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A Seminar on

Geosynthetic Materials And Their Applications In Transportation Engineering


Presented by Shakti Dubey M.tech. 1st sem Sch.no.122111502

Department of Civil Engineering

Maulana Azad Institute of Technology Bhopal- 462051

Content
What is geosynthetic Polymers used in geosynthetics Various functions of geosynthetics Classification of geosyntheics Area of applications Geosynthetics Standards Conclusion

What is geosynthetics

geosynthetics are human made materials used in civil engineering to enhance, augment and make possible cost transportational and geotechnical construction projects. These are planner or three dimensional products typically made from petrochemical based polymers (plastics) these are biologically inert. and most of them are also chemically inert.

Polymers used in geosynthetics


Chemically linked large molecules of carbon atoms with hydrogen or other atoms attached Polypropylene Polyethylene Polyester Polyamide Polystyrene Poly Vinyl Chloride
PP/Polyester /PE Geosynthetics Most widely used across the Globe (more than 95 percent)

Functions of geosynthetics
Reinforcement Separation Drainage Filtration Containment Fluid barrier Protection Frictional inter layer

Reinforcement

1.Lateral restraint

2.Modified failure surface

3.Tentioned membrane

Separation

Drainage

Filtration

Containment

Types of geosythetics
1. Geotextiles 2. Geogrids 3. Geonets 4.Geomembranes 5. Geosynthetic clay liners 6.Geocells/geo web members 7. Geofoam 8.Geocomposites

Geotextiles
Woven Geotextile Nonwoven Geotextile

Geogrids
Uniaxle Geogrid Biaxial Geogrid

Geonet
Biplanar geonet

Geomembrane

Triplanar geonet

Geocells

Geofoam

Geoclay liners

Geocomposite

FUNCTION OF GEOSYNTHETIC MATERIALS: A Comparative Review.


Types Of Geosynthetics Separation Reinforcement Filteration Drainage Containment

Geotextile
Geogrid Geonet Geomembrane

YES

YES
YES

YES

YES

YES YES

GCL
Geofoam Geocomposites YES YES YES YES YES

YES

YES

Applications In Transportation Engineering


Roads: Reinforcement, stabilization, separation, drainage, filtration and sealing are all roles for geosynthetics in road construction. Asphalt Reinforcement: Asphalt is the proven material for road construction, airport runways, take-off and landing strips. Damage caused by temperature fluctuations and vehicle loadings, for example reflection cracking, can also occur in new asphalt layers. Asphalt has a low tensile strength which can be exceeded even at quite small strains, leading to the formation of cracks. Railways: Geosynthetics are finding a broad range of uses in railway construction. Well thought out concepts and designs provide permanent answers to technically demanding construction. Airport: The high safety requirements of the air transport industry places great demands on men, materials and technology. The heavy loads on airport runways, take-off and landing strips require safe and landing strips require safe and reliable technical solutions. Geosynthetics contribute in many different ways to the safety of air travel.

Geo-synthetics Standards
ASTM Standards ISO standards (ISO/TC221) Indian standards (BIS) AASHTO standards FHWA standards NORDIC guidelines British Standards International Geosynthetic Society standards (IGS) Geosynthetic Research Institute (GRI) Geosynthetic Materials Association (GMA) US Provinvcial standards Industrial Fabrics Association International (IFAI) Geo-synthetica International Erosion Control Association (IECA) European Center For Standardization (CEN)

Conclusion
Extensive awareness should be created among the civil engineers about the application of geosynthetics. Geosynthetics are effective tools in the hands of the civil engineer that have proved to solve a myriad of geotechnical problems. To explore the potential of geosynthetics more researches are needed in this field.

References
Handbook of Geosynthetics Geosynthetic Materials Association(GMA) January 2002 website: www.gmanow.com VICTOR C, LI,(18 Nov 2000)Large Volume, High-Performance Applications of Fibers in CivilEngineering, accepted 18 November 2000 Published online. Agrawal,Bipin J GEOTEXTILE: ITS APPLICATION TO CIVIL ENGINEEERING. Lance Brown(May 2006)GEOSYNTHETIC MATERIALS What Are They? How Are They Used?. Website: www.geofabrics.com . Erickson,Hans and Drescher,Andrew (Jan2001) The Use of Geosynthetics toReinforce Low Volume Roads.

Thank you