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Optics
and
Optical design
2012

Problems

Sven-Gran Pettersson / Cord Arnold


2012-09-06 14:23

This material is taken from several sources. Some problems are from the book
Vglra och Optik by Gran Jnsson and Elisabeth Nilsson. Some are from
the book: Fundamental of Photonics, second edition by Bahaa Saleh and
Malvin Carl Teich. Another source is Exempelsamling i vglra by Lars
Engstrm. Examples and figures that are referenced to in the textbook
Fundamental of Photonics are labelled with FoP.

The exercise marked with * are the most relevant for the course. The other
exercises are meant as a repetition and/or as preparation for the laboratory
exercises.
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Chapter 1: Ray Optics

P1-1. Show that the distance p that a ray is displaced parallel to its initial direction when
transmitted through a plane parallel glass plate of thickness d, is given by

1 2
2
sin( )
cos
d
p
o o
o

=
where
1
o is the angle of incidence and
2
o is the angle of the transmitted ray. See the following
figure (figure 1-1).

Figure 1-1. A plane parallel plate does not change the direction of a light ray. However, the
ray is translated a distance p that is dependent on the thickness d of the plate.

P1-2. At the bottom of a 2.0 m deep swimming pool there are illuminating lamps. Due to total
reflection, the light from a single lamp can only be seen within a limited region. Calculate the
area of this region. Assume that the refractive index for water is 1.33.

* P1-3. The high index of refraction of diamonds is utilised to obtain repeated total reflections
which causes a beautiful scattering of the light. The most common type of diamond polishing
is called brilliant. In figure 1-2 the refraction and reflection of a red light ray is shown as it is
propagating through a diamond. The refractive index for diamond and red light is 2.407.
a) Show that the ray is totally reflected at the point P
b) Calculate the angle of incidence at the upper surface of the diamond.



Figure 1-2. Total reflection in a diamond.



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* P1-7. Proof of the Snells Law. The proof of Snells law is an exercise in the application of
Fermats principle. Referring to figure 1-4, we seek to minimize the optical path length
1 2
n AB n BC + between points A and C. We therefore have the following optimization
problem: Minimize
1 1 1 2 2 2
sec sec n d n d u u + with respect to the angles
1
u and
2
, u subject to the
condition
1 1 2 2
tan tan . d d d u u + = Show that the solution of this constrained minimization
problem yields Snells law.


Figure 1-4. Construction to prove Snells law.
* P1-8. Lens in Water. Determine the focal length f of a biconvex lens with radii 20 cm and 30
cm and refractive index n = 1. 5. What is the focal length when the lens is immersed in water
(n = 1.33)?

* P1-9. In an otoscope (medical instrument for the examination of the ear), the imaging is
schematically performed with a cylindrical glass rod of the type shown in figure 1-5. The rod
has a refractive index of 1.49 and the end surfaces have the radii of curvature
1
R = 15 mm
and
2
R = 35 mm.
a) Calculate the final image of an object placed 10.0 mm to the left of the surface to the
left.
b) Is the image virtual or real?


Figur 1-5. A simplified drawing of an otoscope.

* P1-12. An object is placed 10 cm to the left of a lens
1
L mounted on an optical bench. The
lens has the focal length + 7.5 cm. Slightly to the right of the lens
1
L , another lens
2
L , is
placed. This lens creates a final image 10 cm to the right of
2
L . This image is 6.0 times larger
than the object and upside down.
a) Determine the distance between the lenses
1
L and
2
L .
b) What is the focal length of the second lens
2
L ?


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* P1-18. Numerical Aperture and Angle of Acceptance of an Optical Fiber. An optical fiber
is illuminated by light from a source (e.g., a light-emitting diode, LED). The refractive indices
of the core and cladding of the fiber are
1
n and
2
, n respectively, and the refractive index of
air is 1 (figure 1-9). Show that the angle
a
u of the cone of rays accepted by the


Figure 1-9. Acceptance angle of an optical fiber.

fiber (transmitted through the fiber without undergoing refraction at the cladding) is given by

2 2 1/ 2
1 2
NA sin ( )
a
n n u = = (FoP1.2-15)
The parameter NA sin
a
u = is known as the numerical aperture of the fiber. Calculate the
numerical aperture and acceptance angle for a silica glass fiber with
1
n = 1.475 and
2
n =
1.460.

P1-19. Numerical aperture of a Claddless Fiber Determine the numerical aperture and the
acceptance angle of an optical fiber if the refractive index of the core is
1
n = 1.46 and the
cladding is stripped out (replaced with air
2
1). n ~

* P1-20. Fiber Coupling Spheres. Tiny glass balls are often used as lenses to couple light into
and out of optical fibers. The fiber end is located at a distance f from the sphere. For a sphere
of radius a = 1 mm and refractive index n = 1.8, determine f such that a ray parallel to the
optical axis at a distance y = 0.7 mm is focused onto the fiber, as illustrated in figure 1-10.


Figure 1-10. Focusing light into an optical fiber with a spherical glass ball.

* P1-21. The Grin Slab as a Lens. Show that a SELFOC slab (see figure 1-11) of length
/ 2 d t o < and refractive index given by
2 2 2 2
0
( ) (1 ) n y n y o = acts as a cylindrical lens (a lens
with focusing power in the y-z plane) of focal length

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) sin(
1
0
d n
f
o o
~
(FoP1.3-13)
Show that the principal point (defined in the figure) lies at a distance from the slab edge
0
(1/ ) tan( / 2). AH n d o o = Sketch the ray trajectories in the special cases / d t o = and / 2 t o .

Figure 1-11. The SELFOC slab used as a lens; F is the focal point and H is the principal
point.

* P1-22. For a gradient-index lens, with a diameter of 2.0 mm, the refractive index on the axis is
1.608 and at the edge 1.534. Calculate its numerical aperture and period. What length is
needed in order to image the surface of the first end on the other end? Note that for a gradient-
index lens the profile can be approximated with
2 2
0
1
( ) (1 )
2
n y n y o ~ .
* P1-23. Numerical Aperture of the Graded-Index Fiber. Consider a graded-index fiber with
the index profile given by ( ) | |
2 2 2 2
0
2
1 y x n n + = o and a radius a. A ray is incident from air
into the fiber at its center, which then makes an angle
0
u with the fiber axis in the medium
(see FoP Figure 1.3-8). Show, in the paraxial approximation, that the numerical aperture is


0
sin
a
NA n a u o ~ (FoP 1.3-16)
where
a
u is the maximum acceptance angle for which the ray trajectory is confined within the
fiber. Compare this to the numerical aperture of a step-index fiber such as the one discussed in
FoP Ex1.2-5. To make the comparison fair, take the refractive indices of the core and
cladding of the step-index fiber to be
1 0
n n = and
2 2 2 2
2 0 0
1
1 (1 ),
2
n n a n a o o = ~
respectively.

* P1-24. A Set of Parallel Transparent Plates. Consider a set of N parallel planar transparent
plates of refractive indices
1 2
, ,.....,
N
n n n and thicknesses
1 2
, ,......,
N
d d d placed in air (n = 1)
normal to the z axis. Show that the ray-transfer matrix is


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Note that the order of placing the plates does not affect the overall ray-transfer matrix. What
is the ray-transfer matrix of an inhomogeneous transparent plate of thickness
0
d and
refractive index n(z)?

* P1-25. A Gap Followed by a Thin Lens. Show that the ray-transfer matrix of a distance d of
free space followed by a lens of focal length f is



* P1-26. Imaging with a Thin Lens. Derive an expression for the ray-tranfer matrix of a
system comprised of free space/thin lens/free space, as shown in Figure 1-12. Show that if the
imaging condition
1 2
(1/ 1/ 1/ ) d d f + = is satisfied, all rays originating from a single point in
the input plane reach the output plane at the single point
2
y , regardless of their angles. Also
show that if
2
, d f = all parallel incident rays are focused by the lens onto a single point in the
output plane.


Figure 1-12. Single lens imaging system.

* P1-27. A Periodic Set of Pairs of Different Lenses. Examine the trajectories of paraxial rays
through a periodic system comprising a sequence of lens pairs with alternating focal lengths
1
f and
2
, f as shown in Figure 1-13. Show that the ray trajectory is bounded (stable) if

1 2
0 (1 )(1 ) 1
2 2
d d
f f
s s (FoP 1.4-35)



Figure 1-13. A periodic set of lenses

* P1-28. The ray transfer matrix for a curved boundary with curvature R and refractive index n
1

before the surface and refractive index n
2
after the surface is given by:
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1
0 1
2
1 2
R n
n n
D C
B A
M

= =
a) Calculate the ABCD matrix of a thin spherical lens, made up of two closely spaced
dielectric interfaces, of radii R
1
and R
2
enclosing a material of refractive index n
2
. The
lens is immersed in a medium of refractive index n
1
.
b) From the ABCD matrix it is easy to find the focal length f of the lens. Give an
expression for f.

* P1-30. Ray-Transfer Matrix of a GRIN Plate. Determine the ray-transfer matrix of a
SELFOC plate [i.e. a graded-index material with parabolic refractive index
2 2
0
1
( ) (1 )
2
n y n y o ~ ] of thickness d.


















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Answers to the problems:

P1-2: 16
2
m
P1-3: b) 20
P1-4: 4.8 u <
P1-6:
b = -2.0 cm, 3.0 cm
b
y =
F

P1-8: f = 24 cm in air and f = 94 cm if immersed in water.
P1-9: a) 181 mm to the left of the first surface b) virtual
P1-10: f = 4 cm
P1-11: f = -10 cm,
2
R = 5 cm, y(final image) ~ -2.6 cm, upside down
P1-12 : a) 25 cm b) -10 cm
P1-13 : a) 27 cm b) 80 cm to the right of the lens. The image is upside down and enlarged 2x.
P1-14 : 750 m
P1-15 : a) -33 b) 80 cm x 1.2 m
P1-16 :

+2,5 cm
-2,5 cm
+1,5 cm
-1,5 cm
Focal plane

P1-17 : 15 cm
P1-18 : NA = 0.21,
a
u = 12
P1-19 : NA = 1
P1-20 : 0.03 mm
P1-21 : See FoP Figure 1.3-5
P1-22 : NA = 0.49, period = 20,7 mm, length = 10,4 mm
P1-23 . Graded-index fiber: NA = 0.2104, Step-index fiber: NA = 0.2098
P1-24:
0
0
1
( )
0 1
d
dz
n z M
(
(
=
(
(

}



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P1-26:
2 1
1 2
1
1 (1 )
1
1
d d
d d
f f
M
d
f f
(
+
(
( =
(

(


P1-28: a)
2 1
2 2 1
1 0
1 1
1
A B
M
n n
C D
n R R
= = | |

|
\ .
b)
1 2
2 1 2
1 1 1 n n
f n R R
| |
=
|
\ .

For a lens with n
1
=n and n
2
=1we have ( )
1 2
1 1 1
1 n
f R R
| |
=
|
\ .
(FoP 1.2-12)
P1-29:
1 2
1 2 ' '
1 2
;
r r
R R
r r
= =




P1-30:
sin
cos
sin cos
d
d
M
d d
o
o
o
o o o
(
(
=
(