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# Tutorial 3

Problem 1: Oil Manager
A crude oil with a True Boiling Point (TBP) assay curve extending from 100F to 1410F is
to be characterized. Associated with this TBP assay are the following experimental data:
1. The bulk cut properties (molecular weight and API gravity)
2. A dependent molecular weight curve
3. An independent API gravity curve
4. Two independent viscosity curves at 100 and 210F, respectively.
5. A liquid volume light ends essay for the crude oil
It is desired to split the assay into 38 hypo components with 25F cuts between 100 and
800F, 50F cut between 800 and 1200F and the remaining portion of the crude oil assay
into two components. The crude oil at T=70F, P=1 atm with a flowrate of 100 lbmol/hr
enters a flash drum running at 700F. What would be the composition of the outlet streams
and the corresponding split ratio between two phases?
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TBP Distillation Assay
Molecular Weight
Temperature (F)
Liquid Volume (%)
68 80 0
119 255 10
150 349 20
182 430 30
225 527 40
282 635 50
350 751 60
456 915 70
585 1095 80
713 1277 90
838 1410 98
Bulk Crude Properties
MW 300
API Gravity 48.75
API Gravity Assay
Liq Vol ()
Distiilled
API Gravity
13 63.28
33 54.86
57 45.91
74 38.21
91 26.01
Light End Liquid Volume ()
Propane 0.0
i-Butane 0.19
n-Butane 0.11
i-Pentane 0.37
n-Pentane 0.46
Viscosity Assay
Liq Vol () Distiilled Visc. (c.p) 100 F Visc. (c.p) 210 F
10 0.20 0.10
30 0.75 0.30
50 4.20 0.80
70 39.00 7.50
90 600.00 122.30
Solution:
Follow the step-by-step instructions to solve the problem:
1- Open a new case.
2- Add a new component list.
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3- Select the Light Ends from the Components list and then close the active window by
clicking on cross button ().
4- The cross button is not seen on the figure and one could move the active window to see the
cross button in order to close it.
5- Select the Fluid Package (Make sure selecting Component List -1in the component list).
6- Add a new Fluid Package
`
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7- Select the Peng Robinson equation of state from the Property Package.
8- In the Tools/Variables tab, clone the Field unit set, then change the default unit for the
Mass Density to API and the Standard Density to API_60.
9- Close the Property Package by clicking on the cross button. After this, then go to the Oil
Manager tab and press Enter Oil Environment button.
10- In the Assay tab of Oil Characterization page, add a new assay by pressing the Add
button.
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11- Select Used from the drop down menu of bulk properties radio button in the Input Data
tab (the Assay Definition subsection).
12- Enter Molecular Weight and Standard Density.
13- Select TBP from the drop down radio button of the Assay Data Type option.
14- Select Distillation radio button. In the Assay Basis select the Liquid Volume.
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15- Press Edit Assay and enter appropriate data in the Assay Input Data. Then click OK to
16- Select Input Composition from the drop down menu of the Light Ends radio button.
17- Select the Light Ends radio button and enter the light ends composition.
18- Press the Calculate button then define the oil characteristic curves by selecting the
Molecular Weight as the Dependent variable.
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19- Select Molecular Weight radio button and enter the appropriate data. Then click OK to
20- Define the Density as the independent variable.
21- Select Density radio button, click Edit Assay and enter required data.
22- Define viscosity as independent variables.
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23- Select Use Both radio buttons to employ both viscosity curves.
24- Enter the viscosity data at lower temperature by selecting Viscosity 1 radio button and
pressing the Edit Assay button.
25- Enter viscosity data at higher temperature by selecting Viscosity 2 radio button and
pressing the Edit Assay button.
26- Press the Calculate button to calculate the assay and obtain curves/plots. Then close the
assay page.
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27- In the Cut/Blend tab of the Oil Characterization page add a new cut/blend by pressing the
28- From the Available Assays, select the desired assays and click the Add button to create
cut/blend with them.
29- Change the Cut Ranges to the User Range Option.
30- Enter the Starting Cut Point temperature equal to 100F.
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31- Enter the end point temperature data and the number of cuts in this range.
32- Click the Submit button to calculate the blend.
33- Check the Tables to view the component properties and then close this window.
34- Click Calculate All to calculate all from the Available Blends.
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35- Click on the Install oil button to the main flowsheet by defining the stream name (i.e.
Feed) in the Install Oil tab.
37- Look at the Components List View and the Available Hypo Groups section, the crude oil
is characterized by the light end key components and the hypo group with 38 independent
components.
38- Click on the Enter the simulation environment button and completely define Feed
stream.
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39- Double click on the Feed stream and enter its temperature, pressure and molar flowrate.
40- Put the flash drum unit into the flowsheet and select the Feed stream as inlet and define
its outlet and energy streams.
41- Enter 700 F in one of the outlet streams.
42- See outlet streams conditions in the Worksheet page of the flash drum.
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Problem 2: Multiple and Catalytic Reaction
The following typical reactions are encountered in the early stages of the production of
chemicals starting with a natural gas feed in PFR:
4 2 2
2 2 2
3 CH H O H CO
CO H O H CO
+ +
+ +
The first reaction (reforming) is heterogeneous which obeys the Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate
expression. The second reaction is a reversible reaction of water gas shift which obeys the
standard Kinetic rate expression. This reaction is especially important in ammonia synthesis
as both CO and CO
2
will poison the catalyst used to make ammonia from hydrogen and
nitrogen, and the CO is harder to remove than CO
2
. Use Peng Robinson equation of state.
Feed stream (9.8 CO, 30.7 H
2
O, 4 CO
2
, 30.5 H
2
, 10 CH
4
, 15 N
2
) enters the
adiabatic reactor at 350C, 30 atm and 2000 moles/s. Simulate this process and plot the axial
temperature profile.
E
1
K exp(- ) P y
RT 01 CH
4
r =
1
1+K P y
H
2
(
(

=
eq
H2 CO2
H2O CO
2
02 2
K
y y
y y )
RT
E
exp( K r
Variable Abbreviation Value Units
Bed Density
b
1200 kg/m
3
Pre-Exponential Rate Constant K
01
5.51710
3
kmol/(kg.s.atm)
Pre-Exponential Rate Constant K
02
4.9510
5
kmol/(kg.s)
Activation energy of reaction 1 E
1
1.84910
8
J/mol
Activation energy of reaction 2 E
2
1.16310
5
J/mol
Absorption Parameter K 4.053 atm
-1
Equilibrium Constant K
eq
e
-4.946+4897/T
---------
Gas Constant R 8.314 J/(mol.K)
Pressure P 30.0 atm
Reactor Volume V 40 m
3
Diameter D 2 m
Pressure Drop P 0 atm