :+:.
70 kC/s (.). aDd 11) kC/s (X:, on
7 OI:l.oW 190.8.
0'
00
1
,,, _

U.T
111. 2) Eclipee anomaly obtained by .ubtractinl mMn 01
control day. from ecUpee day.
0',._
5
10

.............
ne. 24 The diurnal height variationa of tho layel'll
DtII. and DfJ.
69
Ii
28
:.,: .\, :: : :::' ,: .. ' .... :, .. .' ',':; If;; 'j'i •
. , :,:. i'· I,. ,'<' • :::. t.:; :::t 1 t r' •
'I::' ::\, :::: ::: :1:: ,:' .::. , " :;:: :.. , :: ." :::: 1:::tJ:!! !iH t,I:I
J
t11 ,
5 0" I" ••• ", ••• , • •• •• •••• d., .... ;1, • I,.;::ttt if I,
::: ," ;: ,;;: ; ;: " : ::;: :: : :;:: :: , ': .::' ,: U: :::: j;n ; f:1jjj1 !if! :i
Il:: :::''':'1': iii! :;:' :.,: :1': ,::: .:: :::: :::' :::: flD i:
l
; :W
I
I!il!lilttlJ :f '
it; .. ··It ..•, ..... j •••• •••• •••.•• , •• , •••••••• ... i. ,.. ... i i •
z
o
::::>
z
lLl
I
E
o
o
o
"
..c
"0
Fig. 25Calculated attenuation vs. frequency for a
sharply bounded ionosphere of effective
conductivity wr =2Xl0
5
for various heights.
70
o REGION AND SOLAR ACTIVITY
5. Special .vent,
6 StrQn9 f1or••
I. Vwy quiet .....
Z Quilt 'lA'I
3 llllhtly dlllwbed
4 DiitUrbed ,un
df ))
I 2
l'
80
E
75
...

'"
0
;:)
70
~
5
c
ELECTRON CONCENTRATION ( c m ~ J )
'1,. 26Vartatlon Or electron concentration with
hel«ht tor various .olar cond1tloaa.
71
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