Magic: The Gathering Comprehensive Rules

These rules are current as of May 1, 2009. Introduction This document is designed for people who’ve moved beyond the basics of the Magic: The Gathering® game. If you’re a beginning Magic™ player, you’ll probably find these rules intimidating. They’re intended to be the ultimate authority for the game, and you won’t usually need to refer to them except in specific cases or during competitive games. For casual play and most ordinary situations, you’ll find what you need in the Magic: The Gathering basic rulebook. You can download a copy of that rulebook from the Wizards of the Coast® Magic rules website at www.wizards.com/Magic/rules. If you’re sure this is where you want to be, keep reading. This document includes a series of numbered rules followed by a glossary. Many of the numbered rules are divided into subrules, and each separate rule and subrule of the game has its own number. The glossary defines many of the words and phrases used in these rules, along with a few concepts that don’t really fit anywhere among the numbered rules. So if you can’t find what you’re looking for, check the glossary. We at Wizards of the Coast recognize that no matter how detailed the rules, situations will arise in which the interaction of specific cards requires a precise answer. If you have questions, you can get the answers from us at www.wizards.com/customerservice. Additional contact information is on the last page of these rules.

In response to play issues and to keep these rules as current as possible, changes may have been made to this document since its publication. See the Wizards of the Coast website for the current version of the official rules. www.wizards.com/Magic/rules

Contents
1. The Game 100. General 101. Starting the Game 102. Winning and Losing 103. The Magic Golden Rules 104. Numbers and Symbols 2. Parts of the Game 200. General 201. Characteristics 202. Name 203. Mana Cost and Color 204. Illustration 205. Type Line 206. Expansion Symbol 207. Text Box 208. Power/Toughness 209. Loyalty 210. Information Below the Text Box 212. Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype 213. Spells 214. Permanents 215. Life 216. Tokens 217. Zones 3. Turn Structure 300. General 301. Beginning Phase 302. Untap Step 303. Upkeep Step 304. Draw Step 305. Main Phase 306. Combat Phase 307. Beginning of Combat Step 308. Declare Attackers Step 309. Declare Blockers Step 310. Combat Damage Step 311. End of Combat Step 312. End Phase 313. End of Turn Step 314. Cleanup Step 4. Spells, Abilities, and Effects 400. General 401. Spells on the Stack 402. Abilities 403. Activated Abilities 404. Triggered Abilities 405. Static Abilities 406. Mana Abilities 407. Linked Abilities 408. Timing of Spells and Abilities

409. 410. 411. 412. 413. 414. 415. 416. 417. 418. 419. 420. 421. 422. 423. 424.

Playing Spells and Activated Abilities Handling Triggered Abilities Playing Mana Abilities Handling Static Abilities Resolving Spells and Abilities Countering Spells and Abilities Targeted Spells and Abilities Effects One-Shot Effects Continuous Effects Replacement and Prevention Effects State-Based Effects Handling “Infinite” Loops Handling Illegal Actions Drawing a Card Costs

5. Additional Rules 500. Legal Attacks and Blocks 501. Keyword Actions 502. Keyword Abilities 503. Copying Objects 504. Face-Down Spells and Permanents 505. Split Cards 506. Subgames 507. Controlling Another Player’s Turn 508. Flip Cards 509. Ending the Turn 510. Status 511. Flipping a Coin 6. Multiplayer Rules 600. General 601. Limited Range of Influence Option 602. Attack Multiple Players Option 603. Deploy Creatures Option 604. Attack Left and Attack Right Options 605. Free-for-All Variant 606. Two-Headed Giant Variant 607. Emperor Variant 608. Grand Melee Variant 609. Teams Variant Glossary Credits Questions?

A constructed deck can have any number of basic land cards and no more than four of any card with a particular English name other than basic land cards.1. A player who is dissatisfied with his or her initial hand may mulligan. 100. First. 101. 100. small items to represent any tokens and counters. Each player still needs small items to represent any tokens and counters. 100. each player shuffles his or her deck so that the cards are in a random order. In constructed play. 100. only forty cards are required in a deck. In a match of several games.2. He or she may repeat this process as many times as desired. including two-player games and multiplayer games.com/Magic/TCG/Events. 100. See the most current Magic: The Gathering DCI® Floor Rules for more information. At the start of a game. These Magic rules apply to any Magic game with two or more players.” 100. each player needs his or her own deck of at least sixty cards. The players’ decks become their libraries. drawing one fewer . Each player may then shuffle his or her opponents’ decks.1b A multiplayer game is a game that begins with more than two players. “Multiplayer Rules. See section 6. rolling dice.2. To take a mulligan. that player shuffles his or her hand back into the deck and then draws a new hand of six cards. There is no maximum deck size.3a In a Two-Headed Giant game.4.aspx? x=dci/doccenter/home. the loser of the previous game decides who will take the first turn. etc. and some way to clearly track life totals. Most Magic tournaments have special rules (not included here) and may limit the use of some cards.5. Starting the Game 101.1. and a player may use as many duplicates of a card as he or she has.wizards. The Game 100. 101. They can be found at http://www. each team starts with a shared life total of 30 instead. 101.1a A two-player game is a game that begins with only two players. After the decks have been shuffled.1.).3. General 100.3. the players determine who chooses which player goes first using any mutually agreeable method (flipping a coin. 101. and some way to clearly track life totals. 101. the starting player takes any mulligans. Once the starting player has been determined. For sealed deck or draft play.4. including barring all cards from some older sets. If the previous game was a draw. each player sets his or her life total to 20 and draws a hand of seven cards. the person who determined who would take the first turn in the previous game decides.

102. he or she draws a new hand of seven cards. but he decides to keep it. 101. no player skips the draw step of his or her first turn. 102. Then each other player (in turn order) may take any number of mulligans. 101.2. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal. “Draw Step”) of his or her first turn.card each time. 101. First. the team who plays first skips the draw step of their first turn. he or she may put any or all of them into play. until the hand size reaches zero cards. then all players who chose to do so take their mulligans at the same time. A player can’t take any mulligans once he or she has decided to keep an opening hand. Then only Clare has the option to mulligan. with some modifications.1. She decides to keep her hand of six cards and that becomes her opening hand.6a In a two-player game. Bob’s hand becomes his opening hand. Once each player on the starting team decides to keep an opening hand. in turn order. the team repeats the process. In all other multiplayer games. Example: Bob and Clare are the starting team in a Two-Headed Giant game. 101. 101. the first time a player takes a mulligan. those cards become his or her opening hand.) Once a player has decided to keep a hand. 101. That player can’t take any more mulligans. Once all players have kept their opening hands. The starting player takes his or her first turn.6. he or she draws a new hand of seven cards rather than six cards. but his or her teammate may. the other team may take mulligans. Then each other player. There are several ways to win the game. They each draw seven cards. Clare decides to take another mulligan. if any cards in the starting player’s hand allow that player to begin the game with those cards in play. the other team decides whether to take mulligans. may do the same. 102. each player on that team decides whether or not to take a mulligan. (Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal. For a team to take a mulligan. Winning and Losing 102. Once the starting player has decided to keep a hand.2a A player still in the game wins the game if all of that player’s opponents have lost the game.6b In a Two-Headed Giant game. A game ends immediately when either a player wins or the game is a draw.4a In a multiplayer game. . Each shuffles his or her hand into his or her deck and draws seven cards. Clare isn’t sure about Bob’s new hand. those cards become his or her opening hand. the starting team takes any mulligans. After reviewing each other’s hands. After each player on that team who took a mulligan looks at his or her new hand. After that. the player who plays first skips the draw step (see rule 304.5.4b The Two-Headed Giant variant uses the multiplayer mulligan rule. The first time a player takes a mulligan. and Clare shuffles her hand into her deck and draws six cards. both Bob and Clare decide to mulligan.

(This is a state-based effect.5. the game is a draw. the game is a draw. he or she loses the game. (In certain multiplayer games.) 102. 102. See rule 420.3.4c In a multiplayer game between teams. 103. 102. There are several ways to lose the game.” repeating a sequence of events with no way to stop. 102. There are several ways to draw the game. the card takes precedence. See rule 420.102.1. 102. if a player leaves the game.4.3a A player can concede the game at any time. Each player on the winning team wins the game. If a player loses the game. a team with at least one player still in the game wins the game if all other teams have lost the game. this may not cause the game to end. 102. he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority.3f In a multiplayer game between teams. he or she leaves the game. 102.3b If a player’s life total is 0 or less. he or she draws the remaining cards.) 102. an effect that states that a player wins the game instead causes all of that player’s opponents within his or her range of influence to lose the game. The multiplayer rules handle what happens when a player leaves the game. even if one or more of those players had previously lost that game.3g In a multiplayer game using the limited range of influence option.3c When a player is required to draw more cards than are left in his or her library.) 102. the game is a draw if all remaining teams lose at once. Loops that contain an optional action don’t result in a draw.) 102.2b An effect may state that a player wins the game. The card overrides only the rule that applies to that specific situation.4b If the game somehow enters a “loop. a team loses the game if all players on that team have lost.3d If a player has ten or more poison counters. 102. See rule 420. he or she loses. see rule 600. (This is a state-based effect. The Magic Golden Rules 103. (This is a state-based effect.2c In a multiplayer game between teams. 102. and then loses the game the next time a player would receive priority.3g. 102.4. A player who concedes leaves the game immediately.3e If a player would both win and lose simultaneously. see rule 102. 102. He or she loses the game. The only exception is that a player can concede the game at any time . Whenever a card’s text directly contradicts these rules. he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. Likewise.4a If all the players remaining in a game lose simultaneously.

(see rule 102.3a). 103.2. When a rule or effect says something can happen and another effect says it can’t, the “can’t” effect wins. For example, if one effect reads “You may play an additional land this turn” and another reads “You can’t play land cards this turn,” the effect that keeps you from playing lands wins out. Note that adding abilities to objects and removing abilities from objects don’t fall under this rule; see rule 402.9. 103.3. If an instruction requires taking an impossible action, it’s ignored. (In many cases the card will specify consequences for this; if it doesn’t, there’s no effect.) 103.4. If multiple players would make choices and/or take actions at the same time, the active player (the player whose turn it is) makes any choices required, then the next player in turn order (usually the player seated to the active player’s left) makes any choices required, followed by the remaining nonactive players in turn order. Then the actions happen simultaneously. This rule is often referred to as the “Active Player, Nonactive Player (APNAP) order” rule. Example: A card reads “Each player sacrifices a creature.” First, the active player chooses a creature he or she controls. Then each of the nonactive players chooses a creature he or she controls. Then all creatures are sacrificed simultaneously. 103.4a If an effect has each player choose a card in a hidden zone, such as his or her hand or library, those cards may remain face down as they’re chosen. However, each player must clearly indicate which face-down card he or she is choosing. 103.4b A player knows the choices made by the previous players when he or she makes his or her choice, except as specified in 103.4a. 103.4c If a player would make more than one choice at the same time, the player makes the choices in the order written, or in the order he or she chooses if the choices aren’t ordered. 104. Numbers and Symbols 104.1. The Magic game uses only integers. 104.1a You can’t choose a fractional number, deal fractional damage, gain fractional life, and so on. If a spell or ability could generate a fractional number, the spell or ability will tell you whether to round up or down. 104.1b Most of the time, the Magic game uses only positive numbers. You can’t choose a negative number, deal negative damage, gain negative life, and so on. However, it’s possible for a game value, such as a creature’s power, to be less than zero. If a calculation or comparison that would determine the result of an effect needs to use a negative value, it does so. If such a calculation yields a negative number, zero is used instead, unless that effect sets a player’s life total to a specific value, sets a creature’s power or toughness to a specific value, or otherwise modifies a creature’s power or toughness. Example: If a 3/4 creature gets -5/-0, it’s a -2/4 creature. It assigns 0

damage in combat. Its total power and toughness is 2. You’d have to give it +3/+0 to raise its power to 1. Example: Viridian Joiner is a 1/2 creature that says “{T}: Add an amount of {G} to your mana pool equal to Viridian Joiner’s power.” An effect gives it -2/-0, then its ability is activated. The ability adds no mana to your mana pool. 104.2. If anything needs to use a number that can’t be determined, either as a result or in a calculation, it uses 0 instead. 104.3. The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, and {X}; the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on; the hybrid symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}; the monocolored hybrid symbols {2/W}, {2/U}, {2/B}, {2/R}, and {2/G}; and the snow symbol {S}. 104.3a Each of the colored mana symbols represents one colored mana: {W} is white, {U} blue, {B} black, {R} red, and {G} green. 104.3b Numeral symbols (such as {1}) are generic mana costs and represent an amount of mana that can be paid with any color of, or colorless, mana. 104.3c The symbol {X} represents an unspecified amount of mana. When playing a spell or activated ability with {X} in its cost, its controller decides the value of that variable. 104.3d Numeral symbols (such as {1}) and variable symbols (such as {X}) can also represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or ability that reads “add [mana symbol] to your mana pool” or something similar. 104.3e The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder when a spell or activated ability costs nothing to play. A spell or ability whose cost is {0} must still be played the same way as one with a cost greater than zero; it won’t play itself automatically. 104.3f Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid in one of two ways, as represented by the two halves of the hybrid mana symbol. A hybrid symbol such as {W/U} be paid with either white or blue mana, and a monocolored hybrid symbol such as {2/B} can be paid with either one black mana or two mana of any color of, or colorless, mana. A hybrid mana symbol is all of its component colors. Example: {G/W}{G/W} can be paid by spending {G}{G}, {G}{W}, or {W}{W}. 104.3g If an effect would add mana represented by a hybrid mana symbol to a player’s mana pool, that player chooses one half of that symbol. If a colored half is chosen, one mana of that color is added to that player’s mana pool. If a colorless half is chosen, an amount of colorless mana represented by that half’s number is added to that player’s mana pool. 104.3h If a cost would be reduced by an amount of mana represented by a hybrid mana symbol, the player paying that cost chooses one half of that symbol at the time the cost reduction is applied (see rule 409.1f). If a colored half is chosen, the cost is reduced by one mana of that color (or, if the cost can’t be reduced by one mana of that color, the cost is reduced by

one generic mana). If a colorless half is chosen, the cost is reduced by an amount of generic mana equal to that half’s number. 104.3i The snow mana symbol {S} represents a cost that can be paid with one mana produced by a snow permanent. This is a generic mana cost that can be paid with any color of, or colorless, mana. Effects that reduce the amount of generic mana you pay don’t affect {S} costs. 104.4. The tap symbol is {T}. The tap symbol in an activation cost means “Tap this permanent.” A permanent that’s already tapped can’t be tapped again to pay the cost. Creatures that haven’t been under a player’s control continuously since the beginning of his or her most recent turn can’t use any ability with the tap symbol in the cost. See rule 212.3f. 104.5. The untap symbol is {Q}. The untap symbol in an activation cost means “Untap this permanent.” A permanent that’s already untapped can’t be untapped again to pay the cost. Creatures that haven’t been under a player’s control continuously since the beginning of his or her most recent turn can’t use any ability with the untap symbol in the cost. See rule 212.3f. 104.6. A tombstone icon appears to the left of the name of many Odyssey™ block cards with abilities that are relevant in a player’s graveyard. The purpose of the icon is to make those cards stand out when they’re in a graveyard. This icon has no effect on game play. 104.7. A type icon appears in the upper left corner of each card from the Future Sight® set printed with an alternate “timeshifted” frame. If the card has a single card type, this icon indicates what it is: claw marks for creature, a flame for sorcery, a lightning bolt for instant, a sunrise for enchantment, a chalice for artifact, and a pair of mountain peaks for land. If the card has multiple card types, that’s indicated by a black and white cross. This icon has no effect on game play. 104.8. Each activated ability of a planeswalker has an arrow-shaped loyalty symbol in its cost. Positive loyalty symbols point upward and feature a plus sign followed by a number or an X. Negative loyalty symbols point downward and feature a minus sign followed by a number or an X. [+N] means “Put N loyalty counters on this permanent,” and [-N] means “Remove N loyalty counters from this permanent.”

200. An object is an ability on the stack. A token’s controller is the player who put it into play. A card’s Oracle text can be found using the Gatherer card database at http://gatherer. “Permanents. A permanent is a card or token that’s in play. An ability can be one of two things. 200.com. 200. When a rule or text on a card refers to a “card. a spell.”) 200.”) 200.”) 200.2. Tokens aren’t considered cards—even a card that represents a token isn’t considered a card for rules purposes. The controller of a triggered ability is the player who controlled the ability’s source when it triggered. or a permanent. “Spells. (See rule 213.wizards.5a A spell’s owner is the same as the owner of the card that represents it. (See rule 214. First. or copy of a spell or card. 200.1. A token is a marker used to represent any permanent that isn’t represented by a card. A player is one of the people in the game. A spell is a card.6.3a In a multiplayer game between teams. “Tokens. A permanent’s controller is the player who put it into play. for cards that didn’t start the game in a player’s deck. 200. the player who brought the card into the game. “Spells. (See rule 402.4. and Effects. The term “object” is used in these rules when a rule . it can be an activated or triggered ability on the stack. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. it can be text on an object that explains what the object does. A spell’s controller is the player who played it. The active player is the player whose turn it is.2. a token.”) 200. Parts of the Game 200.4a A token’s owner is the player who controlled the spell or ability that put it into play. Abilities. 200.” and section 4. The other players are nonactive players. a card. General 200. a copy of a card.7a The controller of an activated ability is the player who played the ability. and the player’s opponents are all players not on his or her team.7.3. “Abilities.8. 200. that’s on the stack. Second. The owner of a copy of a spell is the controller of the effect that created it. Use the Oracle™ card reference when determining a card’s wording. (See rule 216. 200.” it means a Magic card with a Magic card front and the Magic card back. a player’s teammates are the other players on his or her team.6a A nontoken permanent’s owner is the same as the owner of the card that represents it.1a A card’s owner is the player who started the game with it in his or her deck or. 200.5. unless it’s a delayed triggered ability.

it means putting a counter on that permanent while it’s in play.applies to abilities on the stack. 200. spells. either modifying its characteristics or interacting with an ability. card type. illustration. Similarly.” or “source. subtype. mana cost. -X/-Y counters subtract from power and toughness. adds X to that permanent’s power and Y to that permanent’s toughness.2. and permanents. text box. or that permanent coming into play with a counter. it means a card matching that description in the stated zone. and a token is not a counter. rules text. An object’s characteristics are name. an object’s owner or controller.10c If a spell or ability refers to a counter being “placed” on a permanent. where X and Y are numbers. A counter is a marker placed on an object or player. If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes a card type or subtype. color. 200. characteristics don’t include whether a permanent is tapped.9.8 “Sources of Damage. power.10a A +X/+Y counter on a permanent. legal text. 200. Text that refers to the object it’s on by name means just that particular .1. and loyalty. illustration credit. See rule 419. 200. Counters with the same name or description are interchangeable.” it means a source matching that description—either a source of an ability or a source of damage—in any zone.” “spell. type line. what an Aura enchants.” it means a permanent of that card type or subtype in play. Some cards may have more than one of any or all of these parts. although many uses of the term “object” in these rules don’t apply to it. Any other information about an object isn’t a characteristic. cards.10b The number of loyalty counters on a planeswalker in play indicates how much loyalty it has. 200.” it means a spell matching that description on the stack. Combat damage on the stack is also an object.9a If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes the word “card” and the name of a zone. 200. For example. 200.9b If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes the word “spell. expansion symbol. expansion symbol. a spell’s target. power and toughness. mana cost. toughness. loyalty. supertype. but doesn’t include the word “card.1. 200. The name of a card is printed on its upper left corner. Objects can have some or all of these characteristics.11. and so on. 201. The parts of a card are name. and collector number. 202.” 200. Characteristics 201. A counter is not a token. abilities. tokens.9c If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes the word “source. Name 202.10. 202.

1c Lands normally have no mana cost. Some cards from the Future Sight set have alternate frames in which the mana symbols appear to the left of the art.’” The ability granted to the token only looks at the Saproling Burst that created the token. Two cards have the same name if the English versions of their names are identical. Attempting to play a spell or ability that has an unpayable cost is a legal action. not to any other object with the same name.2a If an ability of an object uses a phrase such as “this [something]” to identify an object. Example: An ability reads “Target creature gets +2/+2 until end of turn. it is referring to that particular object. 202. regardless of anything else printed on the cards. If an unpayable cost is increased by an effect or an additional cost is imposed.2b If an ability of an object grants to an object an ability that refers to the first object by name. Lands are played without paying any costs. Destroy that creature at end of turn. See rule 503. 202.” 203. 202. It has ‘This creature’s power and toughness are each equal to the number of fade counters on Saproling Burst. Mana Cost and Color 203.1b Some cards have no mana symbols where their mana cost would appear. Example: Saproling Burst has an ability that reads “Remove a fade counter from Saproling Burst: Put a green Saproling creature token into play. the alternative cost may be paid. This represents an unpayable cost.1a A copy of an object copies that object’s mana cost.1d Tokens have no mana cost unless the effect that creates them specifies otherwise. these symbols are printed in the upper right corner. An ability can also have an unpayable cost if its cost is based on the mana cost of a spell with no mana cost. including an effect that allows you to play a spell without paying its mana cost. 203. 203.3. even if it isn’t the appropriate characteristic at the time. the cost is still unpayable. attempting to pay an unpayable cost is an illegal action. . the name refers only to the object whose ability grants that ability.2.object and not any other duplicates of it. If an alternative cost is applied to an unpayable cost. “Copying Objects. 203. where [something] is a characteristic. 203. 203. On most cards. not at any other Saproling Burst in play.” The ability will destroy the object it gave +2/+2 at the end of the turn.1. regardless of any name changes caused by game effects. An object is the color or colors of the mana symbols in its mana cost. even if that object isn’t a creature anymore. However. The mana cost of a card is indicated by mana symbols near the top of the card. Paying an object’s mana cost requires matching the color of any colored mana symbols as well as paying the generic mana indicated in the cost.

regardless of the color of its frame. 203.2a Objects with no colored mana symbols in their mana costs are colorless. 203.2b An object with two or more different colored mana symbols in its mana cost is each of the colors of those mana symbols. Most multicolored cards are printed with a gold frame, but this is not a requirement for a card to be multicolored. 203.2c The five colors are white, blue, black, red, and green. The white mana symbol is represented by {W}, blue by {U}, black by {B}, red by {R}, and green by {G}. Example: An object with a mana cost of {2}{W} is white, an object with a mana cost of {2} is colorless, and one with a mana cost of {2}{W}{B} is both white and black. 203.2d If a player is asked to choose a color, he or she must choose one of the five colors. “Multicolored” is not a color. 203.2e An object with one or more hybrid mana symbols in its mana cost is all of the colors of those mana symbols, in addition to any other colors the object might be. Most cards with hybrid mana symbols in their mana costs are printed in a two-tone frame. See rule 104.3f. 203.3. The converted mana cost of an object is a number equal to the total amount of mana in its mana cost, regardless of color. Some effects ask a player to pay mana equal to an object’s converted mana cost; this cost may be paid with any combination of colored and/or colorless mana, regardless of the colors in the object’s mana cost. Example: A mana cost of {3}{U}{U} translates to a converted mana cost of 5. 203.3a The converted mana cost of an object with no mana cost is 0. 203.3b When calculating the converted mana cost of an object with an {X} in its mana cost, X is treated as 0 while the object is not on the stack, and X is treated as the number chosen for it while the object is on the stack. 203.3c When calculating the converted mana cost of an object with a hybrid mana symbol in its mana cost, use the largest component of each hybrid symbol. Example: The converted mana cost of a card with mana cost {1} {W/U}{W/U} is 3. Example: The converted mana cost of a card with mana cost {2/B} {2/B}{2/B} is 6. 203.4. Any additional cost listed in an object’s rules text or imposed by an effect isn’t part of the mana cost. (See rule 409, “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.”) Such costs are paid at the same time as the spell’s other costs. 204. Illustration 204.1. The illustration is printed on the upper half of a card and has no game significance. For example, a creature doesn’t have the flying ability unless stated in its rules text, even if it’s depicted as flying.

205. Type Line 205.1. The card type (and subtype and supertype, if applicable) of a card is printed directly below the illustration. (See rule 212, “Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype.”) 205.2. Card Types 205.2a The card types are artifact, creature, enchantment, instant, land, planeswalker, sorcery, and tribal. 205.2b Some objects have more than one card type (for example, an artifact creature). Such objects satisfy the criteria for any effect that applies to any of their card types. 205.3. Subtypes 205.3a A card can have one or more subtypes printed on its type line. 205.3b Subtypes are always single words and are listed after a long dash. Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. 205.3c Subtypes of a [card type] object are also called [card type] types. For example, creature subtypes are also called creature types. Objects may have multiple subtypes. Example: “Basic Land — Mountain” means the card is a land with the Mountain subtype. “Creature — Goblin Wizard” means the card is a creature with the subtypes Goblin and Wizard. “Artifact — Equipment” means the card is an artifact with the subtype Equipment. 205.3d Artifact, enchantment, land, and planeswalker each have their own unique set of possible subtypes. Instant and sorcery share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. Creature and tribal also share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. (You can find complete lists of subtypes in the glossary at the end of this document under “Creature Types,” “Land Types,” and so on.) 205.3e If a card with multiple card types has one or more subtypes, each subtype is correlated to its appropriate card type. Example: Dryad Arbor’s type line says “Land Creature — Forest Dryad.” Forest is a land type, and Dryad is a creature type. 205.4. Supertypes 205.4a A card can also have one or more supertypes. These are printed directly before its card types. If an object’s card types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new card type. 205.4b Any land with the supertype “basic” is a basic land. Any land that doesn’t have this supertype is a nonbasic land. Example: Note that cards printed in sets prior to the Eighth Edition core set didn’t use the word “basic” to indicate a basic land. Cards from those sets with the following names are basic lands: Forest,

Island, Mountain, Plains, Swamp, Snow-Covered Forest, Snow-Covered Island, Snow-Covered Mountain, Snow-Covered Plains, and SnowCovered Swamp. 205.4c Any permanent with the supertype “legendary” is subject to the statebased effect for legendary permanents, also called the “legend rule” (see rule 420.5e). 205.4d Any permanent with the supertype “world” is subject to the state-based effect for world permanents, also called the “world rule” (see rule 420.5i). 205.4e Any permanent with the supertype “snow” is a snow permanent. Any permanent that doesn’t have this supertype is a nonsnow permanent, regardless of its name. 206. Expansion Symbol 206.1. The expansion symbol indicates which Magic set a card is from. It’s normally printed below the right edge of the illustration. 206.2. The color of the expansion symbol indicates the rarity of the card within its set. A red-orange symbol indicates the card is mythic rare. A gold symbol indicates the card is rare. A silver symbol indicates the card is uncommon. A black or white symbol indicates the card is common or is a basic land. A purple symbol signifies a special rarity; to date, only the Time Spiral® “timeshifted” cards, which were rarer than that set’s rare cards, have had purple expansion symbols. (Prior to the Exodus™ set, all expansion symbols were black, regardless of rarity. Also, prior to the Sixth Edition core set, Magic core sets didn’t have expansion symbols at all.) 206.3. A spell or ability that affects cards from a particular set “looks” only for that set’s expansion symbol. A card reprinted in the core set receives the core set’s expansion symbol. Any reprinted version of the card no longer counts as part of its original set unless it was reprinted with that set’s expansion symbol. The first five editions of the core set had no expansion symbol. 207. Text Box 207.1. The text box is printed on the lower half of the card. It usually contains rules text defining the card’s abilities. 207.2. The text box may also contain italicized reminder text (in parentheses), which summarizes a rule that applies to that card, and italicized flavor text, which has no game function, but like the illustration, adds artistic appeal to the game. 207.3. A guild icon appears in the text box of many Ravnica® block cards. These cards either have the specified guild’s exclusive mechanic or somehow relate to the two colors associated with that guild. Guild icons have no effect on game play. 208. Power/Toughness 208.1. A creature card has two numbers separated by a slash printed in its lower right corner. The first number is its power (the amount of damage it deals in

“Abilities. immediately following the legal text. Each card features text printed below the text box that has no effect on game play. A noncreature permanent has no power or toughness. in more recent years.1a Cards. and spells can all have card types. Loyalty 209. (See rule 402. Instead. This ability functions everywhere. and Subtype 212. General 212. Power and toughness can be modified or set to particular values by effects. 210. the new card type(s) replaces any . Abilities don’t have card types. The object has a characteristic-defining ability that sets its power and/or toughness according to some stated condition. When an object’s card type changes. 208. the second is its toughness (the amount of damage needed to destroy it). 210. Information Below the Text Box 210.1. so it’s a 1/1. even outside the game. even if it’s a card with a power and toughness printed on it (such as a Licid that’s become an Aura).1b Legal text (the fine print at the bottom of the card) lists the trademark and copyright information. Card Type.2.3. or subtypes. 211. there are various categories of abilities. Its power and toughness will each be equal to 1 plus 0. Some creature cards have power and/or toughness represented by a * instead of a number. use 0 instead of that number. 210. choose an opponent” and “Lost Order of Jarkeld’s power and toughness are each equal to 1 plus the number of creatures that opponent controls.1. [This section has been intentionally left blank to preserve the ordering of other rules.” While Lost Order of Jarkeld isn’t in play.”) 212. there won’t be a chosen opponent. If the ability needs to use a number that can’t be determined.1a The illustration credit for a card is printed on the first line below the text box. 209. tokens. supertypes.1b. Supertype. permanents. 210. a paintbrush icon. 208.] 212.combat).” or.1. 2/3 means the object has power 2 and toughness 3.1c Some card sets feature collector numbers. This indicates its loyalty while it’s not in play. and it also indicates that the planeswalker comes into play with that many loyalty counters on it. This information is printed in the form [card number]/[total cards in the set]. It follows the abbreviation “Illus. Example: Lost Order of Jarkeld has power and toughness each equal to 1+*. and subtypes. supertypes. Each planeswalker card has a loyalty number printed in its lower right corner. For example. It says “As Lost Order of Jarkeld comes into play.

and damage affecting the object remain with it. Artifacts 212.” If any of the affected lands were legendary. supertype. Removing an object’s subtype doesn’t affect its card types at all. existing subtype. all the object’s prior card types. “Merfolk” or “Wizard” is acceptable. In such cases. see rule 200. but “Merfolk Wizard” is not.” etc. Example: An ability reads. Words like “artifact.2a A player who has priority may play an artifact card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. these effects also allow the object to retain all of its prior card types and subtypes. you can’t choose a land type if an instruction requires choosing a creature type. “All lands are 1/1 creatures that are still lands. 212. Counters.” not just “creatures. supertype.) Example: When choosing a creature type. the new subtype(s) replaces any existing subtypes from the appropriate set (creature types. 212. You can also find complete lists of subtypes in the glossary at the end of this document under “Creature Types. Playing an artifact as a spell uses the stack. effects. it will become an “artifact enchantment creature. when one or more of an object’s subtypes changes. 212. or spell types).” Some effects state that an object becomes an “artifact creature”. even if they are meaningless to the new card type.1c Some effects change an object’s card type. supertypes. “All lands are 1/1 creatures that are still lands. Changing an object’s card type or subtype won’t change its supertype. When an object gains or loses a supertype. those lands would become “artifact land creatures. they are still legendary. (See rule 409. land types. artifact types. and the subtype you choose must be for the appropriate card type. and only one.existing card types.” or “land creatures.” “opponent. Example: An ability reads.” 212.” “Land Types. they are also removed for the entire time the object’s card type is removed. you must choose one.2.2. it retains any other supertypes it had.1e If an instruction requires choosing a subtype. planeswalker types. Changing an object’s supertype won’t change its card type or subtype.” The affected lands now have two card types: creature and land. otherwise.” “Swamp. “All artifacts are 1/1 artifact creatures.” The effect allows them to retain both the card type “artifact” and the card type “land. For example. “Playing Spells and . or subtype but specify that the object retains a prior card type.” Example: An ability reads. enchantment types. If an object’s card type is removed.” or “truck” can’t be chosen because they aren’t creature types. If there were any lands that were also artifacts before the ability’s effect applied to them.” If a permanent is both an artifact and an enchantment.1d An object’s supertype is independent of its card type and subtype. This rule applies to effects that use the phrase “in addition to its types” or that state that something is “still a [card type]. (Use the Oracle card reference to determine whether a creature type exists. and subtypes are retained. Similarly. or subtype. the subtypes correlated with that card type will remain if they are also the subtypes of a card type the object currently has.

However. and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both card types. They can’t be played as spells.” Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types.2k An Equipment’s controller is separate from the equipped creature’s controller.2j The creature an Equipment is attached to is called the “equipped creature. and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both card types.” A Fortification can be attached to a land.2d Artifacts have no characteristics specific to their card type. An Equipment that equips an illegal or nonexistent permanent becomes unattached from that permanent but remains in play.2h An Equipment is played and comes into play just like any other artifact. if the Equipment adds an ability to the equipped creature (with “gains” or “has”).2c Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Artifact — Equipment.2b When an artifact spell resolves. An Equipment doesn’t come into play attached to a creature. Equipment that loses the subtype “Equipment” can’t equip a creature. the equipped creature’s controller is the only one who can play that ability. the Equipment doesn’t move. The equip keyword ability moves the Equipment onto a creature you control (see rule 502. It can’t legally be attached to an object that isn’t a land. and vice versa. Only the Equipment’s controller can play its abilities. (You can find the complete list of artifact subtypes under “Artifact Types” in the glossary at the end of this document.2f Artifact lands combine the characteristics of both lands and artifacts.) 212. See rule 420.” The Equipment is attached to. or “equips. 212. (This is a state-based effect. 212.” that creature. . The creature to which the Equipment is to be moved must be able to be equipped by it. and are therefore colorless. Artifact lands can only be played as lands. its controller puts it into play under his or her control. 212. “Equip”). 212.2e Artifact creatures combine the characteristics of both creatures and artifacts.Activated Abilities.2m Some artifacts have the subtype “Fortification. 212. Control of the creature matters only when the equip ability is played and when it resolves. An Equipment can’t equip itself. It can’t legally be attached to an object that isn’t a creature.” An Equipment can be attached to a creature. 212. and colorless objects may be card types other than artifact. Most artifacts have no colored mana symbols in their mana costs. If it can’t.) 212. 212. Changing control of the creature doesn’t change control of the Equipment. However.33. 212. the two need not be the same. Artifacts may have multiple subtypes.2i An Equipment that’s also a creature can’t equip a creature. there is no correlation between being colorless and being an artifact: artifacts may be colored.”) 212.2g Some artifacts have the subtype “Equipment.

Rules 212.2h–k apply to Fortifications in relation to lands just as they apply to Equipment in relation to creatures. Fortification’s analog to the equip keyword ability is the fortify keyword ability. (See rule 502.65, “Fortify.”) 212.3. Creatures 212.3a A player who has priority may play a creature card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Playing a creature as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 409, “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.”) 212.3b When a creature spell resolves, its controller puts it into play under his or her control. 212.3c Creature subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Creature — Human Soldier,” “Artifact Creature — Golem,” and so on. Creature subtypes are also called creature types. Creatures may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of creature subtypes under “Creature Types” in the glossary at the end of this document.) Example: “Creature — Goblin Wizard” means the card is a creature with the subtypes Goblin and Wizard. 212.3d Power and toughness are characteristics only creatures have. A creature’s power is the amount of damage it deals in combat, and its toughness is the amount of damage needed to destroy it. To determine a creature’s power and toughness, start with the numbers printed in its lower right corner, then apply any applicable continuous effects. (See rule 418.5, “Interaction of Continuous Effects.”) 212.3e Creatures can attack and block. (See rule 308, “Declare Attackers Step,” and rule 309, “Declare Blockers Step.”) 212.3f A creature’s activated ability with the tap symbol or the untap symbol in its activation cost can’t be played unless the creature has been under its controller’s control since the start of his or her most recent turn. A creature can’t attack unless it has been under its controller’s control since the start of his or her most recent turn. This rule is informally called the “summoning sickness” rule. Ignore this rule for creatures with haste (see rule 502.5). 212.3g Damage dealt to a creature stays on that creature. If the total accumulated damage on that creature is equal to or greater than its toughness, that creature has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed as a state-based effect (see rule 420.5c). All damage on a creature is removed when it regenerates (see rule 501.5, "Regenerate") and during the cleanup step (see rule 314.2). 212.3h Creature lands combine the characteristics of both lands and creatures, and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both card types. Creature lands can only be played as lands. They can’t be played as spells. 212.4. Enchantments 212.4a A player who has priority may play an enchantment card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Playing an enchantment as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 409, “Playing

Spells and Activated Abilities.”) 212.4b When an enchantment spell resolves, its controller puts it into play under his or her control. 212.4c Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Enchantment — Shrine.” Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. Enchantments may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of enchantment subtypes under “Enchantment Types” in the glossary at the end of this document.) 212.4d Some enchantments have the subtype “Aura.” An Aura comes into play attached to an object or player. What an Aura can be attached to is restricted by its enchant keyword ability (see rule 502.45, “Enchant”). Other effects can limit what a permanent can be enchanted by. 212.4e An Aura spell requires a target, which is restricted by its enchant ability. 212.4f If an Aura is enchanting an illegal object or player, the object it was attached to no longer exists, or the player it was attached to has left the game, the Aura is put into its owner’s graveyard. (This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.) 212.4g An Aura can’t enchant itself, and an Aura that’s also a creature can’t enchant anything. If this occurs somehow, the Aura is put into its owner’s graveyard. (This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.) 212.4h The object or player an Aura is attached to is called enchanted. The Aura is attached to, or “enchants,” that object or player. 212.4i An Aura’s controller is separate from the enchanted object’s controller; the two need not be the same. Changing control of the object doesn’t change control of the Aura, and vice versa. Only the Aura’s controller can play its abilities. However, if the Aura adds an ability to the enchanted object (with “gains” or “has”), the enchanted object’s controller is the only one who can play that ability. 212.4j If an Aura is coming into play under a player’s control by any means other than by being played, and the effect putting it into play doesn’t specify the object or player the Aura will enchant, that player chooses what it will enchant as the Aura comes into play. The player must choose a legal object or player according to the Aura’s enchant ability and any other applicable effects. If no legal choice can be made, see rule 212.4k. 212.4k If an Aura is coming into play and there is no legal object or player for it to enchant, the Aura remains in its current zone, unless that zone is the stack. In that case, the Aura is put into its owner’s graveyard instead of coming into play. 212.4m If an effect attempts to attach an Aura in play to an object or player, that object or player must be able to be enchanted by it. If the object or player can’t be, the Aura doesn’t move. 212.5. Instants

212.5a A player who has priority may play an instant card from his or her hand. Playing an instant as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 409, “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.”) 212.5b When an instant spell resolves, the actions stated in its rules text are followed. Then it’s put into its owner’s graveyard. 212.5c Instant subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Instant — Arcane.” Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. The set of instant subtypes is the same as the set of sorcery subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. Instants may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of instant subtypes under “Spell Types” in the glossary at the end of this document.) 212.5d Instants can’t come into play. If an instant would come into play, it remains in its previous zone instead. 212.5e If text states that a player may do something “any time he or she could play an instant,” it means only that the player must have priority. The player doesn’t need to have an instant he or she could actually play. 212.6. Lands 212.6a Playing a land card is a special action (see 408.2d). To play a land card, the player simply puts it into play. The land card doesn’t go on the stack, and is never a spell, so players can’t respond to it with instants or activated abilities. 212.6b A player who has priority may choose to play a land card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn, when the stack is empty. Continuous effects may allow the player to play land cards from other zones this way, or to play land cards at other times. 212.6c A player may normally play only one land card during his or her turn; however, continuous effects may increase this number. If any such effects exist, the player announces which effect, or this rule, applies to each land play as it happens. 212.6d A player can’t play a land, for any reason, if it isn’t his or her turn. Ignore any part of an effect that instructs a player to do so. Similarly, a player can’t play a land, for any reason, if that player has used all of his or her land plays for that turn. Ignore any part of an effect that instructs a player to do so. 212.6e Effects may also allow players to “put” lands into play. This isn’t the same as “playing a land” and doesn’t count as a player’s one land played during his or her turn. 212.6f Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash. Land subtypes are also called land types. Lands may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of land subtypes under “Land Types” in the glossary at the end of this document.) Example: “Basic Land — Mountain” means the card is a land with the Mountain subtype.

6g The basic land types are Plains.7e If a spell.” Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. 212. and Forest. Note that this doesn’t remove any abilities that were granted to the land by other effects. Changing a land’s subtype doesn’t add or remove any card types (such as creature) or supertypes (such as basic. black. 212. 212. Playing a sorcery as a spell uses the stack. It can’t be played as a spell. the actions stated in its rules text are followed. and the stack must be empty.6h If an effect changes a land’s subtype to one or more of the basic land types.”) An object with a basic land type is treated as if its text box included “{T}: Add [mana symbol] to your mana pool.” it means only that the player must have priority. (See rule 406. Any land that doesn’t have this supertype is a nonbasic land. 212. 212.8. it remains in its previous zone instead. it keeps its land types and rules text. these subtypes are called spell types. and snow) the land may have. blue. Island. 212. Plains produce white mana. green.7b When a sorcery spell resolves. The set of sorcery subtypes is the same as the set of instant subtypes.) 212. It loses all abilities generated from its rules text and its old land types. If a land gains one or more land types in addition to its own. or effect states that a player can do something only “any time he or she could play a sorcery.8a Each tribal card has another card type. Mountain. legendary.6i Any land with the supertype “basic” is a basic land. Mountains. (See rule 409. A basic land type implies an intrinsic ability to produce colored mana. 212. Sorceries 212.” even if the text box doesn’t actually contain text or the object has no text box. and it gains the appropriate mana ability for each new basic land type.”) 212.7c Sorcery subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Sorcery — Arcane. it must be during the main phase of his or her turn. Then it’s put into its owner’s graveyard. ability.7. “Mana Abilities. and Forests.7a A player who has priority may play a sorcery card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Islands. If a sorcery would come into play. and it gains the new land types and mana abilities. Sorceries may have multiple subtypes. red. Swamp. the land no longer has its old land type. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.” it’s referring to one of these subtypes. The player doesn’t need to have a sorcery he or she could actually play. Swamps. (You can find the complete list of sorcery subtypes under “Spell Types” in the glossary at the end of this document. Playing and resolving a tribal . If an object uses the words “basic land type.7d Sorceries can’t come into play. it can be played only as a land.212. Tribals 212.6j If an object is both a land and another card type.

” The set of tribal subtypes is the same as the set of creature subtypes. “Declare Attackers Step.9d Loyalty is a characteristic only planeswalkers have. Planeswalker subtypes are also called planeswalker types. The loyalty of a planeswalker not in play is equal to the number printed in its lower right corner.9. Planeswalkers may have multiple subtypes.5.9f Each planeswalker has a number of activated abilities.”) 212. See rule 420.card follows the rules for playing and resolving a card of the other card type. 212.) If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are in play. 212. and only if none of its activated abilities have been played that turn. Damage dealt to a planeswalker results in that many loyalty counters being removed from it.” Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. If a planeswalker’s loyalty is 0. Playing a planeswalker as a spell uses the stack. loyalty counters are put on it or removed from it. “This permanent comes into play with a number of loyalty counters on it equal to its printed loyalty number”.9a A player who has priority may play a planeswalker card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Tribals may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of tribal subtypes under “Creature Types” in the glossary at the end of this document. when he or she has priority and the stack is empty.5. A planeswalker is treated as if its text box included. 212. this ability creates a replacement effect (see rule 419. it’s put into its owner’s graveyard as a statebased effect. as shown by the loyalty symbol in the ability’s cost. (You can find the complete list of planeswalker subtypes under “Planeswalker Types” in the glossary at the end of this document. these subtypes are called creature types. 212. all are put into their owners’ graveyards as a state-based effect. As a planeswalker gains or loses loyalty.) 212. A player may play an activated ability of a planeswalker only during a main phase of his or her turn.9g If noncombat damage would be dealt to a player by a source controlled by an opponent.9b When a planeswalker spell resolves.”) 212.9e Planeswalkers can be attacked. An ability with a negative loyalty cost can’t be played unless the planeswalker has at least that many loyalty counters on it. its controller puts it into play under his or her control.1). that opponent may have that source deal that damage to a planeswalker the first player controls instead. The loyalty of a planeswalker in play is equal to the number of loyalty counters on it. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. This is a redirection effect . (See rule 409. The cost to play an activated ability of a planeswalker is to put on or remove from that planeswalker a certain number of loyalty counters. 212. respectively. (See rule 308. See rule 420.9c Planeswalker subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Planeswalker — Jace. Planeswalkers 212.8b Tribal subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Tribal Enchantment — Merfolk.

Spells 213.(see rule 419. By default. while it’s on the stack. Instant and sorcery cards can’t come into play. or otherwise leaves the stack.3. There are five permanent types: artifact. see rule 401. Permanents come into play untapped. 213.2. The term “spell” is used to refer to a card. The term “permanent” is used to refer to a card or token while it’s in play. enchantment.9). 214. Some tribal cards can come into play and some can’t. . enchantment. 213.6c) and is subject to the normal rules for ordering replacement effects (see rule 419. If an effect changes any characteristics of a spell that becomes a permanent.” 214. such as a creature card in a player’s hand. “Zones. the creature is white when it comes into play and remains white for the duration of the effect changing its color. It’s still a permanent. A card or token becomes a permanent when it comes into play and it stops being a permanent when it leaves play. the effect continues to apply to the permanent when the spell resolves. land. A token’s card types. A nontoken permanent’s card types.1. A spell’s card type. 214. is countered. supertypes.2. see rule 217.” 213. 213. The term “card” isn’t used to refer to a card that’s in play as a permanent. Once it’s played. By default.4. a permanent’s controller is the player who put it into play. A permanent is a card or token in play. 214. The opponent chooses whether to redirect the damage as the redirection effect is applied. Specifically. and subtypes are set by the spell or ability that created it. or planeswalker card. or a copy of a spell or card. 213. For more information. and subtypes are the same as those printed on its card. a card remains a spell until it resolves. For more information. creature. it’s used to refer to a card that’s not in play or on the stack. Every permanent has a controller. 214.4. land. and subtype are the same as those of its card. creature. rather. Permanents 214.1b If a permanent somehow loses all its permanent types.1a The term “permanent card” is used to refer to a card that could be put into play. supertype.3.5.1. “Spells on the Stack. Every spell has a controller. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities”) and while it’s on the stack. it remains in play. it means an artifact. supertypes. a spell’s controller is the player who played it. Permanents stay in play unless moved to another zone by an effect or rule. depending on their other card types. and planeswalker. Example: If an effect changes a black creature spell to white. 214. Every nonland card is a spell while it’s being played (see rule 409.

If a player pays life. that player’s life total is adjusted accordingly. If a player pays life. If a cost or effect allows a player to pay an amount of life greater than 0. the player gains or loses the necessary amount of life to end up with the new total. 215.) The spell or ability may define any number of characteristics for the token. Every permanent has a value in each of three status categories: tapped/untapped.6. (Players can always pay 0 life. This becomes the token’s “text. its name is the same as its creature type(s). and face up/face down. and a replacement effect that would replace a life gain event affecting that player won’t do anything. “Two-Headed Giant Variant.) 215. the payment is subtracted from his or her team’s life total. If an effect says that a player can’t gain life. Life 215. each team begins the game with a shared life total of 30 instead. that player can’t exchange life totals with a player who has a higher life total.” The characteristics defined this way are functionally equivalent to the characteristics that are printed on a card.5. see rule 510. In addition.” 215. the player may do so only if his or her life total is equal to or greater than the amount of the payment. 216. A token is controlled by whoever put it into play and owned by the controller of the spell or ability that created it. the token is owned by whoever put it into play.4a If a cost or effect allows a player to pay an amount of life greater than 0 in a Two-Headed Giant game. By default. a cost that involves having that player gain life can’t be paid. the exchange won’t happen. (If no player controlled the effect that created it. the payment is subtracted from his or her life total. for example. A token doesn’t have any characteristics not defined by the spell or ability that created it. A “Goblin Scout creature token. see rule 606. 216.7. and face up.” 215.3.2. If an effect causes a player to gain life or lose life. they define the token’s copiable values.1. If an effect sets a player’s life total to a specific number. For more information.1. Some effects put tokens into play.5. Damage dealt to a player causes that player to lose that much life. flipped/unflipped.” for example. (Players can always pay 0 life.214. “Status. If a player has 0 or less life.4.5. that player loses the game as a state-based effect. See rule 420. in that case. 215.) 215. is named “Goblin Scout” and has the creature subtypes . the player may do so only if his or her team’s life total is equal to or greater than the amount of the payment. Tokens 216. If the spell or ability doesn’t specify the name of the creature token. In a Two-Headed Giant game. Each player begins the game with a life total of 20. 215. 215.1a A spell or ability that creates a creature token sets both its name and its creature type. unflipped. a permanent comes into play untapped.

3. The other zones are shared by all players. (Note that a token changing zones sets off triggered abilities before the token ceases to exist. (2) Prevention effects that apply to damage from an artifact. Each player has his or her own library. graveyard. stack. although who controls those objects.1b The order of objects in a library. creature. Some older cards also use the ante and phased-out zones. There are seven exceptions to this rule: (1) Effects from spells.) 216.1. its previous existence. 216.4 A token that has left play can’t come back into play. 217. changing its name doesn’t change its creature type. If an instant or sorcery card would come into play. Once a token is in play. A token in a zone other than the in-play zone ceases to exist. activated abilities. and vice versa. or hand other than its owner’s. A zone is a place where objects can be during a game. Objects in other zones can be arranged however their owners wish. A token is subject to anything that affects permanents in general or that affects the token’s card type or subtype. and graveyard. it remains in its current zone instead. 217. 216. or relation to. This is a state-based effect. (6) If an effect grants a nonland card an ability that allows it to be played. or planeswalker spell on the stack will continue to apply to damage from the permanent that spell becomes.Goblin and Scout. . hand. It ceases to exist the next time state-based effects are checked. in play. enchantment. whether they’re tapped or flipped.1a If an object would go to any library. “When Rancor is put into a graveyard from play”) can find the new object that it became in the zone it moved to when the ability triggered. it remains in its previous zone.2. 217. and what other objects are attached to them must remain clear to all players. hand. (3) Abilities of a permanent that require information about choices made when that permanent was played use information about the spell that became that permanent. If such a token would return to play. (5) Abilities of Auras that trigger when the enchanted permanent leaves play can find the new object that permanent became in the zone it moved to. and triggered abilities that change the characteristics of an artifact. and removed from the game. creature. Zones 217. that ability will continue to apply to the new object that card became after it moved to the stack as a result of being played this way. it goes to its owner’s corresponding zone. in a graveyard. There are normally six zones: library. they can also find the new object the Aura became in its owner’s graveyard after state-based effects have been checked. (4) Abilities that trigger when an object moves from one zone to another (for example. (7) Permanents that phase out or in “remember” their earlier states. or planeswalker spell on the stack continue to apply to the permanent that spell becomes. enchantment. graveyard. or on the stack can’t be changed except when effects or rules allow it. 217.1c An object that moves from one zone to another becomes a new object with no memory of. A token isn’t a card (even if represented by a card that has a Magic back or that came from a Magic booster pack).

stack.1e An object is outside the game if it’s in the removed-from-the-game zone. Then any appropriate replacement effects. 217. That library’s owner doesn’t reveal the order in which the cards go into his or her library.1i). the new top card won’t be revealed until the spell or ability becomes played (see rule 409.2. 217. its owner looks at it to see if it has any abilities that would affect the move. and what that effect does. (Note that multiple instances of the same thing may be mutually exclusive.2f Some effects tell a player to play with the top card of his or her library revealed. it doesn’t change zones. but it becomes a new object that has just been removed from the game. 217. Graveyard.1f If an object in the removed-from-the-game zone is removed from the game. except for those cards that some rule or effect specifically allow to be face down. 217.2d If an effect puts two or more cards on the top or bottom of a library at the same time.1d If an object would move from one zone to another. are applied to that event. ante. or if it isn’t in any of the game’s zones. it becomes a new object. .) Then the event moves the object. 217. If any effects or rules try to do two or more contradictory or mutually exclusive things to a particular object. 217. that object’s controller—or its owner if it has no controller—chooses which effect to apply. 217. determine what event is moving the object. If the object is moving to a public zone. two simultaneous “destroy” effects.2e If a spell or ability causes a card to be drawn while another spell or ability is being played. whether they come from that object or from elsewhere. in play. and phased-out are public zones.2b Each library must be kept in a single face-down pile. for example.1g Public zones are zones in which all players can see the cards. Players can’t look at or change the order of cards in a library.See rule 217. Library 217. 217.2a When a game begins. Outside the game is not a zone. and that particular card stops being revealed for any length of time before being revealed again. 217.8c.2g If an effect causes a player to play with the top card of his or her library revealed. the drawn card is kept face down until that spell or ability becomes played (see rule 409. Hidden zones are zones in which not all players can be expected to see the cards. 217. even if all the cards in one such zone happen to be revealed. removed from the game.2c Any player may count the number of cards remaining in any player’s library at any time. 217. All other objects are inside the game. each player’s deck becomes his or her library. Library and hand are hidden zones.1i). If the top card of the player’s library changes while a spell or ability is being played. the owner of those cards may arrange them in any order.

3c A player may arrange his or her hand in any convenient fashion and look at it as much as he or she wishes.4. (See rule 101. Any object that’s countered. 217. 217.5d An object not in the in-play zone isn’t “in play” and isn’t considered tapped or untapped. 217. At the beginning of the game. 217. or sacrificed is put on top of its owner’s graveyard.5c Whenever a permanent enters the in-play zone. 217. destroyed. the physical card is put on the stack. Permanents exist only in the in-play zone. which is normally seven cards.1c). Hand 217. though there are some cases (such as an Aura attached to another player’s permanent) when a permanent one player controls is kept closer to a different player. This is also true for any objects entering any zone (see rule 217.6.4b Each graveyard is kept in a single face-up pile. the owner of those cards may arrange them in any order.5a Most of the area between the players represents the in-play zone. A player can examine the cards in any graveyard at any time but can’t change their order. Objects that aren’t either in play or on the stack aren’t controlled by any player. 217. the player must discard excess cards down to the maximum hand size. Each player’s graveyard starts out empty.5. “Starting the Game. A player can’t look at the cards in another player’s hand but may count those cards at any time. Permanents a player controls are normally kept in front of him or her in the in-play zone. it’s considered a brandnew permanent and has no relationship to any previous permanent represented by the same object.3.”) 217.3b Each player has a maximum hand size. it goes on top of the stack without any card associated with it (see rule 409.3a The hand is where a player holds cards that have been drawn but not yet played. Graveyard 217. 217.4c If an effect or rule puts two or more cards into the same graveyard at the same time.6a When a spell is played. 217. 217.4a A graveyard is a discard pile. A player may have any number of cards in his or her hand. each player draws a hand of seven cards.1a). but as part of his or her cleanup step. as is any instant or sorcery spell that’s finished resolving. . When an ability is played. In Play 217.5b A spell or ability affects and checks only the in-play zone unless it specifically mentions a player or another zone. Stack 217. The in-play zone starts out empty.217. discarded.

4).7b Cards in the removed-from-the-game zone are kept face up and may be examined by any player at any time. The controller of a spell is the person who played the spell. even though that removal may be temporary.6e When all players pass in succession. Objects that aren’t cards that would return to a zone remain removed from the game instead. the top (last-added) spell or ability on the stack resolves.6c If an effect puts two or more objects on the stack at the same time. 217.6d Each spell has all the characteristics of the card associated with it. Phased Out .8.7c Cards that might return to play should be kept in separate piles to keep track of their respective ways of returning. 217. “Timing of Spells and Abilities. (See rule 408. the current step or phase ends and the next begins.7a Objects can be removed from the game.7d An object may have one ability printed on it that somehow causes one or more cards to be removed from the game. Cards “removed from the game face down” can’t be examined by any player except when instructions allow it. Each activated or triggered ability that’s on the stack has the text of the ability that created it and no other characteristics.7.7e If an object in the removed-from-the-game zone is removed from the game.” Cards that are set aside this way are still removed from the game. 217. but it becomes a new object that has just been removed from the game.”) 217. and another ability that refers either to “the removed cards” or to cards “removed from the game with [this object]. See rule 407. in the same way as other objects that use the stack. 217. unless it’s a delayed triggered ability.217. followed by each other player’s objects in APNAP order (see rule 103.” These abilities are linked: the second refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone removed due to the first. Each time an object is put on the stack. “Linked Abilities. If a player controls more than one of these objects. If the stack is empty when all players pass. The controller of a triggered ability is the player who controlled the ability’s source when it triggered. 217.” 217. 217. it’s put on top of all objects already there. 217. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. Removed from the Game 217. Some effects may provide a way for a card to return to a zone and use the term “set aside.6f Combat damage also uses the stack. The controller of an activated ability is the player who played the ability.6b The stack keeps track of the order that spells and/or abilities were added to it. those controlled by the active player are put on lowest. 217. it doesn’t change zones. that player chooses their relative order on the stack.

15. “Phasing. 217. 217. (See rule 502.” These are the only cards that can add or remove cards from the ante zone or change a card’s owner.aspx? x=dci/doccenter/home). (See rule 502. “Face-Down Spells and Permanents.9b When playing for ante. or Fortifications that were attached to those tokens remain phased out for the rest of the game. an object in this zone “remembers” the state of the permanent as it phased out and returns to play in the same state as when it left.9d To ante an object is to put that object into the ante zone from whichever zone it’s currently in.wizards. so they do not count as tapped or untapped. . This is a state-based effect (see rule 420. However.8d Tokens in the phased-out zone cease to exist. the winner becomes the owner of all the cards in the ante zone.”) 217. 217.”) 217. Equipment.com/Magic/TCG/Events.9c A few cards have the text “Remove [this card] from your deck before playing if you’re not playing for ante.” Playing Magic games for ante is now considered an optional variation on the game. “Phasing.9.” and rule 504.9a Earlier versions of the Magic rules included an ante rule as a way of playing “for keeps. (See rule 502. and it’s allowed only where it’s not forbidden by law or by other rules.217.8b Face-up objects in the phased-out zone may be examined by any player at any time.26. Any phased-out Auras. each player puts one random card from his or her deck into the ante zone at the beginning of the game. Face-down objects in the phased-out zone are covered by the rules for face-down permanents. “Morph. Cards in the ante zone may be examined by any player at any time. “State-Based Effects”).”) 217.15. Ante 217.8a Permanents that phase out are placed in the phased-out zone. nor are they controlled by anyone. The owner of an object is the only person who can ante that object. At the end of the game. Playing for ante is strictly forbidden under the DCI Universal Tournament Rules (http://www.8c Phased-out objects are not in play. 217.

300. If a player gets multiple extra turns or if multiple players get extra turns during a single turn. phase. 301. Mana burn is loss of life. 300. any effects scheduled to last “until” that phase or step expire.2. If multiple extra steps are created after the same step. or turn is to proceed past it as though it didn’t exist.8. When a phase or step begins.3. When a phase ends (but not a step). or turn to be skipped. precombat main.”) 300. The only such steps are the untap step (see rule 302) and certain cleanup steps (see rule 314). 300. Beginning Phase . not at the beginning of the end of combat step. They do this by adding the turns directly after the current turn. No game events can occur between turns.6. even if nothing happens during the phase. 300. not damage. Some effects can give a player extra turns.6e and rule 419. any abilities that trigger “at the beginning of” that phase or step are added to the stack. Effects that last “until end of turn” are subject to special rules. Each of these phases takes place every turn. and end. each player gets a chance to add new things to the stack before that phase or step ends.4. combat. any effects scheduled to last “until end of” that phase or step expire.3. (See rule 406. When a phase or step begins. Some effects can cause a step.6f. That player loses 1 life for each one mana lost this way. any unused mana left in a player’s mana pool is lost. General 300. This is called mana burn. or steps. all players have to pass with the stack empty. the extra turns are added one at a time. phase.9. If multiple extra phases are created after the same phase. the most recently created phase will occur first. The most recently created turn will be taken first. Effects that last “until end of combat” expire at the end of the combat phase. the most recently created step will occur first. so it can’t be prevented or altered by effects that affect damage. This game action doesn’t use the stack. The beginning. which proceed in order. To skip a step. 300. in this order: beginning. postcombat main. Some effects can add steps to a phase. phases. See rule 419. Because of this.2. They do this by adding the phases directly after the specified phase. Turn Structure 300. Some effects can add phases to a turn. combat. 300. A turn consists of five phases.1. see rule 314. A step in which no players receive priority ends when all specified actions that take place during that step are completed. “Mana Abilities. 300. A phase or step in which players receive priority ends when the stack is empty and all players pass in succession. and end phases are further broken down into steps.5.7. Simply having the stack become empty doesn’t cause such a phase or step to end. When a phase or step ends. They do this by adding the steps directly after a specified step (or directly before a specified step).

and draw. 305. First. the active player may play one land card from his or her hand if the stack is empty.1. which is usually during the upkeep step. all of a player’s permanents untap. 302. in this order: untap. 302.1. and all phased-out objects that the active player controlled when they phased out simultaneously phase in (this game action doesn’t use the stack). any abilities that trigger at the beginning of that main phase go on the stack. See rule 217. “Combat Phase”). (See rule 410. (See rule 303. if the player has priority. The main phase has no steps.”) This . The beginning phase consists of three steps. This game action doesn’t use the stack. but effects can keep one or more of a player’s permanents from untapping. During either main phase. (See rule 300.”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. As the upkeep step begins. (See rule 212. Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. First. (This is the only phase in which a player can normally play artifact. so a main phase ends when all players pass in succession while the stack is empty. “Upkeep Step.6.4. Then any abilities that trigger at the beginning of the draw step and any other abilities that have triggered go on the stack. Untap Step 302. “Phasing. Main Phase 305. planeswalker.3. the first main phase. any abilities that trigger at the beginning of that upkeep step and any abilities that triggered during the turn’s untap step go on the stack. No player receives priority during the untap step.3. Any ability that triggers during this step will be held until the next time a player would receive priority. “Handling Triggered Abilities. The precombat and postcombat main phases are individually and collectively known as the main phase.1.”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities.2. and if he or she hasn’t yet taken this special action this turn. known as the precombat main phase. Draw Step 304. 304. all permanents with phasing that the active player controls phase out.” 302.2.) 305. so no spells or abilities can be played or resolved. the active player draws a card. 305. (See rule 410.” and rule 502.1.”) 303. “Lands. “Handling Triggered Abilities. and sorcery spells.8. Next the active player determines which permanents he or she controls will untap. and the second main phase. enchantment. known as the postcombat main phase.1.2. Then he or she untaps them all simultaneously (this game action doesn’t use the stack). Upkeep Step 303.301. creature. In each turn. and only the active player may play these spells. There are two main phases in a turn. upkeep. As the main phase begins.) 305.15. “Phased Out. Normally. are separated by the combat phase (see rule 306.

A planeswalker that’s removed from combat stops being attacked. which proceed in order: beginning of combat. As the combat phase starts.3. if an effect specifically removes it from combat. Only a player or a planeswalker can be attacked. The chosen opponent is the defending player. It can’t be countered.4b Tapping or untapping a creature that’s already been declared as an attacker or blocker doesn’t remove it from combat and doesn’t prevent its combat damage.4a Once a creature has been declared as an attacking or blocking creature.2) or double strike (see rule 502. 306. 306. but it’s never considered to be a blocking creature. 306. During the combat phase. that player and planeswalkers he or she controls may be attacked. blocking. Some multiplayer games allow the active player to attack multiple other players. blocked. and/or unblocked creature. There are two combat damage steps if any attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 502. and players can’t respond to it with instants or activated abilities.4.2. the active player is the attacking player.1. declare attackers. creatures that player controls may attack.28). See rule 602.” 306. The combat phase has five steps.action doesn’t use the stack and it isn’t a spell or ability of any kind. 306. 306.3c If an effect would put a creature into play blocking but the creature it would block isn’t attacking either the first creature’s controller or a planeswalker that player controls. if it’s a planeswalker that’s being attacked and stops being a planeswalker. or if it’s an attacking or blocking creature that regenerates (see rule 419.” and rule 606. 306. “Two-Headed Giant Variant.3b If an effect would put a creature into play attacking under the control of any player except an attacking player.3a If an effect would put a noncreature permanent into play attacking or blocking. declare blockers. “Attack Multiple Players Option. combat damage.4c If a creature is attacking a planeswalker. if its controller changes. It continues to be an attacking creature. Combat Phase 306. and end of combat.6b) or stops being a creature. the permanent does come into play but it’s never considered to be an attacking or blocking permanent. 306. 306. although it is attacking neither a player nor a . A permanent is removed from combat if it leaves play. that creature does come into play. the active player chooses one of his or her opponents. The declare blockers and combat damage steps are skipped if no creatures are declared as attackers or put into play attacking (see rule 308. A creature that’s removed from combat stops being an attacking. Only a creature can attack or block. spells or abilities that would have kept that creature from attacking or blocking don’t remove the creature from combat. removing that planeswalker from combat doesn’t remove that creature from combat. but it’s never considered to be an attacking creature. that creature does come into play. 306.5).

1. “Legal Attacks and Blocks”). the active player follows the steps below. it will deal no combat damage. This game action doesn’t use the stack.” and rule 500. the active player declares attackers.4d A permanent that’s both a blocking creature and a planeswalker that’s being attacked is partially removed from combat if it stops being either a creature or a planeswalker (but not both). “Handling Triggered Abilities. Then he or she determines whether this set of attackers is legal. or the game allows the active player to attack multiple other players. if any. As the declare attackers step begins. 308.”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. 306. any abilities that trigger at the beginning of combat go on the stack. 307.planeswalker. “Banding. To declare attackers. If at any point during the declaration of attackers. “Handling Illegal Actions. will attack. (See rule 500.10.5.”) 308. Effects from a creature that refer to a defending player refer only to the defending player it’s attacking (if it’s attacking a player) or the controller of the planeswalker it’s attacking (if it’s attacking a planeswalker). Tapping a creature when it’s declared as an attacker isn’t a cost. (See rule 410.”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. attacking simply causes creatures to . Then any abilities that triggered on attackers being declared go on the stack.1. the active player announces which creatures. It may be blocked.2. 308. “Handling Triggered Abilities. he or she declares which player or planeswalker each creature is attacking. if any. A creature is blocking alone if it’s blocking but no other creatures are. As the beginning of combat step begins. 308. the active player chooses an opponent or a planeswalker controlled by an opponent for that creature to attack. the active player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below. A creature blocks alone if it’s the only creature declared as a blocker during the declare blockers step.2b If any of the chosen creatures have banding or a bands with other ability. (See rule 502. in order. Declare Attackers Step 308. 306. (See rule 410. It’s not removed from the portion of combat that’s relevant to the card type it still is.2a The active player chooses which creatures that he or she controls. are banded with which. If the defending player controls any planeswalkers. Beginning of Combat Step 307.”) 308. the game returns to the moment before the declaration (see rule 422. The chosen creatures must be untapped. A creature is attacking alone if it’s attacking but no other creatures are. the declaration was illegal. For each of the chosen creatures. A creature attacks alone if it’s the only creature declared as an attacker during the declare attackers step.2c The active player taps the chosen creatures. “Legal Attacks and Blocks. If it is unblocked. and each one must either have haste or have been controlled by the active player continuously since the beginning of the turn.

1.2g Each chosen creature becomes an attacking creature if all costs have been paid. Then he or she determines whether this set of blocks is legal. 309. As the declare blockers step begins. For each of the chosen creatures. Partial payments are not allowed.4.2f Once the player has enough mana in his or her mana pool.2. 309. 308.3. If a creature is put into play attacking. the defending player declares blockers (this game action doesn’t use the stack). 309. but only if it’s still controlled by the active player. the active player determines the total cost to attack. It remains an attacking creature until it’s removed from combat or the combat phase ends. (See rule 410. he or she pays all costs in any order. destroy that creature at end of combat. or a planeswalker he or she controls. 308. its controller chooses which defending player or which planeswalker a defending player controls it’s attacking as it comes into play (unless the effect that put it into play specifies what it’s attacking). the ability will not trigger. the defending player follows the steps below. the defending player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below. See rule 306. 308.” If a blue creature attacks and is later turned green. Then any abilities that triggered on blockers being declared go on the stack. Costs may include paying mana. They will not trigger if a creature attacks and then that creature’s characteristics change to match the ability’s trigger condition. the game returns to the moment before the declaration (see rule 422. To declare blockers.2a The defending player chooses which creatures that he or she controls. ignore this change. Abilities that trigger on a creature attacking trigger only at the point the creature is declared as an attacker.”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities.4. (See rule 500. “Handling Illegal Actions. sacrificing permanents.become tapped. in order. Such creatures are “attacking” but. whichever comes first.” and rule 500. tapping permanents. it becomes “locked in. the active player then has a chance to play mana abilities (see rule 411. for the purposes of trigger events and effects.” If effects would change the total cost after this time.2d If any of the creatures require paying costs to attack. “Legal Attacks and Blocks”). If no creatures are declared as attackers or put into play attacking. discarding cards. Example: A permanent has the ability “Whenever a green creature attacks. If at any point during the declaration of blockers. and so on. 308.” 308. will block.5. 308. the defending player chooses one creature for it to block that’s attacking him. The chosen creatures must be untapped. “Handling Triggered Abilities. “Legal .2e If any of the costs require mana. 308. the declaration was illegal. if any. skip the declare blockers and combat damage steps. they never “attacked. Declare Blockers Step 309. Once the total cost is determined. “Playing Mana Abilities”). her.

” If that creature is blocked by a black creature that is later turned white. by a creature that’s put into play as a blocker. 309. Then any abilities that triggered on damage being assigned go on the stack. “Playing Mana Abilities”). 309.Attacks and Blocks. “Handling Triggered Abilities. (Some effects can change whether a creature is blocked or unblocked. All assignments of combat damage go on the stack as a single object.4. sacrificing permanents. Such creatures are “blocking” but. 309. It remains a blocking creature until it’s removed from combat or the combat phase ends. and so on. or by an effect. the ability will not trigger. (See rule 410. 309. tapping permanents. discarding cards. Abilities that trigger on a creature becoming blocked trigger only at the first point the creature becomes blocked that combat. They will not trigger if a creature becomes blocked. If a creature is put into play blocking. As the combat damage step begins. 309. the active player announces how each attacking creature will assign its combat damage. and then the blocking creature’s characteristics change to match the ability’s trigger condition. 309. its controller chooses which attacking creature it’s blocking as it comes into play (unless the effect that put it into play specifies what it’s blocking). and then that creature’s characteristics change to match the ability’s trigger condition. for the purposes of trigger events and effects. Each one is blocking the attacking creature chosen for it. Combat Damage Step 310. the defending player determines the total cost to block. Once the total cost is determined. See rule 306. they never “blocked.”) 309. destroy that creature at end of combat.1. They will trigger if a creature becomes blocked by a creature declared as a blocker. it becomes “locked in. Costs may include paying mana. Abilities that trigger on a creature blocking trigger only at the point the creature is declared as a blocker.” 310.” If effects would change the total cost after this time. he or she pays all costs in any order. whichever comes first.”) Then the active player gets priority and .3. ignore this change.5. This remains unchanged until the creature is removed from combat or the combat phase ends. Partial payments are not allowed.4.) 309.2f An attacking creature with one or more creatures declared as blockers for it becomes a blocked creature. They will not trigger if a creature blocks. one with no blockers becomes an unblocked creature. but only if it’s controlled by the defending player. whichever comes first.2d Once the player has enough mana in his or her mana pool. but only if the attacking creature hadn’t yet been blocked that combat. the defending player then has a chance to play mana abilities (see rule 411. Then the defending player announces how each blocking creature will assign its combat damage.2c If any of the costs require mana.2e Each chosen creature becomes a blocking creature.2b If any of the creatures require paying costs to block. Example: A creature has the ability “Whenever this creature becomes blocked by a white creature.

If the creature isn’t currently attacking anything (if. The combat damage object is then removed from the stack and ceases to exist. 310. 310.4a Combat damage is dealt as it was originally assigned even if the creature dealing damage is no longer in play. At the start of the combat damage step.2c A blocked creature will assign combat damage. A player may divide a creature’s combat damage as he or she chooses among the legal recipients. After combat damage finishes resolving.5. so they can’t be countered. If it isn’t currently blocking any creatures (if. 310. 310. divided as its controller chooses. 310. it will assign no combat damage.4b The source of the combat damage is the creature as it currently exists. Instead of proceeding to end of combat. its power has changed. for example. divided as its controller chooses. its last known information is used.4. it was attacking a planeswalker that has left play). the active player gets priority. or the creature or planeswalker receiving damage has left combat. they were destroyed or removed from combat).2d A blocking creature will assign combat damage. any attackers and blockers that didn’t assign combat damage in the first step. to the creatures blocking it. Combat damage resolves as an object on the stack. or is neither a creature nor planeswalker. it will assign no combat damage. creatures without first strike or double strike don’t assign combat damage. If no creatures are currently blocking it (if.2. it’s all dealt at once. 310. it will assign no combat damage.3. 310.4c If a creature or planeswalker that was assigned combat damage is no longer in play. plus any creatures with double strike. for example. to the attacking creatures it’s blocking. If it’s no longer in play. they were destroyed or removed from combat).players may play spells and abilities.2a Each attacking creature and each blocking creature will assign combat damage equal to its power.28). the damage assigned to it isn’t dealt. Dividing combat damage is subject to the following restrictions: 310.2) or double strike (see rule 502. they aren’t spells or abilities.1) to handle the remaining creatures. the phase gets a second combat damage step (see rule 310. . In the second combat damage step.2b An unblocked attacking creature that’s attacking a player will assign all its combat damage to the defending player. for example. if at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 502. assign their combat damage. 310. 310. An unblocked attacking creature that’s attacking a planeswalker will assign all its combat damage to the planeswalker it’s attacking. Creatures with power less than 0 assign 0 combat damage. 310. if it’s still in play. Although combat-damage assignments go on the stack as an object. as originally assigned. When it resolves.

After the end of combat step ends. no player receives priority and the step ends. he or she discards enough cards to reduce the hand size to that number (this game action doesn’t use the stack). If the conditions for any state-based effects exist or if any triggered abilities are waiting to be put onto the stack. those abilities won’t go on the stack until the next turn’s end phase. the step doesn’t “back up” so new “at end of turn”-triggered abilities can go on the stack. all creatures and planeswalkers are removed from combat.311.1. If the active player’s hand contains more cards than his or her maximum hand size (normally seven). As soon as the end of combat step ends.2.1. (See rule 410. all “at end of combat” abilities trigger and go on the stack. Otherwise.2. “Cleanup Step. 312. Cleanup Step 314. Once the stack is empty and all players pass. If “at end of turn”-triggered abilities are created or if cards with “at end of turn”-triggered abilities come into play after preexisting ones have already gone on the stack at the beginning of the end of turn step. As the end of turn step begins. all abilities that trigger “at end of turn” go on the stack. “Handling Triggered Abilities. 311. This only applies to triggered abilities that say “at end of turn. End Phase 312.2. End of Combat Step 311. another cleanup step begins. “Handling Triggered Abilities. (See rule 410. . 313.1. 313. The end phase consists of two steps: end of turn and cleanup.” It doesn’t apply to continuous effects whose durations say “until end of turn” or “this turn. After discarding.1.”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. In other words. 314. End of Turn Step 313. As the end of combat step begins.”) 314. the following actions happen simultaneously: all damage is removed from permanents and all “until end of turn” and “this turn” effects end (this game action doesn’t use the stack). the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities.”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities.3. 314. the combat phase is over and the postcombat main phase begins.” (See rule 314.

enchantment. Abilities can also be granted to objects by effects or rules. “Stack. Reminder text and flavor text always appear in italics. As the final part of an instant or sorcery spell’s resolution. the card becomes a permanent and is put into the in-play zone under the control of the spell’s controller. even if it has no card associated with it. unless the instructions can only be applied at some other time. or any abilities that apply while the spell is on the stack (see rule 401. Static abilities generate continuous effects. Text itself is never an effect.6.5). 401. Any object can have static abilities that apply while the object is in a zone from which it can be played. the card is put into its owner’s graveyard. and triggered abilities generate effects when they resolve.7. These abilities are instructions that are followed when the spells resolve. any abilities that define the zone from which it can be played (see rule 401. is countered (see rule 414. or otherwise leaves the stack.2. A spell stops being a spell when it resolves (see rule 413. but are not limited to. See rule 409. and cost reductions.3. These include. An object’s abilities are defined in the object’s text box (if it has one) or by the effect that created the object. activated abilities. Reminder text and flavor text are not abilities. 400. General 400. 401. Spells on the Stack 401. (See rule 413. Abilities generate effects. just like any other objects.” 401. Any object can have static abilities that allow it to be played from a zone other than a player’s hand. These include restrictions on playing the object and abilities that allow the object to be played at a time that it otherwise could not or in a manner that it otherwise could not.1a A copy of a spell is also a spell. These abilities are active while the object is in that zone. is countered. 401. (See rule 217. 401. additional costs. Spells. Abilities.2. Example: Some abilities that are not followed when the spell resolves are activated abilities or triggered abilities. Example: A played creature card is a creature spell until it resolves. A card on the stack is a spell. “Resolving Spells and Activated Abilities.6).1. and Effects 400.6. Instant and sorcery spells have abilities. As the final part of an artifact.4). 401. “Resolving Spells and Abilities”).”) 401. alternative costs. 401. any abilities that apply while the spell is in a zone from which it can be played (see rule 401. An ability is something an object does or can do.4. or planeswalker spell’s resolution. As the first step of being played.4. or leaves the stack. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.1.5. the card becomes a spell and goes on the stack from the zone it was played from (usually the player’s hand). creature. “Countering Spells and Abilities”). Any spell can have static abilities that apply while the spell is on the stack.”) If any spell . Spells.

7. the card is put into its owner’s graveyard as part of the resolution of the countering spell or ability. (See rule 416. An additional cost or alternative cost to play a card is an ability of the card. Otherwise. Abilities can be countered by effects that specifically counter abilities. an ability exists independently of its source as an ability on the stack. In these cases. and therefore can’t be countered by anything that counters only spells.” “gains. In both instances. 402. 402. 402. Abilities can generate one-shot effects or continuous effects. they do so when the words “has. Example: “[This creature] can’t block” is an ability. 402.4. Abilities of all other objects usually function only while that object is in play. Some effects are replacement effects or prevention effects.2. Aside from the abilities that are followed as instructions while an instant or sorcery spell is resolving (see rule 401.8b An ability that states which zones it functions in functions only from . its last known information is used. Abilities of an instant or sorcery usually function only while the object is on the stack.is countered. there are three general categories of abilities: activated.3.8. Once activated or triggered.) 402. they can also affect other objects and/or players. An ability is text on an object that’s not reminder text or flavor text (see rule 400.5. 402.” “have. Activated and triggered abilities aren’t spells. 402. Activated and triggered abilities can also be mana abilities.1. “Keyword Abilities”).” or “gain” are used. The exceptions are as follows: 402.1). Note that some abilities cause a source to do something (for example. The result of following such an instruction is an effect.8a Characteristic-defining abilities function everywhere. Aside from certain defined abilities that may be strung together on a single line (see rule 502. any activated or triggered ability that references information about the source because the effect needs to be divided checks that information when the ability is put onto the stack. 402. “Prodigal Sorcerer deals 1 damage to target creature or player”) rather than the ability doing anything directly.”) Abilities can affect the objects they’re on. even outside the game. An object may have multiple abilities.3). Abilities can grant abilities to other objects or to the objects they’re on. This may or may not produce more effects than a single instance. Static abilities don’t use the stack and thus can’t be countered at all. Destruction or removal of the source after that time won’t affect the ability. if the source is no longer in play. triggered. and static. “Effects. each paragraph break in a card’s text marks a separate ability. 402. Abilities 402. as well as by the rules (for example. Abilities can be beneficial or detrimental. Each instance functions independently. an ability with one or more targets is countered if all its targets become illegal). An object may also have multiple instances of the same ability.6. (See rule 405. refer to the specific ability for more information.2. it will check that information when it resolves.

including whether it’s banned or restricted.wizards.” A player may play this ability only if Necrosavant is in his or her graveyard. “Haunt. “Enchanted creature has ‘This creature is an . Play this ability only during your upkeep. However. that ability can be removed by another effect.” The first trigger condition triggers from the inplay zone and the second trigger condition functions from the removed-from-the-game zone. Such an ability modifies not just the Comprehensive Rules. 402. If an effect defines a characteristic of the object (“[permanent] is [characteristic value]”).) Example: An effect reads. An effect that sets an object’s characteristic.”) 402.5.8g A trigger condition that can trigger only in a zone other than the in-play zone triggers from that zone. Other trigger conditions of the same triggered ability may function in different zones. An effect that adds an ability will state that the object “gains” or “has” that ability. unless that ability’s trigger condition.51. 402. Effects can add or remove abilities of objects. but also the Magic: The Gathering DCI Floor Rules and any other documents that set the deck construction rules for a specific Constructed format. Sacrifice a creature: Return Necrosavant from your graveyard to play. 402. Example: Absolver Thrull has the ability “When Absolver Thrull comes into play or the creature it haunts is put into a graveyard. is different from an ability granted by an effect.those zones. “Interaction of Continuous Effects. An effect that removes an ability will state that the object “loses” that ability.8i An ability that modifies the rules for deck construction functions before the game begins. When an object “gains” or “has” an ability. 402. (See rule 418.8e An object’s ability that modifies how it comes into play functions as that object is coming into play. or a previous part of that ability’s cost or effect.9.8d An object’s ability that restricts or modifies how that object can be played functions in any zone from which it could be played.10. 402.8c An ability of an object that modifies what it costs to play functions on the stack. in general the most recent one prevails. (See rule 502. 402. Effects that remove an ability remove all instances of it.com/Magic/TCG/Events. or simply states a quality of that object.8f An object’s activated ability that has a cost that can’t be paid while the object is in play functions from any zone in which its cost can be paid. Example: Necrosavant says “{3}{B}{B}. The current Magic: The Gathering DCI Floor Rules can be found at http://www. it’s not granting an ability.6i.aspx? x=dci/doccenter/home. See rule 419. specifies that the object is put into that zone. such an ability can’t affect the format legality of a card. (See rule 405.”) 402. destroy target enchantment. 402.2.8h An ability whose cost or effect specifies that it moves the object it’s on out of a particular zone functions only in that zone. If two or more effects add and remove the same ability.

’” This effect grants an ability to the creature that can be removed by other effects.1.” and rule 410. If it is. It doesn’t apply to other. Triggered Abilities 404. “Play this ability only once each turn”). “Enchanted creature is an artifact creature. that restriction applies only to that ability as acquired from that object. though the ability isn’t actually a sorcery. 404. Note that the word “if” has only its normal English meaning anywhere else in the text of a card. it goes on the stack the next time a player would receive priority.” “whenever. 403. . On resolution.2. Ignore this rule for creatures with haste (see rule 502. 404. this rule only applies to an “if” that immediately follows a trigger condition. Once an ability has triggered. [effect].] [Play restriction (if any).artifact creature. Activated abilities that read “Play this ability only any time you could play an instant” mean the player must follow the timing rules for playing an instant spell. if [condition]. It doesn’t grant an ability.3. a triggered ability automatically “triggers” each time its trigger event occurs.5. “Handling Triggered Abilities.]” The activation cost is everything before the colon (:). Instead. .4a If an object acquires an activated ability with a restriction on its use from another object. “Timing. 403. 403. Only an object’s controller (or its owner. which defines the trigger event. . the ability triggers. Another effect reads.” 404. the ability rechecks the condition. 403. A triggered ability may read “When/Whenever/At .4. the ability does nothing. An ability’s activation cost must be paid by the player who is playing it. Activated Abilities 403.” or “at.5).1.3. This rule is referred to as the “intervening ‘if’ clause” rule.” This effect simply defines a characteristic of the creature. Activated abilities that read “Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery” mean the player must follow the timing rules for playing a sorcery spell. A triggered ability begins with the word “when. 403.1. . though the ability isn’t actually an instant. and the Stack.” The phrase containing one of these words is the trigger condition. If an activated ability has a restriction on its use (for example.2. A creature’s activated ability with the tap symbol ({T}) or the untap symbol ({Q}) in its activation cost can’t be played unless the creature has been under its controller’s control since the start of his or her most recent turn. identically worded abilities. Triggered abilities aren’t played. If the condition isn’t true at either of those times. so effects that would cause the creature to lose its abilities wouldn’t cause the enchanted creature to stop being an artifact.” The ability checks for the stated condition to be true when the trigger event occurs. the restriction continues to apply to that object even if its controller changes. 403. An activated ability is written as “[Cost]: [Effect. See rule 408. if it doesn’t have a controller) can play its activated ability unless the object specifically says otherwise. Priority.

404. “Linked Abilities. draw a card” is a static ability linked to a triggered ability. the delayed ability never triggers. the ability waits for the next time that creature untaps.” 404.” Such abilities apply only while the ability is on a permanent in play. A delayed triggered ability will contain “when. 404.1. Similarly. Static Abilities 405. Example: An ability that reads “Reveal the first card you draw each turn. rather than at the beginning. Example: Part of an effect reads “When this creature leaves play. The source of a delayed triggered ability created by another ability is the same as the source of that other ability. Example: An ability that reads “Destroy that creature at end of turn” will destroy the permanent even if it’s no longer a creature during the end of turn step. 405. even if its trigger event occurred just beforehand. An effect may create a delayed triggered ability that can do something at a later time. That means a delayed triggered ability won’t trigger until it has actually been created. Some objects have a static ability that’s linked to a triggered ability.” or “at. In this case. abilities that create a one-shot effect that applies to an object in a particular zone will fail if the object leaves that zone. Example: If an effect reads “When this creature becomes untapped” and the named creature becomes untapped before the effect resolves. 404.” “whenever.4e The source of a delayed triggered ability created by a spell is that spell.4. Whenever you reveal a basic land card this way. A static ability does something all the time rather than being activated or triggered. 404. Other events that happen earlier may make the trigger event impossible. Example: An ability that reads “Remove this creature from the game at end of turn” won’t do anything if the creature leaves play before the end of turn step. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the same as the controller of the spell or ability that created it.4b A delayed triggered ability will trigger only once—the next time its trigger event occurs—unless it has a stated duration. 404. with the static ability first.4c A delayed triggered ability that refers to a particular object still affects it even if the object changes characteristics. followed by the triggered ability.”) These objects combine both abilities into one paragraph. A very few objects have triggered abilities which are written with the trigger condition in the middle of the ability.5. such as “this turn. unless the ability is covered by rule .4a Delayed triggered abilities come from spells or other abilities that create them on resolution.4d A delayed triggered ability that refers to a particular permanent will fail if the permanent leaves play (even if it returns again before the specified time).” although that word won’t usually begin the ability. (See rule 407.” but the creature in question leaves play before the spell or ability creating the effect resolves.404. even if that player no longer controls its source. The ability isn’t played—it just “exists.

2. power. and 5) It does not set the values of such characteristics only if certain conditions are met. “Actions That Don’t Use the Stack. A mana ability can generate other effects at the same time it produces mana. 406. Some abilities produce mana based on the type of mana another permanent or permanents could produce. type line. 406. 405. 406. Characteristic-defining abilities function in all zones. 405. They’re played and resolved exactly like any other spells.” 406.3.2a A static ability is a characteristic-defining ability if it meets the following criteria: 1) It defines an object’s colors. See rule 411. 4) It is not an ability that an object grants to itself. but they don’t go on the stack.7. 406.1. it produces no mana instead. 3) It does not directly affect the characteristics of any other objects. The type of mana a permanent “could produce” at any time includes any type of mana that an ability of that permanent would generate if the ability were to resolve at that time. Abilities that produce mana but trigger from events other than playing mana abilities do use the stack. Example: A permanent has an ability that reads “{T}: Add {G} to your mana pool for each creature you control. If a mana ability would produce one or more mana of an undefined type. Example: Meteor Crater has the ability “{T}: Choose a color of a permanent you control. 2) It is printed on the card it affects.” This is still a mana ability even if you control no creatures or if the permanent is already tapped. It conveys information about an object’s characteristics that would normally be found elsewhere on that object (such as in its mana cost. A mana ability can be activated or triggered. taking into account any applicable replacement effects in any possible order.8. They also function outside the game. Mana Abilities 406.2.” If you control no colored permanents.4. 406. Add one mana of that color to your mana pool. A characteristic-defining ability is a kind of static ability. so they can’t be countered or responded to. or power/toughness box).6.5. Mana abilities are played and resolved like other abilities. So do abilities that don’t produce mana but trigger on playing mana abilities.2. Spells that put mana into a player’s mana pool aren’t mana abilities. or it was acquired by the object it affects as the result of a copy effect. A mana ability remains a mana ability even if the game state doesn’t allow it to produce mana. subtypes.402. or toughness.” and rule 408. 406. A mana ability is either (a) an activated ability without a target that could put mana into a player’s mana pool when it resolves or (b) a triggered ability without a target that triggers from a mana ability and could produce additional mana. it was granted to the token it affects by the effect that created the token. Ignore . “Playing Mana Abilities. playing Meteor Crater’s mana ability produces no mana.

if you control a Forest and an Exotic Orchard. The second ability refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone that were moved there as a direct result of a replacement event caused by the first ability. If so. “Replacement Effects.2a If an object has an activated or triggered ability printed on it that removes one or more cards from the game. playing Exotic Orchard’s mana ability will produce no mana.” those abilities are linked. 407. and your opponent controls an Exotic Orchard. However.6. these two abilities are linked: the second refers only to actions that were taken or objects that were affected by the first. If that permanent wouldn’t produce any mana under these conditions. and another ability printed on it that refers either to “the removed cards” or to cards “removed from the game with [this object].whether any costs of the ability couldn’t be paid. and not by any other ability.1. 407.2. there’s no type of mana it could produce. The second can refer only to objects put into play as a result of the first. 407. The triggered ability refers only to actions taken as a result of the static ability. Example: Exotic Orchard has the ability “{T}: Add to your mana pool one mana of any color that a land an opponent controls could produce.2f If an object has a kicker ability printed on it. See rule 419.2c If an object has an activated or triggered ability printed on it that puts one or more objects into play.” these abilities are linked. and another ability printed on it that refers to objects “put into play with [this object]. There are different kinds of linked abilities.” or “the named card. An object may have two abilities printed on it such that one of them causes actions to be taken or objects to be affected and the other one directly refers to those actions or objects.” these abilities are linked. 407. 407. and another ability printed on it that refers to whether the kicker cost was paid. See rule 404.2d If an object has an ability printed on it that causes a player to “choose a [value]” or “name a card.” “the last chosen [value].2e If an object has both a static ability and a triggered ability printed on it in the same paragraph. The second ability refers only to a choice made as a result of the first ability.” 407. 407. 407.” If your opponent controls no lands. Linked Abilities 407. then each Exotic Orchard could produce {G}.2b If an object has an ability printed on it that generates a replacement effect which causes one or more cards to be removed from the game. The second refers only to whether the kicker cost listed in the first was paid when the object was played as a spell.” and another ability printed on it that refers to “the chosen [value]. or no type of mana can be defined this way. those abilities are linked. The same is true if you and your opponent each control no lands other than Exotic Orchards. and another ability printed on it that refers either to “the removed cards” or to cards “removed from the game with [this object].” these abilities are linked. If a kicker ability lists . The second ability refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone that were moved there as a result of the first ability. those abilities are linked.5.

the abilities will be similarly linked to one another on that object even though they weren’t printed on that object. The player with priority may play a spell or ability. and then plays the return-to-play ability. 408. and the Stack 408. “Kicker. Example: Arc-Slogger has the ability “{R}: Remove the top ten cards of your library from the game: Arc-Slogger deals 2 damage to target creature or player. or pass. they resolve as a single event. Timing of Spells and Abilities 408.1b Spells and activated abilities are played by players (if they choose) using a system of priority. If all players pass in succession (that . if any new state-based effects have been generated. “State-Based Effects”). plays it. Timing.” 407. or pass. Each of those abilities will specify which kicker cost it refers to. Priority. plays the remove-from-game ability. If an object acquires a pair of linked abilities as part of the same effect. They can’t be linked to any other ability. Creature cards Quicksilver Elemental removed from the game with Arc-Slogger’s ability can’t be returned.” Sisters of Stone Death has the ability “{B}{G}: Remove from the game target creature blocking or blocked by Sisters of Stone Death” and the ability “{2}{B}: Put a creature card removed from the game with Sisters of Stone Death into play under your control. “Champion. after any game actions are dealt with and abilities that trigger at the beginning of that phase or step go on the stack.1c The active player gets priority at the beginning of most phases and steps. See rule 502.multiple costs. See rule 502. “Handling Triggered Abilities”).3. Each time a player would get priority. No player gets priority during the untap step and players usually don’t get priority during the cleanup step (see rule 314. Then. the next player in turn order receives priority. 408. This process repeats until no more applicable state-based effects are generated. If he or she plays a spell or ability.72.21. or takes a special action.” 407.1. Then triggered abilities are added to the stack (see rule 410. Then the player who would have received priority does so and may play a spell or ability. only the creature card Quicksilver Elemental removed from the game with Sisters of Stone Death’s ability can be returned to play. regardless of what other abilities the object may currently have or may have had in the past.” If a player has Quicksilver Elemental gain Arc-Slogger’s ability. it will have multiple abilities linked to it. as governed by the rules for that phase or step. 408. all applicable state-based effects resolve first as a single event (see rule 420.” Quicksilver Elemental has the ability “{U}: Quicksilver Elemental gains all activated abilities of target creature until end of turn. These steps repeat in order until no further state-based effects or triggered abilities are generated.1a Spells and activated abilities can be played only at certain times and follow a set of rules for doing so. otherwise.3).2g The two abilities represented by the champion keyword are linked abilities. take a special action. the player again receives priority. while other kinds of abilities and effects are automatically generated by the game rules. take a special action (such as playing a land). then has Quicksilver Elemental gain Sisters of Stone Death’s abilities.

it goes on top of the stack.2j). “Static Abilities. Each time a player would receive priority. ignoring continuous effects (see rule 408.2i).4). they’re the result of spells and abilities resolving.1g Combat damage goes on the stack once it’s been assigned.1e When a spell is played. (See rule 405. “Lands. 408. it goes on top of the stack. 408.1d A player may play an instant spell or an activated ability any time he or she has priority.2d Playing a land is a special action consisting of putting that land into play. turning a face-down creature face up (see rule 408. nothing actually happens at the time the abilities trigger.2b Static abilities continuously generate effects and don’t go on the stack.6. and removing a card with suspend in your hand from the game (see rule 408. that player gets priority after this special action.” and rule 419. the top object on the stack resolves. When an activated ability is played. The special actions are playing a land (see rule 408. and these may go on the stack when they trigger (see rule 404.”) . If a player had priority before a mana ability was played. Then the player gets priority and may play spells or abilities. however.1f Triggered abilities can trigger at any time.1i Special actions don’t use the stack. stopping delayed triggered abilities from triggering or ending continuous effects (see rule 408. Spells other than instants may be played during a player’s main phase. Actions That Don’t Use the Stack 408. including during the playing or resolution of a spell or another ability.1h Static abilities aren’t played—they continuously affect the game. 408. If a mana ability produces both mana and another effect. 408. “Continuous Effects. when that player has priority and the stack is empty. both the mana and the other effect happen immediately. If a player had priority before playing a land. (See rule 212. then the active player receives priority. If the stack is empty when all players pass in succession. “Combat Damage Step.2e Mana abilities resolve immediately.2k). that player gets priority after it resolves. see rule 310. “Handling Triggered Abilities.” 408.2d). For more information. Effects may create delayed triggered abilities.2. when he or she has priority and the stack is empty. the phase or step ends and the next one begins. “Mana Abilities.2c State-based effects (see rule 420) resolve whenever a player would receive priority as long as the required game condition is true. 408.2h). 408. if all players pass without taking any actions in between passing). each ability that has triggered is put on the stack (if it hasn’t already been put on the stack). 408. However.”) 408.” rule 418. (See rule 410.”) 408. 408. Priority doesn’t apply to them.2a Effects don’t go on the stack. “Replacement and Prevention Effects.”) A player can choose to perform this special action only during a main phase of his or her turn.is. (See rule 406.

1.2k A player who has a card with suspend in his or her hand may remove that card from the game. usually to end a continuous effect or to stop a delayed triggered ability.1).408.”) A player can remove a card with suspend in his or her hand from the game only when he or she has priority. removing damage from permanents and ending “until end of turn” effects during the cleanup step (see rule 314. 408. the spell was played illegally.1). a player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below. Playing Spells and Activated Abilities 409. declaring blockers at the start of the declare blockers step (see rule 309.1a The player announces that he or she is playing the spell or activated ability. “Suspend. 408. and its controller is the player who played it. If. and no other characteristics. that card (or that copy of a card) physically moves from the zone it’s in to the stack. If a spell is being played. at any point during the playing of a spell or ability.2g Game actions don’t use the stack.3). Playing a spell or activated ability follows the steps listed below. This is a special action. A player can stop a delayed triggered ability from triggering or end a continuous effect only if the ability or effect allows it and only when he or she has priority. 408.” are simply read and followed as applicable.1). untapping at the start of the untap step (see rule 302.2h The controller of a face-down permanent may turn it face up. it’s created on the stack as an object that’s not a card. That player gets priority after this special action. The player who took the action gets priority after this special action. the card that has that ability is revealed. This is a special action.”) A player can turn a face-down permanent face up only when he or she has priority. the game returns to the moment before that spell or ability was played (see rule 422.59.2f Characteristic-defining abilities. (See also rule 405. the ability has the text of the ability that created it. The game actions are phasing in and out at the start of the untap step (see rule 302.1).1). This is a special action.) 408.2i Some effects allow a player to take an action at a later time. and mana burn as each phase ends (see rule 300.2). This is a special action. That player gets priority after this special action.2j Some effects from static abilities allow a player to take an action to ignore the effect from that ability for a duration.2. “Handling Illegal Actions”). (See rule 502. The player who took the action gets priority after this special action. “Face-Down Spells and Permanents. drawing a card at the start of the draw step (see rule 304. (See rule 504. the active player discarding down to his or her maximum hand size at the start of the cleanup step (see rule 314.2). If an activated ability is being played. Announcements and payments can’t be altered after they’ve been made. The spell or ability remains . 409. A player can take an action to ignore an effect only when he or she has priority. 408. If an activated ability is being played from a hidden zone. declaring attackers at the start of the declare attackers step (see rule 308. It has all the characteristics of the card (or the copy of a card) associated with it. such as “[This object] is red. On the stack. 409. Its controller is the player who played the ability. in order.

Some effects may increase or reduce the cost to pay. Some cards list additional or alternative costs in their text. or convoke costs).on the stack until it’s countered or resolves. the player announces the value of that variable at this time.1c The player checks whether the spell or ability targets one or more targets only if an alternative. tapping permanents. You can’t apply two alternative methods of playing or two alternative costs to a single spell or ability. A spell or ability can’t be played unless the required number of legal targets are chosen for it. he or she reveals those cards in his or her hand. object. If a cost that will be paid as the spell or ability is being played includes hybrid mana symbols. 409. can target the same artifact land twice because it uses the word “target” in multiple places. otherwise. then announces his or her choice of an appropriate player. Usually this is just the mana cost (for spells) or activation cost (for abilities). An ability that reads “Destroy target artifact and target land.” then the same target can’t be chosen twice. Costs may include paying mana. or other special costs that will be paid as it’s being played (such as buyback. Example: If an ability reads “Tap two target creatures. and/or zones each become a target of that spell or ability.1f). 409.” “Choose two —.” or “[specified player] chooses one —”). the spell or ability is played as though it did not have those targets.40). the player announces the nonhybrid equivalent cost he or she intends to pay. 409. The same target can’t be chosen multiple times for any one instance of the word “target” on the spell or ability. All of a spell or ability’s targets are chosen at the same time.1b If the spell or ability is modal (uses the phrase “Choose one —. or zone can be chosen once for each instance of the word “target” (as long as it fits the targeting criteria). 409. player. Previously made choices (such as choosing to play a spell with flashback from his or her graveyard or choosing to play a creature with morph face down) may restrict the player’s options when making these choices. or zone for each of those targets. . Its controller will need to choose those targets only if he or she announced the intention to pay that cost or chose that mode. Each of these targets must receive at least one of whatever is being divided. If the player wishes to splice any cards onto the spell (see rule 502. The chosen players. the same object. the player first announces how many targets he or she will choose (if the spell or ability has a variable number of targets). the player announces his or her intentions to pay any or all of those costs (see rule 409.1e If the spell or ability requires the player to divide or distribute an effect (such as damage or counters) among one or more targets.1f The player determines the total cost of the spell or ability.” however. the ability requires two different legal targets. If the spell or ability has a variable cost that will be paid as it’s being played (such as an {X} in its mana cost). objects. or special cost (such as a buyback or kicker cost) is paid for it. If the spell or ability has alternative.1d If the spell or ability requires any targets. sacrificing permanents. or if a particular mode is chosen for it. the player announces the mode choice. the player announces the division. or may provide other alternative costs.” “Choose one or both —. kicker. 409. If the spell or ability uses the word “target” in multiple places. additional. additional.

which costs {3}{B} and has an additional cost of sacrificing a creature. A player can’t begin to play a spell or activated ability that’s prohibited from being played by an effect.4. they have no effect. “Playing Mana Abilities”).2.” 410. it becomes “locked in. and effects that prevent abilities from . not {3}{B}. It can’t be reduced to less than {0}. 409. Because a spell’s total cost is “locked in” before payments are actually made. and so on. and minus all cost reductions. Handling Triggered Abilities 410. 409. it is considered to be {0}. or alternative cost (as determined in rule 409. Once the total cost is determined.1a–h are completed. 409.2b If the spell or ability instructs its controller and another player to do something at the same time as the spell or ability is being played. 409. Mana abilities must be played before costs are paid. and the face-down spell would not be prohibited.3. the player then has a chance to play mana abilities (see rule 411. Some spells and abilities specify that one of their controller’s opponents does something the controller would normally do while it’s being played. then the other player. 409. 409.4a If an effect allows a card that’s prohibited from being played to be played face down. If the spell or ability’s controller had priority before playing it. even though you’re sacrificing the Familiar. 409.1. Unpayable costs can’t be paid.4.1i Once the steps described in 409. Because they aren’t played. the spell’s controller goes first. the opponent does so when the spell or ability’s controller normally would do so. Partial payments are not allowed. In these cases.1b). Example: You play Death Bomb. activation cost. triggered abilities can trigger even when it isn’t legal to play spells and abilities. See rule 504. the spell or ability’s controller decides which of those opponents will make the choice. Playing a spell or ability that alters costs won’t do anything to spells and abilities that are already on the stack. Any abilities that trigger on a spell or ability being played or put onto the stack trigger at this time. the spell or ability becomes played. whose effect makes your black spells cost {1} less to play. plus all additional costs and cost increases.2a If there is more than one opponent who could make such a choice. The total cost is the mana cost. you pay {2}{B}. 409.discarding cards. “Face-Down Spells and Permanents. If the mana component of the total cost is reduced to nothing by cost reduction effects. 409.1h The player pays the total cost in any order. that spell can be played face down. You sacrifice Thunderscape Familiar. such as choose a mode or choose targets. he or she gets priority.” If effects would change the total cost after this time.1g If the total cost includes a mana payment. This is an exception to rule 103.

. Each triggered ability on the stack has the text of the ability that created it.7. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities”). the “unless” part of the ability is dealt with when the ability resolves. However.5. . 410.being played don’t affect them.6. When a phase or step begins. that ability triggers.” If someone plays a spell that destroys all lands. 410.4a If a triggered ability is modal (that is.4. (See rule 103.3. but it’s automatically put on the stack by its controller as soon as a player would receive priority.2. 410. you may draw a card”). the ability does not trigger. the controller of the ability makes any choices that would be required while playing an activated ability. the ability will trigger once for each land put into the graveyard during the spell’s resolution. all abilities that trigger “at the beginning of” that phase or step trigger. Example: A permanent has an ability whose trigger condition reads. but the object with that triggered ability is at no time visible to all players. each player. puts triggered abilities he or she controls on the stack in any order he or she chooses. Then the appropriate player gets priority. See also rule 410. Whenever a game event or game state matches a triggered ability’s trigger event. When a triggered ability goes on the stack. the ability is removed from the stack. or if a rule or a continuous effect otherwise makes the ability illegal. it uses the phrase “Choose one —” or “[specified player] chooses one —”). the ability is simply removed from the stack. and no other characteristics. “Whenever a land is put into a graveyard from play. its controller announces the mode choice when he or she puts the ability on the stack.) Then players once again check for and resolve state-based effects until none are generated. . then abilities that triggered during this process go on the stack. following the same procedure (see rule 409. regardless of whether their controller intends to exercise the ability’s option or not. it can trigger repeatedly if one event contains multiple occurrences. Likewise. 410. Some triggered abilities’ effects are optional (they contain “may. If no mode can be chosen. unless it’s a delayed triggered ability.4. for example).” as in “At the beginning of your upkeep. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. An event that’s . 410. 410. If a choice is required when the triggered ability goes on the stack but no legal choices can be made for it. The choice is made when the ability resolves.9.2a If a triggered ability’s trigger condition is met. If one of the modes would be illegal to play (due to an inability to choose legal targets. If multiple abilities have triggered since the last time a player received priority. These abilities go on the stack when they trigger. An ability triggers only if its trigger event actually occurs. . in APNAP order. The ability is controlled by the player who controlled its source at the time it triggered. that mode can’t be chosen. An ability triggers only once each time its trigger event occurs. This process repeats until no new state-based effects are generated and no abilities trigger. The ability doesn’t do anything when it triggers. 410. 410. triggered abilities that have an effect “unless” something is true or a player chooses to do something will go on the stack normally.

the ability triggers if the creature blocks or is blocked by that many creatures when blockers are declared. the ability does nothing. 410. Triggered abilities with a condition directly following the trigger event (for example.8.” triggers only once each combat for that creature. depending on the wording of the ability. This applies to abilities that trigger on a creature blocking or being blocked by at least a certain number of creatures as well. (This rule applies even if the object leaves the zone and returns again before the ability resolves. It won’t trigger if the creature becomes blocked by an effect rather than a creature. 410. It will also trigger if an effect causes a creature to block the attacking creature. or because it is in a zone that is hidden from a player. 410. . . Example: An ability that triggers on damage being dealt won’t trigger if all the damage is prevented.9b An ability that reads “Whenever [this creature] blocks a creature. “Legal Attacks and Blocks.) The . the part of the ability attempting to do something to the object will fail to do anything. even if it blocks multiple creatures. even if it’s blocked by multiple creatures.” Many abilities with zone-change triggers attempt to do something to that object after it changes zones. because it left the zone before the ability resolved. Note that this mirrors the check for legal targets. Some abilities trigger when creatures block or are blocked in combat. . these abilities look for the object in the zone that it moved to. Effects that add or remove blockers can also cause such abilities to trigger. It will trigger if the creature becomes blocked by an effect rather than a creature. if it isn’t. the ability doesn’t trigger. but only if it hadn’t already been blocked that combat.9. [effect]”). . 410.” triggers once for each creature that blocks the named creature.9c An ability that reads “Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked.” triggers only once each combat for that creature. It triggers only if the creature is declared as a blocker.10. 410. The ability could be unable to find the object because the object never entered the specified zone. (See rules 306–311 and rule 500. if [condition].9a An ability that reads “Whenever [this creature] blocks. Note that this rule doesn’t apply to any triggered ability with an “if” condition elsewhere within its text. .prevented or replaced won’t trigger anything. such as a library or an opponent’s hand. .”) They may trigger once or repeatedly.9d An ability that reads “Whenever a creature blocks [this creature]. It triggers only if the creature is declared as a blocker.” triggers once for each attacking creature the creature with the ability blocks. During resolution. 410. It will also trigger if an effect causes a creature to block the attacking creature. . “When/Whenever/At [trigger]. even if it had already been blocked that combat. 410. check for the condition to be true as part of the trigger event. 410. This rule is referred to as the “intervening ‘if’ clause” rule. Trigger events that involve objects changing zones are called “zonechange triggers. . If the object is unable to be found in the zone it went to.9e If an ability triggers when a creature blocks or becomes blocked by a particular number of creatures. The ability checks the condition again on resolution. . . . If it’s not satisfied. .

.10a Comes-into-play abilities trigger when a permanent enters the in-play zone. . the effect makes the land card into a creature the moment it enters play.” or “Whenever [something] is put into a graveyard from play. all permanents in play (including the newcomers) are checked for any comes-into-play triggers that match the event. . may have moved to a hand or library. or may no longer be controlled by the appropriate player.” Someone plays a spell that destroys all artifacts. Continuous effects don’t apply before the permanent is in play.10c Leaves-play abilities trigger when a permanent leaves the in-play zone.10d Normally. . . and the appearance of objects.” “As [this permanent] comes into play .10e). . “ or “Whenever a [type] comes into play. 410. but aren’t limited to. .” An ability that attempts to do something to the card that left play checks for it only in the first zone that it went to. . so the comes-into-play ability won’t trigger.” or “[This permanent] comes into play tapped. . so it would trigger abilities that trigger when a creature comes into play. . . “When [this object] leaves play. 410. 410. “When [this object] comes into play. . . if an effect reads “All creatures lose all abilities” and a creature card with a comes-into-play triggered ability enters play. prior to the event rather than afterward. . you gain 1 life. objects that exist immediately after an event are checked to see if the event matched any trigger conditions. even if an object is put into that zone from play. . . 410.” Such text is a static ability—not a triggered ability—whose effect occurs as part of the event that puts the permanent into play. abilities that trigger when an object that all players can see is put into a hand or library. Continuous effects that exist at that time are used to determine what the trigger conditions are and what the objects involved in the event look like. . . abilities that trigger specifically when an object becomes unattached. . These are written.” Each time an event puts one or more permanents into play. Leaves–play abilities. Conversely. some triggered abilities must be treated specially because the object with the ability may no longer be in play. An ability that triggers when a card is put into a certain zone “from anywhere” is never treated as a leaves-play ability. that effect will cause it to lose its abilities the moment it enters play. . 410.” “[This permanent] comes into play as . The game has to “look back in time” to determine if these abilities trigger. however (see rule 410. . and enchantments. The permanent is never in play with its unmodified characteristics. and abilities that trigger when a player loses control of an object will trigger based on their existence.most common zone-change triggers are comes-into-play triggers and leavesplay triggers. even though the artifact goes to its owner’s graveyard at the same time as the creatures. . creatures. These are written as. Example: If an effect reads “All lands are creatures” and a land card is played. The artifact’s ability triggers twice. However. . Example: Two creatures are in play along with an artifact that has the ability “Whenever a creature is put into a graveyard from play.10e Some permanents have text that reads “[This permanent] comes into play with .10b Continuous effects that modify characteristics of a permanent do so the moment the permanent is in play (and not before then).

1b–i. that player adds one mana of that type to his or her mana pool. or has otherwise left the stack. 410. rather than triggering when an event occurs. 411. the additional mana is added to the player’s mana pool immediately and can be used to pay for the spell. (See rule 408. See rule 102. the ability will trigger once and won’t trigger again until it has resolved. Some triggered abilities trigger specifically when a player loses the game. (Note that state triggers aren’t the same as state-based effects. or a Game Loss awarded by a judge in a tournament. following the steps in rules 409. such as a player controlling no permanents of a particular card type. 411. Handling Static Abilities 412. A player may play an activated mana ability whenever he or she has priority.12. These abilities trigger when a player loses or leaves the game.) A state-triggered ability doesn’t trigger again until the ability has resolved.1. a spell or ability.410. These triggered abilities can find the new object that permanent card became in the zone it moved to. “Whenever a player taps a land for mana.” If a player taps lands for mana while playing a spell. These abilities trigger as soon as the game state matches the condition. They’ll go onto the stack at the next available opportunity. These are called state triggers. or whenever he or she is playing a spell or activated ability that requires a mana payment.10f Some Auras have triggered abilities that trigger on the enchanted permanent leaving play. A player may also play one whenever a rule or effect asks for a mana payment. regardless of the reason: Due to a state-based effect. Playing Mana Abilities 411. To play a mana ability. without waiting for priority. has been countered. These effects last as long as the object with the static . Triggered mana abilities trigger when an activated mana ability is played. even in the middle of playing or resolving a spell or ability. then draw that many cards.3. These abilities resolve immediately after the mana ability that triggered them. A static ability may generate a continuous effect or a prevention or replacement effect.2e.” the ability will trigger during the spell’s resolution because the player’s hand was momentarily empty. If an activated or triggered ability produces both mana and another effect. a concession. “Whenever you have no cards in hand.11. the player announces that he or she is playing it and pays the activation cost.2. It resolves immediately after it is played and doesn’t go on the stack. Some triggered abilities trigger on a game state. the ability will trigger again. if the object with the ability is still in the same zone and the game state still matches its trigger condition. they can also find the new object the Aura card became in its owner’s graveyard after state-based effects have been checked.) 411. 412. See rule 217. Then. 410. both the mana and the other effect resolve immediately. draw a card.3.1c. Example: A permanent’s ability reads. Example: An enchantment reads.” If its controller plays the last card from his or her hand.1. If its controller plays a spell that reads “Discard your hand.

“You may play [this card] . Plagues Spores isn’t countered because the black creature land is still a legal target for the “target land” part of the spell. then Aura Blast is countered.” “You may pay [cost] rather than pay [this object]’s mana cost. . the object (a spell.” Suppose the same animated land is chosen both as the nonblack creature and as the land. Example: Plague Spores reads.1. Some static abilities apply while a spell is on the stack. Draw a card. 412.3. 412. Unlike spells and other kinds of abilities. . 413. . . Its controller doesn’t draw a card. or combat damage) on top of the stack resolves. . If an Aura. These are often abilities that refer to countering the spell. its last known information is used during this process. Some static abilities apply while a card is in any zone that you could play it from (usually your hand). If the source of an ability has left the zone it was in. “Destroy target enchantment. If a target is illegal. or Fortification is moved to a different object.” and “Play [this card] only . it will resolve normally.” and “You may play [this object] without paying its mana cost” work while a spell is on the stack.” If the enchantment isn’t a legal target during Aura Blast’s resolution (say. These steps are followed in the order listed below. Other changes to the game state may cause a target to no longer be legal. and Fortifications have static abilities that modify the object they’re attached to. 412. “Destroy target nonblack creature and target land. static abilities can’t use an object’s last known information for purposes of determining how their effects are applied. the spell or ability can’t perform any actions on it or make the target perform any actions. Example: Aura Blast is a white instant that reads. Each time all players pass in succession. and the color of the creature land is changed to black before Plague Spores resolves. Equipment. “Effects. if it has gained protection from white or left play).4. They can’t be regenerated. abilities that say “As an additional cost to play . 413. but those abilities don’t target that object.2. .ability remains in the appropriate zone.2b The controller of the spell or ability follows its instructions in the order . The spell or ability is countered if all its targets. . Many Auras.2a If the spell or ability specifies targets.5. .” are now illegal. Also. for example. These are limited to those that read.” 412.2. . affecting only the targets that are still legal. 413. A target that’s moved out of the zone it was in when it was targeted is illegal.”) 413. . . it checks whether the targets are still legal.” “You can’t play [this card] . for every instance of the word “target. the ability stops applying to the original object and starts modifying the new one. Equipment. If the spell or ability is not countered. (See rule 416. Resolving Spells and Abilities 413. Resolution of a spell or ability may involve several steps. its characteristics may have changed or an effect may have changed the text of the spell. an ability. .

It can’t be regenerated” or “Counter target spell. Then the choices for the second action are made in APNAP order. In these cases. when the effect is applied. he or she does so by putting that spell on top of the stack.2e If an effect gives a player the option to pay mana.”) Don’t just apply effects step by step without thinking in these cases—read the whole text and apply the rules of English to the text. that involve multiple players. However. “You may sacrifice a creature. The player can’t choose an option that’s illegal or impossible. the answer is determined only once. 413. and (2) static abilities can’t use last known information (see rule 412. The currently resolving spell or ability then continues to resolve.1a–i.3). the choices for the first action are made in APNAP order. “Destroy target creature. the effect uses the last known information the object had before leaving the zone it was expected to be in. and so on.6). There are two exceptions: (1) if an effect deals damage divided among some number of creatures or players. No other spells or abilities can normally be played during resolution. it’s the object as it exists—or as it most recently existed—that does it. it checks only for the value of the specified characteristics.2c If an effect offers any choices other than choices already made as part of playing the spell or ability. 413.2d Some spells and abilities have multiple steps or actions. If the ability text states that an object does something. and then that action is processed simultaneously. he or she may play mana abilities before taking that action. and then the first action is processed simultaneously. put it on top of its owner’s library instead of into its owner’s graveyard. replacement effects may modify these actions. denoted by separate sentences or clauses. If the effect requires information from a specific object. 413. If that spell is countered this way. which may include playing other spells this way. If you don’t. it still affects . the effect uses the current information of that object if it hasn’t changed zones. regardless of any related ones an object may also have.2h If an ability’s effect refers to a specific untargeted object that has been previously referred to by that ability’s cost or trigger condition. but one that reads “Destroy all nonblack creatures” doesn’t. not the ability. including the source of the ability itself.” A player who controls no creatures can’t choose the sacrifice option. In some cases. 413. otherwise.5).2f If an effect requires information from the game (such as the number of creatures in play).4. with the exception that having an empty library doesn’t make drawing a card an impossible action (see rule 423. the amount and division were determined as the spell or ability was put into the stack (see rule 402. later text on the card may modify the meaning of earlier text (for example. you lose 4 life. then continuing to play it by following the steps in rules 409. See rule 103.written. 413. Example: An effect that reads “Destroy all black creatures” destroys a white-and-black creature. the player announces these while applying the effect. Example: A spell’s instruction reads. 413.2g If an effect refers to certain characteristics. If an effect specifically instructs or allows a player to play a spell during resolution. except no player receives priority after it’s played.

1.that object even if the object has changed characteristics. then that creature ceases to be a creature before the triggered ability resolves. 413. An activated or triggered ability of an Aura permanent can be targeted. 413. player. 414. An Aura’s target is specified by its enchant keyword ability (see rule 502. instead it doesn’t.” An activated or triggered ability of an Equipment permanent can be targeted. but the spell is not. Clone comes into play as a copy of that creature. .” If a player plays Clone and chooses to copy Dryad Arbor (a land creature) while Worms of the Earth is in play. If a permanent spell resolves but its controller can’t put it into play. or zone. Neither Equipment spells nor Equipment permanents target anything.2i A spell is put into play from the stack under the control of the spell’s controller (for permanents) or is put into its owner’s graveyard from the stack (for instants and sorceries) as the final step of the spell’s resolution. The player who played the countered spell or ability doesn’t get a “refund” of any costs that were paid. the text of the spell or ability that created the effect will specify what to do in the event of a tie. Spells and abilities that are countered don’t resolve and none of their effects occur. 415. the permanent will still be returned to its owner’s hand. Targeted Spells and Abilities 415. Example: Wall of Tears says “Whenever Wall of Tears blocks a creature. The Magic game has no default for ties. “Equip.” where the “something” is a phrase that describes an object. return that creature to its owner’s hand at end of combat. Aura spells are always targeted. but that doesn’t make the card it’s on targeted. (If an activated or triggered ability of an instant or sorcery uses the word target.2. Countering Spells and Abilities 414. Example: Worms of the Earth says “If a land would come into play.2j If an effect could result in a tie. you may choose a creature in play. To counter a spell is to move the spell from the stack to its owner’s graveyard.2. that ability is targeted. see rule 502. “Enchant”). An Aura permanent doesn’t target anything. If you do.33. only the spell is targeted.” If Wall of Tears blocks a creature. or zone. Clone can’t come into play from the stack.1. 415.45. 415. The equip ability is targeted.” where the “something” is a phrase that describes an object. It’s put into its owner’s graveyard.” Clone says “As Clone comes into play. Countering an ability removes it from the stack. An activated or triggered ability is targeted if it uses the phrase “target [something]. target creature gets -1/-1 until end of turn. An ability is removed from the stack and ceases to exist as the final step of its resolution. An instant or sorcery spell is targeted if the text that will be followed when it resolves uses the phrase “target [something]. 414. player.” This triggered ability is targeted.) Example: A sorcery card has the ability “When you cycle this card.3. that player puts it into its owner’s graveyard.

Example: An effect that changes all lands into creatures won’t alter land cards in players’ graveyards. an effect that reads “Discard two cards” causes him or her to discard only that card.3. If an effect attempts to do something impossible. A one-shot effect does something just once and doesn’t have a duration. the original target is unchanged. Some one-shot effects instruct a player to do something later in the game (usually at a specific time) rather than when they resolve. 417.8. Changing a spell or ability’s target can’t change its mode.2. it may create one or more one-shot or continuous effects. State-based effects are not created by spells or abilities. This kind of effect . But an effect that says spells cost more to play will apply only to spells on the stack. Effects 416. 415. 415.” An activated or triggered ability of a Fortification permanent can be targeted.7.5. One-Shot Effects 417. unless a spell or ability (a) specifies that it can target an object in another zone or a player or (b) targets an object that can’t exist in the in-play zone.2.65.6. Static abilities may create one or more continuous effects. Some effects are replacement effects or prevention effects. Example: If a player is holding only one card. Spells and abilities that can have zero or more targets are targeted only if one or more targets have been chosen for them.7a The target of a spell or ability can change only to another legal target. Only permanents are legal targets for spells and abilities. The word “you” in an object’s text doesn’t indicate a target. 415. A spell or ability on the stack is an illegal target for itself. 417.Neither Fortification spells nor Fortification permanents target anything.4. 416.7b Modal spells and abilities may have different targeting requirements for each mode. When a spell or ability resolves. Changing Targets 415. 415. If an effect moves cards out of the library (as opposed to drawing). 415. “Fortify. 416. such as a spell or ability. Effects apply only to permanents unless the instruction’s text states otherwise or they clearly can apply only to objects in one or more other zones.1. they are generated by specific rules of the game (see rule 420). and moving objects between zones. since a spell is always on the stack while you are playing it. 415. Examples include damage dealing. it does only as much as possible. destruction of permanents. If the target can’t be changed to another legal target. see rule 502.1. 416. The fortify ability is targeted. it moves as many as possible.

3a A continuous effect generated by the resolution of a spell or ability lasts as long as stated by the spell or ability creating it (such as “until end of turn”).” If the “as long as” duration ends before the moment the effect would first be applied. and triggered abilities that modify the characteristics or change the controller of those objects is determined when that continuous effect begins. It doesn’t start and immediately stop again.1. Continuous effects that modify characteristics of permanents do so simultaneously with the permanent coming into play. because its duration—remaining tapped—was over before the effect began. Example: An effect that reads “All white creatures get +1/+1 until end of turn” gives the bonus to all permanents that are white creatures when the spell or ability resolves—even if they change color later—and doesn’t affect those that come into play or turn white afterward. A continuous effect modifies characteristics of objects. and it doesn’t last forever. activated abilities. Continuous Effects from Spells or Abilities 418. 418. See rule 413. Because such effects apply as the permanent comes into play. {T}: Target creature gets +0/+3 as long as Endoskeleton remains tapped. so it’s modifying the rules of the game. or affects players or the rules of the game. 418.3. for a fixed or indefinite period. . modifies control of objects. on resolution. (See rule 404. They don’t wait until the permanent is in play and then change it.2f. Example: An effect that reads “Prevent all damage creatures would deal this turn” doesn’t modify any object’s characteristics.2. the value of that variable is determined only once. Continuous Effects 418. .actually creates a new ability that waits to be triggered.” If you play this ability and then Endoskeleton becomes untapped before the ability resolves. Example: Endoskeleton is an artifact with an activated ability that reads “{2}. After that point. . If no duration is stated. Note that these work differently than continuous effects from static abilities. apply them before determining whether the permanent will cause an ability to trigger when it comes into play. .) 418.4. so they can affect objects that weren’t affected when the continuous effect began. the set won’t change.3d Some effects from activated or triggered abilities have durations worded “as long as . it lasts until the end of the game. Continuous effects that don’t modify characteristics or change the controller of objects modify the rules of the game. A continuous effect may be generated by the resolution of a spell or ability or by a static ability of an object. That means the effect will apply even to damage from creatures that weren’t in play when the continuous effect began. 418. the effect does nothing. It also affects damage from permanents that become creatures later in the turn. 418.3c If a resolving spell or ability that creates a continuous effect contains a variable such as X. 418.3b The set of objects that are affected by continuous effects from spells. it does nothing.

Example: Gray Ogre. The creature doesn’t come into play as 1/1 and then change to 2/2. A creature spell that would normally create a 1/1 white creature instead creates a 2/2 white creature. Crusade’s effect stops applying to it. or 6e. Example: Crusade is an enchantment that reads “White creatures get +1/+1. If an effect then turns the creature white (layer 5). making it 7/7. it gets this bonus. “Copying Objects”).5. (6c) changes from counters. (4) type-changing effects (which includes effects that change an object’s card type. If an effect starts to apply in one layer. (6d) effects from static abilities that modify power and/or toughness but don’t set power and/or toughness to a specific number or value.and/or toughness-changing effects.4b The effect applies at all times that the permanent generating it is in play or the object generating it is in the appropriate zone. is in play. Interaction of Continuous Effects 418. then applying continuous effects in a series of layers in the following order: (1) copy effects (see rule 503.5b If an effect should be applied in different layers. even if the ability generating the effect is removed during . 418. 418.5a The values of an object’s characteristics are determined by starting with the actual object. plus +0/+2 from the enchantment). Continuous Effects from Static Abilities 418.4. then all other effects in timestamp order. becoming 3/3. the parts of the effect each apply in their appropriate layers. apply effects in a series of sublayers in the following order: (6a) effects from characteristic-defining abilities. (3) text-changing effects. 6d. except those that change power and/or toughness. Example: A permanent with the static ability “All white creatures get +1/+1” generates an effect that continuously gives +1/+1 to each white creature in play. An enchantment that says “Creatures you control get +0/+2” enters play (layer 6d). and it will return to being a 2/2. Inside layer 6. (6b) all other effects not specifically applied in 6c. making it a 7/9.5b–418. An effect that says “Target creature becomes 0/1 until end of turn” is applied to it (layer 6b). An effect that says “Target creature gets +4/+4 until end of turn” is applied to it (layer 6b). and/or supertype). apply effects from characteristicdefining abilities first. Within each sublayer. it applies at any given moment to whatever its text indicates. a 2/2 creature. making it 3/3. If the creature’s color is later changed to red (layer 5). 418. If a creature becomes white. (5) all other continuous effects.418. a creature that stops being white loses it. and (6) power. Note that dependency may alter the order in which effects are applied within a layer or sublayer. apply effects in timestamp order. An effect puts a +1/+1 counter on it (layer 6c). plus +1/+1 from the counter. making it a 1/4 (0/1. subtype. Inside each layer from 1 through 5. it will continue to be applied to the same set of objects in each other applicable layer.4a A continuous effect generated by a static ability isn’t “locked in”.” Crusade and a 2/2 black creature are in play. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418. it gets +1/+1 from Crusade (layer 6d). and (6e) effects that switch a creature’s power and toughness.5g). (2) control-changing effects.

such as by entering a zone simultaneously or becoming attached simultaneously. and 6b).”) while you have ten creature cards in your graveyard (layers 4. If several dependent effects form a dependency loop. 418. or Fortification becomes attached to an object or player. Then you activate Svogthos’s ability (“Until end of turn. If a creature card enters or leaves your graveyard. Example: Svogthos. and then the “gets +1/+1” part is applied in layer 6. the Restless Tomb. An effect that says “Target creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn” is applied to it (layer 6b). (b) applying the other would change the text or the existence of the first effect. even though those permanents aren’t noncreature artifacts by then. it will become a 3/3 land creature again. The “you gain control” part is applied in layer 2.and toughness-setting effect. or what it does to any of the things it applies to. the effect is considered to be independent of the other effect. with three exceptions: (a) Whenever an Aura. Equipment. 418. and (c) neither effect is from a characteristic-defining ability. the Restless Tomb becomes a black and green Plant Zombie creature with ‘This creature’s power and toughness are each equal to the number of creature cards in your graveyard. If the first effect is applied to it again. target land becomes a 3/3 creature that’s still a land” is applied to it (layers 4 and 6b).5e An object’s timestamp is the time it entered the zone it’s currently in. or Fortification receives a new timestamp. . then this rule is ignored and the effects in the dependency loop are applied in timestamp order. what it applies to. and then the “it gains haste” part is applied in layer 5. Example: An effect that reads “All noncreature artifacts become 2/2 artifact creatures until end of turn” is both a type-changing effect and a power. (c) Permanents that phase in keep the same timestamps they had when they phased out. Equipment. 5. The “becomes the color of your choice” part is applied in layer 5. is in play. making it a 4/4 land creature. Example: Grab the Reins has an effect that reads “Until end of turn. Svogthos.and toughness-setting effect is applied to those same permanents in layer 6. It becomes a 10/10 land creature. (b) If two or more objects would receive a timestamp simultaneously. the Aura. Example: An effect that reads “Wild Mongrel gets +1/+1 and becomes the color of your choice until end of turn” is both a powerand toughness-changing effect and an “other” kind of effect. Svogthos’s power and toughness will be modified accordingly. sublayer) as the other effect (see rule 418.5c An effect is said to “depend on” another if (a) it’s applied in the same layer (and. the active player determines their timestamp order at that time. if applicable. Otherwise. If multiple dependent effects would apply simultaneously in this way.5a).5d An effect dependent on one or more other effects waits to apply until just after all of those effects have been applied. An effect that says “Until end of turn. 418.’ It’s still a land.this process.” This is both a control-changing effect and an “other” effect. The type-changing effect is applied to all noncreature artifacts in layer 4 and the power. you gain control of target creature and it gains haste. they’re applied in “timestamp order” relative to each other.

These effects are applied after all other effects that affect power and toughness. 418. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418. “Enchanted creature is white.” The enchanted creature gets +1/+1 from the first effect.5h One continuous effect can override another. since nothing changes what they affect or what they’re doing to it.418.) Example: A 1/3 creature is given +0/+1 by an effect. “White creatures get +1/+1. 418.5b–418. or the timestamp of the effect that created the ability. a Magic color word being used as a color word.1f. Example: One effect reads. All such effects are applied in timestamp order after the determination of objects’ characteristics. the creature becomes a 3/1. whichever is later. and take the object’s toughness and apply it to the object’s power.6a An effect that changes the text of an object changes only those words that are used in the correct way (for example. Example: Two Auras are played on the same creature: “Enchanted creature gains flying” and “Enchanted creature loses flying. Its new power and toughness is 4/1.5g A continuous effect generated by the resolution of a spell or ability receives a timestamp at the time it’s created. an effect might give a player protection from red. Then another effect switches the creature’s power and toughness. For example. a land type word used as a land type. 418. (See rule 418. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418. regardless of its previous color. Applying them in timestamp order means the one that was generated last “wins. 418. or a creature . 418. Then another effect switches the creature’s power and toughness.5i Some effects switch a creature’s power and toughness.5g).” Neither of these depends on the other.5j Some continuous effects affect players rather than objects.5b–g).5k Some continuous effects affect game rules rather than objects. 418.” It’s irrelevant whether an effect is temporary (such as “Target creature loses flying until end of turn”) or global (such as “All creatures lose flying”). All other such effects are applied in timestamp order.5f A continuous effect generated by a static ability has the same timestamp as the object the static ability is on. A new effect gives the creature +5/+0.” and another. If the +0/+1 effect ends before the switch effect ends. These effects are applied after all other continuous effects have been applied. Example: A 1/3 creature is given +0/+1 by an effect. effects may modify a player’s maximum hand size. Its “unswitched” power and toughness would be 6/4. so its actual power and toughness is 4/6.5a. When they’re applied.6. For example. Its new power and toughness is 4/1. Sometimes the results of one effect determine whether another effect applies or what another effect does. Continuous effects that affect the costs of spells or abilities are applied according to the order specified in rule 409. they take the value of power and apply it to the object’s toughness. Text-Changing Effects 418.

basic land type. even if that proper noun contains a word or a series of letters that is the same as a Magic color word. . . 419. The effect can’t change a proper noun.” or “[This permanent] comes into play as . Example: A player can play a regeneration ability in response to a spell . steps. These effects act like “shields” around whatever they’re affecting. such as a card name. .3.6b Effects that add or remove abilities don’t change the text of the objects they affect. . even though they’re also being used as names.6c Most spells and abilities that create creature tokens use creature types to define both the creature types and the names of the tokens. .type word used as a creature type). phases.1d Effects that use the word “prevent” are prevention effects. 418. . . . .1e Effects that read “As [this permanent] is turned face up . because they are being used as creature types. 419. ” are replacement effects. These characteristics can be changed by text-changing effects. . . 419.” are replacement effects. Replacement and Prevention Effects 419. Replacement or prevention effects must exist before the appropriate event occurs—they can’t “go back in time” and change something that’s already happened. 419. 419. These words can be changed.4. 419. so any abilities that are granted to an object can’t be changed by effects that change the text of that object.1b Effects that read “[This permanent] comes into play with . 419. . 419. There are no special restrictions on playing a spell or ability that generates a replacement or prevention effect.6d A creature token’s creature type and rules text are defined by the spell or ability that created the token.1. or creature type.1a Effects that use the word “instead” are replacement effects. 418.” are replacement effects. 419. or turns will be replaced with nothing. Such effects last until they’re used up or their duration has expired. Replacement and prevention effects apply continuously as events happen —they aren’t locked in ahead of time. Prevention effects use “prevent” to indicate what events will not occur. Replacement and prevention effects are continuous effects that watch for a particular event to happen and then completely or partially replace that event.” “As [this permanent] comes into play . Most replacement effects use the word “instead” to indicate what events will be replaced with other events and use the word “skip” to indicate what events.1c Continuous effects that read “[This permanent] comes into play . . .” or “[Objects] come into play . . Usually spells and abilities that generate these effects are played in response to whatever would produce the event and thus resolve before that event would occur. 418.2.

phase. Note that the modified event may contain instructions that can’t be carried out. each with an ability that reads “If a creature you control would deal damage to a creature or player. planeswalker. 419. That means abilities that trigger on damage being dealt won’t trigger. Anything scheduled for the “next” occurrence of something waits for the first occurrence that isn’t skipped.” Abilities that trigger from damage being dealt still trigger even if the permanent regenerates.6c Some effects replace damage dealt to one creature. 419. it never happens. or is no longer a creature or planeswalker when the damage would be redirected. remove it from combat. The word “instead” doesn’t appear on the card but is implicit in the definition of regeneration. instead remove all damage from it and tap it. If it’s an attacking or blocking creature. 419. Such effects are called self-replacement effects. or turn has started. that player must skip the next two. 419.6.that would destroy a creature he or she controls. 419. do nothing. phase. “Regenerate [permanent]” means “The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn. one effect will be satisfied in skipping the first occurrence. “Skip [something]” is the same as “Instead of doing [something]. apply self-replacement effects first.6g Some effects cause a player to skip a step. in which case the impossible instruction is simply ignored. or player with the same damage dealt to another creature. or turn. That action is considered to be the first thing that happens during .6e Skipping an event. If either creature or planeswalker is no longer in play when the damage would be redirected. so they have no effect. then apply other replacement effects. When applying replacement effects to an event.6f Anything scheduled for a skipped step. step.5a If a source would deal 0 damage. or turn won’t happen.5. phase. 419. it does not deal damage at all. the effect does nothing. or player.6a A replacement effect doesn’t invoke itself repeatedly and gets only one opportunity for each event. Example: A player controls two permanents.” Once a step. it deals double that damage to that creature or player instead. It also means that replacement effects that increase damage dealt have no event to replace. and not an infinite amount. such effects are called “redirection” effects. which may in turn trigger abilities. If an event is prevented or replaced. phase. planeswalker. Replacement Effects 419.6d Some spells and abilities replace part or all of their own effect(s) when they resolve. 419. 419. while the other will remain until another occurrence can be skipped. A modified event occurs instead. it can no longer be skipped—any skip effects will wait until the next occurrence.6b Regeneration is a destruction-replacement effect. or turn is a replacement effect. If two effects each cause a player to skip his or her next occurrence.” A creature that normally deals 2 damage will deal 8 damage —not just 4. 419. then another action.

Each 1 damage that would be dealt to the “shielded” creature or player is prevented. Example: Yixlid Jailer says “Cards in graveyards have no abilities. See rule 407. regardless of what other abilities the object may currently have or may have had in the past. “Prevent the next 3 damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn.” A Scarwood Treefolk that’s put into play from a graveyard is put into play tapped. Example: Voice of All says “As Voice of All comes into play. (See rules 419. if possible.7.” Scarwood Treefolk says “Scarwood Treefolk is put into play tapped.” An effect creates a token that’s a copy of Voice of All. or turn to actually occur. so Orb of Dreams is put into play untapped.1c). If an effect replaces a draw within a sequence of card draws. As that token is put into play. 419.6h Some effects replace card draws. These effects are applied even if no cards could be drawn because there are no cards in the affected player’s library. They may also come from other sources.” It will not affect itself. If another object gains a pair of linked abilities. 419.” 419. 419. continuous effects generated by the resolution of spells or abilities that changed the permanent’s characteristics on the stack (see rule 217. the abilities will be similarly linked on that object. the additional action is not performed on any cards that are drawn as a result of that replacement effect.6j An object may have one ability printed on it that generates a replacement effect which causes one or more cards to be removed from the game. and continuous effects from the permanent’s own static abilities.6i Some replacement effects modify how a permanent comes into play. choose a color” and “Voice of All has protection from the chosen color. Prevention Effects 419. If damage would be dealt to the shielded creature or player by . and another ability that refers either to “the removed cards” or to cards “removed from the game with [this object].” These work like shields. phase. They can’t be linked to any other ability. its controller chooses a color for it. before resuming the sequence. 419. Example: Orb of Dreams is an artifact that says “Permanents come into play tapped. If an effect would have a player both draw a card and perform an additional action on that card. taking into account replacement effects that have already modified how it comes into play. check the characteristics of the permanent as it would exist in play. and the draw is replaced.” These abilities are linked: the second refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone that were moved there as a direct result of the replacement event caused by the first. To determine how and whether these replacement effects apply.7b Some prevention effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability refer to a specific amount of damage—for example.) Such effects may come from the permanent itself if they affect only that permanent (as opposed to a general subset of permanents that includes it). Preventing 1 damage reduces the remaining shield by 1. “Linked Abilities.the next step.7a Prevention effects usually apply to damage that would be dealt. but ignoring continuous effects from any other source that would affect it.1b-c. all actions required by the replacement are completed.

” Such an effect prevents only the indicated amount of damage from any applicable source at any given time. even if the creature is no longer in play or is no longer a creature. Changing creatures’ colors after the ability resolves doesn’t add or remove shields. and creatures that come into play later in the turn don’t get the shield. or a creature that assigned combat damage on the stack. or planeswalker spell). the rest of the effect takes place immediately afterward. prevent 1 of that damage. enchantment. creature. It will apply separately to damage from other applicable sources. 419. the number of events or sources dealing it doesn’t matter. The source is chosen when the effect is created. Such an effect creates a prevention shield for each applicable creature when the spell or ability that generates that effect resolves. regardless of whether it’s from one of that permanent’s abilities or combat damage dealt by it.two or more applicable sources at the same time. he or she may choose a permanent. any card or permanent referred to by an object on the stack.7d Some prevention effects prevent the next N damage that would be dealt to each of a number of untargeted creatures.7c Some prevention effects generated by static abilities refer to a specific amount of damage—for example. Example: Wojek Apothecary has an ability that says “{T}: Prevent the next 1 damage that would be dealt to target creature and each other creature that shares a color with it this turn. 419. The prevention takes place at the time the original event would have happened. the shield isn’t used up.” If an effect requires a player to choose a source. If the properties no longer match. the effect will apply to any damage from that spell and from the permanent that it becomes when it resolves. Sources of Damage 419. enchantment.8b Some effects from spells and abilities prevent or replace damage from sources with certain properties. prevent that damage. When the source would deal damage. it gives the target creature and each other creature in play that shares a color with it at that time a shield preventing the next 1 damage that would be dealt to it. 419. 419. any remaining damage is dealt normally.8a Some effects apply to damage from a source—for example. or planeswalker spell. Once the shield has been reduced to 0. the effect will apply to the next damage from that permanent. Such effects count only the amount of damage. If the player chooses a permanent. If for any reason the shield prevents no damage or replaces no damage.8c Some effects from static abilities prevent or replace damage from . such as a creature or a source of a particular color.7e Some prevention effects also include an additional effect. creature. If the player chooses an artifact. the “shield” rechecks the source’s properties. “If a source would deal damage to you. a spell on the stack (including an artifact. which may refer to the amount of damage that was prevented.” When the ability resolves. 419. “The next time a red source of your choice would deal damage to you this turn. 419. the damage isn’t prevented or replaced.8. or to damage that would be dealt by the same source at a different time. the player or the controller of the creature chooses which damage the shield prevents.

6d).” and another reads “If you would draw a card. For these effects. 419. instead shuffle it into its owner’s library.sources with certain properties. but any of those effects would modify under whose control an object would come into play. 420. this process is repeated (taking into account only replacement or prevention effects that would now be applicable) until there are no more left to apply. Example: Two permanents are in play. instead remove it from the game. the active player receives priority.9a If two or more replacement or prevention effects are attempting to modify the way an event affects an object or player. If two or more players have to make these choices at the same time. choices are made in APNAP order (see rule 103. If any of those effects are self-replacement effects (see rule 419. Example: A player controls a creature with the ability “This creature’s power and toughness are each equal to the number of cards in your . State-Based Effects 420. if any of the listed conditions apply. one of them must be chosen.2. 419. one of them must be chosen. and then the appropriate player gets priority. Once no more state-based effects have been generated. Abilities that watch for a specified game state are triggered abilities. One is an enchantment that reads “If a card would be put into a graveyard. If not. then the check is repeated.4). All applicable effects resolve simultaneously as a single event. the other does nothing. State-based effects are a special category that apply only to those conditions listed below. Otherwise.”) 420. (See rule 404. the prevention or replacement applies to sources that are permanents with that property and to any sources that aren’t in play that have that property. triggered abilities go on the stack. State-based effects are always active and are not controlled by any player. state-based effects pay no attention to what happens during the resolution of a spell or ability.9b A replacement effect can become applicable to an event as the result of another replacement effect that modifies the event.” and the other is a creature that reads “If [this creature] would be put into a graveyard from play. This check is also made during the cleanup step (see rule 314).” The controller of the creature that would be destroyed decides which replacement to apply first. Interaction of Replacement or Prevention Effects 419. any of the applicable effects may be chosen.4. instead draw a card. Unlike triggered abilities.1. Once the chosen effect has been applied.9. 420. 420. Whenever a player would get priority (see rule 408. not state-based effects. the player puts a card from his or her graveyard into his or her hand.” Both effects combine (regardless of the order they came into existence): Instead of gaining 1 life. the affected object’s controller (or its owner if it has no controller) or the affected player chooses one to apply. “Timing of Spells and Abilities”). the game checks for any of the listed conditions for state-based effects. Example: One effect reads “For each 1 life you would gain. “Triggered Abilities.3. return a card from your graveyard to your hand instead.

5c A creature with lethal damage.5j If a copy of a spell is in a zone other than the stack.5e If two or more legendary permanents with the same name are in play. 420.” 420. 420. all except the one that has been a permanent with the world supertype in play for the shortest amount of time are put into their owners’ graveyards. but greater than 0 toughness. 420. . Lethal damage is an amount of damage greater than or equal to a creature’s toughness. Regeneration can’t replace this event.5a A player with 0 or less life loses the game. In contrast. 420. Thus the creature will survive when statebased effects are checked.5h A player with ten or more poison counters loses the game. an Equipment. becomes unattached from that permanent. this rule doesn’t apply.5p A planeswalker with loyalty 0 is put into its owner’s graveyard.5g A player who attempted to draw a card from an empty library since the last time state-based effects were checked loses the game. Regeneration can replace this event. 420. If a copy of a card is in any zone other than the stack or the in-play zone. In the event of a tie for the shortest amount of time. 420. 420. is put into its owner’s graveyard. The state-based effects are as follows: 420.5k An Equipment or Fortification attached to an illegal permanent becomes unattached from that permanent. This is called the “world rule. N +1/+1 and N -1/-1 counters are removed from it. but is attached to another permanent. 420. 420. 420. all are put into their owners’ graveyards.5i If two or more permanents have the supertype world. it ceases to exist. an ability that triggers when the player has no cards in hand goes on the stack after the spell resolves. 420.” If only one of those permanents is legendary.5d An Aura attached to an illegal object or player.5f A token in a zone other than the in-play zone ceases to exist.5b A creature with toughness 0 or less is put into its owner’s graveyard. This is called the “legend rule.5n If a permanent has both a +1/+1 counter and a -1/-1 counter on it. nor a Fortification.5. is destroyed. It remains in play. because its trigger event happened during resolution. all are put into their owners’ graveyards. where N is the smaller of the number of +1/+1 and -1/-1 counters on it. it ceases to exist.hand” and plays a spell whose effect is “Discard your hand. It remains in play. 420. 420.5m A permanent that’s neither an Aura. then draw seven cards.” The creature will temporarily have toughness 0 in the middle of the spell’s resolution but will be back up to toughness 7 when the spell finishes resolving. or not attached to an object or player.

4. then the active player (or. Instead.” Or he or she can agree to the number the first player chose.” 420. 421. the first involved player after the active player in turn order) chooses a number for his or her set of actions. the remaining players. (Note that this assumes that the first player attempted to give the creature flying at least once. one player controls a creature with the ability “{0}: [This creature] gains flying. each controlled by different players. The loop is treated as repeating that many times or until another player intervenes. These rules (sometimes called the “infinity rules”) govern how to break such loops. Then each set of actions occurs . If a loop contains optional actions controlled by two players and actions by both of those players are required to continue the loop.5a and rule 420.5q If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are in play.” (Note that either fraction may be zero. all are put into their owners’ graveyards. in which case the loop continues that number of times plus whatever fraction is necessary for the second player to “have the last word. you’d lose the game due to rule 420. if the active player is not involved. He or she can choose a lower number. that player chooses a number. If the loop contains one or more optional actions and one player controls them all. your graveyard. or the same.420. which says “If you would lose the game. The other player then has two choices. Knowing that number. 421. each choose a number for his or her sets of actions.) 421. in turn order. instead shuffle your hand.6.5. This is called the “planeswalker uniqueness rule. whichever comes first.) 421. Lich’s Mirror replaces that game loss and you keep playing. the active player (or.) This sequence of choices is extended to all applicable players if there are more than two players involved. Example: You control Lich’s Mirror. The next time state-based effects are checked. lower. the nonactive player will always have the final choice and therefore be able to determine whether the creature has flying. then draw seven cards and your life total becomes 20.3. (See rule 102. If the loop contains more than one set of optional.5g. a single replacement effect will replace all of them. and all permanents you own into your library. independent actions. If multiple state-based effects would have the same result at the same time.1. It can be higher. A spell causes you to draw two cards and lose 2 life.” The “infinity rule” ensures that regardless of which player initiated the gain/lose flying ability. 421.” and another player controls a permanent with the ability “{0}: Target creature loses flying.4b. the first involved player after the active player in turn order) chooses a number. if the active player is not involved. Occasionally the game can get into a state in which a set of actions could be repeated forever.2. Example: In a two-player game. the game ends in a draw.” There’s one card in your library and your life total is 1. Handling “Infinite” Loops 421. in which case the loop continues that number of times plus whatever fraction is necessary for the first player to “have the last word. If the loop contains only mandatory actions.

423. If a player is instructed to draw multiple cards. This is done as a game action during each player’s draw step. 423. 421.1.” the player has not drawn those cards. that player can choose to do so. Players may not reverse actions that moved cards to a library or from a library to any zone other than the stack. no player can be forced to perform [Y] to break the loop. A player draws a card by putting the top card of his or her library into his or her hand. first the primary player (seated on the right) on the active team performs all of his or her draws.3. It may also be done as part of a cost or effect of a spell or ability.2a If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards. . No abilities trigger and no effects apply as a result of an undone action. However. If there are no cards in a player’s library and an effect offers that player the choice to draw a card. then the secondary player on that team performs all of his or her draws. 423. The player may also reverse any legal mana abilities played while making the illegal play.5. then the nonactive team does the same. that player can’t choose to do so. the active player performs all of his or her draws first. the spell returns to the zone it came from. the player who had priority retains it and may take another action or pass.) 423. A player who attempts to draw a card from an empty library loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. This makes a difference for abilities that trigger on drawing cards or that replace card draws.6. Cards may only be drawn one at a time. Handling Illegal Actions 422. if an effect says that a player can’t draw cards and another effect offers that player the choice to draw a card. 423. the entire action is reversed and any payments already made are canceled. as well as if the player’s library is empty. If a player realizes that he or she can’t legally take an action after starting to do so.the appropriate number of times. 422.1.” where [X] and [Y] are each actions. 423. that player performs that many individual card draws.2b If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a TwoHeaded Giant game. The player may redo the reversed action in a legal way or take any other action allowed by the rules.5g. 422. If the action was playing a spell. 423. the loop will continue as though [X] were mandatory. Drawing a Card 423. If no player chooses to perform [Y]. then each other player in turn order does the same.2. If an effect moves cards from a player’s library to that player’s hand without using the word “draw. When reversing illegal spells and abilities. If the loop contains an effect that says “[X] unless [Y]. See rule 420. (This is a state-based effect.2.4. unless mana from them or from any triggered mana abilities they triggered was spent on another mana ability that wasn’t reversed.

you’re unable to pay the “sacrifice Hesitation” cost.3. paid when the spell or ability resolves. If the draw is replaced.6b If an effect replaces a draw within a sequence of card draws. sacrifice Hesitation.) 424. (See rule 203.6. A player can’t pay a cost unless he or she has the necessary resources to pay it fully. For example. If you do. causing Hesitation’s ability to trigger. it is considered to be {0}.6. 424. counter that spell. “Mana Cost and Color.6c Some effects perform additional actions on a card after it’s drawn. If the mana component of a cost is reduced to nothing by cost reduction effects. but a cost reduction effect means you spend only {W} when paying for the spell. The spell’s “if the kicker cost was paid” effect will be applied. 423. Costs 424. If a cost includes a mana payment. the player paying the cost has a chance to play mana abilities. and triggered abilities read. The “If [a player] [does or doesn’t]” clause checks whether the player chose to pay an optional cost or started to pay a mandatory cost.1. an enchantment that says “When a spell is played. See rule 203.” The action [X] is a cost. The spell is not countered. Unpayable costs can’t be paid. Some spells. Example: You control Hesitation. 423. A cost is an action or payment necessary to take another action or to stop another action from taking place. In such a case. Paying the cost to play a spell or activated ability follows the steps in rules 409. any parts of the original event that haven’t been replaced by the effect occur first. then the card draws happen one at a time. You choose to pay the kicker. 424. Some effects replace card draws. the additional action is not performed on any cards that are drawn as a result of that replacement effect or any subsequent replacement effects. What a player actually needs to do to pay a cost may be changed or reduced by effects. and a permanent that’s already tapped can’t be tapped to pay a cost.6a An effect that replaces a card draw is applied even if no cards could be drawn because there are no cards in the affected player’s library.423. a player with only 1 life can’t pay a cost of 2 life.” A spell is played.” 424. Some replacement effects result in multiple card draws.5. 424. Paying a cost changed or reduced by an effect counts as paying the original cost.7. When Hesitation’s ability resolves. activated abilities. 424. [effect]. “Activated Abilities. If [a player] [does or doesn’t]. If [that player] [does or doesn’t].” or “[a player] may [X]. the replacement effect is completed before resuming the sequence. regardless of what events actually occurred. . 423. Then an ability is played that removes Hesitation from the game. “[X]. 423. Example: You play a spell with mana cost {W} that has kicker {1}.1b.1f–h.4.2. [effect].” and rule 403.

” You control a face-down Dermoplasm. However.Example: Your opponent has played Gather Specimens. and you choose to put a creature card with morph from your hand into play. you may put a creature card with morph from your hand into play face up. Dermoplasm is still returned to its owner’s hand. it comes into play under your control instead. a creature with morph that says “When Dermoplasm is turned face up. since you chose to pay the cost.” You turn Dermoplasm face up. it comes into play under your opponent’s control instead of yours. If you do. a spell that says “If a creature would come into play under an opponent’s control this turn. Due to Gather Specimens. . return Dermoplasm to its owner’s hand.

Evasion abilities are cumulative. If a creature gains or loses an evasion ability after a legal block has been declared. attack with both. “No more than one creature can attack each turn. An effect states. Example: A creature with flying and shadow can’t be blocked by a creature with flying but without shadow. (See rule 308. each with a restriction that states “[This creature] can’t attack alone. Additional Rules 500. 500. or attack with neither.3. “Creatures can’t be blocked except by two or more creatures. Legal Attacks and Blocks 500. Evasion abilities are static abilities that modify the declare blockers step of the combat phase. (Tapped creatures and creatures with unpaid costs to block are exempt from effects that would require them to block. can’t block.”) A restriction is an effect that says a creature can’t block (or attack) or it can’t block (or attack) unless some condition is met.) Example: A player controls two creatures.” Having only the first creature . A requirement conflicts with a proposed set of attackers or blockers if it isn’t being followed and (1) the requirement could be obeyed without violating a restriction and (2) doing so will allow the total number of requirements that the set obeys to increase. 500. the defending player checks each creature he or she controls to see whether it must block.” It’s legal to declare both as attackers. A requirement is an effect that says a creature must block (or attack) or it must block (or attack) if some condition is met. “Declare Attackers Step. If there are multiple scenarios in which all restrictions are being followed and the maximum possible number of requirements are being followed (even if not all of them are). the block is illegal. (Tapped creatures and creatures with unpaid costs to attack are exempt from effects that would require them to attack. It’s illegal to attack with the other creature. and the defending player must then propose another set of blocking creatures. or is affected by some other blocking restriction or requirement.” and rule 309. can’t attack.2.) 500. A restriction conflicts with a proposed set of attackers or blockers if it isn’t being followed. If such a restriction or requirement conflicts with the proposed attack. As part of declaring blockers. As part of declaring attackers. 500. Example: A player controls two creatures: one that “attacks if able” and one with no abilities. “Declare Blockers Step. then any of those scenarios are legal.” The only legal attack is for just the creature that “attacks if able” to attack. An effect states. it doesn’t affect that block. Some effects restrict declaring attackers or blockers in combat or require certain creatures to be declared as attackers or blockers. and the active player must then propose another set of attacking creatures. Example: A player controls one creature that “blocks if able” and another creature with no abilities.4.1. or is affected by some other attacking restriction or requirement. If such a restriction or requirement conflicts with the proposed set of blocking creatures. the attack is illegal.3a An evasion ability is an ability an attacking creature has that restricts what can block it.5. the active player checks each creature he or she controls to see whether it must attack.

2. Equipment. or Fortification can’t be attached to an object it couldn’t enchant.” . it creates a replacement effect that protects the permanent the next time it would be destroyed this turn.4. Equipment. If something is attached to a permanent in play. It should no longer be physically touching any creature.5. Equipment. These “keywords” are game terms. or Fortification to the object it’s already attached to. A countered spell is put into its owner’s graveyard. 501.1. Equipment. 501. 501. It doesn’t resolve and none of its effects occur.3a To counter a spell or ability means to cancel it. Most actions described in a card’s rules text use the standard English definitions of the verbs within. Having neither creature block fulfills the restriction but not the requirement.5a If the effect of a resolving spell or ability regenerates a permanent. If an Aura.block violates the restriction. remove it from combat. 501. or Fortification that was attached to something ceases to be attached to it. or Fortification in play to a different object causes the Aura. or Fortification to an object means to take it from where it currently is and put it onto that object.2d To “unattach” an Equipment from a creature means to move it away from that creature so the Equipment is in play but is not equipping anything. An Aura. 501. sometimes reminder text summarizes their meanings. Counter 501. 501. Regenerate 501. Equipment.2b If an effect tries to attach an Aura. “Countering Spells and Abilities. removing it from the stack. so that’s the only option. “Regenerate [permanent]” means “The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn. or fortify. If it’s an attacking or blocking creature.4a To destroy a permanent. the effect does nothing. that counts as “becoming unattached.2c Attaching an Aura. Keyword Actions 501. equip. Having both creatures block the same attacking creature fulfills both the restriction and the requirement. See rule 414. Destroy 501.” 501. Attach 501. move it from the in-play zone to its owner’s graveyard. In this case.” 501. it’s customary to place it so that it’s physically touching the permanent. but some specialized verbs are used whose meanings may not be clear. Equipment. or Fortification to receive a new timestamp. respectively.3. instead remove all damage from it and tap it.2a To attach an Aura.

5b If the effect of a static ability regenerates a permanent. Fateseal 501. 502.501.9. put any number of them on the bottom of that library in any order. Sacrificing a permanent doesn’t destroy it. That player may then put that card on the bottom of his or her library. Tap 501. “Combat Damage Step. so regeneration or other effects that replace destruction can’t affect this action. or something that’s a permanent he or she doesn’t control. sometimes reminder text summarizes the game rule.10. 501. rotate it back to the upright position from a sideways position. First Strike 502. it replaces destruction with an alternate effect each time that permanent would be destroyed. You and that opponent each clash. 501.8a To “scry N” means to look at the top N cards of your library.7a To tap a permanent. 502.2.6.1.9a To “fateseal N” means to look at the top N cards of an opponent’s library.6a To sacrifice a permanent. Clash 501. In these cases. If it’s an attacking or blocking creature. remove it from combat. 501. Scry 501. though.2a First strike is a static ability that modifies the rules for the combat damage step. put any number of them on the bottom of your library in any order. 501.10a To clash. Some.7b To untap a permanent. are very common or would require too much space to define on the card. A player can’t sacrifice something that isn’t a permanent.”) . (See rule 310. Keyword Abilities 502.10b “Clash with an opponent” means “Choose an opponent. 501. and put the rest on top of your library in any order. In this case. Sacrifice 501. the object lists only the name of the ability as a “keyword”. and put the rest on top of that library in any order.” 501.” 501. Most abilities describe exactly what they do in the card’s rules text. its controller moves it from the in-play zone directly to its owner’s graveyard. turn it sideways from an upright position.10c A player wins a clash if that player revealed a card with a higher converted mana cost than all other cards revealed in that clash. 501. “Regenerate [permanent]” means “Instead remove all damage from [permanent] and tap it.7. a player reveals the top card of his or her library.8.

6a Landwalk and snow landwalk are generic terms.4.502. a card’s rules text will give a specific subtype or supertype (such as in “islandwalk. “Declare Blockers Step. assign their combat damage. A creature with landwalk is unblockable as long as the defending player controls at least one . the blocking creature gets -1/-1 until end of turn. Instead of proceeding to end of combat.3.”) “Flanking” means “Whenever this creature becomes blocked by a creature without flanking. Flanking 502.5a Haste is a static ability.2b At the start of the combat damage step.”) 502. plus any creatures with double strike.4c Multiple instances of flying on the same creature are redundant.” and rule 502.” 502.3f. Haste 502. In the second combat damage step. creatures without first strike or double strike don’t assign combat damage. 502. (See rule 309.6b Landwalk and snow landwalk are evasion abilities.5c Multiple instances of haste on the same creature are redundant.4b A creature with flying can’t be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. surviving attackers and blockers that didn’t assign combat damage in the first step.6. 502.) 502. (See rule 212. 502. Flying 502.28). “Reach. each triggers separately. 502. 502.5. (See rule 309. 502. A creature with flying can block a creature with or without flying. “Declare Blockers Step. the phase gets a second combat damage step to handle the remaining creatures. if at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike or double strike (see rule 502.” or “legendary landwalk”). Landwalk 502.70. 502. 502.” “snow swampwalk.2d Multiple instances of first strike on the same creature are redundant.3a Flanking is a triggered ability that triggers during the declare blockers step. 502.4a Flying is an evasion ability.3b If a creature has multiple instances of flanking.5b A creature with haste can attack or use activated abilities whose cost includes the tap symbol or the untap symbol even if it hasn’t been controlled by its controller continuously since the start of his or her most recent turn.2c Adding or removing first strike any time after combat damage has been put on the stack in the first combat damage step won’t prevent a creature from dealing combat damage or allow it to deal combat damage twice.

Protection 502.” and so on for each possible . (See rule 420. 502. 502. 502. 502. or supertype. subtype. that player can’t block an attacking creature with snow forestwalk even if he or she also controls a creature with snow forestwalk.9. the protection applies to sources that are permanents with that card type. “Declare Blockers Step. subtype.”) 502. written “Protection from [quality]. Example: If a player controls a snow Forest.” This quality is usually a color (as in “protection from black”) but can be any characteristic value. that player may choose a snow landwalk ability. 502.7g “Protection from [quality A] and from [quality B]” is shorthand for “protection from [quality A]” and “protection from [quality B]”. 502.7a Protection is a static ability. or supertype.7b A permanent or player with protection can’t be targeted by spells with the stated quality and can’t be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality. 502. it behaves as two separate protection abilities. subtype.7c A permanent or player with protection can’t be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality. “State-Based Effects. for example. Such Auras attached to the permanent or player with protection will be put into their owners’ graveyards as a state-based effect. (See rule 420.land with the specified subtype and/or supertype.7h “Protection from all [characteristic]” is shorthand for “protection from [quality A]. A creature with snow landwalk is unblockable as long as the defending player controls at least one snow land with the specified subtype. but remain in play.7e Any damage that would be dealt by sources that have the stated quality to a permanent or player that has protection is prevented.6d Landwalk or snow landwalk abilities don’t “cancel” one another. that object would still have protection from [quality B].”) 502.7d A permanent with protection can’t be equipped by Equipment that have the stated quality or fortified by Fortifications that have the stated quality. If an effect causes a permanent to lose all landwalk abilities. If a player is allowed to choose any landwalk ability. If an effect causes an object with such an ability to lose protection from [quality A]. snow landwalk abilities are removed as well. If the quality is a card type.” “protection from [quality B].6c Snow landwalk is a special kind of landwalk. Such Equipment or Fortifications become unattached from that permanent. This is an exception to rule 200. 502.7f Attacking creatures with protection can’t be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality.”) 502. or supertype and to any sources not in play that are of that card type. (See rule 309.6e Multiple instances of the same kind of landwalk or snow landwalk on the same creature are redundant. “State-Based Effects.7.

8b A creature with shadow can’t be blocked by creatures without shadow. not any abilities or effects that might change the final amount of damage dealt.”) 502.7j Multiple instances of protection from the same quality on the same permanent or player are redundant.8a Shadow is an evasion ability. When checking for assigned lethal damage. 502.9d Assigning damage from a creature with trample considers only the actual toughness of a blocking creature. Trample 502. .quality the listed characteristic could have. but there are no creatures blocking it when damage is assigned. 502.8. enchanted by Auras. equipped by Equipment.9. A creature with trample has no special abilities when blocking or dealing noncombat damage.9a Trample is a static ability that modifies the rules for assigning an attacking creature’s combat damage.9c If an attacking creature with trample is blocked. 502. 502. The attacking creature’s controller must assign at least 2 damage to the blocker. all its damage is assigned to the player or planeswalker it’s attacking. 502.”) 502. Such a permanent can’t be targeted by spells or abilities. and so on. for example. Example: A 6/6 green creature with trample is blocked by a 2/2 creature with protection from green. (See rule 309. and a creature without shadow can’t be blocked by creatures with shadow. If an effect causes an object with such an ability to lose protection from [quality A]. take into account damage already on the creature and damage from other creatures that will be assigned at the same time (see rule 502. The attacking creature’s controller can then choose to assign the rest of the damage to the defending player. [quality C]. “Combat Damage Step. that object would still have protection from [quality B]. (See rule 310. or blocked by creatures. The controller need not assign lethal damage to all those blocking creatures but in that case can’t assign any damage to the player or planeswalker it’s attacking.9b The controller of an attacking creature with trample first assigns damage to the creature(s) blocking it.9e). fortified by Fortifications. it behaves as multiple separate protection abilities. even though that damage will be prevented by the blocker’s protection ability. Shadow 502. and all damage that would be dealt to it is prevented. If all those blocking creatures are assigned lethal damage.7i “Protection from everything” is a variant of the protection ability. 502.8c Multiple instances of shadow on the same creature are redundant. 502. A permanent with protection from everything has protection from each object regardless of that object’s characteristic values. any remaining damage is assigned as its controller chooses among those blocking creatures and the player or planeswalker the creature is attacking. “Declare Blockers Step.

502.” All of those creatures must attack the same player or planeswalker.10f Banding doesn’t cause attacking creatures to share abilities. are all in a “band. The defending player. can block the flying creature if able.) 502. (Defending players can’t declare bands but may use banding in a different way. 502. A player who controls a blocking creature with banding chooses how combat damage is assigned by creatures it blocks. The attacking creatures in a band are separate permanents. it’s legal to assign damage from those without trample so as to maximize the damage of those with trample. see rule 502. 502. even if something later removes the banding ability from one or more creatures.9e When there are several attacking creatures. who controls a Swamp. However. and 2 damage to the defending player from the creature with trample. creatures in a band that are removed from combat are also removed from the band. 502.9f Multiple instances of trample on the same creature are redundant. 502. nor does it remove any abilities.10d Once an attacking band has been announced. If the creature had banding when it attacked or blocked but the ability was removed before the combat damage step. Example: A 2/2 creature with an ability that enables it to block multiple attackers blocks two attackers: a 1/1 with no special abilities a 3/3 with trample.10b As a player declares attackers. damage is assigned normally. The attacking player could assign 1 damage from the first attacker and 1 damage from the second to the blocking creature.10h. he or she may declare that any number of those creatures with banding.10a Banding is a static ability that modifies the rules for declaring attackers and assigning combat damage. 502. If he or she does.10h A player who controls an attacking creature with banding chooses how combat damage is assigned by creatures blocking that creature.10e If an attacking creature becomes blocked by a creature. 502. and up to one of those creatures without banding. 502. then the creature with swampwalk will also become blocked by the blocking creature(s).10.10g If one member of a band would become blocked due to an effect. it lasts for the rest of combat. but each creature may be a member of only one of them.10c A player may declare as many attacking bands as he or she wants. the entire band becomes blocked. each other creature in the same band as the attacking creature becomes blocked by that same blocking creature. . 502. Banding 502. Example: A player attacks with a band consisting of a creature with flying and a creature with swampwalk.

11b An attacking creature with “bands with other [quality]” can form an attacking band with other creatures that have the same “bands with other [quality]” ability. it gets +N/+N until end of turn for each creature blocking it beyond the first. Similarly.” (See rule 309. Example: A creature has “Cumulative upkeep—Sacrifice a creature” and one age counter on it. sacrifice it.12b The rampage bonus is calculated only once per combat.”) 502. or {U}{U}{U} to keep the creature in play. Partial payments aren’t allowed. “Rampage N” means “Whenever this creature becomes blocked. When its ability next triggers and resolves. The creatures in this band don’t have to have the creature type specified in the “bands with other [quality]” ability.11c If an attacking creature is blocked by at least two creatures with the same “bands with other [quality]” ability.12. the permanent loses all bands with other abilities as well. Example: A creature has “Cumulative upkeep {W} or {U}” and two age counters on it. If an effect causes a permanent to lose banding. 502. Either . its controller can’t choose the same creature to sacrifice twice.11d Multiple instances of bands with other of the same kind on the same creature are redundant.11. but creatures without banding can’t.12c If a creature has multiple instances of rampage. when the triggered ability resolves. 502.” If [cost] has choices associated with it. each triggers separately. then either the entire set of costs is paid. the defending player chooses how the attacking creature’s damage is assigned. each choice is made separately for each age counter. 502.11a Bands with other is a special form of banding. the attacking player chooses how the blocking creature’s damage is assigned. “Declare Blockers Step.12a Rampage is a triggered ability. or none of them is paid.13a Cumulative upkeep is a triggered ability that imposes an increasing cost on a permanent. If you don’t. 502.502. Rampage 502. {W}{U}{U}. Adding or removing blockers later in combat won’t change the bonus. put an age counter on this permanent. Then you may pay [cost] for each age counter on it. Creatures with banding can also join this band. the creature’s controller puts an age counter on it and then may pay {W} {W}{W}. “Cumulative upkeep [cost]” means “At the beginning of your upkeep. 502.13. Cumulative Upkeep 502. When its ability next triggers and resolves. Bands with Other 502. {W}{W}{U}. if a blocking creature blocks at least two attacking creatures with the same “bands with other [quality]” ability. 502. 502. Blocking this band follows the same general rules as for banding.10i Multiple instances of banding on the same creature are redundant.

Simultaneously.15g Effects with limited duration and delayed triggered abilities that specifically reference a permanent will be unable to further affect that permanent if it phases out. Phasing 502.15e When a permanent phases out. (See rule 308.14b Attacking doesn’t cause creatures with vigilance to tap.1. (Because no player receives priority during the untap step.15a Phasing is a static ability that modifies the rules of the untap step. Vigilance 502. and effects that modify how a permanent comes into play are ignored. However.15d Permanents phasing in or out don’t trigger any comes-into-play or leaves-play abilities.14a Vigilance is a static ability that modifies the rules for the declare attackers step.” and rule 302. 502. each cumulative upkeep ability will count the total number of age counters on the permanent at the time that ability resolves. When the second ability resolves. 502. This is an exception to rule 217. 502. 502. . other effects that reference the permanent (including effects with unlimited duration) can affect the permanent when it returns to play.”) 502. Abilities and effects that specifically mention phasing can modify or trigger on these events.) 502.15f A card that returns to play from the phased-out zone is considered the same permanent it was when it left. the controller adds another counter and then chooses to pay an additional 2 life. any abilities triggering off of the phasing event won’t go onto the stack until the upkeep step begins. however.) 502. all objects that had phased out under that player’s control phase in. However.15.15c If an effect causes a player to skip his or her untap step. all damage dealt to it is removed.two different creatures must be sacrificed. before the active player untaps his or her permanents. Example: A creature has two instances of “Cumulative upkeep—Pay 1 life. the controller adds a counter and then chooses to pay 1 life. or the creature with cumulative upkeep must be sacrificed. When the first ability resolves.13b If a permanent has multiple instances of cumulative upkeep.8. 502.14. each triggers separately.” The creature currently has no counters but both cumulative upkeep abilities trigger.15b During each player’s untap step. the phasing event simply doesn’t occur that turn.14c Multiple instances of vigilance on the same creature are redundant. 502. 502. (See rule 217. “Declare Attackers Step. the age counters are not connected to any particular ability. “Phased Out. which stipulates that a permanent “forgets” its previous existence when it changes zones.1c. 502. all permanents with phasing the player controls phase out.

it won’t get the +3/+3 bonus from the Giant Growth because its effect has a limited duration. it “remembers” how many counters it has and also which opponents it has previously damaged. 502. If the creature phases back in somehow before the turn is over. When it phases back in. in part. The permanent remains able to do so until it changes controllers or leaves play. or Fortification phased out directly (rather than phasing out along with the permanent it’s attached to).15j If an Aura. They “remember” any counters they had on them. any choices made when they first came into play. any Auras.” If Diseased Vermin phases out.5e) they had when they phased out. 502. whether they were flipped when they left play. They also “remember” who controlled them when they phased out.5d and 418. 502. and whether they were tapped or untapped when they left play. This alternate way of phasing out is known as phasing out “indirectly.15h Phased-out cards “remember” their past histories and will return to play in the same state. or Fortification that phased out indirectly won’t phase in by itself. 502. the Aura returns to play and then is placed in its owner’s graveyard.16. This is a state-based effect. where X is the number of infection counters on it.” An Aura. although they may phase in under the control of a different player if a control effect with limited duration has expired. however. then it “remembers” the permanent it was attached to and returns to play attached to that permanent. see rule 420.15p Multiple instances of phasing on the same permanent are redundant. see rule 420. “At the beginning of your upkeep. Example: Diseased Vermin reads. This doesn’t change the fact that the permanents phase in simultaneously. 502. or Fortifications attached to that permanent phase out at the same time. Equipment. the Equipment or Fortification returns to play and then stays in play. 502.15m A permanent that phases in can attack or use activated abilities whose cost includes the tap symbol ({T}) or the untap symbol ({Q}) as though that permanent had haste. 502. not attached to anything.15k Permanents that phase in keep the same timestamps (see rules 418. Diseased Vermin deals X damage to target opponent previously dealt damage by it. This applies even if that permanent phased out and phased back in the turn it came into play. If an Aura phases in but it’s no longer legal for it to be attached to the object or player it was attached to. If an Equipment or Fortification phases in but it’s no longer legal for it to be attached to the permanent it was attached to.Example: A creature is affected by Giant Growth and then phases out during the same turn. Equipment. it will still be able to target those opponents with its upkeep-triggered ability. This is a state-based effect.15n A spell or ability that targets a permanent will resolve normally with respect to that permanent if the permanent phases out and back in before the spell or ability resolves. Equipment.15i When a permanent phases out. Buyback . 502. but instead phases in along with the card it’s attached to.

18a Cycling is an activated ability that functions only while the card with cycling is in a player’s hand. Therefore objects with cycling will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities.” 502. Horsemanship 502. 502. “Declare Blockers Step. subtype. “[Type]cycling [cost]” means “[Cost]. 502. supertype.16a Buyback appears on some instants and sorceries.”) 502. “Cycling [cost]” means “[Cost]. 502.18d Typecycling is a variant of the cycling ability.” These abilities trigger from whatever zone the card winds up in after it’s cycled. 502.18. put this spell into its owner’s hand instead of into that player’s graveyard as it resolves.18c Some cards with cycling have abilities that trigger when they’re cycled. “When you cycle [this card]” means “When you discard [this card] to pay a cycling cost. Discard this card: Draw a card. and put it into your hand. Discard this card: Search your library for a [type] card. A creature with horsemanship can block a creature with or without horsemanship. Any effect that stops players from cycling cards will stop players from playing cards’ typecycling abilities. Then shuffle your library.502.19.1b and 409.20a Fading is a keyword that represents two abilities. sacrifice it unless you pay [cost].1f–h. 502. Echo 502. “Fading N” means “This permanent comes into play with N fade counters on it” and “At the .17. Cycling 502.19a Echo is a triggered ability. it continues to exist while the object is in play and in all other zones. (See rule 309.17c Multiple instances of horsemanship on the same creature are redundant. or combination thereof (as in “basic landcycling”). 502.20.” 502. “Buyback [cost]” means “You may pay an additional [cost] as you play this spell” and “If the buyback cost was paid. It represents two static abilities that function while the spell is on the stack.17b A creature with horsemanship can’t be blocked by creatures without horsemanship.” Paying a spell’s buyback cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. reveal it.” This type is usually a subtype (as in “mountaincycling”) but can be any card type.18b Although the cycling ability is playable only if the card is in a player’s hand.18e Any cards that trigger when a player cycles a card will trigger when a card is discarded to pay a typecycling cost.17a Horsemanship is an evasion ability that appeared in the Portal Three Kingdoms™ set. “Echo [cost]” means “At the beginning of your upkeep. if this permanent came under your control since the beginning of your last upkeep. Fading 502. 502.

Flashback 502. kicker [cost 2]. 502. Otherwise.1c.” The phrase “Kicker [cost 1] and/or [cost 2]” means the same thing as “Kicker [cost 1]. All cards printed with the threshold keyword have received errata. They contain the phrases “if the [A] kicker cost was paid” and “if the [B] kicker cost was paid. and that part of the ability includes any targets. If you can’t. the spell’s controller chooses those targets only if he or she declared the intention to pay that kicker cost. They can’t refer to any other kicker costs that may have been paid when the object was played.” Paying a spell’s kicker cost(s) follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. See rule 409. 502. These abilities are linked to the kicker abilities printed on that object: they can refer only to those specific kicker abilities. Kicker 502.1b and 409.” 502. regardless of what the spell’s controller actually spent when paying the cost.1f–h. 502.1b and 409. respectively. 502. remove this card from the game instead of putting it anywhere else any time it would leave the stack. read “if the [A] kicker cost was paid” as “if the first listed kicker cost was paid.23a Threshold used to be a keyword ability.beginning of your upkeep. the spell is played as if it did not have those targets. Updated wordings are available in the Oracle card reference.” where A and B are the first and second kicker costs listed on the card. 502. These abilities refer to whether the player who played the object as a spell chose to pay the kicker costs.21c Objects with more than one kicker cost have abilities that each correspond to a specific kicker cost. It is now an ability word and has no rules meaning.” 502.23.21d If part of a spell’s ability has its effect only if a kicker cost was paid.21b Objects with kicker have additional abilities that specify what happens if the kicker cost is paid. sacrifice the permanent. remove a fade counter from this permanent. “Linked Abilities. “Kicker [cost]” means “You may pay an additional [cost] as you play this spell. “Flashback [cost]” means “You may play this card from your graveyard by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost” and “If the flashback cost was paid.22a Flashback appears on some instants and sorceries.1f–h. See rule 407. In other words.24. This text just refers to one kicker cost or the other.” Each of those abilities is linked to the kicker ability. they don’t check what that player actually spent to do so.22. Threshold 502.” Playing a spell using its flashback ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.21a Kicker is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.21.” and read “if the [B] kicker cost was paid” as “if the second listed kicker cost was paid. It represents two static abilities: one functions while the card is in a player’s graveyard and the other functions while the card is on the stack. Madness .

These values are the copiable values of that object’s characteristics.26.26a Morph is a static ability that functions in any zone from which you could play the card it’s on. You can use morph to play a card from any zone from which you could normally play it.25c Multiple instances of fear on the same creature are redundant. no expansion symbol. Any effects or prohibitions that would apply to playing a card with these characteristics (and not the face-up card’s characteristics) are applied to playing this card. “Copying Objects. pay that cost.24b Playing a spell using its madness ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.26d Any time you could play an instant. If that player doesn’t. The morph effect on it ends. show all players what the permanent’s morph cost will be when the effect ends. pay that cost. (See rule 418. Fear 502. no name. The second is a triggered ability that functions when the first ability is applied. then turn the permanent face up. This action does not use the stack. (See rule 309. When the spell resolves.” and rule 503. “Face-Down Spells and Permanents. .1b and 409.25b A creature with fear can’t be blocked except by artifact creatures and/or black creatures. he or she puts this card into his or her graveyard. its owner may play it by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost. you may turn a face-down permanent you control face up.25.24a Madness is a keyword that represents two abilities. “Morph [cost]” means “You may play this card as a 2/2 facedown creature. and it regains its normal characteristics. The morph effect applies to the face-down object wherever it is. 502. that player discards it. it comes into play with the same characteristics the spell had. 502.”) 502. (See rule 504.”) 502. then turn the permanent face up. Any abilities relating to the permanent coming into play don’t trigger when it’s turned face up and don’t have any effect. It becomes a 2/2 face-down creature card. and no mana cost.” 502. with no text.5.”) Put it onto the stack (as a face-down spell with the same characteristics). Morph 502. This follows the rules for paying alternative costs. and the morph effect works any time the card is face down. and pay {3} rather than pay its mana cost. and no mana cost by paying {3} rather than its mana cost. 502.1f–h. “Interaction of Continuous Effects. turn it face down. and it ends when the permanent is turned face up. “Declare Blockers Step. no name.26c You can’t play a card face down if it doesn’t have morph. but may remove it from the game instead of putting it into his or her graveyard” and “When this card is removed from the game this way.502.26b To play a card using its morph ability. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with madness is in a player’s hand. To do this. 502. no expansion symbol. no subtypes. 502.25a Fear is an evasion ability. “Madness [cost]” means “If a player would discard this card. with no text. you may show all players the morph cost for any facedown permanent you control.” Any time you could play an instant. no subtypes.

27.28b At the start of the combat damage step.28. These values are the copiable values of that object’s characteristics.27b If a creature has multiple instances of amplify. each one works separately.29a Provoke is a triggered ability. you may choose to have target creature defending player controls block this creature this combat if able. 502. “Amplify N” means “As this object comes into play. 502. 502. 502. it becomes a 2/2 face-down creature. 502.26e If a face-up permanent is turned face down by a spell or ability. reveal any number of cards from your hand that share a creature type with it.”) 502.2. “Provoke” means “Whenever this creature attacks. “Face-Down Spells and Permanents.28e Multiple instances of double strike on the same creature are redundant.5.26f See rule 504. the phase gets a second combat damage step to handle the remaining creatures. 502.29. This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it for each card revealed this way. Amplify 502. creatures without double strike or first strike (see rule 502.” 502. with no text.” . (See rule 310. “Copying Objects. if at least one attacking or blocking creature has double strike or first strike. “Interaction of Continuous Effects.28c Removing double strike from a creature during the first combat damage step will stop it from assigning combat damage in the second combat damage step. You can’t reveal this card or any other cards that are coming into play at the same time as this card. “First Strike”) don’t assign combat damage. Provoke 502. and no mana cost. no subtypes. 502.27a Amplify is a static ability.28a Double strike is a static ability that modifies the rules for the combat damage step.”) The rules for morph and facedown permanents apply to it normally. 502. In the second combat damage step. surviving attackers and blockers that didn’t assign combat damage in the first step.” and rule 503. Instead of proceeding to end of combat. assign their combat damage. “Combat Damage Step.because the permanent has already come into play.” for more information on how to play cards with morph. untap that creature. If you do. plus any creatures with double strike.28d Giving double strike to a creature with first strike after it has already put first strike combat damage onto the stack in the first combat damage step will allow the creature to assign combat damage in the second combat damage step. (See rule 418. no expansion symbol. Double Strike 502. no name.

34b The phrase “imprinted [quality] card” means the card with that quality that’s imprinted on the permanent. Affinity 502.31c If a spell has multiple instances of affinity.29b If a creature has multiple instances of provoke.34a Imprint is an activated or triggered ability.” where “[text]” is a triggered or activated ability.2. each triggers separately. you may choose new targets for any of the copies.31. Entwine 502.33a Equip is an activated ability of Equipment cards.502.” 502. see rule 212.30b If a spell has multiple instances of storm. 502. If a permanent has more than one card .” Using the entwine ability follows the rules for choosing modes and paying additional costs in rules 409. 502. “Affinity for [text]” means “This spell costs you {1} less to play for each [text] you control.33b For more information about Equipment.” 502.32b If the entwine cost was paid. Cards that are in the removed-from-the-game zone because they were removed from the game by an imprint ability are imprinted on the source of that ability.” 502. 502. each triggers separately. If the spell has any targets. “Entwine [cost]” means “You may choose to use all modes of this spell instead of just one.32a Entwine is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. 502. Storm 502. written “Imprint — [text].34. Imprint 502. you pay an additional [cost].31a Affinity is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.” 502.1f–h. Equip 502. 502. each of them applies. it doesn’t reduce how much colored mana you have to pay for a spell.30.30a Storm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. 502. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery.33. “Equip [cost]” means “[Cost]: Attach this Equipment to target creature you control.33c If an Equipment has multiple instances of equip.32. put a copy of it onto the stack for each other spell that was played before it this turn.1b and 409. “Storm” means “When you play this spell. any of its equip abilities may be used. 502. follow the text of each of the modes in the order written on the card when the spell resolves. If you do. 502. “Artifacts.31b The affinity ability reduces only generic mana costs.

38a Bushido is a triggered ability.36b Multiple instances of shroud on the same permanent or player are redundant. If the keyword is used in this way.38b If a creature has multiple instances of bushido. Bushido 502.” 502. you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent.35." 502. Modular 502. it comes into play with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to play it. Shroud 502. Mana paid for additional or alternative costs applies.37c Sunburst can also be used to set a variable number for another ability. you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent. “Modular N” means “This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it” and “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play.” (See rule 309.”) 502.37.36a Shroud is a static ability.” 502. 502. each one works separately. If this object is coming into play from the stack and isn’t coming into play as a creature. Sunburst 502. each one works separately. “Declare Blockers Step. “Bushido N” means “Whenever this creature blocks or becomes blocked. 502.37a Sunburst is a static ability that functions as an object is coming into play from the stack.35b If a creature has multiple instances of modular.36. “Shroud” means "This permanent or player can’t be the target of spells or abilities.37b Sunburst applies only as the spell is resolving and only if one or more colored mana was spent on its costs.38.” 502. it doesn’t matter whether the ability is on a creature spell or on a noncreature spell. 502. 502. it comes into play with a charge counter on it for each color of mana spent to play it. Example: The ability “Modular—Sunburst” means “This permanent comes into play with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to play it” and “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play. .37d If an object has multiple instances of sunburst.” 502. each triggers separately.with that quality imprinted on it.35a Modular represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. it gets +N/+N until end of turn. “Sunburst” means “If this object is coming into play from the stack as a creature. each of those cards is an “imprinted [quality] card.

502. If you do. a blue spell. you may return target Spirit card with converted mana cost N or less from your graveyard to your hand. This means that the ability can target a creature with protection from red and deal 2 damage to that creature. Note that a spell with one or more targets will be countered if all of its targets are illegal on resolution. “Splice onto [subtype] [cost]” means “You may reveal this card from your hand as you play a [subtype] spell. color. “Soulshift N” means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play. mana cost. Example: Since the card with splice remains in the player’s hand. not the card from which the text was copied. Soulshift 502. it can later be played normally or spliced onto another spell. “Glacial Ray deals 2 damage to target creature or player. The spell is still blue.41. copy this card’s text box onto that spell and pay [cost] as an additional cost to play that spell.” Paying a card’s splice cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. 502.” 502. card types.) of the spliced cards.40.41b A creature with defender can’t attack. subtypes. You can’t splice any one card onto the same spell more than once. reveal them all at once and choose the order in which their instructions will be followed. 502. supertypes. 502.40d Choose targets for the added text normally (see rule 409. Defender 502.39a Soulshift is a triggered ability. It can even be discarded to pay a “discard a card” cost of the spell it’s spliced onto.1b and 409. or it resolves).) for that card’s instructions. when it’s countered. 502. 502.40c The spell has the characteristics of the main spell. plus the text boxes of each of the spliced cards. .40b You can’t choose to use a splice ability if you can’t make the required choices (targets. The instructions on the main spell have to be followed first.39. etc.41a Defender is a static ability.40a Splice is a static ability that functions while a card is in your hand.39b If a permanent has multiple instances of soulshift. each triggers separately. 502.40e The spell loses any splice changes once it leaves the stack (for example. Example: Glacial Ray is a red card with splice onto Arcane that reads. 502.” Suppose Glacial Ray is spliced onto Reach Through Mists. The spell doesn’t gain any other characteristics (name. it’s removed from the game.1d). Text copied onto the spell that refers to a card by name refers to the spell on the stack. Splice 502.1f–h. and Reach Through Mists deals the damage. If you’re splicing more than one card onto a spell. etc.

10. “Ninjutsu [cost]” means “[Cost].1a).44b A player can’t play spells once a spell with epic he or she controls resolves.” The enchant ability restricts what an Aura spell can target and what an Aura can enchant.45. 502.44. “For the rest of the game.44a Epic represents both a static ability and a delayed triggered ability.2f).” and “At the beginning of each of your upkeeps. Colored mana in the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost reduces mana of the same color in the total cost to play the card with offering. Colored mana in the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost that doesn’t match colored mana in the colored mana cost of the card with offering.43a Ninjutsu is an activated ability that functions only while the card with ninjutsu is in a player’s hand.” See rule 503. but effects (such as the epic ability itself) can still put copies of spells onto the stack. Enchant 502. 502.42c Generic mana in the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost reduces generic mana in the total cost to play the card with offering.45a Enchant is a static ability. or is in excess of the card’s colored mana cost. copy this spell except for its epic ability.42.43. Offering 502. 502. written “Enchant [object or player]. Epic 502. Ninjutsu 502.” 502. Return an unblocked creature you control to its owner’s hand: Put this card into play from your hand tapped and attacking. Reveal this card from your hand. The total cost of the spell is reduced by the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost (see rule 409. If you do.502.43c A ninjutsu ability may be played only while a creature in play is unblocked (see rule 309. the total cost to play this card is reduced by the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost. “Epic” means. If the spell has any targets. “[Text] offering” means “You may play this card any time you could play an instant by sacrificing a [text] permanent.42b The permanent is sacrificed at the same time the spell is announced (see rule 409. reduces that much generic mana in the total cost. 502. The creature with ninjutsu is put into play unblocked.” 502. 502.42a Offering is a static ability of a card that functions in any zone from which the card can be played.1f). 502. you may choose new targets for the copy. .41c Multiple instances of defender on the same creature are redundant. 502.43b The card with ninjutsu remains revealed from the time the ability is announced until the ability leaves the stack. you can’t play spells. It will be attacking the same player or planeswalker as the creature that was returned to its owner’s hand.

47. or {W}. Then the creatures become tapped as you pay Guardian of Vitu-Ghazi’s cost. The colorless creature and the red creature each reduce the spell’s cost by {1}. The Aura can enchant only objects or players that match all of its enchant abilities.” 502.47a Dredge is a static ability that functions only while the card with dredge is in a player’s graveyard.4. Therefore objects with transmute will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities. you may instead put N cards from the top of your library into your graveyard and return this card from your graveyard to your hand. Transmute 502. see rule 212. “Convoke” means “As an additional cost to play this spell. Then shuffle your library.48. Example: You play Guardian of Vitu-Ghazi. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery. {G}. Dredge 502.” 502. Substance . “Dredge N” means “As long as you have at least N cards in your library. You announce that you’re going to tap a colorless creature. 502. The Aura’s target must follow the restrictions from all the instances of enchant.47b A player with fewer cards in his or her library than the number required by a dredge ability can’t put any of them into his or her graveyard this way. You choose whether the green-white creature reduces the spell’s cost by {1}. it continues to exist while the object is in play and in all other zones.46.48a Transmute is an activated ability that functions only while the card with transmute is in a player’s hand. Convoke 502. “Enchantments.1f–h. a spell with convoke that costs {6}{G}{W}.48b Although the transmute ability is playable only if the card is in a player’s hand.46a Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. 502. and a green-and-white creature to help pay for it. and put it into your hand. a red creature. 502. Each creature tapped this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1} or by one mana of any of that creature’s colors.1b and 409.45c If an Aura has multiple instances of enchant. “Transmute [cost]” means “[Cost]. 502. you may tap any number of untapped creatures you control. Such Auras can’t target permanents and can’t be attached to permanents. 502. all of them apply.” 502.45d Auras that can enchant a player can target and be attached to players. Discard this card: Search your library for a card with the same converted mana cost as the discarded card. reveal that card. 502.49.502.46b Multiple instances of convoke on the same spell are redundant. if you would draw a card.45b For more information on Auras.” Using the convoke ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.

if a replicate cost was paid for it.” 502. this permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it. remove it from the game haunting target creature.” 502. If the spell has any targets. Forecast 502. 502.53b A forecast ability may be played only during the upkeep step of the .” 502. 502. It’s written “Forecast — [Activated ability].50a Bloodthirst is a static ability.49a Substance is a static ability with no effect.1f–h. 502.51a Haunt is a triggered ability. copy it for each time its replicate cost was paid. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.50b “Bloodthirst X” is a special form of bloodthirst. “Bloodthirst X” means “This permanent comes into play with X +1/+1 counters on it. The phrase “creature it haunts” refers to the object targeted by the haunt ability.51.502. each is paid separately and triggers based on the payments made for it. Replicate 502.1b and 409. 502. regardless of whether or not that object is still a creature. Haunt 502. each applies separately.51b Cards that are in the removed-from-the-game zone as the result of a haunt ability “haunt” the creature targeted by that ability. 502. you may pay [cost] any number of times” and “When you play this spell.50.53.” “Haunt” on an instant or sorcery spell means “When this spell is put into a graveyard during its resolution.52b If a spell has multiple instances of replicate. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.52.53a A forecast ability is a special kind of activated ability that can be played only from a player’s hand. “Bloodthirst N” means “If an opponent was dealt damage this turn. 502. not any other instance of replicate. “Replicate [cost]” means “As an additional cost to play this spell.50c If an object has multiple instances of bloodthirst. you may choose new targets for any number of the copies.51c Triggered abilities of cards with haunt that refer to the haunted creature can trigger in the removed-from-the-game zone.” 502.” Paying a spell’s replicate cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. where X is the total damage your opponents have been dealt this turn. “Haunt” on a permanent means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play. remove it from the game haunting target creature.52a Replicate is a keyword that represents two abilities. Bloodthirst 502.

” 502.55a Recover is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with recover is in a player’s graveyard. Flash 502.56b If a spell has multiple instances of ripple. if there are fewer than N cards in your library.card’s owner and only once each turn. return this card from your graveyard to your hand.54b If a creature has multiple instances of graft. 502.57. “Split second” means “As long as this spell is on the stack. 502. That player plays with that card revealed in his or her hand until it leaves the player’s hand or until a step or phase that isn’t an upkeep step begins. Suspend . you may reveal the top N cards of your library. players can’t play other spells or abilities that aren’t mana abilities. you may move a +1/+1 counter from this permanent onto that creature. then put all revealed cards not played this way on the bottom of your library in any order.57b Multiple instances of flash on the same object are redundant.56. Otherwise.56a Ripple is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with ripple is on the stack. 502. each triggers separately.” 502. 502.59.” 502. Ripple 502. or. you may pay [cost]. “Ripple N” means “When you play this spell.55. each one works separately.” 502.58. “Recover [cost]” means “When a creature is put into your graveyard from play.” 502. if this permanent has a +1/+1 counter on it. you may reveal all the cards in your library.58a Split second is a static ability that functions only while the spell with split second is on the stack. Recover 502. If you reveal cards from your library this way. remove this card from the game. you may play any of those cards with the same name as this spell without paying their mana costs. whichever comes first. “Graft N” means “This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it” and “Whenever another creature comes into play. The controller of the forecast ability reveals the card with that ability from his or her hand as the ability is played. 502.58b Multiple instances of split second on the same spell are redundant. Graft 502. Split Second 502.54a Graft represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. If you do.54.57a Flash is a static ability that functions in any zone from which you could play the card it’s on. “Flash” means “You may play this card any time you could play an instant.

61a Absorb is a static ability.” 502. sacrifice it. the ability has no effect.59a Suspend is a keyword that represents three abilities. Absorb 502.” “At the beginning of your upkeep.1b and 409.61b Each absorb ability can prevent only N damage from any one source at any one time.” and “When the last time counter is removed from this card. “Aura swap [cost]” means “[Cost]: You may exchange this permanent with an Aura card in your hand.60b Vanishing without a number means “At the beginning of your upkeep.62b If either half of the exchange can’t be completed. If you can’t.62. 502.59c Playing a spell as an effect of its suspend ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409. This action doesn’t use the stack. if this permanent has a time counter on it. if it’s removed from the game. 502. 502. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with suspend is in a player’s hand.1f–h.61.” and “At the beginning of your upkeep. prevent N of that damage.62a Aura swap is an activated ability of some Aura cards. you may pay [cost] and remove it from the game with N time counters on it.61c If an object has multiple instances of absorb.” 502.” 502. if this card is suspended. each applies separately.” 502. remove a time counter from it. sacrifice it. The second and third are triggered abilities that function in the removedfrom-the-game zone. 502.59b A card is “suspended” if it’s in the removed-from-the-game zone. If you play a creature spell this way.” 502. It will apply separately to damage from other sources.60a Vanishing is a keyword that represents three abilities. or to damage dealt by the same source at a different time. it remains removed from the game. has suspend. Aura Swap 502. it gains haste until you lose control of the spell or the permanent it becomes.” and “When the last time counter is removed from this permanent. 502. .502. Vanishing 502. remove a time counter from it” and “When the last time counter is removed from this permanent.60c If a permanent has multiple instances of vanishing. if this permanent has a time counter on it. each works separately. and has a time counter on it. remove a time counter from it.60. play it without paying its mana cost if able. “Vanishing N” means “This permanent comes into play with N time counters on it. “Absorb N” means “If a source would deal damage to this creature. “Suspend N—[cost]” means “If you could play this card from your hand.

” 502. The ability has no effect.64a Delve is a static ability that functions while the spell that has it is on the stack. put a copy of it onto the stack for each permanent that was put into a graveyard from play this turn.” 502. 502.” 502.64b Multiple instances of delve on the same spell are redundant. you may choose new targets for any of the copies. 502.63b If a permanent has multiple instances of deathtouch.2. 502.1f–h.66b If a creature has multiple instances of frenzy. “Delve” means “As an additional cost to play this spell. If the spell has any targets. “Gravestorm” means “When you play this spell.67.63a Deathtouch is a triggered ability.67a Gravestorm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. see rule 212. Each card removed this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1}. each triggers separately.” Using the delve ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. 502. Lifelink . destroy that creature. Delve 502. Gravestorm 502. each triggers separately. Example: You play the aura swap ability of an Aura that you control but you don’t own. “Fortify [cost]” means “[Cost]: Attach this Fortification to target land you control.Example: You play the aura swap ability of an Aura. it gets +N/+0 until end of turn.1b and 409. 502.63.” 502.65. 502. “Artifacts. “Deathtouch” means “Whenever this permanent deals damage to a creature.65c If a Fortification has multiple instances of fortify. Deathtouch 502. each triggers separately.” 502.66.65b For more information about Fortifications.67b If a spell has multiple instances of gravestorm. The only Aura card in your hand can’t enchant the permanent that’s enchanted by the Aura with aura swap. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery. you may remove any number of cards in your graveyard from the game.64. “Frenzy N” means “Whenever this creature attacks and isn’t blocked. The ability has no effect. any of its fortify abilities may be used.68.65a Fortify is an activated ability of Fortification cards. Frenzy 502. Fortify 502.66a Frenzy is a triggered ability. 502.

each triggers separately. each triggers separately.3d. See rule 407. 502.502.4. “Poisonous N” means “Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player.” 502.72. even outside the game.”) 502.” 502. Champion 502. return the removed card to play under its owner’s control. See rule 405. “Transfigure [cost]” means “[Cost]. 502. “Flying.. Then shuffle your library. “Linked Abilities.” 502.72a Champion represents two triggered abilities. Transfigure 502. Reach 502.70. Changeling 502.69. 502. “Lifelink” means “Whenever this permanent deals damage. sacrifice it unless you remove another [object] you control from the game” and “When this permanent leaves play.) 502.73a Changeling is a characteristic-defining ability. 502.71. . you gain that much life. “Changeling” means “This object is every creature type. see rule 102.73b Multiple instances of changeling on the same object are redundant.2. “Champion an [object]” means “When this permanent comes into play. 502. 502.70a Reach is a static ability.72b The two abilities represented by champion are linked.72c A permanent is “championed” by another permanent if the latter removes the former from the game as the direct result of a champion ability.68b If a permanent has multiple instances of lifelink.69b If a creature has multiple instances of poisonous. “Declare Blockers Step” and rule 502.71a Transfigure is an activated ability.73.70c Multiple instances of reach on the same creature are redundant. (See rule 309.69a Poisonous is a triggered ability. that player gets N poison counters.” This ability works everywhere. Poisonous 502.” (For information about poison counters.68a Lifelink is a triggered ability.70b A creature with flying can’t be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. Sacrifice this permanent: Search your library for a creature card with the same converted mana cost as this permanent and put it into play.” 502. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery.

look at the top four cards of your library.76.502. The removed card gains ‘Any player who has controlled the permanent that removed this card from the game may look at this card in the removed-from-the-game zone. 502. “Reinforce N—[cost]” means “[Cost]. Hideaway 502. copy it. 502.” Paying a card’s evoke cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409. Reinforce 502.1b and 409.1b and 409. 502. Discard this card: Put N +1/+1 counters on target creature.1f–h.” Paying a spell’s prowl cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.77b Although the reinforce ability is playable only if the card is in a player’s hand. at the time it dealt that damage. 502.75. “Evoke [cost]” means “You may play this card by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost” and “When this permanent comes into play. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.74a Evoke represents two abilities: a static ability that functions in any zone from which the card can be played and a triggered ability that functions in play. . Evoke 502. was under your control and had any of this spell’s creature types. Remove one of them from the game face down and put the rest on the bottom of your library in any order.” Paying a spell’s conspire cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409. Prowl 502. “Hideaway” means “This permanent comes into play tapped” and “When this permanent comes into play. “Conspire” means “As an additional cost to play this spell. its controller sacrifices it.78.” 502. you may choose new targets for the copy.76b If a source that assigned combat damage left play before combat damage resolved.76a Prowl is a static ability that functions on the stack. if its evoke cost was paid.77a Reinforce is an activated ability that functions only while the card with reinforce is in a player’s hand.1f–h.74. its last known information is used to determine its controller and its creature types.78a Conspire is a keyword that represents two abilities. it continues to exist while the object is in play and in all other zones. if its conspire cost was paid.’” 502. If the spell has any targets. Therefore objects with reinforce will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities. you may tap two untapped creatures you control that each share a color with it” and “When you play this spell.75a Hideaway represents a static ability and a triggered ability.1f–h.77. “Prowl [cost]” means “You may pay [cost] rather than pay this spell’s mana cost if a player was dealt combat damage this turn by a source that. Conspire 502.

“It devoured” means “sacrificed as a result of its devour ability as it came into play.85a Cascade is a triggered ability that functions only while the spell with .80b Multiple instances of wither on the same object are redundant.82b Some objects have abilities that refer to the number of creatures the permanent devoured. if it had no -1/-1 counters on it. remove it from the game instead of putting it anywhere else. 502.” 502. 502.79a Persist is a triggered ability. Exalted 502.80a Damage dealt to a creature by a source with wither doesn’t stay on that creature (see rule 212. “Persist” means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play. 502. “Unearth [cost]” means “[Cost]: Return this card from your graveyard to play. that creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn. It represents a static ability that functions while the card is in a player’s graveyard.” 502. not any other instance of conspire. “Retrace” means “You may play this card from your graveyard by discarding a land card as an additional cost to play it. Remove it from the game at end of turn. See rule 306.82a Devour is a static ability.81a Retrace appears on some instants and sorceries.83. Rather.1f–h.83b A creature “attacks alone” if it’s the only creature declared as an attacker in a given combat phase.84.79.5.” 502.” Playing a spell using its retrace ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.” 502. each is paid separately and triggers based on its own payment.” 502. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery.84a Unearth is an activated ability that functions while the card is in a graveyard. return it to play under its owner’s control with a -1/-1 counter on it.81. “Devour N” means “As this object comes into play. Devour 502. 502. you may sacrifice any number of creatures. it causes that many -1/-1 counters to be put on that creature. If it would leave play. 502.3g). Wither 502.83a Exalted is a triggered ability.1b and 409. Unearth 502.82. It gains haste.78b If a spell has multiple instances of conspire. Retrace 502. “Exalted” means “Whenever a creature you control attacks alone. Persist 502. This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it for each creature sacrificed this way.85.80.502. Cascade 502.

Tomoya’s characteristics . as modified by the copy’s status (see rule 510). the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object’s characteristics (name. or card. Example: Vesuvan Doppelganger reads. Some objects become or turn another object into a “copy” of a spell. the value of X. card type. The Clone is a 2/2 blue Bear named Grizzly Bears that has the Doppelganger’s upkeep-triggered ability. Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of that creature except for its color and gains ‘At the beginning of your upkeep. how it will affect multiple targets. no abilities. “As Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play. Example: Tomoya the Revealer (a flipped flip card) becomes a copy of Nezumi Shortfang (an unflipped flip card). Some effects put a token into play as a copy of another object. . remove cards from the top of your library from the game until you remove a nonland card whose converted mana cost is less than this spell’s converted mana cost. Other effects (including type-changing and textchanging effects).” 502.) 503. which have received new text in the Oracle card reference. (Certain older cards were printed with the phrase “search for a copy. choices made when playing it (mode.3. Then a Clone comes into play as a copy of the Doppelganger.cascade is on the stack. color. not a 5/5 artifact creature.” Clone is a creature that reads. and so on). Example: Chimeric Staff is an artifact that reads “{X}: Chimeric Staff becomes an X/X artifact creature until end of turn. If you do.2. . Clone comes into play as a copy of that creature. “As Clone comes into play. Its controller can’t pay {2}{B}{B} to turn it face up. Objects that copy the object will use the new copiable values. by “as . expansion symbol. as modified by other copy effects.” After a Staff has become a 5/5 artifact creature. power. you may choose a creature in play. rules text. subtype. and will become a creature if that ability is activated. and no mana cost. The “copiable values” are the values that are printed on the object. Copying Objects 503. When copying an object.) Example: Clone comes into play as a copy of a face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph {2}{B}{B}). each triggers separately. permanent. no types. whether a kicker cost was paid.” This section doesn’t cover those cards. however. this creature gains this ability. a Clone comes into play as a copy of it. Then put all cards removed from the game this way that weren’t played on the bottom of your library in a random order. loyalty) and. . If you do. you may choose a creature in play. “Cascade” means “When you play this spell. The copy’s copiable values become the copied information. The Clone is an artifact. comes into play” and “as . status. for an object on the stack. 503.1. supertype. is turned face up” abilities that set characteristics. You may play that card without paying its mana cost. mana cost.85b If a spell has multiple instances of cascade.’” A Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of Grizzly Bears (a 2/2 green creature with no abilities). . toughness. targets. and counters are not copied. It will still be face up. If you do. (The copy has the Staff’s ability. The Clone is a colorless 2/2 creature with no name. 503. you may have this creature become a copy of target creature except for its color. and by abilities that caused the object to be face down.

7. those abilities will take effect. Also. Some effects cause a permanent that’s copying a permanent to copy a different object while remaining in play. Example: Striped Bears reads. and no mana cost. At the beginning of your upkeep.6. 503. However. The Demon’s characteristics become the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian.4. if an object comes into play as a copy of another permanent. This also doesn’t change any noncopy effects presently affecting the permanent.become the characteristics of Stabwhisker the Odious. it will have the characteristics of Wandering Ones. but it will still get +3/+3 from the Giant Growth. or abilities. the object’s controller will get to make any “as comes into play” choices for it. It remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name.” A Clone that comes into play as a copy of a Skyshroud Behemoth will also come into play tapped with two fade counters on it. If the text that’s being copied includes any abilities that replace the comes-into-play event (such as “comes into play with” or “as [this] comes into play” abilities). any choices that have been made for that permanent aren’t copied. Example: Unstable Shapeshifter reads. any comes-intoplay triggered abilities of the copy will have a chance to trigger.” The Clone won’t copy the color choice of the Spirit. which reads “Target creature gets +3/+3 until end of turn.)” and “Skyshroud Behemoth comes into play tapped. The change doesn’t trigger comes-intoplay or leaves-play abilities. Because any choices that have been made for a permanent aren’t copied. draw a card. The Clone has the Bears’ comes-into-play triggered ability. sacrifice it.” It’s affected by Giant Growth. Unstable Shapeshifter will become a copy of that creature. Chameleon Spirit reads. If it’s turned face up. Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of a face-up Branchsnap Lorian (a 4/1 green creature with trample and morph {G}). so the Clone’s controller draws a card. types. “When Striped Bears comes into play. and no mana cost. it will have the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian. 503. Example: A Clone comes into play as a copy of Chameleon Spirit. Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of Wandering Ones (a 1/1 blue Spirit creature that doesn’t have morph). remove a fade counter from it. “Fading 2 (This creature comes into play with two fade counters on it. it remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name. rather. It will be a face-down Wandering Ones. choose a color.” A Clone comes into play as a copy of Striped Bears.” If a creature comes into play later this turn. sometimes a copy card will gain an ability that refers to a choice that was . Example: Skyshroud Behemoth reads. “As Chameleon Spirit comes into play. 503. the controller of the Clone will get to make a new choice. Unstable Shapeshifter becomes a copy of that creature and gains this ability. since the creature is face down. “Whenever a creature comes into play. in part. If an effect turns it face up. Its controller can’t turn it face up as a special action. It can be turned face up for {G}. and then become a copy of that permanent.5. 503. which is the flipped version of Nezumi Shortfang. or abilities. An object that comes into play “as a copy” of another object becomes a copy as it comes into play. Instead. types. If you can’t. When copying a permanent. It doesn’t come into play.

that part of the ability won’t do anything. (See rule 409. it uses the objects used to pay the costs of the original spell or ability. the Doppelganger copies Quirion Elves. One ability refers only to actions that were taken or objects that were affected by the other.never made. Some copy effects give an ability to the copy as part of the copying process. 503. that part of the ability has no effect. See rule 407. regardless of what other abilities the copy may currently have or may have had in the past. To copy a spell or activated ability means to put a copy of it onto the stack. along with any other abilities that were copied. they retain their original values instead. some copy effects specifically state that they don’t copy certain characteristics. the value of X. Example: A Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of Chameleon Spirit.9.”) Choices that are normally made on resolution are not copied. A copy of a spell is owned by the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it.8. the second ability is the only ability that can refer to that choice. This ability becomes part of the copiable values for the copy. They can’t be linked to any other ability. those abilities will be similarly linked to one another on the object that copied them.” A copy of a spell or ability copies both the characteristics of the spell or ability and all decisions made for it. it was chosen for a different linked ability.” If an ability refers to an undefined choice. In that case. If that mana ability of the Doppelganger is played. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. so the protection ability doesn’t protect it from anything at all. linked ability refers to that choice. 503. “Linked Abilities. and additional or alternative costs. Also.” and “Voice of All has protection from the chosen color. The copiable values of the Shapeshifter now match those of the Elves.” If an ability refers to an undefined choice. the choice is considered to be “undefined. targets. in part.” Then a Clone comes into play as a copy of the Unstable Shapeshifter.” 503. Voice of All reads. The Elves has the ability. because it didn’t come into play as a Voice of All card. An object doesn’t “remember” that choice and use it for other abilities it may copy later. If a pair of linked abilities are copied. Later. “As Voice of All comes into play.) If an object copies an ability that refers to a choice. including the ability that the Shapeshifter gave itself when it copied the Elves. Unstable Shapeshifter becomes a copy of that creature and gains this ability. choose a color. Example: Voice of All comes into play and Unstable Shapeshifter copies it. it will not produce mana. including modes.10.” and a second. (This is a change from previous rules. except that the Shapeshifter also has the ability “Whenever a creature comes into play.8a If an ability causes a player to “choose a [value]” or “name a card. a copy of a spell or ability isn’t “played.” Unstable Shapeshifter never had a chance for a color to be chosen for it. then the choice is considered to be “undefined.” Even though a color was chosen for the Doppelganger. “{T}: Add one mana of the chosen color to your mana pool. The Clone copies the new copiable values of the Shapeshifter. but either (a) doesn’t copy that ability’s linked ability or (b) does copy the linked ability but no choice is made. If an effect of the copy refers to objects used to pay its costs. A copy of a spell or ability is controlled by the . Example: Quirion Elves comes into play and an Unstable Shapeshifter copies it. 503. and the Doppelganger’s controller chooses blue.

or destroy target non-Aura enchantment. The played copy is a spell on the stack.10b A copy of an ability has the same source as the original ability. the effect still tracks that permanent even if it changes names or becomes a copy of something else. or target creature loses flying until end of turn. An effect that instructs a player to “play a copy” of an object follows the rules for playing spells and abilities.” Emerald Charm reads.” and “Fling deals damage equal to the sacrificed creature’s power to target creature or player.10a If a copy of a spell is in a zone other than the stack. It does not necessarily have the same target. 503. The player may leave any number of the targets unchanged. .1. If an effect refers to a permanent by name. The copy is considered to be the same ability by effects that count how many times that ability has resolved during the turn. Once the player has decided what the copy’s targets will be. If the ability refers to its source by name. 504.12. 503. the Shapeshifter will be destroyed at end of turn. and just like any other spell it can resolve or be countered. A copy of an ability is itself an ability. “Put a copy of target instant or sorcery spell onto the stack. Playing a copy of a nonland object follows steps 409. the copy refers to that same object and not to any other object with the same name. If a copy of a card is in any zone other than the stack or the in-play zone. except that the copy is played while another spell or ability is resolving.26) allow spells and permanents to be face down. Play this ability only once each turn. “Choose one — Untap target permanent. it puts a copy of the Emerald Charm on the stack. even if it’s no longer a copy of Crazed Armodon at that time.1a–h of rule 409. it ceases to exist. but only because Fork allows choosing of new targets. even though it has no spell card associated with it.” If this activated ability of the Shapeshifter is played. the new targets must be legal. 503. Fork reads. These are state-based effects. it ceases to exist. Face-Down Spells and Permanents 504. even if those targets would be illegal. “As an additional cost to play Fling. The copy has the same mode that was chosen for the original Emerald Charm.player who put it on the stack. 503. Example: An Unstable Shapeshifter copies a Crazed Armodon. If the player chooses to change some or all of the targets.” When the Fork resolves. it checks the power of the creature sacrificed to pay for the original Fling.” When determining how much damage a copy of Fling deals. A copy of a spell is itself a spell.” then the copy becomes played. “{G}: Crazed Armodon gets +3/+0 and gains trample until end of turn.11. Example: A player plays Fork. See rule 420. 503. Two cards (Illusionary Mask and Ixidron) and the morph ability (see rule 502.10c Some effects copy a spell or ability and state that its controller may choose new targets for the copy. Destroy Crazed Armodon at end of turn. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. except that it copies Fork’s color and you may choose new targets for the copy. Crazed Armodon reads. targeting an Emerald Charm. the copy is put onto the stack with those targets. sacrifice a creature. Example: Fling is an instant that reads.

or face-down cards in the phased-out zone last controlled by another player.”) Objects that are put into play face down are turned face down before they come into play. if it is turned face up. but is not limited to. because the permanent has already come into play. so the permanent’s comes-intoplay abilities won’t trigger (if triggered) or have any effect (if static).4. 504. If a face-down permanent moves from the in-play zone to any zone other than the phased-out zone.3. spell.504. its owner must reveal it to all players as he or she moves it. which creature attacked last turn. The ability or rules that allow a permanent to be face down may also allow the permanent’s controller to turn it face up. as modified by its face-down status. its owner must reveal it to all players as he or she moves it. or clearly placing those objects in order on the table. If a phased-out face-down object moves to any zone other than the in-play zone. or a face-down card in the phased-out zone you controlled when it phased out. 504. “Interaction of Continuous Effects. Its characteristics therefore remain the same: the characteristics listed by the ability or rules that allowed it to be turned face down. its copiable values become the copiable values of that permanent.6. (See rule 418. a face-down permanent you control. face-down permanents in play. Face-down spells on the stack. in the phased-out zone. and facedown cards in the phased-out zone have no characteristics other than those listed by the ability or rules that allowed the card. However. At any time. the order that facedown permanents came into play. Common methods for distinguishing between face-down objects include using counters or dice to mark the different objects. 504. Any effects that have been applied to the face-down permanent still apply to the face-up permanent. you must ensure at all times that your face-down spells and permanents can be easily differentiated from each other. Spells normally can’t be turned face up. You can’t look at face-down cards in any other zone. Any effects or prohibitions that would apply to playing an object with these characteristics (and not the face-up object’s characteristics) are applied to playing this object. If you control multiple face-down spells on the stack or face-down permanents in play. This includes. and any other differences between face-down spells or permanents.2. its copiable values become the values it copied from the other permanent. knowing the order spells were played. “Copying Objects. At the end of each game.7. Any listed characteristics are the copiable values of that object’s characteristics. all facedown objects in play. If a face-down permanent becomes a copy of another permanent.” and rule 503. you may look at a face-down spell you control on the stack. 504. so effects that care about the characteristics of a spell will see only the face-down spell’s characteristics. . or permanent to be turned face down.5. Objects that are played face down are turned face down before they are put onto the stack. its copiable values revert to its normal copiable values. As a face-down permanent is turned face up. Any abilities relating to the permanent coming into play don’t trigger and don’t have any effect. If a face-down spell moves from the stack to any zone other than the in-play zone.5. face-down spells or permanents controlled by another player. 504. or on the stack must be revealed to all players. its owner must reveal it as he or she moves it.

Split Cards 505. a player who has drawn or discarded a split card has drawn or discarded one card. each split card is only one card. his or her opponent would discard Assault/Battery because the game sees its converted mana cost as “1.504.3.” If a player plays Void and chooses 1. Split cards have two card faces on a single card. For example.” You get five creature tokens. Then target player reveals his or her hand and discards all nonland cards with converted mana cost equal to the number. 505. the whole comparison returns a “yes” answer. where X is that card’s converted mana cost. the game sees its converted mana cost as “1. split cards have two sets of characteristics and two converted mana costs. Destroy all artifacts and creatures with converted mana cost equal to that number.6. 505. Example: Void reads.8. This answer is “yes” if either side of each split card in the comparison would return a “yes” answer if compared individually.” ability after it’s turned face up. This answer is “yes” if performing the analogous positive comparison would return a “no” answer. If an effect performs a comparison involving multiple characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack. As long as a split card is a spell on the stack. An effect that performs a negative comparison (such as asking if cards have different names) involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack also gets only one answer. 505. . While it’s a spell on the stack. An effect that asks for a particular characteristic of a split card while it’s in a zone other than the stack gets two answers (one for each of the split card’s two halves). 505. The back of a split card is the normal Magic: The Gathering card back. Example: Infernal Genesis has an ability that reads. If a face-down permanent would have an “As [this permanent] is turned face up . not afterward. “At the beginning of each player’s upkeep. Assault/Battery . “Choose a number. however.5. that player puts the top card from his or her library into his or her graveyard.1. and 4.” If the top card of your library is Assault/Battery when this ability resolves.4. only the characteristics of the half being played exist. If each of the individual comparisons would return a “yes” answer. it’s only the color or colors of the half being played.2. In every zone except the stack. If the player chooses 5. 505. An effect that performs a positive comparison (such as asking if a card is red) or a relative comparison (such as asking if a card’s converted mana cost is less than 2) involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack gets only one answer. Each split card that consists of two halves with different colored mana symbols in their mana costs is a multicolored card while it’s not a spell on the stack. The other half’s characteristics are treated as though they didn’t exist. 505. He or she then puts X 1/1 black Minion creature tokens into play. and 4. that ability is applied while that permanent is being turned face up. . each characteristic is compared separately.” The same is true if the player chooses 4. not two. Although split cards have two playable halves.

505. 506. An object has the chosen name if it has at least one of the two names chosen this way.3.”) 506.1a A “subgame” is a completely separate Magic game created by a card’s effect. 506. At the end of a subgame.1b No effects or definitions created in either the main game or the subgame have any meaning in the other. . The “main game” is the game in which the spell or ability that created the subgame was played.5. 506. those abilities are put onto the stack. 506. following all other rules in section 101. If a card is brought into a subgame from a main game. Each player takes all the cards in his or her main-game library. The main game is temporarily discontinued while the subgame is in progress. if any main-game abilities triggered while the subgame was in progress due to cards being removed from the main game. If an effect instructs a player to name a card and the player wants to name a split card. The subgame proceeds like a normal game.” 506. (See rule 420. All other objects in the subgame cease to exist. but they won’t be put onto the stack until the main game resumes. For example. moves them to his or her subgame library. because each player draws seven cards when a game begins. the player must name both halves of the split card. and shuffles them. then shuffles them.would be unaffected. the effect may say that something happens in the main game to the winner or loser of the subgame. except as defined by the effect that created the subgame. 506. No other cards in a main-game zone are moved to their corresponding subgame zone. the spell or ability that created the subgame finishes resolving. As the subgame starts. Then. even if it was created by a spell card that’s no longer on the stack. The main game continues from the point at which it was discontinued: First. “Starting the Game. All objects in the main game and all cards outside the main game are considered outside the subgame (except those specifically brought into the subgame). However. abilities in the main game that trigger on objects leaving a main-game zone will trigger. an entirely new set of game zones is created. Randomly determine which player goes first.4. as do the zones created for the subgame. 506. Any rules regarding the size of a player’s deck are ignored for the subgame.4a Some effects can bring cards into a game from outside of it. Subgames 506.7. This includes cards in the subgame’s removed-from-the-game zone. “StateBased Effects.2. regardless of any mulligans that player takes. any player with fewer than seven cards in his or her deck will lose the subgame when state-based effects are checked during the upkeep step of the first turn. All players not currently in the subgame are considered outside the subgame.1. each player puts all cards he or she owns that are in the subgame into his or her library in the main game. It resumes when the subgame ends. Some cards allow players to play a Magic subgame.

even if his or her turn is controlled by another player. See rule 102. Example: The controller of a player’s turn can see that player’s hand and the identity of any face-down creatures he or she controls.1. takes an intentional draw. Example: The player whose turn it is still chooses whether he or she leaves to visit the restroom. 507. A subgame can be created within a subgame. The existing subgame becomes the main game in relation to the new subgame. the effect doesn’t end until the beginning of the next turn.6. A player may concede the game at any time. 507. 507. 507. This includes choices and decisions about what to play. and so on) to pay costs for that player. and how those creatures assign their combat damage.1a Multiple turn-controlling effects that affect the same player overwrite each other. the cards are discarded from the player’s hand. or calls a judge about an error or infraction. If information about an object would be visible to the player whose turn is controlled. The controller also can’t make any choices or decisions for the player that would be called for by the tournament rules. The last one to be created is the one that works.3a The controller of another player’s turn can use only that player’s resources (cards. 507. Example: If the controller of the turn decides that the player will play a spell with an additional cost of discarding cards. One card (Mindslaver) allows a player’s turn to be controlled by another player. All objects are controlled by their normal controllers. Controlling Another Player’s Turn 507.3b The controller of another player’s turn can’t make that player concede. trades a card to someone else.Example: If a card was brought into the subgame either from the main game or from outside the main game. Example: The controller of the turn decides which spells to play and what those spells target.1c Only the control of the turn changes. it’s visible to both that player and the controller of the turn.3. . This effect applies to the next turn that the affected player actually takes.1b If a turn is skipped. 506. and makes any required decisions when those spells resolve. The entire turn is controlled. 507. any pending turn-controlling effects wait until the player who would be affected actually takes a turn. 507. 507. mana.2. Example: The controller of the turn decides which of the player’s creatures attack. and choices and decisions called for by spells and abilities.3a. 507.3c The controller of another player’s turn can’t make choices or decisions for that player that aren’t called for by the rules or by any objects. The controller of another player’s turn makes all choices and decisions that player is allowed to make or is told to make during that turn by the rules or by any objects. that card will be put into its owner’s main-game library when the subgame ends.

power. any changes to it by external effects will still apply. power. power. If an effect instructs a player to name a card and the player wants to name a flip card’s alternative name. as they differ from the normal process for resolving spells and abilities (see rule 413. Additional alternative characteristics appear upside down on the card. illustration credit.1.507. and legal text don’t change if the permanent is flipped.5. 508. Common methods for distinguishing between flipped and unflipped permanents include using coins or dice to mark flipped objects. When an effect ends the turn. 507. text box.” 508.1. One card (Time Stop) ends the turn when it resolves. Also. Flipping a permanent is a one-way process. follow these steps in order. See rule 510. The text that appears right side up on the card defines the card’s normal characteristics. type line. 509. and toughness. An effect that says “legendary creatures get +2/+2” doesn’t affect Akki Lavarunner. its normal name. “Status. Flip Cards 508. Volcano Born. Flip cards have a two-part card frame on a single card. Once a permanent is flipped. (Unused mana in players’ mana pools is still lost when a phase ends. These characteristics are used only if the permanent is in play and only if the permanent is flipped. if a flipped permanent leaves play.2. expansion symbol. text box.3. Ending the Turn 509. and toughness don’t apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead. Example: Akki Lavarunner is a nonlegendary creature that flips into a legendary creature named Tok-Tok. and toughness. mana cost. type line. 508. An effect that says “search your library for a legendary card” can’t find this flip card.1b The bottom half of a flip card contains an alternative name. type line. it retains no memory of its status. . 508. 508. 508.4. the player may do so. However. and also in the in-play zone before the permanent flips.4. You must ensure that it’s clear at all times whether a permanent you control is flipped or not. both when it’s untapped and when it’s tapped. In every zone other than the in-play zone.1a The top half of a flip card contains the card’s normal name. See rule 300. text box.) 508. Once a permanent in the in-play zone is flipped.3. but it does affect Tok-Tok. 508. The back of a flip card is the normal Magic: The Gathering card back.1c A flip card’s color. A player doesn’t lose life due to mana burn while another player controls his or her turn. a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the card. The text box usually contains an ability that causes the permanent to “flip” if certain conditions are met. “Resolving Spells and Abilities”). it’s impossible for it to become unflipped.3d A player who controls another player’s turn also continues to make his or her own choices and decisions.

A permanent retains its status until a spell. making it a copy of Tomoya the Revealer with the Dimir Doppelganger ability. if any.2. ability. No player gets priority during this process. A permanent’s status is its physical state. Remove all attacking and blocking creatures.1c The current phase and/or step ends.3). There are three status categories. it will retain its flipped status even though that has no relevance to Grizzly Bears. Status is not a characteristic. Dimir Doppelganger becomes a copy of that card and gains this ability. this time targeting a Nezumi Shortfang card (another flip card). 509. Although a card in the removed-from-the-game zone may be face down. and face up unless a spell or ability says otherwise. Skip any phases or steps between this phase or step and the cleanup step. The game skips straight to the cleanup step. All objects not in play or on the stack that aren’t represented by cards will cease to exist the next time state-based effects are checked (see rule 420.” It becomes a copy of Jushi Apprentice.1. 509. 509. “State-Based Effects).5. Each permanent always has one of these values for each of these categories. Through use of Jushi Apprentice’s ability. Only permanents have status. If any triggered abilities have triggered between the spell or ability resolving and the cleanup step ending. so triggered abilities are not put onto the stack. and face up/face down. Status 510. flipped/unflipped. and no triggered abilities are put onto the stack.3. this has no correlation to the face-down status of a permanent. or game action changes it. though it may affect a permanent’s characteristics.4. . Then there will be another cleanup step before the turn finally ends (see rule 314. this permanent’s flipped status means it will have the characteristics of Stabwhisker the Odious (the flipped version of Nezumi Shortfang) with the Dimir Doppelganger ability. If its copy ability is activated again. from combat. a flip card. unflipped.2. Cards not in play do not. 510. Even though the turn ends. 510. Remove all planeswalkers from combat. each of which has two possible values: tapped/untapped.1b Check state-based effects. 510. “at end of turn” triggered abilities don’t trigger because the end of turn step is skipped. Permanents come into play untapped. 509. If this permanent then becomes a copy of Grizzly Bears. No player gets priority. even if that status is not relevant to it.3. there’s a chance to play spells and abilities in the cleanup step.509. 510.1a Remove every object on the stack from the game. Example: Dimir Doppelganger says “{1}{U}{B}: Remove target creature card in a graveyard from the game. 510. this creature flips.

” Other methods of randomization may be substituted for flipping a coin as long as there are two possible outcomes of equal likelihood and all players agree to the substitution. For example. the player may roll an even-sided die and call “odds” or “evens.” and the other side to be “tails.2. that player wins the flip. as well as other information about the permanent (such as who controls it or whether it has any counters on it). the affected player flips the coin and calls “heads” or “tails.” designate one side to be “heads. Flipping a Coin 511. To flip a coin for an object that cares whether a player wins or loses the flip. the player loses the flip. 511.” . To flip a coin for an object that cares whether the coin comes up heads or tails. No player wins or loses this kind of flip. A coin used in a flip must be a two-sided object with easily distinguished sides and equal likelihood that either side lands face up. each affected player flips a coin without making a call.6. If it was face down when it phased out. If the coin that’s being flipped doesn’t have an obvious “heads” or “tails.510. no other players are involved. Otherwise. 511. It will phase in with the same status it had when it phased out. A permanent that phases out remembers its status. 511. it will stay face down in the phased-out zone.” If the call matches the result.3. Only the player who flips the coin wins or loses the flip.” or roll an evensided die and designate that “odds” means “heads” and “evens” means “tails.1.

“You control enchanted creature. If an object would change to the control of a player who has left the game.” If Alex leaves the game. “Search target opponent’s library for a creature card and put that card into play under your control. instead. Multiplayer Rules 600. so does Control Magic. if there are any objects still controlled by that player. that creature’s controller puts a 1/1 Myr artifact creature token into play. 600. 600.3. and Control Magic is put into Alex’s graveyard. Bianca leaves the game. Example: Alex controls Genesis Chamber. including rules for deck construction.wizards. Bianca leaves the game. See the most current Magic: The Gathering DCI Floor Rules for more information. all Myr tokens created by Genesis Chamber while it was under Alex’s control leave the game as well because Alex owns the tokens.” targeting Bianca. They can be found at http://www. If Alex leaves the game. If a token would be put into play under the control of a . These rules consist of a series of options that can be added to a multiplayer game and a number of variant styles of multiplayer play. instead.) This is not a state-based effect. in part. if Genesis Chamber is untapped. Example: Alex plays Threaten. so does Wall of Wood. If Alex leaves the game.4b. A single game may use multiple options but only one variant. Alex puts Wall of Wood into play from Bianca’s library. and Wall of Wood reverts to Bianca’s control. If. Many multiplayer Magic tournaments have additional rules not included here.4. A multiplayer game is a game that begins with more than two players. those objects leave the game. which reads. Example: Alex plays Control Magic.6. Unlike two-player games. multiplayer games can continue after one or more players have left the game. 600. “Untap target creature and gain control of it until end of turn. Wall of Wood leaves the game. This section contains additional optional rules that can be used for multiplayer play. Then. (Any objects leaving the game this way that aren’t owned by the player leaving the game are placed in the removed-from-the-game zone.aspx? x=dci/doccenter/home. all objects (see rule 200. an Aura that reads. “Whenever a nontoken creature comes into play. which reads. all spells and abilities controlled by that player on the stack cease to exist. If the player who left the game had priority at the time he or she left.4a. If. 600. If Alex leaves the game. When a player leaves the game. it doesn’t. Threaten’s change-of-control effect ends and Wall of Wood reverts to Bianca’s control.” targeting Bianca’s Wall of Wood.” on Bianca’s Wall of Wood.com/Magic/TCG/Events. General 600. 600. Example: Alex plays Bribery.2. and any change-of-control effects which give that player control of any objects end. It happens as soon as the player leaves the game.1. Wall of Wood still leaves the game.8) owned by that player leave the game. Then that player shuffles his or her library. which reads. A player leaving the game doesn’t affect combat damage on the stack. priority passes to the next player in turn order who’s still in the game.

5 In a multiplayer game.” 600. attacking. If a triggered ability that would be controlled by a player who has left the game would be put onto the stack. Example: Astral Slide is an enchantment that reads. the controller of the object chooses another player to make that choice.4g When a player leaves the game. the delayed triggered ability generated by Astral Slide that would return Hypnotic Specter to play triggers. Bianca uses Astral Slide’s ability to remove Alex’s Hypnotic Specter from the game. making choices. whichever is appropriate.1.9. that the player can affect. he or she draws a new hand of seven cards rather than six cards. abilities.4c If an object that would be owned by a player who has left the game would be created in any zone. it isn’t created. If the active player would receive priority. “Whenever a player cycles a card. you may remove target creature from the game. Limited Range of Influence Option 601. no token is created. measured in player seats. or the phase or step ends. otherwise. If you do. it isn’t put on the stack. 601. or the top object on the stack resolves. See rule 217. 600. instead the next player in turn order receives priority.6a.4f If a player leaves the game during his or her turn.2a The most commonly chosen limited ranges of influence are 1 seat and 2 . This is an exception to rule 600. and winning the game. The Two-Headed Giant variant employs more extensive changes to the mulligan rule. “Ante.4a. the effect uses the last known information about that player before he or she left the game. 600. but it isn’t put on the stack. At end of turn. Bianca leaves the game. Objects controlled by players within a player’s range of influence are also within that player’s range of influence. 600. and it’s often used for games involving five or more players. damage dealing. Hypnotic Specter never returns to play. It’s always used in the Emperor variant (see rule 607). that turn continues to its completion without an active player.2. that player chooses another opponent if possible. return that creature to play under its owner’s control at end of turn. A player’s range of influence is the maximum distance from that player. Limited range of influence is an option that can be applied to most multiplayer games. objects that player owns in the ante zone do not leave the game. 600. see rule 606. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal. If the original choice was to be made by an opponent of the controller of the object. the first time a player takes a mulligan.” During Alex’s turn. effects.4d If an object requires a player who has left the game to make a choice. Range of influence covers spells. Before the end of that turn. Players within that many seats of the player are within that player’s range of influence. 600. 601.4e If an effect requires information about a specific player. the effect uses the current information about that player if he or she is still in the game. 601.player who has left the game.

seats. Different players may have different ranges of influence. Example: A range of influence of 1 means that only you and the players seated directly next to you are within your range of influence. Example: A range of influence of 2 means that you and the two players to your left and the two players to your right are within your range of influence. 601.2b A player is always within his or her own range of influence. 601.2c The particular players within each player’s range of influence are determined as each turn begins. Example: In a game with a range of influence of 1, Alex is seated to the left of Rob, and Carissa is seated to the right of Rob. Carissa is not in Alex’s range of influence. If Rob leaves the game, Carissa will enter Alex’s range of influence at the start of the next turn. 601.2d An object is within a player’s range of influence if it’s controlled by that player or by another player within that many seats of that player. 601.3. Creatures can attack only opponents within their controller’s range of influence. If no opponents are within a player’s range of influence, creatures that player controls can’t attack. 601.4. Objects and players outside a player’s range of influence can’t be the targets of spells or abilities that player controls. 601.5. Some cards require players to make choices. These cards work differently when the limited range of influence option is used. 601.5a If a player is asked to choose an object or player, he or she must choose one within his or her range of influence. Example: In a game with a range of influence of 1, Alex is seated to the left of Rob. Alex activates the ability of Cuombajj Witches, which reads, “Cuombajj Witches deals 1 damage to target creature or player and 1 damage to target creature or player of an opponent’s choice,” targeting Rob and choosing Rob as the opponent who picks the other target. Rob must choose a target that’s in both his range of influence and in the range of influence of the controller of Cuombajj Witches. He must therefore choose himself, Alex, or a creature controlled by either himself or Alex. 601.5b If a player is asked to choose between one or more options (and not between one or more objects or players), he or she can choose between those options even if those options refer to objects or players outside the player’s range of influence. Example: Alex, who has a range of influence of 2, is seated to the left of Rob, and Carissa, who has range of influence of 1, is seated to the right of Rob. Alex plays a card that reads, “An opponent chooses one — You draw 2 cards; or each creature you control gets +2/+2 until end of turn,” and chooses Carissa to make that choice. Carissa can choose the mode even though Alex is out of her range. 601.5c If an effect requires a choice and there’s no player who can make that choice within its controller’s range of influence, the closest appropriate player to its controller’s left makes that choice.

Example: In an Emperor game in which all players have range of influence 1, an emperor plays Fact or Fiction, which reads, “Reveal the top five cards of your library. An opponent separates those cards into two piles. Put one pile into your hand and the other into your graveyard.” Since no opponent is within the emperor’s range of influence, the nearest opponent to the emperor’s left separates the cards into piles. 601.6. A player can’t play the activated abilities of an object outside of his or her range of influence. 601.7. A triggered ability doesn’t trigger unless its trigger event happens entirely within the range of influence of its source’s controller. Example: In a game with range of influence limited to 1, Alex is seated to the left of Rob. Rob controls two Auras attached to Alex’s Grizzly Bears: One with the trigger condition “Whenever enchanted creature becomes blocked,” and one with the trigger condition “Whenever enchanted creature becomes blocked by a creature.” Alex’s Grizzly Bears attacks the player to Alex’s left and becomes blocked. The ability of Rob’s first Aura triggers because the entire event (Grizzly Bears becomes blocked) happens within Rob’s range of influence. The ability of Rob’s second Aura doesn’t trigger, however, because that event includes the blocking creature, which is out of Rob’s range. 601.7a If a trigger event includes an object moving out of or into a player’s range of influence, use the game state before or after the event as appropriate to determine whether the triggered ability will trigger. See rule 410.10. Example: Carissa and Alex are outside each other’s range of influence. Carissa controls a creature owned by Alex and they each control a Soul Net, an artifact which reads, “Whenever a creature is put into a graveyard from play, you may pay {1}. If you do, you gain 1 life.” The creature is destroyed and is put into Alex’s graveyard. Alex’s Soul Net doesn’t trigger because the destruction event was outside Alex’s range of influence. Carissa’s Soul Net does trigger, even though the creature is going to a graveyard outside her range, because the destruction event was within her range. 601.8. An Aura can’t enchant an object or player outside its controller’s range of influence. If an Aura is attached to an illegal object or player, the Aura is put into its owner’s graveyard as a state-based effect. See rule 420. 601.9. An Equipment can’t equip an object outside its controller’s range of influence, and a Fortification can’t fortify an object outside its controller’s range of influence. If an Equipment or Fortification is attached to an illegal permanent, it becomes unattached from that permanent but remains in play. This is a state-based effect. See rule 420. 601.10. Spells and abilities can’t affect objects or players outside their controller’s range of influence. The parts of the effect that attempt to affect an out-ofrange object or player will do nothing. The rest of the effect will work normally. Example: In a six-player game where each player has range of influence 1, Alex plays Pyroclasm, which reads, “Pyroclasm deals 2 damage to each creature.” Pyroclasm deals 2 damage to each creature controlled by Alex, the player to Alex’s left, and the player to Alex’s right. No other

creatures are dealt damage. 601.11. If a spell or ability requires information from the game, it gets only information from within its controller’s range of influence. It doesn’t see objects or events outside its controller’s range of influence. Example: In a six-player game where each player has range of influence 1, Alex controls Coat of Arms, which reads, “Each creature gets +1/+1 for each other creature in play that shares a creature type with it.” Coat of Arms will boost Alex’s creatures based only on what creatures are controlled by Alex, the player to Alex’s left, and the player to Alex’s right. It won’t take other creatures into account. Example: In the same game, Rob is sitting to the right of Alex. Coat of Arms will boost Rob’s creatures based only on what creatures are controlled by Rob and Alex. They are the only two players within range of both Rob and the controller of Coat of Arms. 601.12. The “legend rule” (see rule 420.5e) applies to a permanent only if other legendary permanents with the same name are within its controller’s range of influence. Example: Alex has range of influence 1, and Carissa has range of influence 2. Rob sits between them. If Alex controls a legendary permanent and Carissa puts a legendary permanent with the same name into play, only the one controlled by Carissa will be put into a graveyard. 601.13. The “world rule” (see rule 420.5i) applies to a permanent only if other world permanents are within its controller’s range of influence. 601.14. The “planeswalker uniqueness rule” (see rule 420.5q) applies to a planeswalker only if other planeswalkers with the same planeswalker type are within its controller’s range of influence. 601.15. Replacement and prevention effects watch for a particular event to happen and then completely or partially replace that event. The limited range of influence option can cause the modified event to contain instructions that can’t be carried out, in which case the player simply ignores the impossible instructions. See rule 419, “Replacement and Prevention Effects.” 601.15a If a replacement effect tries to cause a spell or ability to affect an object or player outside its controller’s range of influence, that portion of the event does nothing. Example: Alex plays Lava Axe (“Lava Axe deals 5 damage to target player”) targeting Rob. In response, Rob plays Captain’s Maneuver (“The next X damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn is dealt to another target creature or player instead.”) with X = 3, targeting Carissa. Carissa isn’t in Alex’s range of influence. When Lava Axe resolves, it deals only 2 damage to Rob and no damage to Carissa. 601.15b If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt by a source, it can affect only sources within the spell or ability’s controller’s range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt to a creature or player, it can affect only creatures and players within the spell or ability’s controller’s range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage, but neither the source nor the would-be recipient of the damage is specified, it

If creatures are attacking more than one player. 602. if there are multiple defending players that could be chosen. Carissa plays Lightning Blast (“Lightning Blast deals 4 damage to target creature or player”) targeting Rob. 602. (See rule . In response. “Legal Attacks and Blocks. Example: Rob is within Alex’s range of influence. all the attacking player’s opponents are defending players during the combat phase. Restrictions and requirements that apply to attacking a specific player apply only to creatures attacking that player. The damage to Rob is prevented. See rule 502. or effect that refers to a “defending player” refers to one specific defending player. object. and Rob blocks with a creature.16.” Example: Rob attacks Alex with Grizzly Bears and attacks Carissa with a creature with mountainwalk. Some multiplayer games allow the active player to attack multiple other players. all of that player’s opponents within his or her range of influence lose the game instead.2a Any rule.prevents damage only if both the source and recipient of that damage are within the spell or ability’s controller’s range of influence. Alex controls an enchantment that says. the controller of the ability chooses one. Instead. If an effect states that a player wins the game. “Declare Attackers Step.1. he or she chooses a defending player for it to attack. As the attacking player declares each attacking creature. Alex plays Mending Hands (“Prevent the next 4 damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn.4. not to all of the defending players. 602. a player can also choose to attack only one player during a particular combat. each defending player declares blockers in APNAP order as the declare blockers step begins.”) Carissa and Rob’s creatures deal combat damage to each other. As the combat phase starts. If this option is used.3. Alex plays Holy Day (“Prevent all combat damage that would be dealt this turn. See rule 500.3b Creatures in a band can’t attack different players. Attack Multiple Players Option 602.” 602. 601. Example: Rob is within Alex’s range of influence.2. but Carissa is not. Whether the creature with mountainwalk is unblockable depends only on whether Carissa controls a Mountain. See rule 308.3a Restrictions and requirements that don’t apply to attacking a specific player are evaluated based on the entire group of attacking creatures. 602. 602.10. The creature deals combat damage to Rob. Example: Rob is within Alex’s range of influence. “Banding.” Carissa attacks Rob with a creature. Carissa attacks Rob with a creature.” 602. The entire group of attacking creatures must still be legal. This will usually be the defending player that the creature with the ability is attacking. but Carissa is not. but Carissa is not.”) targeting Rob. the attacking player doesn’t choose an opponent to become the defending player. “Prevent all damage that would be dealt by creatures.

”) The first defending player declares all his or her blocks.1. See rule 604. 605. In Free-for-All multiplayer games. If a player’s nearest opponent to the right is more than one seat away. and so on. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery. “Attack Left and Attack Right Options. 602. Free-for-All Variant 605. “Limited Range of Influence Option.” 604.2c The deploy creatures option isn’t used in the Free-for-All variant.” 605. Multiplayer formats in which players compete as individuals usually don’t use this option. each player has the same range of influence. which is determined before play begins.1.2b Exactly one of the attack left.” and rule 602. a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately to his or her right. attack right. Attack Left and Attack Right Options 604. then the second defending player. a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately to his or her left.1b If the attack right option is used.2a The limited range of influence option usually isn’t used in Free-for-All games. the player can’t attack. 603. Those creatures can block only creatures attacking that player. “Attack Multiple Players Option. Combat damage is assigned in APNAP order. Each creature has the ability “{T}: Target teammate gains control of this creature.2. “Combat Damage Step. and attack multiple players options must be used.103. Deploy Creatures Option 603.1. If it is.4a A defending player can block only with creatures he or she controls.2.4b When determining whether a defending player’s blocks are legal. Some multiplayer games use the optional attack left or attack right rules. Any multiplayer options used are determined before play begins. 605. the combat damage step proceeds just as in a two-player game. and it can be used in other variants that allow players to compete in teams. 604. 604. they can’t block creatures attacking other players. See rule 601. The Emperor variant always uses the deploy creatures option.” 603.4 and rule 309. a group of players compete as individuals against each other. the player can’t attack.1a If the attack left option is used. ignore any creatures attacking other players and any blocking creatures controlled by other players.5. Other than that. 605.” 605. 602. If a player’s nearest opponent to the left is more than one seat away. 602. The Freefor-All variant uses the following default options. “Declare Blockers Step. See rule 310. .

and so on) are not shared in the Two-Headed Giant variant. Timing of Team Turns 606. or take a special action.6e A player may play a spell or activated ability.6. 606.3. The team whose turn it is is the active team. For a team to take a mulligan. The players are randomly seated around the table.4) is modified for Two-Headed Giant play. Free-for-All games use the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102). 606. First. 605. 606. Teammates can’t manipulate each other’s cards or permanents. The other team is the nonactive team. 606. After each player on that team who took a mulligan looks at his or her new hand.1. The player seated on the right within each team is the primary player.4a Each team has a shared life total.605. but a player can’t see the result of his or her teammate’s mulligan before deciding whether to take a mulligan at the same time. With the exception of life total. Teammates may review each other’s hands and discuss strategies at any time. resulting in a hand of one fewer card each time. the other team may take mulligans. but his or her teammate may. Two-Headed Giant Variant 606. Each team sits together on one side of the table. those cards become his or her opening hand. 606. The Two-Headed Giant variant has two unique features. Nonactive Player order rule (see rule 103. If both teams would make choices and/or take actions at the same time. Once a player has decided to keep a hand. 606. The team who plays first skips the draw step of their first turn. not individual players. the team repeats the process. . Once each player on the starting team decides to keep an opening hand.2.6b. as modified by rule 601. each player on that team decides whether to shuffle his or her hand back into the deck and then draw a new hand of seven cards (see rule 101.6c Teams have priority. Each team decides the order in which its players sit. 606.4. until the hand size reaches zero cards. 606. the starting team takes any mulligans. 606. No other multiplayer options are used in Two-Headed Giant games. Then the actions happen simultaneously. 606.4. a team’s resources (cards in hand.16. first the active team makes any choices required. 606.5.3. mana.4b. then the nonactive team makes any choices required. which starts at 30 life. Each team takes turns rather than each player. 606. That player can’t take any more mulligans.6a A player who is dissatisfied with his or her initial hand may mulligan.6d The Active Player. Teammates may consult during this process. All players on that team who chose to do so take their mulligans at the same time. Two-Headed Giant games are played with two teams of two players each. and the player seated on the left is the secondary player.4a).

Any one-shot effect or characteristic-defining ability that refers to the “defending player” refers to one specific defending player. 606. that team passes. The same is true for any one-shot effect that refers to the “attacking player. Each player on a team draws a card during that team’s draw step. If both teams pass in succession (that is. 606. then the members of the nonactive team do the same. if both teams pass without any player taking any actions in between passing). that player’s team does so.6f If multiple triggered abilities have triggered since the last time a team received priority. The controller of the effect or of the object with the characteristic-defining ability chooses which one the spell or ability refers to. Likewise.7.only when his or her team has priority. 606. or step. This answer is “yes” if either defending player in the comparison would return a “yes” answer if compared individually.6g If a team has priority and neither player on that team wishes to do anything. If both players on a team want to take an action at the same time. not to both of the defending players. the members of the active team put all triggered abilities either of them controls on the stack in any order they choose. 606. If the reference involves a positive comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls an Island) or a relative comparison (such as asking whether you control more creatures than the defending player). During the combat phase. or turn. the nonactive team is the defending team and each player on the nonactive team is a defending player. the phase or step ends and the next one begins. the active team is the attacking team and each player on the active team is an attacking player.” . the controller of that effect controls the affected player’s team’s turn. the top object on the stack resolves. If an effect causes a player to skip a step.6i If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a TwoHeaded Giant game. If a single effect causes both players on the same team to add or skip the same step.6h If an effect gives a player an extra turn or adds a phase or step to that player’s turn. that player’s team takes the extra turn. If the reference involves a negative comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls no black permanents). The Two-Headed Giant variant uses different combat rules than other multiplayer variants. it also gets only one answer. the primary player decides who takes the action. 606. then the nonactive team does the same.” All other cases in which the “defending player” is referred to actually refer to both defending players. This answer is “yes” if performing the analogous positive comparison would return a “no” answer. If the stack is empty when both teams pass in succession. that team adds or skips only that step. The same is true for all other cases that refer to the “attacking player. first the primary player on the active team performs all of his or her draws. phase. then the secondary player on that team performs all of his or her draws. Each player on a team may play a land during each of that team’s turns. 606. phase. phase. or turn. then the active team receives priority. it gets only one answer.7a Each team’s creatures attack the other team as a group. or turn. If an effect causes a player to control another player’s turn. phase.

If either player on a team wins the game. 606. which reads.) 606. and that set of attacking creatures must be legal as a whole. so that player’s entire team loses the game. “You can’t lose the game and your opponents can’t win the game. If an effect would prevent a player from losing the game. Example: If an attacking creature has forestwalk and either player on the defending team controls a Forest. That team loses the game. Then the defending team announces how each blocking creature will assign its combat damage. a player attempts to draw a card while there are no cards in that player’s library. That player loses the game. If either player on a team loses the game. and neither player on the opposing team can win the game.” Creatures of the chosen color without flying can’t attack that player’s team.” Neither that player nor his or her teammate can lose the game while Platinum Angel is in play. The Two-Headed Giant variant uses the normal rules for winning or losing the game (see rule 102). Example: One player in a Two-Headed Giant game controls Teferi’s Moat. If an attacking creature would assign combat damage to the defending team. and gaining life happen to each player individually. the active team declares attackers. that creature can’t attack the defending team. As the declare attackers step begins. The active team has one combined attack. the active team chooses only one of the defending players for that creature to assign its combat damage to. the team loses the game the next time a team would receive priority.” If that player’s team’s life total is 0 or less. which says “As Teferi’s Moat comes into play. See rule 420. Creatures controlled by the defending players can block any attacking creatures.8c If a player concedes. that player’s team can’t win the game.” and “Creatures of the chosen color without flying can’t attack you.8b Players win and lose the game only as a team. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. the defending team declares blockers. If an effect would prevent a player from winning the game. not as individuals. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. a player controls Transcendence. his or her team leaves the game immediately. If an effect of an object controlled by a defending player prohibits a creature from attacking him or her.8. 606. the creature can’t be blocked. a player controls Platinum Angel. 606.7c As the declare blockers step begins. 606. choose a color. with the following additions. that team doesn’t lose the game. which reads. that player’s team can’t lose the game.7d As the combat damage step begins. the team loses the game.8a If a team’s life total is 0 or less. Damage. “You don’t lose the game for having 0 or less life. the active team announces how each attacking creature will assign its combat damage. and that set of blocking creatures must be legal as a whole. in part.7b. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. . (This is a state-based effect. 606. The defending team has one combined block. loss of life.9. the entire team wins the game.606. 606.

The first player is considered to have lost 10 life (13 – 3). The team will end up at 9 life. even though the team didn’t lose a total of 19 life. an enchantment that reads. The team’s life total must be 99 or more for that to happen. a player plays Flame Rift. The Two-Headed Giant variant can also be played with equally sized teams of more than two players.9b If an effect would set the life total of each player on a team to a number. a player controls Lurking Jackals.The result is applied to the team’s shared life total. Heartless Hidetsugu deals 4 damage to each of those players.” At the beginning of your upkeep. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. a player plays Biorhythm. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. which reads. “At the beginning of your upkeep. Emperor Variant 607. “When an opponent has 10 life or less. instead.” If the opposing team has 22 life and 1 damage is dealt to a particular opponent. The Emperor variant involves two or more teams of three players each. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game.” For the purposes of this ability. Each team’s starting life total is equal to 15 times the number of players on the team. Lurking Jackals won’t become a creature. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. the result is the sum of all the numbers. that effect uses the team’s life total divided by two. each player on that team is considered to be at 9 life. “Each player’s life total becomes the number of creatures he or she controls. a team is at 17 life when a player activates Heartless Hidetsugu’s ability.10. and so on. The team’s life total is adjusted by the amount of life that player gained or lost.9c If an effect would set a single player’s life total to a number. 606. “Heartless Hidetsugu deals to each player damage equal to half that player’s life total. rounded up. a player on a team that has 25 life plays a spell that reads. which reads. a player controls Test of Endurance. it becomes a 3/2 Hound creature. Four-Headed Giant.9a If an effect needs to know the value of an individual player’s life total. if you have 50 or more life.” If one member of a team that has 25 life controls three creatures and the other member controls four creatures. you win the game. that player’s individual life total becomes that number. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. 606. the player’s team wins the game only if his or her share of the team’s life total is 50 or more.1. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. that team’s life total becomes 7. which reads. which reads. for a total of 8 damage. “Your life total becomes 20. (These variants are unofficially called Three-Headed Giant. if Lurking Jackals is an enchantment. 606. 606. rounded down. .” Each team is dealt a total of 8 damage. and the second player is considered to have lost 9 life (13 – 4). so it becomes 20 and the team’s life total becomes 32 (25 + (20 – 13)). “Flame Rift deals 4 damage to each player. The opposing team’s life total must be 20 or less for that to happen.” That player’s life total is considered to be 13 for the purpose of the spell.) 607.

and with the following addition. See rule 601. mana.2.16.4. 607.1.2b The attack left option is used (see rule 604). Any multiplayer options used are decided before play begins. 608.2c The attack multiple players and deploy creatures options aren’t used in the Grand Melee variant. The Emperor variant can also be played with any number of equally sized teams. The Emperor variant uses the following default options. who sits in the middle of the team. Teammates may review each other’s hands and discuss strategies at any time. The Grand Melee variant is a modification of the Free-for-All variant. a team’s resources (cards in hand. neither emperor can attack any opponents.6. and so on) are not shared.3b Emperor games use the deploy creatures option (see rule 603).” 607. Randomly determine which emperor goes first.2a Each player has a range of influence of 1 (see rule 601). 607. The remaining players on the team are generals whose job is to protect the emperor.3. Grand Melee Variant 608. The Grand Melee variant allows multiple players to take turns at the same time. “Limited Range of Influence Option. Teammates can’t manipulate each other’s cards or permanents. The Grand Melee variant uses the following default options. 608. Turn order goes to players’ left. Example: At the start of an emperor game. The players are seated at random. as modified by rule 601. Grand Melee is normally used only in games begun with ten or more players. 608.607.2. 608. 607.7. in which a group of players compete against each other as individuals. In the Emperor variant.4. Each team sits together on one side of the table. 608.5. 608. 607. 607. 608. even though both of the opposing generals are within their spell range.5a A team loses the game if its emperor loses. Each team decides the order in which it’s seated.3c A player can attack only an opponent seated immediately next to him or her. If the teams have more than two players. The Emperor variant uses the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102). Each team has one emperor. 607.3. the range of influence of each player should be adjusted. Moving turn markers keep track of which players are currently taking .3a The range of influence is limited to 2 for emperors and 1 for generals. 607. 607.

5. During the same turn. If a turn marker is within three seats on the player’s right. Grand Melee games contain multiple stacks. remove the marker with the lower number. Each turn marker is assigned a number in this way. After Alex’s current turn ends. the player passes the turn marker to his or her left when the turn ends rather than keeping it. Example: During Alex’s turn. If more than one player has left the game and there are multiple turn markers that could be removed. 608. 608. 608. 608. 608. Each turn marker represents its own stack. which causes the number of turn markers to be reduced. wait until the player four seats to his or her left takes the other turn marker. or a triggered ability he or she controls triggers.4f If an effect would cause a player to take an extra turn after the current turn. If this is the case. 608. 608. the player to Alex’s left leaves the game. 608. Rather than having a single stack. A player can’t receive a turn marker if any player in the three seats to his or her left has a turn marker. Each turn marker represents an active player’s turn. but that player wouldn’t have a turn marker at the start of that turn. which causes him to get an extra turn after this one. Remove the turn marker immediately to the departed player’s right.4c When a player ends his or her turn. the extra turn waits to begin until the player four seats to his or her left takes the other turn marker. The player four seats to that player’s left (the fifth player) takes the second turn marker. unless another turn marker is too close on either side at that time. Example: A Grand Melee game with sixteen players has four turn markers.4e If a player leaves the game and that player leaving the game would reduce the number of turn markers in the game. the player must specify which .4b The starting player in the game gets the first turn marker. that player keeps the turn marker and starts his or her next turn after the current turn ends. a turn marker is removed. 608.4d If an effect causes a player with a turn marker to take an extra turn after the current one. he plays Time Walk. Then all players with turn markers start their turns at the same time. and so on until all the turn markers have been handed out.turns. his turn marker is removed.4a There is one turn marker for each full four players in the game.5b If a player has priority for multiple stacks and plays a spell or ability. that player passes the turn marker to the player on his or her left. A game with fifteen players has three turn markers. and the player will take the extra turn immediately before his or her next turn. that player will take the extra turn immediately before his or her next turn instead. He won’t take the extra turn from Time Walk until just before his normal turn the next time he receives a turn marker. If a turn marker is within three seats on the player’s left. Turn markers are removed only between turns.5a A player gets priority for a particular turn marker’s stack only if the turn marker is within his or her range of influence or an object on that stack is controlled by a player within his or her range of influence.

” 609. 608.2b Exactly one of the attack left.2c The deploy creatures option isn’t normally used in the Teams variant. and so on) are not shared. and so on. and C. “Limited Range of Influence Option. If a spell or ability targets an object on one of those stacks.6. the new spell must be put on the same stack. Example: In a Teams game with three teams.3. as modified by rule 601. See rule 604. 609.16. Teammates can’t manipulate each other’s cards or permanents.5. . 609. A player can’t attack opponents who aren’t seated next to him or her. and attack multiple players options must be used. A3. mana. 609.” 609.2.4. A2.16. Teams Variant 609. The Teams variant involves two or more teams of equal size. the seating around the table at the start of the game is A1. the player must put it on that stack. B1. C1. 609. attack right. C2. If a resolving spell or ability on one of those stacks causes a player to play a spell or create a copy of a spell. C3. a team’s resources (cards in hand.1. At the start of the game. Any multiplayer options used are determined before play begins. as modified by rule 601. 609. it can’t target objects on multiple stacks. B. The Grand Melee variant uses the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102). See rule 601.6 In the Teams variant. Team games use the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102).” and rule 602.one of those stacks the spell or ability is put on. B3. “Attack Left and Attack Right Options. B2. Teammates may discuss strategies at any time. 609. 609. If an object on one of those stacks caused the triggered ability to trigger. The Teams variant uses the following default options. players are seated so that no one is next to a teammate and each team is equally spaced out. A. it must be put on the same stack as its target. Teammates can’t review each other’s hands unless they are sitting next to each other. “Attack Multiple Players Option.2a The recommended range of influence is 2.

3).” The general categories of abilities are activated abilities (see rule 403). Ability words are similar to keywords in that they tie together cards that have similar functionality. See rule 103. it resolves. “Activated Abilities. Active Player The active player is the player whose turn it is.” Example: The activation cost of an ability that reads “{2}. The active player gets priority at the start of each phase or step (except for the untap and cleanup steps).6d. the active player makes all his or her choices first. updated through the Alara Reborn™ set. Nonactive Player Order Whenever multiple players are instructed to make choices at the same time. static abilities (see rule 405). It must be paid to play the ability. “Enchanted creature is red. triggered abilities (see rule 404). When an effect states that an object “gains” or “has” an ability. radiance. chroma. an Aura might read. a player may play such an ability whenever he or she has priority.61. See rule 403. This is called the “Active Player. Absorb Absorb is a static ability that prevents damage. and Effects. “Activated Abilities.” The Aura isn’t granting an ability of any kind. domain.” Activation Cost The activation cost of an activated ability is everything that appears before the colon in that ability’s text. If an effect defines a property of an object (“[card or permanent] is [property]”). hellbent. is as follows: channel. it goes onto the stack and stays there until it’s countered. kinship. Nonactive Player order” rule. . This rule is modified for Two-Headed Giant play. An instruction in an object’s text is an ability. and after combat damage resolves. The result of following such an instruction is an effect. See rule 502. When an activated ability is played. See rule 403. Ability Word An ability word appears in italics at the beginning of some abilities on cards. Abilities. “Absorb. see section 4. “Absorb N” means “If a source would deal damage to this creature. it’s simply changing the enchanted creature’s color to red.Glossary Ability “Ability” and “effect” are often confused with one another. see rule 606. it’s granting that object an ability. The list of ability words. and the abilities that are followed as instructions while an instant or sorcery spell is resolving (see rule 401. and threshold.” Activated Ability An activated ability is written as “[Cost]: [Effect. prevent N of that damage. “Spells. or “APNAP order” rule.]” By paying the activation cost. sweep. then the nonactive players do so in turn order. For example. For more information. after any spell or ability (except a mana ability) resolves. Active Player. {T}: You gain 1 life” is two mana of any color plus tapping the permanent. it’s not granting an ability.4.” Each absorb ability can prevent only N damage from any one source at any one time. or it otherwise leaves the stack. but they have no special rules meaning and no individual entries in the Comprehensive Rules. grandeur.] [Play restriction (if any).

“Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.Active Team In the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant. Nonactive Player Order. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.” See rule 502. “Amplify N” means “As this object comes into play. Artifact Artifact is a card type. “Affinity. When using the ante rule.” .” These are alternative costs.” The affinity ability reduces only generic mana costs. “Affinity for [text]” means “This spell costs you {1} less to play for each [text] you control. It doesn’t reduce how much colored mana you have to pay for a spell.2. each player puts one random card from his or her deck into the ante zone at the beginning of the game. When an artifact spell resolves. See rule 606. Additional Cost Some spells have additional costs listed in their text. after any spell or ability (except a mana ability) resolves. See rule 212. its controller puts it into play under his or her control. “Artifacts. See rule 409.” Ante (Obsolete) Earlier versions of the Magic rules included an ante rule as a way of playing “for keeps. “you may play [this object] without paying its mana cost. reveal any number of cards from your hand that share a creature type with it. Only one such alternative cost can be applied to any one spell. “Artifacts.27.” APNAP Order See Active Player. These are paid at the same time the player pays the spell’s mana cost. and it is allowed only where it’s not forbidden by law or by other rules. See rule 212. the active team is the team whose turn it is. At the end of the game. and it’s subject to the rules for both. Other spells and abilities that ask for a spell’s mana cost still see the actual mana cost. If an effect requires paying additional costs to play a spell. See rule 409. You can’t reveal this card or any other cards that are coming into play at the same time as this card. “Amplify.31.” Amplify Amplify is a static ability. Playing for ante is strictly forbidden under DCI tournament rules. “You may [action] rather than pay [this object’s] mana cost. See rule 217. and after combat damage resolves.6d. The active player may play artifacts during his or her main phase when the stack is empty.” Alternative Cost The rules text of some spells reads.” Affinity Affinity is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.” or includes the phrase.9. This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it for each card revealed this way. not what was paid to play the spell.” Playing Magic games for ante is now considered an optional variation on the game.2.” Artifact Creature An artifact creature is a combination of artifact and creature. See rule 502. “Ante. it still applies to the alternative cost. the winner becomes the owner of all cards in the ante zone. The active team gets priority at the start of each phase or step (except for the untap and cleanup steps).

All assignments of combat damage go on the stack as a single entry. it will affect the new enchanted object when it resolves. If the Aura.Artifact Land An artifact land is a combination of artifact and land. Equipment. The same is true for moved Equipment and Fortifications. or fortify.2. If one “as though” effect satisfies the requirements for another “as though” effect. “Artifacts.”) Artifact lands can only be played as lands. Attack A creature attacks when it’s declared as an attacker during the combat phase. Attaching an Aura in play to a different object causes the Aura to receive a new timestamp. Fortification. See rule 310. Equipment. or Fortification to the object it’s already attached to. “Combat Damage Step. both conditions could apply. or Fortification can’t be attached to an object it couldn’t enchant. with two exceptions: If an Aura would phase in but can no longer enchant the object it was attached to. Equipment. They can’t be played as spells. and if an Aura is coming into play from the stack and there is no legal object for it to enchant. (See rule 308. (See rule 212. equip. Assign Combat Damage As the combat damage step begins. treat the game exactly as if the stated condition were true. and it’s subject to the rules for both. For purposes of that action. so no comes-into-play or leaves-play triggered abilities will trigger. Attack Alone A creature attacks alone if it’s the only creature declared as an attacker during the . it phases in and is then put into its owner’s graveyard as a state-based effect. is as follows: Contraption. The list of artifact types.”) Playing a spell or ability (even during the combat phase) is never considered to be an attack. If two cards state that a player may (or a creature can) do the same thing “as though” different conditions were true. the Aura is put into its owner’s graveyard instead of coming into play. not the old one. Equipment. an Aura. the active player or team announces how each attacking creature will assign its combat damage. If an effect tries to attach an Aura. updated through the Alara Reborn set. The Aura never left play. Similarly. Equipment. Artifact Type Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Artifact — Equipment.” Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. For all other purposes. Nothing else about the Aura changes. Attach To attach an Aura. or Fortification stays where it is. “Declare Attackers Step. or Fortification to an object means to take it from where it currently is and put it onto that object. treat the game normally. then both effects will apply. “As Though” Text that states a player may do something “as though” some condition were true or a creature can do something “as though” some condition were true applies only to the stated action. Equipment. The Aura. respectively. Then the defending player(s) announce how each blocking creature will assign its combat damage. If an ability of the moved Aura affecting “enchanted [object]” was on the stack when the Aura moved. nothing happens. the effect does nothing. or Fortification no longer exists or the object it will move onto is no longer in the correct zone when the effect would attach it.

It remains an attacking creature until it’s removed from combat.10.) Aura Swap Aura swap is an activated ability of some Aura cards. Any land with the supertype basic is a basic land. A creature is attacking alone if it’s attacking but no other creatures are. have been paid. See rule 502. If a player’s nearest opponent to the left is more than one seat away. An Aura permanent comes into play attached to the object or player the spell targeted. If the attack left option is used. If the attack right option is used.62. (This is a statebased effect.” Attack Right Option Some multiplayer games use the optional “attack right” rules.4. Each of the attacked players is a defending player. “Aura Swap. See rule 602. See rule 306. or the combat phase ends. “Banding. it stops being a creature. See rule 308. See rule 604. “Declare Attackers Step. “Enchant. the player can’t attack. the player can’t attack. a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately to his or her right. Each defending player can block only the creatures attacking him or her. “Aura swap [cost]” means “[Cost]: You may exchange this permanent with an Aura card in your hand. Any land . if any. A creature may also be put into play attacking. “Enchantments. “Bands with Other” Banding is a static ability that modifies the rules for declaring attackers and assigning combat damage. its controller changes. Attack Left Option Some multiplayer games use the optional “attack left” rules.2f. See rule 502. “Attack Left and Attack Right Options.” Attack Multiple Players Option Some multiplayer games allow the active player to attack multiple opponents. or not attached to an object or player.45.” An Aura spell requires a target whose properties are indicated by its enchant keyword ability. the ability has no effect.” Attacking Creature A creature becomes an attacking creature when (a) it’s declared as part of a legal attack during the combat phase and (b) all costs to attack.11.” Banding. is put into its owner’s graveyard.” Attacks and Isn’t Blocked An ability that triggers when a creature “attacks and isn’t blocked” triggers when the creature becomes an unblocked attacking creature. See rule 604.” An Aura can enchant only an object or player whose properties are indicated by its enchant keyword ability.” If either half of the exchange can’t be completed. Attacking creatures don’t exist outside of the combat phase. Aura Some enchantments have the subtype “Aura.declare attackers step. See rule 212. “Attack Multiple Players Option. a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately to his or her left.” and rule 502.” and rule 502. See rule 420.” Basic Basic is a supertype. See rule 309. An Aura attached to an illegal object or player.5. “Attack Left and Attack Right Options. “Bands with Other. “Bands with other” is a specialized version of the ability. If a player’s nearest opponent to the right is more than one seat away.

See rule 309. its controller changes. These trigger only at the time the named event happens—they don’t trigger if that state already exists or retrigger if it persists. A player may play spells and abilities during this step whenever he or she has priority. “becomes tapped” triggers only when a permanent’s status changes from untapped to tapped. and Forest. Blocked Creature An attacking creature becomes a blocked creature when another creature blocks it or an effect causes it to become blocked during the combat phase. have been paid.” Bloodthirst Bloodthirst is a static ability. Island. See rule 307. Mountain. “Beginning of Combat Step.5. “Bloodthirst. it stops being a creature. “becomes tapped” or “becomes blocked”).” See rule 502.without that supertype is a nonbasic land. See rule 301.4.” Block Alone A creature blocks alone if it’s the only creature declared as a blocker during the declare blockers step. See rule 309. “Declare Blockers Step. or the combat phase ends. It remains a blocked creature until it’s removed from combat. A creature may also be put into play blocking. “Declare Blockers Step. “Bloodthirst N” means “If an opponent was dealt damage this turn.6. See rule 309.” Block A creature blocks when it’s declared as a blocker during the combat phase. Every basic land type has a mana ability associated with it. upkeep. See rule 205. Beginning of Combat Step The beginning of combat step is the first step of the combat phase. See rule 306. Blocking creatures don’t exist outside of the combat phase. “Supertypes. A blocked creature doesn’t become unblocked if the blocking creature is later removed from combat.50. For example. Basic Land Type There are five basic land types: Plains. if any. Blocked creatures don’t exist outside of the combat phase.” Blocking Creature A creature becomes a blocking creature when (a) it’s declared as part of a legal block during the combat phase and (b) all costs to block. and draw.” Basic Landcycling See Typecycling. “Declare Blockers Step. “Beginning Phase.” . Swamp.” Beginning Phase The beginning phase is the first phase of the turn. “Lands. A creature is blocking alone if it’s blocking but no other creatures are. it stops being a creature. See rule 212. It remains a blocking creature until it’s removed from combat.” Becomes Some trigger events use the word “becomes” (for example. this permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it. its controller changes. It has three steps: untap. or the combat phase ends.

“Buyback [cost]” means “You may pay an additional [cost] as you play this spell” and “If the buyback cost was paid. It represents two static abilities that function while the spell is on the stack. Each card type has its own rules for how to play with one.1b and 409. See rule 212. It can’t be regenerated. Use the Oracle card reference to determine a card’s text. and tribal. Cascade Cascade is a triggered ability that functions only while the spell with cascade is on the stack.Bury (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the term “bury. You may play that card without paying its mana cost. or allowing an object to retain its card types. remove cards from the top of your library from the game until you remove a nonland card whose converted mana cost is less than this spell’s converted mana cost.” Bushido Bushido is a triggered ability.” Caster (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “caster” to describe the player who played a spell. it will say so. Then put all cards removed from the game this way that weren’t played on the bottom of your library in a random order. “Destroy [a permanent].” it means a Magic card with a Magic card front and the Magic card back. The card types are artifact. In general. “Cascade” means “When you play this spell. creature. “Cascade. See rule 502. When an effect changes an object’s card type. cards that were printed with the term “bury” now read. the new card type replaces all previous card types.” Cantrip (Informal) This is a nickname for any spell that has “Draw a card” as part of its effect. put this spell into its owner’s hand instead of into that player’s graveyard as it resolves. instant. In general. and Subtype. cards that were printed with the term “cast” now use the term “play.” (See rule 309. Supertype.” which meant to put a permanent into its owner’s graveyard.85. “Declare Blockers Step.” Tokens and copies of spells have card types. enchantment. “Buyback. it gets +N/+N until end of turn.1c.” See rule 502. Card When a rule or text on a card refers to a “card. sorcery.” . “Card Type. Card Type The card type is printed on a card’s type line. See rule 200.1f–h. “Type Line.” Cast (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “cast” to describe the playing of a spell. In general. See rule 205.” or “Sacrifice [a permanent]. even though they’re not cards. If the effect is adding a card type. land. “Bushido N” means “Whenever this creature blocks or becomes blocked. Tokens aren’t considered cards—even a card that represents a token isn’t considered a card for rules purposes.1. planeswalker. directly below its illustration.” and rule 212.16. cards that were printed with the term “caster” now refer to the object’s “controller.” Paying a spell’s buyback cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.”) Buyback Buyback appears on some instants and sorceries.

See rule 502.” A permanent is “championed” by another permanent if the latter removes the former from the game as the direct result of a champion ability. the step repeats. what an Aura enchants.” Cards that used the term “total casting cost” now use the term “converted mana cost. cards that were printed with the term “casting cost” now use the term “mana cost. That player may then put that card on the bottom of his or her library.” Champion Champion is a keyword ability that represents two triggered abilities.” . “Clash. You can change the target of a spell or ability only if an effect tells you to change its target.73. and so on. sacrifice it unless you remove another [object] you control from the game” and “When this permanent leaves play. Spells and abilities may be played during this step only if the conditions for any state-based effects exist or if any abilities have triggered. See rule 405. return the removed card to play under its owner’s control. or power/toughness box). supertype. They also function outside the game. Change a Target The target of a spell or ability can change only to another legal target.” See rule 502. “Clash with an opponent” means “Choose an opponent. mana cost. See rule 314. such as whether a permanent is tapped. a spell’s target. a spell or permanent’s controller. even outside the game. See rule 201. “Characteristics.Casting Cost (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “casting cost” to describe the mana cost of a spell.10.” Characteristics An object’s characteristics are name. Changing a spell or ability’s target can’t change its modes. color. the original target is unchanged. You and that opponent each clash.2. type line. expansion symbol. Characteristicdefining abilities function in all zones.” This ability works everywhere. abilities.” a player reveals the top card of his or her library.” Cleanup Step Cleanup is the second and final step of the end phase. “Cleanup Step.72. “Changing Targets. If the target can’t change to another legal target. toughness. Characteristics don’t include any other information. card type. See rule 415. subtype. Clash To “clash.” Changeling Changeling is a keyword ability that represents a characteristic-defining ability. In that case.” A player wins a clash if that player revealed a card with a higher converted mana cost than all other cards revealed in that clash. and loyalty. “Changeling” means “This object is every creature type. rules text. “Changeling. “Champion an [object]” means “When this permanent comes into play.” Characteristic-Defining Ability A characteristic-defining ability is a kind of static ability that conveys information about an object’s characteristics that would normally be found elsewhere on that object (such as in its mana cost. “Champion. In general. power.7. See rule 501.

immediately following the legal text.2. .” or something similar. black. combat damage. and green. A colorless object can be given a color by an effect. The combat phase has five steps: beginning of combat. “Information Below the Text Box.28). See rule 203. See rule 310. These numbers have no effect on game play.3d. Colorless An object with no color is colorless. there are two combat damage steps. red.” Permanents come into play untapped and under the control of whoever put them into play. Comes into Play A permanent comes into play when the card or token representing it is moved into the in-play zone. “Colorless” isn’t a color. A permanent whose card type or controller changes doesn’t “come into play.” If any attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 502. Example: If an instruction causes something to come into play tapped. An object’s color is determined by the color(s) of the mana symbols in its mana cost.” “gold. declare attackers. declare blockers.2) or double strike (see rule 502. See rule 210. It doesn’t include damage dealt by spells and abilities during the combat phase.” Color The only colors in the Magic game are white. Effects may change an object’s color. it isn’t put into play untapped and then tapped. blue. “Combat Damage Step. Lands are colorless because they have no mana cost. the new color replaces all previous colors the object had. neither are “artifact. When a permanent comes into play. See rules 306–311. Colorless mana Numeral symbols (such as {1}) and variable symbols (such as {X}) can represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or ability that reads.Collector Number Some card sets feature collector numbers. See rule 104. first apply any replacement effects. Most artifacts are colorless because they have no colored mana in their mana costs. A player may play spells and abilities during this step whenever he or she has priority. then check to determine if the current form of the permanent generates any triggered abilities. Attacking and blocking creatures deal damage in the combat damage step. A hybrid mana symbol is all of its component colors.” “brown. See rule 203. then apply continuous effects. Combat Phase Combat is the third phase of the turn.” and so on. “Combat Damage Step. and end of combat. This information is printed in the form [card number]/[total cards in the set]. Combat Damage Combat damage is dealt during the combat damage step of the combat phase by attacking creatures and blocking creatures.” “land.” Combat Damage Step The combat damage step is the fourth step of the combat phase. An object can be one or more of those colors or it can be colorless. If an effect gives an object a new color. See rule 310.2. Face-down creatures are colorless due to the effects that turn them face down. “add [mana symbol] to your mana pool.

Controlling Another Player’s Turn One card (Mindslaver) allows a player to control another player’s turn. if its conspire cost was paid. “Continuous Effects. A constructed deck can have any number of basic land cards and no more than four of any card with a particular English name other than basic land cards. See rule 102. small items to represent any tokens and counters. A copy of a spell is controlled by the player who put it on the stack. They were artifacts without activated abilities. unless it’s a delayed triggered ability.” Conspire Conspire is a keyword that represents two abilities. or is told to make. A spell or activated ability on the stack is controlled by whoever played it. you may tap two untapped creatures you control that each share a color with it” and “When you play this spell. “Winning and Losing. and some way to clearly track life totals. use its owner instead.” . a continuous effect lasts the rest of the game. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. Controller A permanent’s controller is whoever put it into play unless the spell or ability that put the permanent into play states otherwise. Continuous Effect Continuous effects are usually active as long as the permanent with the associated static ability remains in play or the object with the associated static ability remains in the appropriate zone.” Control. you may choose new targets for the copy.” Continuous Artifact (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “continuous artifact” on the card’s type line. copy it. “Controlling Another Player’s Turn. These last as long as the spell or ability specifies. during that turn by rules or by any objects.2.” Paying a spell’s conspire cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1f– h.Concede A player may concede a game at any time. “Conspire. See rule 418. The controller of another player’s turn makes all choices and decisions that player is allowed to make. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.” Constructed In constructed play. If the spell has any targets. If anything asks for the controller of an object that doesn’t have a controller. A triggered ability on the stack is controlled by the player who controlled its source at the time it triggered. He or she loses the game. Cards that were printed with the term “continuous artifact” now simply use “artifact. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. each player needs his or her own deck of at least sixty cards. “Conspire” means “As an additional cost to play this spell.78. A player doesn’t lose life due to mana burn while another player controls his or her turn. If no duration is specified. Other effects can later change a permanent’s controller.1b and 409. See rule 100. See rule 507. See rule 502. Objects in zones other than in play or the stack have no controller. A spell or ability can create a continuous effect that doesn’t depend on a permanent. A player who concedes leaves the game immediately.

See rule 203. either modifying its characteristics or interacting with an effect. regardless of color. you may tap any number of untapped creatures you control. Other effects (including type-changing effects) and counters are not copied. “Copying Objects. “Mana Cost and Color. where N is the smaller of the number of +1/+1 . If an object has no mana cost. Most costs are paid in mana. “Convoke.3d. See rule 503. See rule 502.3. as modified by other copy effects.Converted Mana Cost The converted mana cost of an object is the total amount of mana in its mana cost. Copy A “copy” of an object is an object whose copiable values have been set to those of the first object. “Costs. see rule 102. and a permanent that’s already tapped can’t be tapped to pay a cost. See rule 418. “Convoke” means “As an additional cost to play this spell. -X/-Y counters subtract from power and toughness. use the largest component of each hybrid symbol. Similarly. 1. adds X to that permanent’s power and Y to that permanent’s toughness.5a. but costs may also include paying life. A player can’t pay a cost unless he or she has the necessary resources to pay it fully. To counter a spell or ability is to cancel it.” 2.” and rule 403. Convoke Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. Counter Counter has two meanings in the Magic game. discarding cards.” rule 203.” Example: An Air Elemental has a mana cost of {3}{U}{U} and a converted mana cost of 5. removing it from the stack. If a permanent has both a +1/+1 counter and a -1/-1 counter on it. plus any values set for face-down spells or permanents and any values set by “comes into play as” abilities. tapping or sacrificing permanents. a player with only 1 life can’t pay a cost of 2 life. Playing spells and activated abilities requires paying a cost.” Some spells and abilities have no cost. “Mana Cost and Color. It doesn’t resolve and none of its effects occur.1b and 409. When calculating the converted mana cost of an object with a hybrid mana symbol in its mana cost. For example. and so on. N +1/+1 and N -1/-1 counters are removed from it. where X and Y are numbers.” Cost A cost is an action or payment necessary to take another action or to stop another action from taking place.” Using the convoke ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. See rule 424. For information about poison counters. A +X/+Y counter on a permanent.” Copiable Values An object’s “copiable values” are the values that are printed on the object. See rule 414.1f–h. Counters may also be given to players. See rules 503. Each creature tapped this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1} or by one mana of any of that creature’s colors. Counters with the same name or description are interchangeable. In such instances. its converted mana cost is 0. These bonuses are added after permanent-type changing effects and after most other power and toughness changing effects. A counter is a marker placed on an object. the cost can’t be paid.46. “Countering Spells and Abilities.2 and 503. A countered spell is put into its owner’s graveyard. “Activated Abilities.

Homarid.18. Hound. then either the entire set of costs is paid. Unicorn. Note that if a permanent has more than one instance of cumulative upkeep. is as follows: Advisor. Demon. Tetravite. Slug. Orc. Rebel. Snake. sacrifice it. Cephalid. Juggernaut. Vampire. Wizard. Lhurgoyf. Pentavite. Nautilus. the card is that thing. Ooze. Elf. see rule 420. Dreadnought. Insect. Scout. Myr. Gargoyle. Cockatrice. Scarecrow. Kithkin. Ouphe. Nightmare. Squid. Elephant. Ninja. Sphinx. Monk.” Creature Type Creatures and tribals share the same set of subtypes. Orgg. Gorgon. Basilisk. Djinn. Partial payments aren’t allowed. Masticore. Golem.and -1/-1 counters on it. Shaman. Assembly-Worker. Wraith. Pincher. Soltari. Whale. Kavu. Soldier. its controller puts it into play under his or her control. Construct. Brushwagg. Ogre. Thrull.” and so on. Frog. Cleric. Kraken. Centaur. Pegasus. Samurai. Sheep. Lammasu. Spike. Giant. Worm. Ox. Badger. Goat. Zombie. Carrier.” Cycling Cycling is an activated ability that functions only while the card with cycling is in a player’s hand. Spawn. These subtypes are also called creature types. Griffin. Atog. Yeti. The list of creature types. Cat. Pest. Counts As (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with text stating that the card “counts as” something. Beeble. Ape. Drake. Spirit. “Creatures. Licid. Nightstalker. Fungus. Minion. Thopter. Scorpion. Minotaur. Illusion. Reflection. Wombat. Orb. Graveborn. Mercenary. Serpent. Discard this card: Draw a card. Harpy. Boar. Dwarf. Metathran. Triskelavite. Warrior. Hag. Rhino. Manticore. Phoenix.” “Artifact Creature — Golem. Bear. Phelddagrif.) Creature Creature is a card type. Citizen. Nomad. Nephilim. Salamander. As far as the game rules and other cards are concerned. Deserter. Shapeshifter. put an age counter on this permanent. Skeleton. or none of them are paid. Crab. Rogue. Prism. Hydra. Wolverine. Devil. Wolf. Then you may pay [cost] for each age counter on it. Imp. Lizard. Weird. Dryad.5n. Angel. Archer. Bird. Hellion. Kobold. Goblin. Camel. Oyster. Knight. Noggle. Gnome. Artificer. Berserker. Sand. “Cycling. Rabbit. Fox. This is a state-based effect. Rigger. Efreet. Viashino. Horror. Pirate. Starfish. Turtle. Eye. Incarnation.” See rule 502. Hyena. Plant. each creates a separate triggered ability at the beginning of upkeep that counts all the age counters on the permanent from all abilities. Wall. Antelope. Thalakos. See rule 502. Chimera. Egg. Merfolk. Shade. Rat. Treefolk. Kor. updated through the Alara Reborn set. Homunculus. Dragon. Zubera Cumulative Upkeep Cumulative upkeep is a triggered ability that imposes an increasing cost on a permanent. Moonfolk. When a creature spell resolves. Elemental. Bringer. “Cycling [cost]” means “[Cost]. Squirrel. Elk. Hippo. Bat. Splinter. Mystic. Serf. Satyr. Faerie. Anteater. Ferret. Beast. Saproling. Monger. Sliver. Kirin. Jellyfish. Archon. The active player may play creatures during his or her main phase when the stack is empty. Barbarian. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Creature — Human Soldier. Blinkmoth. Volver. Wurm. Sponge. Spellshaper. Slith. Elder. Horse.” If [cost] has choices associated with it. Druid. Cyclops. If you don’t. Fish. Vedalken. “Cumulative upkeep [cost]” means “At the beginning of your upkeep. Drone. Flagbearer. Leviathan. Specter. Avatar. See rule 212. Caribou.13. Dauthi. Coward. (Newer Magic cards use “is” instead. Troll. Leech. Crocodile. Survivor. Mongoose. Human. Octopus. Spider. Camarid. “Cumulative Upkeep. Mutant.” . each choice is made separately for each age counter.3. Assassin. Aurochs.

Costs and effects that read “lose life” or “pay life” don’t deal damage. the active player chooses a set of creatures that will attack. each triggers separately.” Declare Attackers To declare attackers. See rule 500. The active player declares attackers during this step (or chooses not to attack). and pays any costs required to allow those creatures to attack.63. See rule 309. Other effects may also affect whether or not a set of creatures could attack.”) Damage doesn’t alter a creature’s toughness.” Declare Attackers Step The declare attackers step is the second step of the combat phase. See rule 500. “Declare Blockers Step. Other effects may also affect whether or not a set of creatures could block. “Legal Attacks and Blocks. “Deathtouch.” Deck A player’s deck is the collection of cards that player starts the game with. See rule 308. “Declare Attackers Step. all damage is removed from permanents.” and section 101. and the following creatures can’t attack: tapped creatures (even those that can attack without tapping) and creatures the active player didn’t control continuously since the beginning of the turn (except those with haste). . “General. the defending player chooses a set of creatures that will block and pays any costs they require to block. Damage dealt to a player causes that player to lose that much life. Deathtouch Deathtouch is a triggered ability. Creatures with defender can’t attack. even if it stops being a creature. Damage dealt to a planeswalker causes that planeswalker to lose that much loyalty. each player’s deck becomes his or her library. “Legal Attacks and Blocks. but blocking doesn’t cause creatures to tap.” Declare Blockers To declare blockers. planeswalkers. See rule 502. A creature with damage greater than or equal to its toughness has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed. Only creatures can attack. Only untapped creatures can block. See section 100.” Declare Blockers Step The declare blockers step is the third step of the combat phase.” Defender Defender is a static ability. “Deathtouch” means “Whenever this permanent deals damage to a creature. Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. When the game begins. During the cleanup step. Damage dealt to a creature stays on the permanent until the cleanup step. and that loss of life can’t be prevented or otherwise altered by effects that prevent or replace damage. declares whether each creature is attacking the defending player or a planeswalker that player controls. Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. “Starting the Game. destroy that creature. The defending player declares blockers during this step (or chooses not to block).Damage Damage can be dealt to creatures. “StateBased Effects.” If a permanent has multiple instances of deathtouch. and players. (See rule 420.

there is no defending player. .4. what it applies to. you may sacrifice any number of creatures.” Discard A player discards a card by putting a card from his or her hand into his or her graveyard. “Delve” means “As an additional cost to play this spell. “Devour N” means “As this object comes into play.” Using the delve ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. the active player is attacking and is the attacking player.2. “Deploy Creatures Option. As the combat phase starts.” Deploy Creatures Option Some multiplayer games allow players to give creatures to their teammates. See rule 418. During phases other than combat. Each card removed this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1}. you may remove any number of cards in your graveyard from the game. they can’t attack other creatures.Defending Player During the combat phase. See rule 502.82. “It devoured” means “sacrificed as a result of its devour ability as it came into play. See rule 419.5. See rule 404. If the deploy creatures option is used. This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it for each creature sacrificed this way.1f–h. however. “Attack Multiple Players Option.” Destroy To destroy a permanent is to move it from the in-play zone to its owner’s graveyard.” Depend On An effect is said to “depend on” another if it is applied at the same time as the other effect and applying the other would change the text or the existence of the first effect.64.1b and 409. Delayed Triggered Ability A delayed triggered ability is created by effects generated when some spells or abilities resolve. there can be more than one defending player.” See rule 502. “Devour. If the “attack multiple players” option is used in a multiplayer game.” See rule 603. see rule 606. “Delve. Some effects.7. See rule 306.” The Two-Headed Giant variant uses different combat rules than other multiplayer variants. each creature has the ability “{T}: Target teammate gains control of this creature. “Interaction of Continuous Effects. or what it does to any of the things it applies to. the active player chooses one opponent. Creatures can attack only the defending player or a planeswalker the defending player controls. require a random discard or allow another player to choose which card is discarded.” Some objects have abilities that refer to the number of creatures the permanent devoured. See rule 602. Regeneration or other destruction-replacement effects can replace this action. By default. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery. “Replacement and Prevention Effects.” Devour Devour is a static ability. effects that cause a player to discard a card allow the affected player to choose which card to discard. Delve Delve is a static ability that functions while the spell that has it is on the stack. The chosen opponent is the defending player.

As the draw step begins. This makes a difference for abilities that trigger on drawing cards or that replace card draws. objects. “Draw Step. A player draws a card by putting the top card of his or her library into his or her hand. or players must receive at least one of whatever is being divided. See rule 423. then each of these targets. or any number of untargeted objects or players. Double Strike Double strike is a static ability that modifies the rules for the combat damage step. For example. If a spell or ability requires a player to distribute something (such as counters) as he or she chooses among one or more targets.Distribute Distribute has its normal English meaning in the Magic game.” the player has not drawn those cards. A dual land doesn’t count as two lands while in play—it’s just one land with multiple land types.28.” Dredge Dredge is a static ability that functions only while the card with dredge is in a player’s graveyard. See rule 102. then each of these targets. See rule 502. See rule 304.47. See rules 409.4.” Dual Land (Informal) The Ravnica block and early Magic core sets contain “dual lands”.2. “Double Strike. If a spell or ability requires a player to divide something (such as damage or counters) as he or she chooses among one or more targets. or among any number of untargeted objects or players.” Draw Draw has two meanings in the Magic game. “Dredge N” means “As long as you have at least N cards in your library.1e and 310. “Dredge. If an effect moves cards from a player’s library to that player’s hand without using the word “draw. Temple Garden has the land types Forest and Plains. if you would draw a card. “Drawing a Card. each of these has two basic land types. Creatures with double strike deal combat damage in both the first-strike combat damage step and the normal combat damage step.2. as well as if the player’s library is empty. This doesn’t apply to dividing combat damage. A drawn game is a game where the game ends and there is no winner. Draw Step The draw step is the third step of the beginning phase. the active player draws a card (this game action does not use the stack). It may also be done as part of a cost or effect of a spell or ability.1e and 310.” 2. Dual land cards have the default abilities of both basic land types and are treated as both by all spells and abilities that specifically refer to those land types. Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. or players must receive at least one of whatever is being distributed. objects. they are not basic lands. However. See rule 502. See rules 409. . you may instead put N cards from the top of your library into your graveyard and return this card from your graveyard to your hand. 1.” A player with fewer cards in his or her library than the number required by a dredge ability can’t put any of them into his or her graveyard this way. Divide Divide has its normal English meaning in the Magic game. This is done as a game action during each player’s draw step.

“Enchantment.” See also Aura.” The Emperor variant uses the following default multiplayer options: (a) The range of influence is limited to 2 for emperors and 1 for generals (see rule 601). “Enchant.” Urza block cards with the echo ability were printed without an echo cost. [action]. . Echo Echo is a triggered ability. it may create one or more one-shot or continuous effects. “Enchantments. See also Aura.19.” Emperor Emperor is a multiplayer variant with its own rules. who sits in the middle of the team. Enchantment Type Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Enchantment — Shrine. See rule 416. “Echo. State-based effects are not created by spells or abilities. In addition to the normal rules for winning and losing. See rule 502. and (c) a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately next to him or her. but only in its normal English sense and not as game terminology. updated through the Alara Reborn set. Static abilities may create one or more continuous effects. When a spell or ability resolves. See rule 212. Each team sits together on one side of the table. The active player may play enchantments during his or her main phase when the stack is empty. Enchant. Each team has one emperor. Such Auras can’t target objects and can’t be attached to objects. Shrine. written “Enchant [object or player]. if this permanent came under your control since the beginning of your last upkeep.During (Obsolete) Some older cards used the phrase “during [phase].4. Some effects are replacement effects or prevention effects. Enchantment Enchantment is a card type. “Effects.4. “Echo [cost]” means “At the beginning of your upkeep. The Emperor variant involves two or more teams of three players each. (b) Emperor games use the deploy creatures option (see rule 603).” In general.” Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. “During” still appears in current card text.” and rule 502. The list of enchantment types. sacrifice it unless you pay its echo cost. they are generated by specific states of the game.45. is as follows: Aura. See rule 212. Enchant Enchant is a static ability.” These abilities were called “phase abilities. cards that were printed with phase abilities now have abilities that trigger at the beginning of a step or phase. these cards have been given errata to have an echo cost equal to their mana cost. See rule 607. “Emperor Variant.” The enchant ability restricts what an Aura spell can target and what an Aura can enchant. The remaining players on the team are generals whose job is to protect the emperor.” Effect “Ability” and “effect” are often confused with one another.” Enchant Opponent. Enchant Player Auras with the “enchant opponent” or “enchant player” ability can target and be attached to players. a team loses if its emperor loses the game.

See rule 311. When the spell resolves. The game skips straight to the cleanup step.” Entwine Entwine is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. When an effect ends the turn.” that creature.”) The creature an Equipment is attached to is called “equipped.2.” Ending the Turn One card (Time Stop) ends the turn when its resolves. See rule 509.” Epic Epic represents both a static ability and a delayed triggered ability.” See rule 502.” See rule 502. See rule 313. follow these steps in order: Remove every object on the stack from the game. you may choose new targets for the copy. “For the rest of the game.1f–h. An Equipment that equips an illegal or nonexistent permanent becomes unattached from that permanent. A player may play spells and abilities during this step whenever he or she has priority.” Using the entwine ability follows the rules for choosing modes and paying additional costs in rules 409. See rule 312. Remove all attacking and blocking creatures. “Epic.” End Phase The end phase is the fifth and final phase of the turn.” The Equipment is attached to.” and “At the beginning of each of your upkeeps. Remove all planeswalkers from combat. or “equips. (See rule 502. They can’t equip objects that aren’t creatures. you can’t play spells. “Equip. follow the text of each of the modes in the order they’re written on the card. An Equipment that’s also a creature or an Equipment that loses the subtype “Equipment” can’t equip a creature.32. if any.End of Combat Step The end of combat step is the fifth step of the combat phase. “Artifacts. “End of Combat Step. if the entwine cost was paid. It has two steps: end of turn and cleanup. The equip keyword ability moves the Equipment onto a creature you control. “End Phase.” End of Turn Step This is the first step of the end phase.” Equip Equip is an activated ability. An Equipment can’t equip itself. Check state-based effects. “Epic” means. “Ending the Turn. “Equip [cost]” means “[Cost]: Attach this Equipment to target creature you control.” and rule 212.33. copy this spell except for its epic ability. The current step and/or phase ends. from combat.44. but remains in play.” Equipment Some artifacts have the subtype “Equipment. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery. These are .) Evasion Ability Evasion abilities restrict what creatures can block an attacking creature. “End of Turn Step. See rule 502. See rule 420. If you do. “Entwine [cost]” means “You may choose to use all modes of this spell instead of just one. (This is a state-based effect. “Entwine. An Equipment is played and comes into play just like any other artifact.1b and 409.” These artifacts can be attached to (can “equip”) creatures. you pay an additional [cost].33. “Equip. Equipment doesn’t come into play equipping a creature. A player may play spells and abilities during this step whenever he or she has priority. If the spell has any targets.

Event Anything that happens in a game is an event.” Evoke Evoke is a keyword ability that represents two abilities: a static ability that functions in any zone from which the card can be played and a triggered ability that functions in play. One “happening” may be treated as a single event by one ability and as multiple events by another. except they can exchange the cards only if all the cards are owned by the same player.” Exchange A spell or ability may instruct players to exchange something (for example. Replacement effects may modify these gains and losses. and either of them is attached to an object. When such a spell or ability resolves. each of those players simultaneously gains control of the permanent that was controlled by the other player. the exchange effect does nothing. “Evoke. each player gains or loses the amount of life necessary to equal the other player’s previous life total.” See rule 502. “Exalted. and triggered abilities may trigger on them. if those permanents are controlled by different players. cards removed from the game and cards in a player’s hand). life totals or control of two permanents) as part of its resolution. and its color indicates the rarity of the card. When control of two permanents is exchanged. “Exalted” means “Whenever a creature you control attacks alone. that creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn. Multiple events may take place during the resolution of a spell or ability.3a.1b and 409. The text of triggered abilities and replacement effects defines the event they’re looking for.” Exalted Exalted is a triggered ability. if its evoke cost was paid. on the other hand. no part of the exchange occurs. this is one event for a triggered ability that reads “Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked” but two events for a triggered ability that reads “Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked by a creature.83.1f–h. See rule 500.74. Cards reprinted in a core set .static abilities that modify the declare blockers step of the combat phase. If a card in one zone is exchanged with a card in a different zone. See rule 502. When life totals are exchanged. that card stops being attached to that object and the other card becomes attached to that object. and one of the zones is empty. If a spell or ability instructs a player to simply exchange two zones. if the entire exchange can’t be completed. Example: If a spell attempts to exchange control of two target creatures but one of those creatures is destroyed before the spell resolves. its controller sacrifices it. those permanents are controlled by the same player. “Evoke [cost]” means “You may play this card by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost” and “When this permanent comes into play. Some spells or abilities may instruct a player to exchange cards in one zone with cards in a different zone (for example. the spell does nothing to the other creature. Example: If an attacking creature is blocked by two defending creatures. The symbol indicates the set in which the card was published. These spells and abilities work the same as other “exchange” spells and abilities.” Paying a card’s evoke cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409. If. the cards in the zones are still exchanged. Expansion Symbol The small icon normally printed below the right edge of the illustration on a Magic card is the expansion symbol.

wizards. a facedown permanent you control. remove a fade counter from this permanent. “Fading N” means “This permanent comes into play with N fade counters on it” and “At the beginning of your upkeep. If a player gets multiple extra turns or if multiple players get extra turns during a single turn. or face-down cards in the phased-out zone last controlled by another player. The Grand Melee multiplayer variant has special rules to handle what happens when extra turns are created. Extra Turn Some spells and abilities can give a player extra turns. the extra turns are added one at a time. “Face-Down Spells and Permanents. sacrifice the permanent.20. Any listed characteristics are the copiable values of that object’s characteristics. or permanent to be turned face down. spell. The ability or rules that allowed a permanent to be turned face down may also allow the permanent’s controller to turn it face up.wizards. They do this by adding the turns directly after the current turn.25.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home). See rule 608.” . Spells normally can’t be turned face up. See rule 300. Visit the products section of www. face-down permanents in play. “Expansion Symbol. or a face-down card in the phased-out zone you controlled when it phased out.” Face Down Face-down spells on the stack.or another expansion receive its expansion symbol.” See rule 502. you must ensure at all times that your face-down spells and permanents can be easily differentiated from each other. See rule 504. If you control multiple face-down spells on the stack or face-down permanents in play. See rule 502. At any time.magicthegathering. See rule 501.com/Magic/TCG/Article. “Fading.” and rule 502. The most recently created turn will be taken first.aspx? x=mtg/tcg/products/allproducts). and put the rest on top of that library in any order. If you can’t.com for the full list of expansions and expansion symbols (http://www.” Fateseal To “fateseal N” means to look at the top N cards of an opponent’s library. See the Magic Floor Rules for the current definitions of the constructed formats (http://www. “Fateseal. A creature with fear can’t be blocked except by artifact creatures and/or black creatures. and face-down cards in the phased-out zone have no characteristics other than those listed by the ability or rules that allowed the card.6.” Fear Fear is an evasion ability. Spells and abilities that affect cards from a particular expansion only affect cards with that set’s expansion symbol. put any number of them on the bottom of that library in any order. “Fear.26. The first five editions of the core set had no expansion symbol. Players may include cards from any printing in their constructed decks if those cards appear in sets allowed in that format (or allowed by the Magic Floor Rules). Cards printed before the Exodus set had black expansion symbols regardless of rarity. face-down spells or permanents controlled by another player. “Morph. “Grand Melee Variant. See rule 206. You can’t look at face-down cards in any other zone (including cards “removed from the game face down”).” Fading Fading is a keyword ability that represents two abilities.com/Magic/TCG/Events. you may look at a face-down spell you control on the stack.9.

1b and 409. “Flash. “Flashback. At the start of the combat damage step. No player wins or loses this kind of flip. “Flashback [cost]” means “You may play this card from your graveyard by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost” and “If the flashback cost was paid. See rule 502. The text that appears right . no other players are involved. the affected player flips the coin and calls “heads” or “tails. Otherwise. remove this card from the game instead of putting it anywhere else any time it would leave the stack. Flip Cards Flip cards have a two-part card frame on a single card. It represents two static abilities: one functions while the card is in a player’s graveyard and the other functions while the card is on the stack.First Strike First strike is a static ability that modifies the rules for the combat damage step. “Flanking” means “Whenever this creature becomes blocked by a creature without flanking. if at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike or double strike (see rule 502.” Fizzle (Informal) The term “fizzle” is an informal term. “Flash” means “You may play this card any time you could play an instant.” and the other side to be “tails.” Flashback Flashback appears on some instants and sorceries. If the coin that’s being flipped doesn’t have an obvious “heads” or “tails. See rule 207.3. each affected player flips a coin without making a call.22.” If the call matches the result. It provides a mood or gives interesting background detail for the game world but has no effect on play. Only the player who flips the coin wins or loses the flip. To flip a coin for an object that cares whether the coin comes up heads or tails. the phase gets a second combat damage step to handle the remaining creatures. See rule 502. that player wins the flip.” Other methods of randomization may be substituted for flipping a coin as long as there are two possible outcomes of equal likelihood and all players agree to the substitution. the blocking creature gets -1/-1 until end of turn. “First Strike.1f–h. A coin used in a flip must be a two-sided object with easily distinguished sides and equal likelihood that either side lands face up. Instead of proceeding to end of combat. creatures without first strike or double strike don’t assign combat damage.” designate one side to be “heads.” Flavor Text This is text in italics (but not in parentheses) in the text box of a card. Flanking Flanking is a triggered ability that triggers during the declare blockers step of the combat phase. See rule 413.2a. the player loses the flip. Flip a Coin To flip a coin for an object that cares whether a player wins or loses the flip.” Playing a spell using its flashback ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.2. used for when a spell or ability was countered as a result of all its targets being missing or illegal when it resolved. “Flanking.2.” See rule 502.57.” See rule 502.” Flash Flash is a static ability that functions in any zone from which you could play the card it’s on.28).

Forest “Forest” is one of the five basic land types. whichever comes first. power. A creature with flying can block a creature with or without flying. The text box usually contains an ability that causes the permanent to “flip” if certain conditions are met. Forestwalk See Landwalk. and toughness.” See rule 212. “Flying. if flipped permanent leaves play. A creature with flying can’t be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. you may name a flip card’s alternative name. you must ensure that it’s clear at all times whether the permanent is flipped or not. type line. Additional alternative characteristics appear upside down on the card. type line.” Forecast Forecast is a special kind of activated ability that can be played only from a player’s hand.com/Magic/TCG/Events. The controller of the forecast ability reveals the card with that ability from his or her hand as the ability is played. . Floor Rules The current DCI Magic: The Gathering Floor Rules can be found at http://www. mana cost. both when it’s untapped and when it’s tapped. expansion symbol. illustration credit.4. and legal text don’t change if the permanent is flipped. Once the flip permanent in the in-play zone is flipped. It’s written “Forecast — [Activated ability].” The top half of a flip card contains the card’s normal name. text box. Flying Flying is an evasion ability. In every zone other than the in-play zone. Common methods for distinguishing between flipped and unflipped permanents include using coins or dice to mark flipped objects. “Flip Cards. Flipping a permanent is a one-way process.6h. a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the permanent. Forestcycling See Typecycling. and toughness. any changes to it by external effects will still apply. the normal name. and also in the in-play zone before the permanent flips. and toughness of the flip permanent don’t apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead. See rule 508. power. Any land with the land type Forest has the ability “{T}: Add {G} to your mana pool. That player plays with that card revealed in his or her hand until it leaves the player’s hand or until a step or phase that isn’t an upkeep step begins.wizards.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home. If you control a flip permanent. it retains no memory of its status. These characteristics are used only if the permanent is in play and only if the permanent is flipped.side up on the card defines the card’s normal characteristics. The back of a flip card is the normal Magic: The Gathering card back. type line. If an effect tells you to name a card. it’s impossible for it to become unflipped. The bottom half of a flip card contains an alternative name. Once a permanent is flipped. Also. A flip card’s color. text box. power. See rule 502. text box.” A forecast ability may be played only during the upkeep step of the card’s owner and only once each turn. However.

“Graft N” means “This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it” and “Whenever another creature comes into play. “Fortify.2).” The Fortification is attached to. “Frenzy N” means “Whenever this creature attacks and isn’t blocked. Any color of mana. See rule 420. They can’t fortify objects that aren’t lands.2). as well as colorless mana. you may move a +1/+1 counter from this permanent onto that creature. “Frenzy.” These artifacts can be attached to (can “fortify”) lands.1). The fortify keyword ability moves the Fortification onto a land you control. A Fortification is played and comes into play just like any other artifact. A Fortification that’s also a creature or a Fortification that loses the subtype “Fortification” can’t fortify a land.66.” See rule 502. “Emperor Variant. “Fortify.” that land. Fortification doesn’t come into play fortifying a land. Graft Graft represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. A Fortification can’t fortify itself.” Frenzy Frenzy is a triggered ability.3).1). may be used to pay a generic mana cost.” and rule 212.1). it gets +N/+0 until end of turn. drawing a card at the start of the draw step (see rule 304. or “fortifies. “Free-for-All Variant. “Artifacts. declaring attackers at the start of the declare attackers step (see rule 308. The other players are called generals.) Fortify Fortify is an activated ability.65.3b. Mana burn at the end of a phase is also a game action (see rule 300.Fortification Some artifacts have the subtype “Fortification. General The player seated in the middle of a team in the Emperor multiplayer variant is called the team’s emperor.” Free-for-All Free-for-All is a multiplayer variant in which a group of players complete as individuals against each other. “Fortify [cost]” means “[Cost]: Attach this Fortification to target land you control.65. declaring blockers at the start of the declare blockers step (see rule 309.” These cards now say “nonAura enchantment.” If a creature has multiple . These actions are game actions. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery.”) The land a Fortification is attached to is called “fortified.1). A Fortification that fortifies an illegal or nonexistent permanent becomes unattached from that permanent.” See rule 502.” Generic Mana Cost A generic mana cost is represented by a number in a gray circle.2. See rule 104.1). but remains in play. untapping at the start of the untap step (see rule 302. See rule 607. See rule 605. Global Enchantment (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “global enchantment. (See rule 502.” See also Aura and Enchantment.” Game Action Several steps contain actions that don’t use the stack. if this permanent has a +1/+1 counter on it. the active player discarding down to his or her maximum hand size at the start of the cleanup step (see rule 314. and removing damage from permanents and ending “until end of turn” effects during the cleanup step (see rule 314. The game actions are phasing in and out at the start of the untap step (see rule 302. (This is a state-based effect.

See rule 217.51. For example. Countered spells. put a copy of it onto the stack for each permanent that was put into a graveyard from play this turn.instances of graft.” See rule 502. Grand Melee The Grand Melee variant is a modification of the Free-for-All variant. See also Public Zone. even if all the cards in one such zone happen to be revealed. Hidden Zone Hidden zones are zones in which not all players can be expected to see the cards. “Haunt. Library and hand are hidden zones. Haste is a static ability that allows a creature to ignore this rule. Grand Melee is normally used only in games begun with ten or more players. “Zones. See also Public Information. If the spell has any targets. Each turn marker represents both an active player’s turn and an individual stack. . If an effect “reveals” a card that’s normally hidden. See rule 217. The Grand Melee variant allows multiple players to take turns at the same time. each one works separately. you may choose new targets for any of the copies. facedown cards in any zone and the contents of players’ libraries and hands are hidden information.” The Grand Melee variant uses the following default options: (a) Each player has a range of influence of 1 (see rule 601).” Graveyard Each player’s discard pile is his or her graveyard. Instant and sorcery spells are put into their owner’s graveyard as the last step in resolving. and (b) the attack left option is used (see rule 604). “Haunt” on a permanent means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play.” See rule 502. destroyed or sacrificed permanents.” Haunt Haunt is a triggered ability.” Hand The hand is the zone where a player holds cards that haven’t been played yet. remove it from the game haunting target creature. and discarded cards are put into their owner’s graveyard. the card is public information as long as it remains revealed.5. See rule 608.” A card with haunt typically has another ability that triggers “when the creature this card haunts is put into a graveyard. Moving turn markers keep track of which players are currently taking turns. The attack multiple players and deploy creatures options aren’t used in the Grand Melee variant. “Gravestorm. “Haste. “Zones.” Hidden Information (Informal) Some information within a Magic game isn’t known by all players. remove it from the game haunting target creature.” Haste Normally a creature can’t attack or use activated abilities with costs that include the tap symbol ({T}) or the untap symbol ({Q}) unless its controller has controlled it continuously since the start of his or her most recent turn. Gravestorm Gravestorm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. See rule 502. “Grand Melee Variant.” “Haunt” on an instant or sorcery spell means “When this spell is put into a graveyard during its resolution. “Gravestorm” means “When you play this spell.67.

and {G/U} green or blue. or from the zone designated by the spell or ability. “Illustration. The removed card gains ‘Any player who has controlled the permanent that removed this card from the game may look at this card in the removed-from-thegame zone. look at the top four cards of your library. {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana.’” See rule 502. {U/R} blue or red. {G/W} green or white.17. as represented by the two halves of the hybrid mana symbol. {B/R} black or red.” Horsemanship Horsemanship is an evasion ability. {2/U} one blue mana or two mana of any type. {2/R} one red mana or two mana of any type.” .Hideaway Hideaway is a keyword ability that represents a static ability and a triggered ability. Hybrid Mana Symbols Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid in one of two ways. A hybrid mana symbol is all of its component colors. use the largest component of each hybrid symbol. Illustration The illustration is printed on the upper half of a card and has no game significance. the entire action is reversed and any payments already made are canceled. A creature with horsemanship can block a creature with or without horsemanship. {R/G} red or green. {W/B} white or black. If See Intervening “If” Clause. “Handling Illegal Actions.2a. A target may also become illegal if its characteristics changed since the spell or ability was played or if an effect changed the text of the spell. A target that’s removed from play. “Horsemanship. See rule 413. A creature with horsemanship can’t be blocked by creatures without horsemanship.” Hybrid Card A hybrid card is a card with one or more hybrid mana symbols in its mana cost. {U/B} blue or black. “Hideaway. {R/W} red or white. Most hybrid cards costs are printed in a two-tone frame. it checks whether the targets are legal when it resolves. Each of the monocolored hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid with one mana of a specific color or two mana of any type. See rule 502. The player may redo the reversed action in a legal way or take any other action allowed by the rules. {2/B} one black mana or two mana of any type. is illegal. Remove one of them from the game face down and put the rest on the bottom of your library in any order. Illegal Action If a player realizes that he or she can’t legally take an action after starting to do so. See rule 204.75. The card is all of the colors of its mana symbols.” Illegal Target If a spell or ability specifies targets. “Hideaway” means “This permanent comes into play tapped” and “When this permanent comes into play. No abilities trigger and no effects apply as a result of an undone action. {B/G} black or green. and {2/G} one green mana or two mana of any type. {2/W} can be paid with either one white mana or two mana of any type. When calculating the converted mana cost of an object with a hybrid mana symbol in its mana cost. See rule 422. the player who had priority retains it and may take another action or pass. When reversing illegal spells and abilities.

or planeswalker spell resolves. The “infinity rule” governs how to break such loops.” Imprint Imprint is an activated or triggered ability.” All interrupt cards are now instant cards. Otherwise. rules and effects can’t destroy it. Occasionally the game can get into a state where a set of actions could be repeated forever. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. written “Imprint — [text]. “Replacement and Prevention Effects.34.” Imprinted [quality] card The phrase “imprinted [quality] card” means the card with that quality that’s imprinted on the permanent.5. “Instants. Infinity Rule (Informal) There’s no such thing as “infinity” in the Magic rules. each of those cards is an “imprinted [quality] card. put into a graveyard. and they ignore the lethal-damage state-based effect (see rule 420. See rule 212.” Instead Effects that use the word “instead” are replacement effects.Illustration Credit The illustration credit for a card is printed directly below the text box. or what it does to any of the things it applies to. Most replacement effects use the word “instead” to indicate what events will be replaced with other events. it’s put into the in-play zone as a permanent. or removed from the game. See rule 217. Tokens also exist in this zone. Rules or effects may cause an indestructible permanent to be sacrificed. “Interaction of Continuous Effects. “Imprint. and applying the other would change the text or the existence of the first effect. “Handling ‘Infinite’ Loops. See rule 502. The credit has no effect on game play. See rule 421.34.” Independent An effect is said to “depend on” another if it is applied at the same time as the other effect. creature. the effect is considered to be independent of the first effect. “Imprint. If a permanent has more than one card with that quality imprinted on it. All abilities that were played as interrupts are now played like . Such permanents are not destroyed by lethal damage.” and rule 409.5. it’s put into the in-play zone as a permanent. An instant spell is put into its owner’s graveyard as the last step of its resolution.5c).” Instant Instant is a card type. Instant subtypes are called spell types (see Spell Types). A player may play instants whenever he or she has priority. enchantment. See rule 419.” In Play In play is the zone in which permanents exist. When an artifact. “Zones. When a land is played. “Information Below the Text Box.” See rule 502. See rule 210. what it applies to. Cards that are in the removed-from-the-game zone because they were removed from the game by an imprint ability are imprinted on the source of that ability.” Indestructible If a permanent is indestructible.” Interrupt (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the card type “interrupt.” where “[text]” is an activated or triggered ability. See rule 418.

sometimes reminder text summarizes their meanings.6h. The ability checks the condition again on resolution. See rule 501. See rule 404. and you actually pay the cost when you pay the rest of the spell’s costs (see rule 409.1f–h). It can’t be played . The active player may play a land once each turn during his or her main phase when he or she has priority and the stack is empty. Any land with the land type Island has the ability “{T}: Add {U} to your mana pool. he or she doesn’t choose the targets for the effect associated with that kicker cost. These “keywords” are game terms.1c) for a kicker effect only if he or she declared the intention to pay the kicker cost for that effect. These abilities list only the name of the ability as a “keyword”. Lands aren’t spells and don’t go on the stack. “Keyword Abilities. Note that this mirrors the check for legal targets. if it isn’t. See rule 502. Paying a kicker cost is always optional. it can only be played as a land. but some specialized verbs are used whose meanings may not be clear.” See rule 212. “Kicker.” Keyword Action Most actions described in a card’s rules text use the standard English definitions of the verbs within. If an object is both a land and another card type. “When/Whenever/At [trigger]. they are simply played from the hand. Paying a spell’s kicker cost causes the spell to have an additional or alternative effect. “Keyword Actions. which means “This creature can’t attack unless the defending player controls an Island” and “When you control no Islands.” Cards that previously had islandhome now simply have the two parts of islandhome written out without using the keyword.1b). Intervening “If” Clause Triggered abilities with a condition directly following the trigger event (for example.” “Kicker [cost]” means “You may pay an additional [cost] as you play this spell.” You declare whether you intend to pay a spell’s kicker cost at the same time you would choose the spell’s mode (see rule 409. the ability does nothing. Keyword Ability Some abilities are very common or would require too much space to define on a card. [effect]”) check for the condition to be true as part of the trigger event.” Kicker Kicker is a keyword ability with a cost and an effect.3.normal activated abilities (and are mana abilities if they produce mana). Islandhome (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the term islandhome. See rule 502. Islandcycling See Typecycling. If the spell’s controller declared that he or she wouldn’t pay a particular kicker cost. the ability doesn’t trigger. A spell’s controller chooses targets (see rule 409. sacrifice this creature. Islandwalk See Landwalk.21. sometimes reminder text summarizes the game rule. Land Land is a card type. If it’s not satisfied. if [condition]. Note that this rule doesn’t apply to any triggered ability with an “if” condition elsewhere within its text. Island “Island” is one of the five basic land types.

2f. (3) text-changing effects. See rule 418. (2) control-changing effects. and/or supertype).10c) or when its owner leaves the game (see rule 600. Tower. See rule 413.6. “Interaction of Continuous Effects.15.” “legendary. Plains. Lair. is as follows: Desert. If a token leaves play. See rule 210.6. See Legendary. If an effect requires information about a specific player in a multiplayer game and that player has left the game. “Copying Objects”). effects are applied in a series of sublayers. “Lands. see rule 502. See rule 420.” Land Type Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Land — Locus. “Information Below the Text Box.and/or toughness-changing effects.” See also Basic Land Type. it ceases to exist. Layer Continuous effects are applied in order.5. (5) all other continuous effects. it becomes an entirely new permanent with no “memory” of anything from its former existence. Locus. Effects use last known information if a specific object they require information from isn’t in the zone it’s expected to be in (unless the effect divides damage).4e.” All of these cards have been given errata to have the legendary supertype.” Landwalk is an evasion ability. Urza’s Landwalk “Landwalk” is a generic term. Land — Urza’s Mine. Power-Plant. Mine. and (6) power. in six layers: (1) copy effects (see rule 503.5. The list of land types. (4) typechanging effects (which includes effects that change an object’s card type. A creature with landwalk is unblockable as long as the defending player controls at least one land which has the specified subtype or supertype. updated through the Alara Reborn set.” Leaves Play A permanent leaves play when it moves from the in-play zone to any other zone (see rule 410.” Last Known Information The last known information about an object is the information that it had just before it left the zone it was in. Mountain. This is a state-based effect. except those that change power and/or toughness. “Landwalk. such as “islandwalk.6. “Phasing.” etc.4a).” and “nonbasic” aren’t land types. See rule 502. See rule 212.) Legal Text Legal text (the fine print at the bottom of the card) lists the trademark and copyright information. Forest.” Permanents that phase out also don’t trigger any comes-into-play or leaves-play abilities. subtype. Swamp. the effect uses the last known information about that player before he or she left the game. See rule 212. Island. .” Legend (Obsolete) Many creature cards were printed with the creature type “Legend. If a permanent leaves play and later returns to play. See rule 600. Note that “basic. “Lands. Land subtypes are also called land types. It has no effect on game play.as a spell. a card’s rules text will give a specific property to look for. Inside layer 6. Legend is no longer a creature type. (Phasing is an exception to this.

5.2.5.” Life. those abilities are linked. each player’s deck becomes his or her library. See also rule 215.5. Any decrease in a player’s life total is considered to be losing life.” LIFO is the order in which spells and abilities resolve after going on the stack. “Lifelink” means “Whenever this permanent deals damage. See rule 409. “Linked Abilities.” “Legendary Artifact. If a legendary permanent’s card types or subtypes change. A player whose life total drops to 0 or less loses. This is a state-based effect. See rule 601. abilities. Linked Abilities If an object has two abilities printed on it such that one of them causes actions to be taken or objects to be affected and the other one directly refers to those actions or objects.68. Grand Melee variant (see rule 608). all are put into their owners’ graveyards. attacking. “Library. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. See rule 420. “Lifelink. “Limited Range of Influence Option. See rule 407. See rule 420.” Local Enchantment (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “local enchantment” for enchantments that are . this doesn’t change its supertypes. This “legend rule” is a state-based effect.” The limited range of influence option is always used in the Emperor variant (see rule 607). Library The library is the zone from which a player draws cards. Life Total Life total is a sort of score. First Out. Any increase in a player’s life total is considered to be gaining life. that the player can affect. “Resolving Spells and Abilities.” See rule 502. This is a state-based effect. Each player starts the game with 20 life. see rule 420. and it’s often used for other games involving five or more players. Lethal Damage Lethal damage is an amount of damage greater than or equal to a creature’s toughness. Players within that many seats of the player are within that player’s range of influence. A player’s range of influence is the maximum distance from that player.” Limited Range of Influence Limited range of influence is an optional rule used in some multiplayer games. measured in player seats. See rule 217. The second ability can refer only to actions that were taken or objects that were affected by the first ability. making choices.Legendary Legendary is a supertype that may apply to any permanent type (“Legendary Land. is destroyed. effects. Range of influence covers spells. you gain that much life. and winning the game. and not by any other ability. The last played is resolved first.” and rule 413. The permanent will still be legendary. damage dealing.” LIFO (Informal) An acronym for “Last In. Objects controlled by players within a player’s range of influence are also within that player’s range of influence.” and so on). If two or more legendary permanents with the same name are in play.” Lifelink Lifelink is a triggered ability. but greater than 0 toughness. When a game begins. A creature with lethal damage. “Life.

mana. This indicates its loyalty while it’s not in play. can be paid only with the appropriate color of mana. planeswalker.” See rule 502. Lose the Game There are several ways to lose the game. Mana is created by mana abilities (and sometimes by spells). and only when the stack is empty. and it also indicates that the planeswalker comes into play with that many loyalty counters on it. a player who concedes loses the game (see rule 102. If a player would both win and lose simultaneously. black. but may remove it from the game instead of putting it into his or her graveyard” and “When this card is removed from the game this way. In a multiplayer game between teams. A planeswalker with loyalty 0 is put into its owner’s graveyard. The “main game” is the game in which the spell or ability that created the subgame was played. black. and it can be used to pay costs immediately or can stay in the player’s mana pool. enchantment.” Main Phase The term “main phase” comprises the first main and second main phases. See rule 209. A player may also play one land each turn during his or her main phase. he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority (this is a state-based effect. If a player attempts to draw a card from an empty library.” Main Game Some cards allow players to play a Magic subgame. Artifact. This is a statebased effect. he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. he or she puts this card into his or her graveyard.” Loyalty Loyalty is a characteristic that only planeswalkers have. “Loyalty. See rule 506.attached to other permanents while they’re in play. and green.24. see rule 420). “Winning and Losing. “Madness [cost]” means “If a player would discard this card. (this is a state-based effect.” Damage dealt to a planeswalker causes that many loyalty counters to be removed from it. Generic mana costs can be paid with any color of. he or she loses.3a). see rule 420. If a player has ten or more poison counters. a team loses the game if all players on that team have lost. The spell or ability that adds mana to a mana pool may restrict how it can be . and colorless. or with colorless. Madness Madness is a keyword that represents two abilities. creature. also called the “precombat” and “postcombat” main phases. red. see rule 420). its owner may play it by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost. A player can concede the game at any time. Mana Mana is the resource used to play spells and is usually produced by lands.” The colors of mana are white. represented by colored mana symbols. If that player doesn’t. see rule 420). These cards now have the Aura subtype. “Madness. Colored mana costs. “Mana Abilities. See rule 406. red. Each planeswalker card has a loyalty number printed in its lower right corner.3. See rule 102. and sorcery spells may be played only by the active player during his or her main phase. blue. See rule 104. he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority (this is a state-based effect. If a player’s life total is 0 or less. blue. The types of mana are white. green. that player discards it. “Subgames.

{U} blue. The mana can be used immediately to pay a cost. Numeral symbols (such as {1}) are generic mana costs and represent an amount of mana that can be paid with any color of. {B}. and {G} green. If a card has no mana symbols printed in its upper right corner. Land cards and face-down spells and permanents normally have no mana cost. there’s no type of mana it could produce.used.” Mana Burn When a phase ends. the hybrid symbols {W/U}. {G}. To tap a permanent for mana is to play an activated mana ability of that permanent that includes the {T} symbol in its cost and produces mana as part of its effect. and the snow symbol {S}. it has no mana cost. any unused mana remaining in a player’s mana pool is lost. {3}. A copy of an object copies that object’s mana cost. {2}. taking into account any applicable replacement effects in any possible order.3b. its controller decides the value of that . the monocolored hybrid symbols {2/W}. {2/B}. {G/W}. See rule 411.3. Mana Symbol The mana symbols are {W}. {U/B}. {1}. {R} red. {B} black.” See rule 300. {B/R}.” A player may play an activated mana ability whenever he or she has priority and whenever a rule or effect asks for a mana payment. Abilities that used to read “Play this ability as a mana source” are now mana abilities. If that permanent wouldn’t produce any mana under these conditions. See rule 406. A mana ability doesn’t go on the stack —it resolves immediately. {U}. {U/R}. See rule 104. {W/B}. or no type of mana can be defined this way. and so on. and {G/U}. mana. “Mana Cost and Color. See rule 104.3.3a. it can be used to pay for spells and abilities. See also Mana Burn. and {2/G}. Ignore whether any costs of the ability couldn’t be paid. “Playing Mana Abilities. {R}. {2/R}. An ability might produce mana that can be used only to play creature spells or only to pay activation costs. the numerals {0}. Tokens have no mana cost unless the effect that creates them specifies otherwise. {R/W}. See rule 203. See rule 104. “Mana Abilities. {2/U}. Mana Ability A mana ability is either activated or triggered. {R/G}. The type of mana a permanent “could produce” at any time includes any type of mana that an ability of that permanent would generate if it were to resolve at that time. Mana Source (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the card type “mana source. Each of the colored mana symbols represents one colored mana: {W} white. This is called “mana burn.” All mana source cards are now instant cards. The symbol {X} represents an unspecified amount of mana. This is the only kind of ability that can be played in the middle of playing or resolving a spell or ability. Mana Cost The mana cost of a card is indicated by the mana symbols printed on its upper right corner. or colorless. From there. {B/G}. {4}. and {X}. that mana goes into a player’s mana pool. or stored in the mana pool for use later in the phase. The player loses 1 life for each mana lost this way. when playing a spell or activated ability with {X} in its cost. The mana pool is cleared at the end of each phase.” Mana Pool When an effect creates mana.

consult the DCI Magic Floor Rules (http://www. {B/G} black or green. {R/G} red or green.variable. Modular Modular represents both a static ability and a triggered ability.” Modal. though effects may modify this. or sometimes the best three of five. A modal spell or ability’s controller must choose the mode(s) as part of playing the spell or ability or as part of putting the ability on the stack (in the case of triggered abilities). A two-player match usually consists of the best two of three games. See rule 104. A spell or ability whose cost is {0} must still be played the same way as one with a cost greater than zero. see rule 409.” “Choose two —. {U/B} blue or black. {2/U} one blue mana or two mana of any type. as represented by the two halves of the hybrid mana symbol.3i. if he or she has too many cards in his or her hand.3e. {2/R} one red mana or two mana of any type. Numeral symbols and variable symbols can also represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or of a mana ability that reads “add [mana symbol] to your mana pool” or something similar. Match A match is a series of Magic games and is important only for tournament or league play. A hybrid mana symbol is all of its component colors. {2/B} one black mana or two mana of any type. {G/W} green or white. {B/R} black or red. The symbol {S} represents a cost that can be paid with one mana produced by a snow permanent. Cards that were . See rule 104. {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana.wizards.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home). As the first part of the active player’s cleanup step. See rule 104.” “Choose one or both —.3d. The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder when a spell or activated ability costs nothing to play. {U/R} blue or red. and {2/G} one green mana or two mana of any type. {R/W} red or white. A multiplayer match usually consists of only one game.” or “[a specified player] chooses one —. it won’t play itself automatically. See rule 104. For more information. {W/B} white or black. you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent.1b.com/Magic/TCG/Events.35. “Modular. a player can’t choose that mode unless all of its targets can be chosen. They were artifacts that had activated abilities that included the tap symbol. {2/W} can be paid with either one white mana or two mana of any type. If a mode has targets. Mode A spell or ability is modal if it is written “Choose one —. Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid in one of two ways.” Modal spells and abilities offer a choice of effects. See rule 314.” Mono Artifact (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “mono artifact” on the card’s type line.3f.3c. Each of the monocolored hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid with one mana of a specific color or two mana of any type. Maximum Hand Size Each player’s maximum hand size is normally seven cards. that player chooses and discards as many cards as needed to reduce his or her hand to its maximum size (but no more than that). See rule 104. See rule 104. and {G/U} green or blue. “Modular N” means “This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it” and “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play. “Cleanup Step.” See rule 502.3f.

you may show all players the morph cost for any face-down permanent you control. Move To move a counter means to take it from where it currently is and put it onto another object. “Morph.” Something that can’t affect a particular color doesn’t affect a multicolored object with that color. so that same creature can’t be targeted by a spell or ability that reads. a black-and-green creature is destroyed by a spell that reads. then turn the permanent face up.” Mulligan A player can “mulligan” by shuffling his or her hand back into his or her library and drawing a new hand with one fewer card before taking the first turn. This action doesn’t use the stack. no subtypes. and no mana cost by paying {3} rather than its mana cost. In a multiplayer game. See rule 101.” Monocolored A monocolored card has exactly one color.” Any time you could play an instant.4.26. Morph Morph is a static ability that functions any time you could play the card it’s on. drawing one fewer card each time. Some older cards used “move” to describe taking an Aura on one object and putting it onto another. he or she draws a new hand of seven cards rather than six cards. Multicolored A multicolored card has two or more colors. See rule 502.6a. The Two-Headed Giant variant employs more extensive changes to the mulligan rule. “Morph [cost]” means “You may play this card as a 2/2 face-down creature.” Mountain “Mountain” is one of the five basic land types. For example. A colorless card isn’t monocolored. “Destroy all green creatures.” See rule 212. These cards now say “attach. Most multicolored cards are printed with gold frames to reinforce this. “Destroy target nonblack creature.printed with the term “mono artifact” now simply use “artifact. the first time a player takes a mulligan. pay that cost. Mountaincycling See Typecycling. or either that object or any possible objects the counter would move onto are no longer in the correct zone when the effect would move the counter. A multicolored object is affected by anything that singles out any of its colors.2. and the morph effect works any time the card is face down. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal. see rule 606.6h.” . Any land with the land type Mountain has the ability “{T}: Add {R} to your mana pool. See rule 203. If the object the counter would move from has no counters. Monocolored Hybrid Mana Symbols See Hybrid Mana Symbols. no expansion symbol. no name. Mountainwalk See Landwalk. nothing happens. with no text. Any player dissatisfied with his or her starting hand may mulligan as often as he or she wishes.

zero is used instead. a spell. “[Text] offering” means “You may play this card any time you could play an instant by sacrificing a [text] permanent. Example: If a 3/4 creature gets -5/-0. deal fractional damage. unless that effect sets a creature’s power or toughness. and so on. See rule 104. If you do. the total cost to play this card is reduced by the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost. copies of cards. However.” Generic mana in the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost reduces only the generic mana in the offering card’s total cost. Its total power and toughness is 2. it’s a -2/4 creature. “Ninjutsu. “Numbers and Symbols. Use the Oracle card reference to determine whether a land has the supertype “basic. Obsolete Terms marked “(Obsolete)” in this glossary were used only on older cards. gain negative life. You’d have to give it +3/+0 to raise its power to 1. You can’t choose a fractional number. changes a creature’s power or toughness. “Multiplayer Rules. spells. “Offering.” See rule 502. See rule 200. a copy of a card.” Number The Magic game uses only integers. it does so. If a spell or ability could generate a fractional number. tokens. Offering Offering is a static ability of a card that functions in any zone from which the card can be played. abilities on the stack.42. gain fractional life.” Most of the time.8. a token. Object An “object” is a card. See rule 202. permanents.” Ninjutsu Ninjutsu is an activated ability that functions only while the card with ninjutsu is in a player’s hand. or combat damage on the stack. to be less than zero. “Name. a permanent. Return an unblocked creature you control to its owner’s hand: Put this card into play from your hand tapped and attacking. Games that begin with only two players aren’t multiplayer games.43. or sets a player’s life total. See rule 417. it’s possible for a game value. The term “object” is used in these rules when a rule applies to cards. Reveal this card from your hand. “One-Shot . the Magic game uses only positive numbers.” Name The name of a card is printed on its upper left corner. If a calculation or comparison that would determine the result of an effect needs to use a negative value. an ability on the stack.Multiplayer A multiplayer game is a game that begins with more than two players. It assigns 0 damage in combat. and combat damage on the stack. and so on. You can’t choose a negative number. Updated wordings for all cards that used these terms are available in the Oracle card reference.” One-Shot Effect One-shot effects do something only once and then end. See rule 502.” Nonbasic Land Any land that doesn’t have the supertype “basic” is nonbasic. If such a calculation yields a negative number. such as a creature’s power. the spell or ability will tell you whether to round up or down. deal negative damage. “Ninjutsu [cost]” means “[Cost]. See section 6.

or graveyard. Objects in other zones can be arranged however their owners wish.” Oracle Use the Oracle card reference when determining a card’s wording. An effect can change a permanent’s controller but never its owner. See section 6. See rule 217.” Declaring attackers (see rule 308. for cards that didn’t start the game in a player’s deck. “Outside the game” is not a zone.1a. a player’s opponent is the other player. All other objects are inside the game. A card’s Oracle text can be found using the Gatherer card database at http://gatherer. or of a copy of a spell. “Multiplayer Rules.” Pass in Succession To pass in succession means that all players pass without playing any spells. in a graveyard.wizards. Opening Hand Before a game begins. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.Effects. or on the stack can’t be changed except when effects allow it. whether they’re tapped. regardless of who controlled the card in its previous zone. the spell. “Timing. See rule 217. If all players pass in succession. The owner of a token. Owner The owner of a card is the player who started the game with that card in his or her deck or. Priority. playing any abilities.1a.” See also Continuous Effects. or combat damage on top of the stack resolves. Outside the Game An object is “outside the game” if it’s in the removed-from-the-game zone. and the Stack. Priority. but after a player has taken any mulligans. (A few cards have the text “Remove [this card] from your deck before playing if you’re not playing for ante. Pass To pass is to decline to take any action (usually playing a spell or ability) when you have priority. (Legal ownership is irrelevant to the game rules.1. Order The order of objects in a library. “Ante. see rule 409.”) A card is always put into its owner’s library.2.1. except for the rules for ante.” These are the only cards that can change a card’s owner. See rule 408. or performing any special actions in between. his or her opponent receives priority. the player who brought the card into the game. a player has multiple opponents.9. the hand of cards he or she chooses to keep is that player’s opening hand. “Declare . or if it isn’t in any of the game’s zones. See rule 217. A player can’t take any mulligans once he or she has decided to keep an opening hand.) See rule 200. See rule 200. the phase or step ends. See rule 217. If the stack is empty.1b.1e. Opponent In a two-player game.” Pay Playing most spells and activated abilities requires paying costs. hand. and what enchants or equips them must remain clear to all players. and the Stack. is the controller of the effect that created it. See rule 408. ability. When a player passes. although who controls those objects. “Timing. In multiplayer games.com.

if it had no -1/-1 counters on it. This term is no longer used. Also. A player can’t pay more mana than the amount of mana in his or her mana pool or more life than his or her life total. “Phasing. Zero life or zero mana can always be paid. See section 3. creature. It’s illegal to attempt paying a cost when unable to successfully follow the instructions. or effect. Unpayable costs can’t be paid. it means an artifact. the player carries out the instructions specified by the spell. combat. a player can’t pay a cost that requires tapping a creature if that creature is already tapped. “Turn Structure.” Phasing Phasing is a static ability that causes a permanent to leave play and later return.Attackers Step”) and declaring blockers (see rule 309. Persist Persist is a triggered ability. a player can’t sacrifice just one creature to play the activated abilities of two permanents that require sacrificing a creature as a cost. and end.” Phased Out The phased-out zone is a special zone for permanents with phasing that are temporarily out of play.8. enchantment. It doesn’t make the permanent immune to other control effects. “Permanents. Mana abilities must be played before the costs are paid. the objects do not leave the zone they’re currently in. For example. land. Example: An ability that originally read “Gain control of target creature permanently” would now read as follows: “Gain control of target creature.15. the resolution of a spell or ability doesn’t pay another spell or ability’s cost. without losing its “memory. even if part of its effect is doing the same thing the other cost asks for. ability. “Persist. return it to play under its owner’s control with a -1/-1 counter on it. See rule 214. If cards in a graveyard are split into piles. See rule 217. Each payment applies to only one spell or ability. Any time a player is asked to pay mana. Paying life subtracts the indicated amount of life from the player’s life total. Permanent A permanent is any card or token in the in-play zone. mana abilities may be played. “Phasing.79. . “Declare Blockers Step”) can also require paying costs.” Pile If a player is asked to separate a group of objects into two or more piles.” See rule 502. postcombat main.” and rule 502. or planeswalker card.” Phase Each turn is divided into five phases: beginning. even if the player has less than zero life. For example.” This effect grants control of the permanent until something else changes the controller or it leaves play. “Phased Out.15. Permanently (Obsolete) Certain older cards were printed with the term “permanently” to indicate effects with no expiration. To pay any cost.” Permanent Card A permanent card is a card that isn’t in play but could be put into play. precombat main. Specifically.” See rule 502. “Persist” means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play. Paying mana is done by removing the indicated amount of mana from the player’s mana pool.

” In a Two-Headed Giant multiplayer game.” Playing a mana ability requires paying any costs. Liliana. When a planeswalker spell resolves. Plains “Plains” is one of the five basic land types. See rule 409.” Playing a land simply requires choosing a land card from the hand and putting it into play. all are put into their owners’ graveyards. See rule 420.” Play/Draw (Informal) Whoever plays first in a two-player game skips his or her first draw step. or ability involves announcing the action and taking the necessary steps to complete it. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. Other multiplayer variants don’t use the play/draw rule.6.6h. Player A player is one of the people in the game. The active player may play planeswalkers during his or her main phase when the stack is empty. Jace. A pile can contain zero or more objects. Any land with the land type Plains has the ability “{T}: Add {W} to your mana pool. Elspeth. Tezzeret. “Playing Mana Abilities. is as follows: Ajani.” and rule 412.the order of the graveyard must be maintained. See rule 200. its controller puts it into play under his or her control. See rule 101. .” Planeswalker subtypes are also called planeswalker types. “Lands.” Triggered abilities and static abilities aren’t played—they happen automatically. “Starting the Game. See rule 212. See rule 411. This is referred to as the play/draw rule. Bolas. Plainswalk See Landwalk. See rule 410. If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are in play. “Two-Headed Giant Variant”). “Handling Static Abilities. The active player is the player whose turn it is. See rule 200.3. updated through the Alara Reborn set. the team that goes first skips its first draw step (see rule 606.” See rule 212.9. Sarkhan. Playing a spell or activated ability requires paying any costs and choosing any required modes and/or targets. Planeswalker Planeswalker is a card type. Placed If a spell or ability refers to a counter being placed on a permanent. The list of planeswalker types. Garruk. The other players are nonactive players. “Handling Triggered Abilities. See rule 212. This “planeswalker uniqueness rule” is a statebased effect. or that permanent coming into play with a counter. Play The act of playing a spell.5. it means putting a counter on that permanent while it’s in play. then immediately resolving the ability. land.” Planeswalker Type Planeswalker subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Planeswalker — Jace.10c. Plainscycling See Typecycling. “Planeswalkers. Chandra.

A noncreature permanent has no power. “Sources of Damage. “Poisonous N” means “Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player. regardless of the amount. the additional one is also a postcombat main phase. “State-Based Effects. If a player has ten or more poison counters.” Power Power is a characteristic that only creatures have. The number before the slash printed on the lower right corner of a creature card is its power.” Prevention Effect Effects that prevent something from happening replace it with “do nothing. See rule 408. Effects generated by static abilities that prevent a specific amount of damage prevent only the indicated amount of damage from any applicable source at any given time.” Poly Artifact (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “poly artifact” on the card’s type line. See rule 420. See rule 419. The object has a characteristic-defining ability that sets its power according to some stated condition.” Creatures that attack or block assign combat damage equal to their power. “Replacement and Prevention Effects.Poison Counter Some cards. See rule 305. See rule 310. or combat damage . that player gets N poison counters. “Power/Toughness. They were artifacts that had activated abilities that don’t include the tap symbol. Cards that were printed with the term “poly artifact” now simply use “artifact. These effects expire when the turn ends.” Some creature cards have power represented by * instead of a number. “Timing of Spells and Abilities.” Priority The player who has the option to play a spell or ability at any given time has priority. give poison counters to players.”) A prevention effect must be active before the event it’s intended to prevent. Effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability that prevent a specific amount of damage act as “shields” and stay active until that amount of damage has been prevented or the turn ends.” (See rule 419. This ability functions everywhere.” Postcombat The second main phase in each turn is called the postcombat main phase. See rule 305. an ability (other than a mana ability). “Main Phase. “Main Phase.” Poisonous Poisonous is a triggered ability. The damage doesn’t have to be dealt by a single source or all at once. If an effect causes a turn to have an extra combat phase and another main phase.8. Effects that prevent the next damage from a specific source apply the next time that source would deal damage. See rule 208.” See rule 502. Precombat The first main phase in each turn is called the precombat main phase. “Combat Damage Step.” Each time a spell. even outside the game. including those with the poisonous ability. “Poisonous. even if it’s a card with a power printed on it (such as a Licid that’s become an Aura). he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority.69.

29. ability.”) A permanent with protection can’t be equipped by Equipment that has the stated quality or fortified by Fortifications that have the stated quality. In the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant. These steps repeat in order until no further state-based effects or triggered abilities are generated. and cards in graveyards are all public information. See rule 606. If a player has priority when he or she plays a spell.” Public Information (Informal) Some information within a Magic game is known by all players. “Provoke” means “Whenever this creature attacks. written “Protection from [quality]. (See rule 420. . “Protection. even though contents of those libraries and hands are hidden information. Such Equipment or Fortifications become unattached from that permanent.” Paying a spell’s prowl cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.” See rule 502. When a player passes in a twoplayer game. A permanent or player with protection can’t be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality. if any new state-based effects have been generated. teams rather than individual players have priority. or combat damage on top of the stack resolves or. See rule 502. Such Auras attached to the permanent or player with protection will be put into their owners’ graveyards as a state-based effect. (See rule 420. “State-Based Effects.1b and 409. This process repeats until no more applicable state-based effects are generated. A permanent with protection from everything has protection from each object regardless of that object’s characteristic values. his or her opponent receives priority.76. The number of cards in players’ libraries and hands is also public information. the spell. was under your control and had any of this spell’s creature types. Provoke Provoke is a triggered ability.7.resolves. or takes a special action. spells and abilities on the stack. “Prowl [cost]” means “You may pay [cost] rather than pay this spell’s mana cost if a player was dealt combat damage this turn by a source that.” Prowl Prowl is a static ability that functions on the stack.” A permanent or player with protection can’t be targeted by spells with the stated quality and can’t be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality. and at the beginning of most phases and steps. Then. For example. Attacking creatures with protection can’t be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality. Then triggered abilities are added to the stack (see rule 410). permanents in play.”) Any damage that would be dealt to a permanent or player with protection from sources having that quality is prevented. See also Hidden Information. he or she receives priority afterward. all applicable state-based effects resolve first as a single event (see rule 420). If you do. you may choose to have target creature defending player controls block this creature this combat if able. “Two-Headed Giant Variant. at the time it dealt that damage. the phase or step ends.” Protection Protection is a static ability. untap that creature. the active player receives priority. ability.” See rule 502. but remain in play. “Provoke. Each time a player would get priority. or land. if the stack is empty. “StateBased Effects. If all players pass in succession.1f–h. “Prowl. they resolve as a single event.

Public Zone Public zones are zones in which all players can see the cards. Reach Reach is a static ability. it gets +N/+N until end of turn for each creature blocking it beyond the first. “Rampage. See rule 419.” Range of Influence See Limited Range of Influence.4. “Recover. “Reach.” See rule 502. that player can use any method of making a random choice (rolling dice. “Redirect” is still used informally to describe what these replacement effects do. ante. in play.” Because it’s a replacement effect.” Rampage Rampage is a triggered ability. See rule 419. or combat-damage assignment.” See rule 502. Regenerate Regeneration is a destruction-replacement effect.77. removed from the game. and phased-out are public zones. flipping a coin. Discard this card: Put N +1/+1 counters on target creature. without changing the source or kind of damage. stack. The outcome must be truly random. Otherwise.12. A creature with reach can block an attacking creature with flying. except for those that happen to be face down. cards that were printed with the term “redirect” now create replacement effects that modify where the damage will be dealt.55. Recover Recover is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with recover is in a player’s graveyard.70. instead remove all damage from it and tap it. return this card from your graveyard to your hand. ability. “Flying. “Regenerate [permanent]” means “The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn.” Random If a spell. “Recover [cost]” means “When a creature is put into your graveyard from play.” rule 502. See also Hidden Zone. it must be active before the attempted destruction event. remove this card from the game. Reinforce Reinforce is an activated ability that functions only while the card with reinforce is in a player’s hand.6b. Abilities that trigger from damage being dealt still trigger even if the permanent regenerates. ability. If it’s an attacking or blocking creature. you may pay [cost]. “Declare Blockers Step.” .” See rule 502. that object is not considered “played. “Rampage N” means “When this creature becomes blocked. Graveyard. If you do. Put into Play If an effect instructs a player to put an object into play. “Reinforce N—[cost]” means “[Cost].” and rule 502.6c. or effect requires a player to choose something at random. and so on). remove it from combat. In general.” Redirect (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the term “redirect” to describe the act of dealing damage to a different player or creature than originally specified by a spell. See rule 309. “Reinforce.

“Removed from the Game. Some objects use the expression “set aside” for situations in which a card removed from the game can return to another zone. “Timing of Spells and Abilities.” Requirement A requirement to attack or block is any effect that forces one or more creatures to attack or block.” Respond. See rule 408.1f–h. or if it’s an attacking or blocking creature that regenerates (see rule 419. See rule 217. if an effect specifically removes it from combat. When combat damage resolves. See rule 419. See rule 306. The effect that removed the card may specify a way for it to return.4a.” Resolve When a spell or ability on top of the stack resolves. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.6b) or stops being a creature. See rule 502. blocked. However.” Replacement Effect A replacement effect is a kind of continuous effect that “watches” for a specified event and replaces it with a different one. “Resolving Spells and Abilities. its controller carries out the instructions printed on the card. but it isn’t itself considered rules text. See rule 207. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. All attacks and blocks must still be legal. and/or unblocked creature. A permanent that’s removed from combat can’t assign combat damage or have combat damage assigned to it. If the spell has any targets. “Replicate [cost]” means “As an additional cost to play this spell. in the order written. blocking. Response (Informal) A player can choose to play an instant spell or activated ability when something else is already on the stack.Reminder Text Reminder text appears after a keyword ability printed on a card and on cards that might otherwise be commonly misunderstood. A creature that’s removed from combat stops being an attacking. Removed from Combat A permanent is removed from combat if it leaves play. you may choose new targets for any number of the copies.” .52. A planeswalker that’s removed from combat stops being attacked. rather than waiting for the earlier spell or ability to resolve first.7. The spell or ability is said to be played “in response to” the earlier spell or ability. if combat damage assigned to or by that permanent is already on the stack. if a replicate cost was paid for it. it will resolve normally. See rule 413. This text provides a summary of the game rule or clarifies what the card does. Removed from the Game A card removed from the game is put into the removed-from-the-game zone. “Legal Attacks and Blocks. “Replicate. Reminder text is text that is italicized and in parentheses in the text box of a card. you may pay [cost] any number of times” and “When you play this spell. if its controller changes. See rule 500. “Replacement and Prevention Effects.” Replicate Replicate is a keyword that represents two abilities.4 and rule 310.” Paying a spell’s replicate cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. if it’s a planeswalker that’s being attacked and stops being a planeswalker.1b and 409. it’s dealt as previously assigned to the fullest extent possible.2. copy it for each time its replicate cost was paid.

if there are fewer than N cards in your library. or. “Ripple. so regeneration or other effects that replace destruction can’t affect it. nothing happens.” Retrace Retrace is a static ability that functions while an instant or sorcery card with retrace is in a player’s graveyard.” Rules Text An object’s rules text defines many of that object’s properties. “Scry. If you reveal cards from your library this way. put any number of them on the bottom of your library in any order. Ripple Ripple is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with ripple is on the stack. and some way to clearly track life totals. then put all revealed cards not played this way on the bottom of your library in any order. If an effect instructs a player to sacrifice a permanent that he or she doesn’t control. and a player may use as many duplicates of a card as he or she has. such as card type or color.1f–h. Search If you’re required to search a zone not revealed to all players for cards of a given quality. Changing an object’s rules text changes the object’s properties. "“Retrace” means “You may play this card from your graveyard by discarding a land card as an additional cost to play it. its controller moves it from the in-play zone directly to its owner’s graveyard. If the cost to play a spell or ability includes revealing a card. the card remains revealed from the time the spell or ability is announced until it leaves the stack. you may play any of those cards with the same name as this spell without paying their mana costs.” Playing a spell using its retrace ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. A player can’t sacrifice something that isn’t a permanent.” Sealed Deck For sealed deck or draft play. and put the rest on top of your library in any order. the card is returned to its former state after all players have seen it. however. you must . you may reveal all the cards in your library. All attacks and blocks must still be legal. Sacrificing a permanent doesn’t destroy it. Sacrifice To sacrifice a permanent. “Ripple N” means “When you play this spell. you aren’t required to find some or all of those cards even if they’re present.1b and 409.56. only forty cards are required in a deck.” See rule 502.Restriction A restriction on attacking or blocking is any effect that could prevent a creature from attacking or blocking. See rule 500. See rule 501. Each player still needs small items to represent any tokens and counters. Reveal To reveal an object is to show that object to all players.3. or something that’s a permanent he or she doesn’t control. if you do choose to find cards.8. See rule 100. “Legal Attacks and Blocks. you may reveal the top N cards of your library. Scry To “scry N” means to look at the top N cards of your library. If a one-shot effect reveals a card.

or pile random. and the team loses if its life total reaches 0. “Shroud” means “This permanent or player can’t be the target of spells or abilities.9 and rule 419. “Replacement and Prevention Effects. phase. If you’re simply searching for a quantity of cards. Anything scheduled for a skipped step. that effect uses the team’s life total divided by the number of players on the team (rounded up) instead.” Shield Replacement and prevention effects act like “shields” around whatever they’re affecting.reveal those cards to all players. step. Skipping an event. or turn is to proceed past it as though it didn’t exist.” you must find that many cards (or as many as possible).” Shuffle To shuffle a deck. or turn is a replacement effect. . “Shroud. it can no longer be skipped—any skip effects will wait until the next occurrence. but if an effect causes you to search your library for three cards and it contains at least three. See rule 419. phase.36. “Skip [something]” is the same as “Instead of doing [something]. “Two-Headed Giant Variant. The result is applied to the team’s shared life total. “Shadow. After a player shuffles a deck. If two effects each cause a player to skip his or her next occurrence. Anything scheduled for the “next” occurrence of something waits for the first occurrence that isn’t skipped. See rule 419. phase. or pile is to make the order of that deck. Once a step. Attacking creatures with shadow can’t be blocked by creatures without shadow. you may choose to leave some of them alone. while the other will remain until another occurrence can be skipped. These cards often aren’t revealed. See rule 606. Shadow Shadow is an evasion ability. Even if you don’t find any cards. Example: If an effect causes you to search a player’s library for all duplicates of a particular card and remove them from the game. and attacking creatures without shadow can’t be blocked by creatures with shadow.1.” Shroud Shroud is a static ability. See also Removed from the Game.6e. or turn won’t happen. and gaining life happens to each player individually. Skip To skip an event.” See rule 300. step. loss of life. See rule 502. or turn has started. library. such as “a card” or “three cards.8. If an effect needs to know the value of any individual player’s life total. library. you can’t choose fewer than three. phase. you are still considered to have searched the zone. Damage.” See rule 502. Set Aside To set aside a card is to remove it from the game.” Shared Life Total The Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant uses a shared life total. do nothing. Each two-player team’s life total starts at 30. the effect will specify some condition that allows the set-aside card to return to the game. one effect will be satisfied in skipping the first occurrence. or pile he or she owns. each opponent has the option to shuffle or cut that pile. however. See rule 101. that player must skip the next two.6f. library.

1i and rule 408. Some older cards were printed with the term “snow-covered” in their rules text. ending continuous effects or stopping delayed triggered abilities.8.6.” Special Action Special actions don’t use the stack. or any object referred to by an object on the stack (including a creature that assigned combat damage on the stack. Source of Damage The source of damage is the object that dealt it. See rule 419.2.” See rule 205. “Abilities. See rule 408. and removing a card with suspend in your hand from the game. Except for card names. The special actions are playing a land.4e. When a card refers to a “snow Forest. A creature with snow landwalk is unblockable as long as the defending player controls at least one snow land of the specified subtype. and so on.” and rule 205.” it means a permanent with the snow supertype. Except for card names. “Sorceries.” Soulshift Soulshift is a triggered ability. ignoring continuous effects. all instances of “snow-covered” are now “snow. This is a generic mana cost that can be paid with any color or. he or she may choose a permanent. “Sources of Damage.” Sorcery Sorcery is a card type. The active player may play sorceries during his or her main phase when the stack is empty.7.4e. Sorcery subtypes are called spell types (see Spell Types). Snow-Covered (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the term “snow-covered” in their rules text. When a card refers to a “snow permanent. “Actions That Don’t Use the Stack. a spell on the stack (including one that creates a permanent). A sorcery spell is put into its owner’s graveyard as part of its resolution. If an effect requires a player to choose a source of damage.” it means a Forest with the snow supertype. “Soulshift N” means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play. See rule 402. See rule 212. or colorless. See rule 502.” and rule 200. Snow Landwalk Snow landwalk is a special form of landwalk.” Source of an Ability The source of an ability is the object that generated it. “Landwalk. turning a face-down creature face up. all instances of “snow-covered” are now “snow. Effects that reduce the amount of generic mana you pay don’t affect {S} costs.” .Slivercycling See Typecycling. A source doesn’t need to be capable of dealing damage to be a legal choice. you may return target Spirit card with converted mana cost N or less from your graveyard to your hand.7. even if the creature is no longer in play or is no longer a creature). Snow Snow is a supertype. Snow Mana The snow mana symbol {S} represents a cost that can be paid with one mana produced by a snow permanent. mana.

and so on) and two converted mana costs. etc. Split cards have two sets of characteristics (two names.) for that card’s instructions.” Spell Type Instants and sorceries share the same set of subtypes. when it’s countered. A split card is a multicolored card on the stack only if the half that’s been played is multicolored.Spell A nonland card becomes a spell when it’s put on the stack and remains a spell until it’s countered. If you do. it resolves. card types. Note that a spell with one or more targets will be countered if all of its targets are illegal on resolution. except when they’re spells on the stack. or it resolves). two mana costs. “Split Cards.) of the spliced cards. or it otherwise leaves the stack. If you’re splicing more than one card onto a spell. color. even if it has no card associated with it. The instructions on the main spell have to be followed first. full-size Magic card back. While it’s on the stack. When you play a split card. You can’t splice any one card onto the same spell more than once. updated through the Alara Reborn set.” If a split card’s two mana costs have different colors of mana in them. it’s removed from the game. “Spells. supertypes. See rule 213. the other side is ignored completely. Text copied onto the spell that refers to a card by name refers to the spell on the stack. . “Spells on the Stack. An effect that performs a negative comparison involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack also gets only one answer.” These subtypes are also called spell types. mana cost.” and rule 401. They always have both sets.1f–h. The spell doesn’t gain any other characteristics (name. subtypes. reveal them all at once and choose the order in which their instructions will be followed. This answer is “yes” if either side of those split cards would return a “yes” answer if compared individually. copy this card’s text box onto that spell and pay [cost] as an additional cost to play that spell. etc. An object has the chosen name if it has at least one of the two names chosen this way.1b and 409. A copy of a spell is also a spell. you must name all of a split card’s names. Choose targets for the added text normally (see rule 409. If an effect tells you to name a card. is as follows: Arcane. plus the text boxes of each of the spliced cards.” Paying a card’s splice cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. This answer is “yes” if performing the comparable positive comparison would return a “no” answer. An effect that performs a positive comparison or a relative comparison involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack gets only one answer. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Instant — Arcane. it’s a multicolored card while it’s not on the stack. Splice Splice is a static ability that functions while a card is in your hand. The list of spell types. you announce which side you’re playing. “Splice onto [subtype] [cost]” means “You may reveal this card from your hand as you play a [subtype] spell. The spell has the characteristics of the main spell. not the card from which the text was copied. See rule 505. The spell loses any splice changes once it leaves the stack (for example. The back of a split card is the normal.1d). An effect that asks for a split card’s characteristic while it’s in a zone other than the stack gets both answers. Split Cards Split cards have two card faces on a single card. You can’t choose to use a splice ability if you can’t make the required choices (targets.

each of which has two possible values: tapped/untapped. state-based effects are checked and applied. “Storm. See section 3. Step Some phases of the turn are further subdivided into steps. Whenever all players pass in succession. players can’t play other spells or abilities that aren’t mana abilities. A “subgame” is the game created by the card’s effect. “Turn Structure.” Subgame Some cards allow players to play a Magic subgame.” State Triggers State triggers are triggered abilities that watch for a game state rather than an event and trigger as soon as the game state matches the condition. and the Stack.” Stack A spell or ability goes on top of the stack when it’s played or put onto the stack. “Split second” means “As long as this spell is on the stack. “Timing. the spell. If the spell has any targets.11. Priority. See rule 506. See rule 412. “Stack. which are active as long as the permanent with the ability remains in play and has the ability.58. and face up unless a spell or ability says otherwise. flipped/unflipped.Split Second Split second is a static ability that functions only while the spell with split second is on the stack. “Split Second. “Subgames. though it may affect a permanent’s characteristics.30.” See rule 502. and face up/face down.” Substance Substance is a static ability with no effect. ability. Combat-damage assignments also go on top of the stack as though they were a single object.6. See rule 217. See rule 420. “Handling Static Abilities. Each permanent always has one of these values for each of these categories. Permanents come into play untapped. Certain older cards have received errata . Once a state trigger has triggered.” Status A permanent’s status is its physical state.” See rule 502. See rule 410. “Storm” means “When you play this spell.” State-Based Effects State-based effects continually “watch” the game for a particular state. or has otherwise left the stack. or as long as the object with the ability remains in the appropriate zone. or combat damage on top of the stack resolves and the active player receives priority again. has been countered.” Storm Storm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. “State-Based Effects. Whenever a player would receive priority.1. you may choose new targets for any of the copies. Status is not a characteristic. Static abilities create continuous effects. Static Ability Static abilities do something all the time rather than being played at specific times.” and rule 408. There are three status categories. it won’t trigger again until the ability it created has resolved. unflipped. put a copy of it onto the stack for each other spell that was played before it this turn.

” Many of these cards’ creature types have also been updated.” and rule 212. use the Oracle card reference to determine their current creature types.” Supertype A card can have one or more “supertypes.” Successfully Cast (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the term “successfully cast.” In general. See rule 205. “Card Type. any supertypes it has are kept. Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Changing an object’s supertype won’t change its card type or subtype. and Subtype.3.” The list of supertypes. Suspend Suspend is a keyword that represents three abilities.” These are printed directly before its card types. Artifacts. See rule 212. If this object is coming into play from the stack and isn’t coming into play as a creature. If an object’s card types or subtypes change. “Sunburst. “Sunburst” means “If this object is coming into play from the stack as a creature.” An object’s supertype is independent of its card type and subtype. although they may not be relevant to the new card type. it comes into play with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to play it. updated through the Alara Reborn set. lands. these subtypes are called creature types. any ability that’s written as triggering when a spell is “successfully cast” should be read as triggering when the spell is played. enchantments.that give them substance for a brief period of time. “Subtypes. See rule 205. is as follows: basic. and world. snow. All “Summon [creature type]” cards should be read as “Creature — [creature type]. “Card Type. Changing an object’s card type or subtype won’t change its supertype. Instants and sorceries share their lists of subtypes. Subtypes are always single words and are listed after a long dash. Creatures and tribals also share their lists of subtypes. Summoning Sickness (Informal) The term “summoning sickness” is an informal term which describes a creature’s inability to attack or to use activated abilities that include the tap symbol or the untap symbol when it has come under a player’s control since the beginning of that player’s most recent turn. When an object gains or loses a supertype. See also Haste.” See rule 502.37.4.3f. Supertype. it retains any other supertypes it had. Subtype A card can have one or more subtypes printed on its type line. Supertype. and Subtype. See rule 212. Sunburst Sunburst is a static ability that functions as an object is coming into play from the stack. Summon (Obsolete) Older creature cards were printed with “Summon [creature type]” on their type lines. legendary. The first is a static ability that . and planeswalkers each have their own unique set of possible subtypes. these subtypes are called spell types. each subtype is correlated to its appropriate type. Objects may have multiple subtypes. it comes into play with a charge counter on it for each color of mana spent to play it. “Supertypes. If a card with multiple types has one or more subtypes.

” where the “something” is a phrase that describes an object. They target the object or player they will enchant. The second and third are triggered abilities that function in the removed-from-the-game zone.” and “At the beginning of your upkeep. “Suspend.1b and 409.) An Aura permanent doesn’t target anything.3. Tapped A permanent that’s turned sideways is tapped. Tapping permanents shows that they’ve been used. “Suspend N— [cost]” means “If you could play this card from your hand.59. Any land with the land type Swamp has the ability “{T}: Add {B} to your mana pool. player. and their target is specified by their “enchant” abilities. remove a time counter from it. Swamp “Swamp” is one of the five basic land types. and has a time counter on it. The choice of a spell or ability’s targets is made when the spell or ability is played. Creatures that haven’t been under a player’s control continuously since the beginning of his or her most recent turn can’t use any ability of theirs with the tap symbol in the cost. See rule 502. See also Status. (See rule 415.” An instant or sorcery is targeted if the text that will be followed when it resolves uses the phrase “target [something]. Swampcycling See Typecycling.” Playing a spell as an effect of its suspend ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409. If you play a creature spell this way.” where the “something” is a phrase that describes an object.4. The tap symbol ({T} in these rules) in an activation cost means “Tap this permanent”—a permanent that’s already tapped can’t be tapped again to pay the cost. Target Whenever the phrase “target [something]. Swampwalk See Landwalk. player. but the spell is not. it remains removed from the game.” and “When the last time counter is removed from this card.) An activated or triggered ability is targeted if it uses the phrase “target [something]. you may pay [cost] and remove it from the game with N time counters on it. play it without paying its mana cost if able. and Untapped. This action doesn’t use the stack. “Targeted Spells and Abilities. Aura spells are targeted. See rule 415. it gains haste until you lose control of the spell or the permanent it becomes.” See rule 212.1f–h. or zone. If you can’t. appears in a spell or ability. that ability is targeted. player.” Suspended A card is “suspended” if it’s in the removed-from-the-game zone. if it’s removed from the game. or zone. (If an activated or triggered ability of an instant or sorcery uses the word target. Tap To tap a permanent is to turn it sideways. the controller of the spell or ability chooses something that matches whatever follows that word. has suspend. Permanents untap during their controllers’ untap steps. See rule 104. Tap. . if this card is suspended. or zone.” where [something] is a phrase that describes an object.functions while the card with suspend is in a player’s hand. Untap.6h.

The deploy creatures option isn’t normally used in the Teams variant. Updated wordings are available in the Oracle card reference.3. and Teams multiplayer variants (see rule 609) all use teams. and the player’s opponents are all players not on his or her team. A spell or ability on the stack can’t target itself. even if that proper noun contains a word or a series of letters that is the same as a Magic color word. the active player determines their timestamp order at the time they enter that zone. attack right.” Threshold Threshold used to be a keyword ability. Emperor (see rule 607). It is now an ability word and has no rules meaning. The Two-Headed Giant (see rule 606).5e. The same is true for Fortification spells and Fortification permanents.Neither Equipment spells nor Equipment permanents are targeted. A player can’t attack opponents who aren’t seated next to him or her. Players are seated so that no one is next to a teammate and each team is equally spaced out.” Text Box The text box is printed below the illustration on a Magic card and contains rules text that defines the card’s abilities. A spell that targets the same object.” Text-Changing Effect An effect that changes the text of an object changes only words that are used in the correct way (for example. or zone more than once isn’t a “spell with a single target. All cards printed with the threshold keyword have received errata. and flavor text. (2) Whenever an Aura. or a creature type word used as a creature type). reminder text. a Magic color word being used as a color word.” Team In a multiplayer game between teams. or creature type. “Text Box. or Fortification becomes attached to an object or player. “Teams Variant. “Text-Changing Effects. The Magic game has no default for ties. See rule 609. The effect can’t change a proper noun. Timestamp Order An object’s timestamp is the time it entered the zone it’s currently in. the text of the spell or ability that created the effect will specify what to do in the event of a tie. Teammate In a multiplayer game between teams. Tie If an effect could result in a tie. See rule 207. (See rule 415. See .) An Equipment or a Fortification may have abilities which are targeted. and attack multiple players options must be used (see rules 604 and 602). with three exceptions: (1) If two or more objects enter a zone simultaneously. Teams The Teams multiplayer variant involves two or more teams of equal size. players win or lose as a group rather than as individuals. See rule 418. player. the Aura. See rule 418. a player’s teammates are the other players on his or her team. such as a card name. Equipment. Equipment. (3) Permanents that phase in keep the same timestamps they had when they phased out.6. a land type word used as a land type. The Teams variant uses the following default options: (a) The recommended range of influence is 2 (see rule 601) and (b) exactly one of the attack left. or Fortification receives a new timestamp. basic land type.

even outside the game.wizards. Some creature cards have toughness represented by * instead of a number.” Transfigure Transfigure is an activated ability. This is a state-based effect. The purpose of the icon is to make those cards stand out when they’re in a graveyard. Token A token is a marker used to represent any permanent that isn’t represented by a card.” . Tournament A tournament is an organized event where players compete against other players to win prizes. even if it’s a card with a toughness printed on it (such as a Licid that’s become an Aura). Total Casting Cost (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the term “total casting cost” to describe the converted mana cost of a spell.6. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery” See rule 502. It lets an attacking creature “trample over” blocking creatures and assign part of its combat damage to the player or planeswalker it’s attacking. “Power/Toughness. The number after the slash printed on the lower right corner of a creature card is its toughness. “Transfigure [cost]” means “[Cost]. This ability functions everywhere. The object has a characteristic-defining ability that sets its toughness according to some stated condition. Then shuffle your library. This icon has no effect on game play.” Tombstone Icon A tombstone icon appears to the left of the name of many Odyssey block cards with abilities that are relevant in a player’s graveyard. In general. Trample Trample is a static ability modifying the combat damage step of the combat phase. Toughness Toughness is a characteristic that only creatures have. Use the Magic Locator at http://locator. Tokens are created by effects.” A creature that’s been dealt damage greater than or equal to its toughness (and greater than 0) has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed. See rule 104. see rule 420. A noncreature permanent has no toughness. plus all cost increases and minus all cost reductions. “Tokens.” Total Cost The total cost of a spell or activated ability is the mana cost.also Depend On. Tokens can be tapped and untapped just like cards. Continuous effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability receive a timestamp at the time they’re created. See rule 502. See rule 216. just select “Events” and type in the name of your city. “Transfigure. or alternative cost.71. “Trample. See rule 409. Sacrifice this permanent: Search your library for a creature card with the same converted mana cost as this permanent and put it into play. though an alternative to rotation might be needed to distinguish their status. Continuous effects generated by static abilities have the same timestamp as the object that generated them. activation cost.1f.9. See rule 208.com to find tournaments in your area. cards that were printed with the term “total casting cost” now use the term “converted mana cost.

“Tribals.” Turn Marker The Grand Melee multiplayer variant allows multiple players to take turns at the same time.” and rule 212. Moving turn markers keep track of which players are currently taking turns. or it otherwise leaves the stack.” Whenever the trigger event occurs. . and spells all have types. See also Mana.48. and Subtype. “Type Line. It’s generated by a type-changing ability. the ability goes on top of the stack the next time a player would receive priority and stays there until it’s countered. See rule 608. See rule 205. it resolves. Supertype.” Trigger. or lack thereof (for colorless mana). “Triggered Abilities. permanents. “Triggered Abilities. See rule 404. reveal that card.8. See rule 205. See rule 418.Transmute Transmute is an activated ability that functions only while the card with transmute is in a player’s hand. The set of tribal subtypes is the same as the set of creature subtypes.” and rule 212.” Type-Changing Effect A type-changing effect is an effect that changes the card type. See rule 404. more broadly.” See rule 502. Then shuffle your library.” or “at. Triggered Ability A triggered ability begins with the word “when. Type Line The card type (and subtype and supertype. Supertype. “Type Line.” Tribal Tribal is a card type. Each team’s creatures also attack the other team rather than individual players. Discard this card: Search your library for a card with the same converted mana cost as the discarded card. See rule 606. tokens. Playing and resolving a tribal card follows the rules for playing and resolving a card of the other card type. Each two-player team has a shared life total. and/or supertype of an object. which defines the trigger event.” “whenever. The “type” of mana is its color. which starts at 30 life. its card type. Each turn marker represents both an active player’s turn and an individual stack.” Trigger Condition A triggered ability begins with the word “when. and put it into your hand.” Two-Headed Giant The Two-Headed Giant variant has two unique features. and Subtype. subtype. The “type” of an object is its card type or. these subtypes are called creature types. Each tribal card has another card type. The additional rules for the Two-Headed Giant variant explain how the timing of team turns works. Cards. “Transmute. “Card Type.” or “at. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery. if applicable) of a card is printed directly below the illustration. See Creature Types and rule 212.” The phrase containing one of these words is the trigger condition.5a. and each team has takes turns rather than each player. “Grand Melee Variant. Abilities don’t have types. “Two-Headed Giant Variant.” “whenever. and/or supertype. subtype. “Transmute [cost]” means “[Cost].” 2. “Card Type.” Type The word “type” has two meanings: 1.

Creatures that haven’t been under a player’s control continuously since the beginning of his or her most recent turn can’t use any ability of theirs with the untap symbol in the cost. it becomes unattached. If it would leave play. If you don’t. it’s removed from combat. Discard this card: Search your library for a [type] card. and put it into your hand. supertype. All permanents controlled by the active player normally untap at this time.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home) cover tournament play for all DCI-sanctioned games. or Fortification leaves play while attached to an object. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery. Spells or abilities may still cause it to become blocked. Unless Some cards use the phrase “[Do something] unless you [do something else]. “[Type]cycling [cost]” means “[Cost]. “Cycling. subtype. “Declare Blockers Step. Untap Step The untap step is the first step of the beginning phase. [do something]. If a permanent leaves play (unless it phases out) while an Aura.84. See rule 302. “Untap Step.” Untap To untap a permanent is to rotate it back to the upright position.5.com/Magic/TCG/Events. See rule 309. or Fortification becomes unattached if it was attached to an object or player and then is not. If an Aura. Equipment. See rule 104. Unblockable If an attacking creature “is unblockable.” See rule 502. Equipment. “Unearth [cost]” means “[Cost]: Return this card from your graveyard to play.” Unattach An Aura.18. Unblocked A creature is unblocked if it’s attacking and no creature blocked it during the declare blockers step of the current combat phase. Then shuffle your library. or Fortification becomes unattached.” no creature can legally block it. or Fortification is attached to it. its controller changes. Equipment. or combination thereof (as in “basic landcycling”). It remains an unblocked creature until an effect causes it to become blocked. it stops being a creature. It gains haste. or the combat phase ends.” Universal Tournament Rules The DCI Universal Tournament Rules (http://www. the Aura. See rule 502.wizards.” . remove it from the game instead of putting it anywhere else.” This means the same thing as “You may [do something else].” This type is usually a subtype (as in “mountaincycling”) but can be any card type. “Unearth. The untap symbol ({Q} in these rules) in an activation cost means “Untap this permanent”—a permanent that’s already untapped can’t be untapped again to pay the cost. Equipment. including the Magic game.” Unearth Unearth is an activated ability that functions while the card is in a graveyard.Typecycling Typecycling is a variant of the cycling ability. Remove it from the game at end of turn. reveal it. Unblocked creatures don’t exist outside of the combat phase or before the declare blockers step.

” Wizardcycling See Typecycling. “Winning and Losing.” Wall Wall is a creature type with no particular rules meaning.80. all except the one that has been a permanent with the world supertype for the shortest amount of time are put into their owners’ graveyards. “Vigilance. Rather.60. Attacking doesn’t cause creatures with vigilance to tap. Many older cards with the Wall creature type have received errata so that they also have the defender ability.Untapped A permanent that’s upright is untapped. A Vanguard placard or avatar is selected before the game begins. See also Tap.” Wither Damage dealt to a creature by a source with wither doesn’t stay on that creature (see rule 212. “Vanishing N” means “This permanent comes into play with N time counters on it. and Untap.14. See . A Vanguard placard or avatar has no color or types. Vanishing Vanishing is a keyword that represents three abilities.” These are normal triggered abilities—there are no special rules for them. Tapped. In the event of a tie for the shortest amount of time. See rule 303. if this permanent has a time counter on it. If two or more permanents have the supertype world. Upkeep Step The upkeep step is the second step of the beginning phase. See rule 102.” Vigilance Vigilance is a static ability that modifies the rules for the declare attackers step.3g). all are put into their owners’ graveyards. World World is a supertype that normally applies to enchantments. Permanents untap during their controllers’ untap steps. Some cards have abilities that trigger at the beginning of the upkeep step.” and “When the last time counter is removed from this permanent. Updated wordings for all cards are available in the Oracle card reference. Many older cards that referred to the Wall creature type also have errata. “Wither. and it can’t be affected by spells or abilities. If you don’t.” See rule 502.” An upkeep cost is usually written in the form “At the beginning of your upkeep. Tapping permanents shows that they’ve been used. See rule 502. sacrifice it. “Upkeep Step. sacrifice [this card]. you may [pay cost]. See rule 502. such an ability is informally called an “upkeep cost” or an “upkeep effect. remove a time counter from it.” Vanguard and Avatars The Vanguard™ supplements consist of oversized placards and Magic Online® avatars that modify the game. “Vanishing. Win the Game A game immediately ends when a player wins. This “world rule” is a state-based effect.” “At the beginning of your upkeep. adjusting a player’s starting and maximum hand size and starting life total. it causes that many -1/-1 counters to be put on that creature.

See also Controller. then the only legal choice for X is 0. “Zones. such as a suspend cost or a morph cost. In other cases. X appears in the text of a spell or ability but not in a mana cost or activation cost. If the value of X is defined by the text of that spell or ability. the {X} in its mana cost equals the announced value. For an activated ability. During resolution. even if they reduce it to zero. Owner. If a card in any zone other than the stack has {X} in its mana cost. Note that the value of X may change while that spell or ability is on the stack. Zone A zone is any place that Magic cards can be during a game.”) While the spell or ability is on the stack. the part of the ability attempting to do something to the object will fail to do anything.rule 420. or its owner (if it has no controller). “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. See rule 409.” Many abilities with zone-change triggers attempt to do something to that object after it changes zones.5. This doesn’t apply to effects that only reduce a cost. If you’re playing a spell that has {X} in its mana cost. this is the current controller of the object it’s on. then that’s the value of X while that spell or ability is on the stack. The controller of that spell or ability doesn’t get to choose the value. If the object is unable to be found in the zone it went to. If a spell or activated ability has a cost with an “{X}” in it. even if the value of X is defined somewhere within its text.” Zone-Change Triggers Trigger events that involve objects changing zones are called “zone-change triggers.” If a spell or activated ability has a cost with an “{X}” in it. If the value of X isn’t defined. its would-be controller (if a player is attempting to play it). The permanent will still be a world permanent. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. unless it’s a delayed triggered ability. (See rule 409. the controller of that spell or ability chooses and announces the value of X as part of playing the spell or ability. If a world permanent’s card types or subtypes change. this is the controller of the object when the ability triggered. Your The words “you” and “your” on an object refer to the object’s controller. The controller of that spell or ability doesn’t get to choose the value. has an “{X}” in it. these abilities look for the object in the zone that it moved to. The most common types of zone-change triggers are comes-into-play triggers and leaves-play . For a delayed triggered ability. the value of {X} is treated as 0. then that’s the value of X while that spell or ability is on the stack. X Many cards use the letter X as a placeholder for a number that needs to be determined. and an effect lets you play that spell without paying any cost that includes X. and the value of X isn’t defined by the text of that spell or ability. You. the value of X isn’t defined by the text of that spell. Y See X. the value of X is chosen by the player taking the special action as he or she pays that cost. If a cost associated with a special action. this is the controller of the spell or ability that created it. For a static ability. For a triggered ability. the controller of the spell or ability chooses the value of X. this doesn’t change its supertypes. this is the player who played the ability. and the value of X is defined by the text of that spell or ability. See rule 217. All instances of X on an object have the same value.

10.triggers. See rule 410. .

Elaine Chase. Stephen D’Angelo. Brady Dommermuth. Ingo Warnke. DCI. and Elliott Segal. William Jockusch. and Bryan Zembruski Editing: Del Laugel Magic Rules Manager: Mark L. Chris Page. Jim Lin. and Alara Reborn are trademarks of Wizards of the Coast LLC in the U. RE 37. Vaccarino.Credits Magic: The Gathering Original Game Design: Richard Garfield Comprehensive Rules Design and Development: Paul Barclay. Thanks to all our project team members and the many others too numerous to mention who have contributed to this product. . Magic. Dave DeLaney. Russell Linnemann. Tom Wylie. Gottlieb The Magic: The Gathering game was designed by Richard Garfield. Eli Shiffrin. The mana symbols were designed by Christopher Rush. Dan Gray.S. Lee Sharpe. Time Spiral. Michael Phoenix.A. Sheldon Menery. Joel Mick. Oracle. Yonemura Kaoru. with contributions from Charlie Catiyes. Skaff Elias. Exodus. Mark Rosewater.O. Robert Gutschera. U. Vanguard. Henry Stern. U. Pat. Gottlieb. Bill Rose. No. Magic: The Gathering. Jeff Jordan. Laurie Cheers. Box 707.S. Dave Pettey. and Bill Rose. and other countries. Mike Donais. Donald X. Collin Jackson. 2009. P. Portal Three Kingdoms. Mike Elliott. Magic Online. Future Sight. Jim Lin. with contributions from Charlie Catiyes. Skaff Elias. Richard Garfield. Published by Wizards of the Coast LLC. Beth Moursund. Wizards of the Coast. Barry “Bit” Reich. Renton WA 98057-0707. These rules are current as of May 1. ©1993–2009 Wizards. Tom Fontaine. Mark L.A. Ravnica. David Sachs. Don Felice. Steve Lord. Odyssey. Thijs van Ommen.S.957. John Carter.

co. Box 43 Newport.233. U.70.O.com/customerservice Wizards of the Coast LLC P.) U.S.wizards.) 1-425-204-8069 (outside the U. Tel: 1-800-324-6496 (within the U. Asia Pacific & Latin America www.be Visit our website: magicthegathering.Questions? Contact the office nearest you.277 Email: custserv@hasbro.S. P.S.O. Eire & South Africa Hasbro UK Ltd...A. NP19 4YD UK Tel: + 800 22 427276 Email: wizards@hasbro.S.uk All Other European Countries Wizards of the Coast p/a Hasbro Belgium NV/SA Industrialaan 1 1702 Groot-Bijgaarden BELGIUM Tel: +32. Box 707 Renton WA 98057-0707 U. Canada.com .K.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.