Magic: The Gathering Comprehensive Rules

These rules are current as of May 1, 2009. Introduction This document is designed for people who’ve moved beyond the basics of the Magic: The Gathering® game. If you’re a beginning Magic™ player, you’ll probably find these rules intimidating. They’re intended to be the ultimate authority for the game, and you won’t usually need to refer to them except in specific cases or during competitive games. For casual play and most ordinary situations, you’ll find what you need in the Magic: The Gathering basic rulebook. You can download a copy of that rulebook from the Wizards of the Coast® Magic rules website at www.wizards.com/Magic/rules. If you’re sure this is where you want to be, keep reading. This document includes a series of numbered rules followed by a glossary. Many of the numbered rules are divided into subrules, and each separate rule and subrule of the game has its own number. The glossary defines many of the words and phrases used in these rules, along with a few concepts that don’t really fit anywhere among the numbered rules. So if you can’t find what you’re looking for, check the glossary. We at Wizards of the Coast recognize that no matter how detailed the rules, situations will arise in which the interaction of specific cards requires a precise answer. If you have questions, you can get the answers from us at www.wizards.com/customerservice. Additional contact information is on the last page of these rules.

In response to play issues and to keep these rules as current as possible, changes may have been made to this document since its publication. See the Wizards of the Coast website for the current version of the official rules. www.wizards.com/Magic/rules

Contents
1. The Game 100. General 101. Starting the Game 102. Winning and Losing 103. The Magic Golden Rules 104. Numbers and Symbols 2. Parts of the Game 200. General 201. Characteristics 202. Name 203. Mana Cost and Color 204. Illustration 205. Type Line 206. Expansion Symbol 207. Text Box 208. Power/Toughness 209. Loyalty 210. Information Below the Text Box 212. Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype 213. Spells 214. Permanents 215. Life 216. Tokens 217. Zones 3. Turn Structure 300. General 301. Beginning Phase 302. Untap Step 303. Upkeep Step 304. Draw Step 305. Main Phase 306. Combat Phase 307. Beginning of Combat Step 308. Declare Attackers Step 309. Declare Blockers Step 310. Combat Damage Step 311. End of Combat Step 312. End Phase 313. End of Turn Step 314. Cleanup Step 4. Spells, Abilities, and Effects 400. General 401. Spells on the Stack 402. Abilities 403. Activated Abilities 404. Triggered Abilities 405. Static Abilities 406. Mana Abilities 407. Linked Abilities 408. Timing of Spells and Abilities

409. 410. 411. 412. 413. 414. 415. 416. 417. 418. 419. 420. 421. 422. 423. 424.

Playing Spells and Activated Abilities Handling Triggered Abilities Playing Mana Abilities Handling Static Abilities Resolving Spells and Abilities Countering Spells and Abilities Targeted Spells and Abilities Effects One-Shot Effects Continuous Effects Replacement and Prevention Effects State-Based Effects Handling “Infinite” Loops Handling Illegal Actions Drawing a Card Costs

5. Additional Rules 500. Legal Attacks and Blocks 501. Keyword Actions 502. Keyword Abilities 503. Copying Objects 504. Face-Down Spells and Permanents 505. Split Cards 506. Subgames 507. Controlling Another Player’s Turn 508. Flip Cards 509. Ending the Turn 510. Status 511. Flipping a Coin 6. Multiplayer Rules 600. General 601. Limited Range of Influence Option 602. Attack Multiple Players Option 603. Deploy Creatures Option 604. Attack Left and Attack Right Options 605. Free-for-All Variant 606. Two-Headed Giant Variant 607. Emperor Variant 608. Grand Melee Variant 609. Teams Variant Glossary Credits Questions?

The Game 100.1. Starting the Game 101. the loser of the previous game decides who will take the first turn. the person who determined who would take the first turn in the previous game decides.3. and some way to clearly track life totals. A player who is dissatisfied with his or her initial hand may mulligan. After the decks have been shuffled. that player shuffles his or her hand back into the deck and then draws a new hand of six cards. only forty cards are required in a deck. These Magic rules apply to any Magic game with two or more players. He or she may repeat this process as many times as desired. In a match of several games. First. Once the starting player has been determined. each player sets his or her life total to 20 and draws a hand of seven cards.3. Most Magic tournaments have special rules (not included here) and may limit the use of some cards. A constructed deck can have any number of basic land cards and no more than four of any card with a particular English name other than basic land cards. rolling dice. including barring all cards from some older sets. The players’ decks become their libraries.com/Magic/TCG/Events. To take a mulligan. If the previous game was a draw. small items to represent any tokens and counters. Each player may then shuffle his or her opponents’ decks. 101.1b A multiplayer game is a game that begins with more than two players. For sealed deck or draft play. 101. “Multiplayer Rules. 100.5.2. and a player may use as many duplicates of a card as he or she has. They can be found at http://www. drawing one fewer . At the start of a game. General 100.aspx? x=dci/doccenter/home. and some way to clearly track life totals. See section 6. 100.1a A two-player game is a game that begins with only two players. In constructed play. 100.1. Each player still needs small items to represent any tokens and counters. There is no maximum deck size. 101. each player needs his or her own deck of at least sixty cards.3a In a Two-Headed Giant game.). each team starts with a shared life total of 30 instead. See the most current Magic: The Gathering DCI® Floor Rules for more information.” 100. 100.4. 101.wizards. etc. each player shuffles his or her deck so that the cards are in a random order. the players determine who chooses which player goes first using any mutually agreeable method (flipping a coin.1.4. the starting player takes any mulligans. 101. including two-player games and multiplayer games. 100.2.

Example: Bob and Clare are the starting team in a Two-Headed Giant game. Clare decides to take another mulligan. Once each player on the starting team decides to keep an opening hand. 102. They each draw seven cards. The first time a player takes a mulligan.card each time. may do the same. In all other multiplayer games. Then only Clare has the option to mulligan. 101. 101. those cards become his or her opening hand. then all players who chose to do so take their mulligans at the same time. The starting player takes his or her first turn. 101. until the hand size reaches zero cards. . After reviewing each other’s hands.6. each player on that team decides whether or not to take a mulligan. but his or her teammate may. Winning and Losing 102. if any cards in the starting player’s hand allow that player to begin the game with those cards in play. Bob’s hand becomes his opening hand.1. he or she draws a new hand of seven cards. 102. both Bob and Clare decide to mulligan. A game ends immediately when either a player wins or the game is a draw. 101.4b The Two-Headed Giant variant uses the multiplayer mulligan rule. For a team to take a mulligan. the other team decides whether to take mulligans.6b In a Two-Headed Giant game. Once the starting player has decided to keep a hand. Once all players have kept their opening hands. those cards become his or her opening hand. the first time a player takes a mulligan. the player who plays first skips the draw step (see rule 304. and Clare shuffles her hand into her deck and draws six cards. Each shuffles his or her hand into his or her deck and draws seven cards.6a In a two-player game. he or she may put any or all of them into play. no player skips the draw step of his or her first turn. After that. Then each other player. Then each other player (in turn order) may take any number of mulligans. he or she draws a new hand of seven cards rather than six cards. First. the team who plays first skips the draw step of their first turn. the starting team takes any mulligans.4a In a multiplayer game. After each player on that team who took a mulligan looks at his or her new hand. 102. the other team may take mulligans. in turn order.2. Clare isn’t sure about Bob’s new hand.5.) Once a player has decided to keep a hand. but he decides to keep it. 101. with some modifications.2a A player still in the game wins the game if all of that player’s opponents have lost the game. That player can’t take any more mulligans. “Draw Step”) of his or her first turn. She decides to keep her hand of six cards and that becomes her opening hand. There are several ways to win the game. (Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal. the team repeats the process. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal. 101. A player can’t take any mulligans once he or she has decided to keep an opening hand.

Likewise. (This is a state-based effect. if a player leaves the game.3.3g. see rule 102. he or she leaves the game. he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. Each player on the winning team wins the game.3a A player can concede the game at any time. 102. 102. There are several ways to draw the game. see rule 600. He or she loses the game. 102.3f In a multiplayer game between teams. The card overrides only the rule that applies to that specific situation. See rule 420. (This is a state-based effect. an effect that states that a player wins the game instead causes all of that player’s opponents within his or her range of influence to lose the game. 102. 102. A player who concedes leaves the game immediately.4b If the game somehow enters a “loop. the game is a draw.3c When a player is required to draw more cards than are left in his or her library. 102.3g In a multiplayer game using the limited range of influence option.) 102. 102. See rule 420. 103.1.5. he or she loses. See rule 420. a team with at least one player still in the game wins the game if all other teams have lost the game. The multiplayer rules handle what happens when a player leaves the game.4a If all the players remaining in a game lose simultaneously. he or she draws the remaining cards. Whenever a card’s text directly contradicts these rules.) 102. The only exception is that a player can concede the game at any time . even if one or more of those players had previously lost that game. (In certain multiplayer games.) 102. and then loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. he or she loses the game.3e If a player would both win and lose simultaneously.” repeating a sequence of events with no way to stop.2c In a multiplayer game between teams. 102.3d If a player has ten or more poison counters.3b If a player’s life total is 0 or less. If a player loses the game. the card takes precedence. the game is a draw if all remaining teams lose at once. he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. The Magic Golden Rules 103. (This is a state-based effect. Loops that contain an optional action don’t result in a draw. There are several ways to lose the game. 102. the game is a draw.4c In a multiplayer game between teams.2b An effect may state that a player wins the game. this may not cause the game to end.) 102.102. 102.4. a team loses the game if all players on that team have lost.4.

(see rule 102.3a). 103.2. When a rule or effect says something can happen and another effect says it can’t, the “can’t” effect wins. For example, if one effect reads “You may play an additional land this turn” and another reads “You can’t play land cards this turn,” the effect that keeps you from playing lands wins out. Note that adding abilities to objects and removing abilities from objects don’t fall under this rule; see rule 402.9. 103.3. If an instruction requires taking an impossible action, it’s ignored. (In many cases the card will specify consequences for this; if it doesn’t, there’s no effect.) 103.4. If multiple players would make choices and/or take actions at the same time, the active player (the player whose turn it is) makes any choices required, then the next player in turn order (usually the player seated to the active player’s left) makes any choices required, followed by the remaining nonactive players in turn order. Then the actions happen simultaneously. This rule is often referred to as the “Active Player, Nonactive Player (APNAP) order” rule. Example: A card reads “Each player sacrifices a creature.” First, the active player chooses a creature he or she controls. Then each of the nonactive players chooses a creature he or she controls. Then all creatures are sacrificed simultaneously. 103.4a If an effect has each player choose a card in a hidden zone, such as his or her hand or library, those cards may remain face down as they’re chosen. However, each player must clearly indicate which face-down card he or she is choosing. 103.4b A player knows the choices made by the previous players when he or she makes his or her choice, except as specified in 103.4a. 103.4c If a player would make more than one choice at the same time, the player makes the choices in the order written, or in the order he or she chooses if the choices aren’t ordered. 104. Numbers and Symbols 104.1. The Magic game uses only integers. 104.1a You can’t choose a fractional number, deal fractional damage, gain fractional life, and so on. If a spell or ability could generate a fractional number, the spell or ability will tell you whether to round up or down. 104.1b Most of the time, the Magic game uses only positive numbers. You can’t choose a negative number, deal negative damage, gain negative life, and so on. However, it’s possible for a game value, such as a creature’s power, to be less than zero. If a calculation or comparison that would determine the result of an effect needs to use a negative value, it does so. If such a calculation yields a negative number, zero is used instead, unless that effect sets a player’s life total to a specific value, sets a creature’s power or toughness to a specific value, or otherwise modifies a creature’s power or toughness. Example: If a 3/4 creature gets -5/-0, it’s a -2/4 creature. It assigns 0

damage in combat. Its total power and toughness is 2. You’d have to give it +3/+0 to raise its power to 1. Example: Viridian Joiner is a 1/2 creature that says “{T}: Add an amount of {G} to your mana pool equal to Viridian Joiner’s power.” An effect gives it -2/-0, then its ability is activated. The ability adds no mana to your mana pool. 104.2. If anything needs to use a number that can’t be determined, either as a result or in a calculation, it uses 0 instead. 104.3. The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, and {X}; the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on; the hybrid symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}; the monocolored hybrid symbols {2/W}, {2/U}, {2/B}, {2/R}, and {2/G}; and the snow symbol {S}. 104.3a Each of the colored mana symbols represents one colored mana: {W} is white, {U} blue, {B} black, {R} red, and {G} green. 104.3b Numeral symbols (such as {1}) are generic mana costs and represent an amount of mana that can be paid with any color of, or colorless, mana. 104.3c The symbol {X} represents an unspecified amount of mana. When playing a spell or activated ability with {X} in its cost, its controller decides the value of that variable. 104.3d Numeral symbols (such as {1}) and variable symbols (such as {X}) can also represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or ability that reads “add [mana symbol] to your mana pool” or something similar. 104.3e The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder when a spell or activated ability costs nothing to play. A spell or ability whose cost is {0} must still be played the same way as one with a cost greater than zero; it won’t play itself automatically. 104.3f Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid in one of two ways, as represented by the two halves of the hybrid mana symbol. A hybrid symbol such as {W/U} be paid with either white or blue mana, and a monocolored hybrid symbol such as {2/B} can be paid with either one black mana or two mana of any color of, or colorless, mana. A hybrid mana symbol is all of its component colors. Example: {G/W}{G/W} can be paid by spending {G}{G}, {G}{W}, or {W}{W}. 104.3g If an effect would add mana represented by a hybrid mana symbol to a player’s mana pool, that player chooses one half of that symbol. If a colored half is chosen, one mana of that color is added to that player’s mana pool. If a colorless half is chosen, an amount of colorless mana represented by that half’s number is added to that player’s mana pool. 104.3h If a cost would be reduced by an amount of mana represented by a hybrid mana symbol, the player paying that cost chooses one half of that symbol at the time the cost reduction is applied (see rule 409.1f). If a colored half is chosen, the cost is reduced by one mana of that color (or, if the cost can’t be reduced by one mana of that color, the cost is reduced by

one generic mana). If a colorless half is chosen, the cost is reduced by an amount of generic mana equal to that half’s number. 104.3i The snow mana symbol {S} represents a cost that can be paid with one mana produced by a snow permanent. This is a generic mana cost that can be paid with any color of, or colorless, mana. Effects that reduce the amount of generic mana you pay don’t affect {S} costs. 104.4. The tap symbol is {T}. The tap symbol in an activation cost means “Tap this permanent.” A permanent that’s already tapped can’t be tapped again to pay the cost. Creatures that haven’t been under a player’s control continuously since the beginning of his or her most recent turn can’t use any ability with the tap symbol in the cost. See rule 212.3f. 104.5. The untap symbol is {Q}. The untap symbol in an activation cost means “Untap this permanent.” A permanent that’s already untapped can’t be untapped again to pay the cost. Creatures that haven’t been under a player’s control continuously since the beginning of his or her most recent turn can’t use any ability with the untap symbol in the cost. See rule 212.3f. 104.6. A tombstone icon appears to the left of the name of many Odyssey™ block cards with abilities that are relevant in a player’s graveyard. The purpose of the icon is to make those cards stand out when they’re in a graveyard. This icon has no effect on game play. 104.7. A type icon appears in the upper left corner of each card from the Future Sight® set printed with an alternate “timeshifted” frame. If the card has a single card type, this icon indicates what it is: claw marks for creature, a flame for sorcery, a lightning bolt for instant, a sunrise for enchantment, a chalice for artifact, and a pair of mountain peaks for land. If the card has multiple card types, that’s indicated by a black and white cross. This icon has no effect on game play. 104.8. Each activated ability of a planeswalker has an arrow-shaped loyalty symbol in its cost. Positive loyalty symbols point upward and feature a plus sign followed by a number or an X. Negative loyalty symbols point downward and feature a minus sign followed by a number or an X. [+N] means “Put N loyalty counters on this permanent,” and [-N] means “Remove N loyalty counters from this permanent.”

6a A nontoken permanent’s owner is the same as the owner of the card that represents it.3a In a multiplayer game between teams.7. The other players are nonactive players.2. a player’s teammates are the other players on his or her team.8. 200. The controller of a triggered ability is the player who controlled the ability’s source when it triggered. “Spells.” it means a Magic card with a Magic card front and the Magic card back.”) 200.”) 200.” and section 4. A token is a marker used to represent any permanent that isn’t represented by a card. or copy of a spell or card. Use the Oracle™ card reference when determining a card’s wording.4a A token’s owner is the player who controlled the spell or ability that put it into play. it can be text on an object that explains what the object does. 200.3. unless it’s a delayed triggered ability. An object is an ability on the stack.wizards. a card. Parts of the Game 200. When a rule or text on a card refers to a “card. Abilities. Tokens aren’t considered cards—even a card that represents a token isn’t considered a card for rules purposes. “Tokens. a copy of a card. The term “object” is used in these rules when a rule . The active player is the player whose turn it is. A permanent’s controller is the player who put it into play. A spell is a card. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it.4. “Abilities. it can be an activated or triggered ability on the stack.”) 200.1.6. 200. Second. An ability can be one of two things. A spell’s controller is the player who played it. A permanent is a card or token that’s in play. and the player’s opponents are all players not on his or her team. A token’s controller is the player who put it into play.”) 200. (See rule 213. for cards that didn’t start the game in a player’s deck. 200. First.5. that’s on the stack. 200. General 200. and Effects. 200. “Spells. A card’s Oracle text can be found using the Gatherer card database at http://gatherer.2. a token. (See rule 214. 200. or a permanent. 200.1a A card’s owner is the player who started the game with it in his or her deck or. “Permanents.5a A spell’s owner is the same as the owner of the card that represents it. the player who brought the card into the game. a spell. (See rule 216.com. The owner of a copy of a spell is the controller of the effect that created it. (See rule 402. 200.7a The controller of an activated ability is the player who played the ability. A player is one of the people in the game.

illustration credit. legal text. See rule 419. 200. adds X to that permanent’s power and Y to that permanent’s toughness.9a If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes the word “card” and the name of a zone.1.” it means a source matching that description—either a source of an ability or a source of damage—in any zone.10b The number of loyalty counters on a planeswalker in play indicates how much loyalty it has. cards.9c If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes the word “source.” it means a spell matching that description on the stack. For example. A counter is a marker placed on an object or player. rules text. subtype. where X and Y are numbers.” or “source. Objects can have some or all of these characteristics. color. an object’s owner or controller. An object’s characteristics are name. 200. either modifying its characteristics or interacting with an ability. loyalty.” it means a permanent of that card type or subtype in play. expansion symbol. 202. 200. Any other information about an object isn’t a characteristic. 202.applies to abilities on the stack. and a token is not a counter. -X/-Y counters subtract from power and toughness. 200. tokens. Name 202. card type. Characteristics 201. 201. If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes a card type or subtype. and loyalty.10a A +X/+Y counter on a permanent. type line. A counter is not a token.9. mana cost. Similarly.2.10. illustration. and permanents. The name of a card is printed on its upper left corner. it means a card matching that description in the stated zone. text box. a spell’s target. characteristics don’t include whether a permanent is tapped.10c If a spell or ability refers to a counter being “placed” on a permanent. 200. mana cost. supertype. Counters with the same name or description are interchangeable. Some cards may have more than one of any or all of these parts. 200. The parts of a card are name. and so on. Combat damage on the stack is also an object. and collector number.1. 200. it means putting a counter on that permanent while it’s in play. expansion symbol. or that permanent coming into play with a counter.11.9b If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes the word “spell. abilities.” 200. although many uses of the term “object” in these rules don’t apply to it. spells. what an Aura enchants. but doesn’t include the word “card.8 “Sources of Damage. toughness. power and toughness. 200. Text that refers to the object it’s on by name means just that particular . power.” “spell.

these symbols are printed in the upper right corner. even if that object isn’t a creature anymore. 202. attempting to pay an unpayable cost is an illegal action. including an effect that allows you to play a spell without paying its mana cost. On most cards. 203. where [something] is a characteristic. If an alternative cost is applied to an unpayable cost. “Copying Objects.2. the name refers only to the object whose ability grants that ability. If an unpayable cost is increased by an effect or an additional cost is imposed. The mana cost of a card is indicated by mana symbols near the top of the card. the cost is still unpayable. . not to any other object with the same name. Paying an object’s mana cost requires matching the color of any colored mana symbols as well as paying the generic mana indicated in the cost. However. Attempting to play a spell or ability that has an unpayable cost is a legal action. An object is the color or colors of the mana symbols in its mana cost. Example: An ability reads “Target creature gets +2/+2 until end of turn. Mana Cost and Color 203. 203.object and not any other duplicates of it.” The ability will destroy the object it gave +2/+2 at the end of the turn.1. Some cards from the Future Sight set have alternate frames in which the mana symbols appear to the left of the art. 203. It has ‘This creature’s power and toughness are each equal to the number of fade counters on Saproling Burst.2b If an ability of an object grants to an object an ability that refers to the first object by name.1c Lands normally have no mana cost. it is referring to that particular object.1d Tokens have no mana cost unless the effect that creates them specifies otherwise. 202.2a If an ability of an object uses a phrase such as “this [something]” to identify an object. Lands are played without paying any costs. not at any other Saproling Burst in play.” 203. An ability can also have an unpayable cost if its cost is based on the mana cost of a spell with no mana cost.3.1b Some cards have no mana symbols where their mana cost would appear. 203. Destroy that creature at end of turn. the alternative cost may be paid.’” The ability granted to the token only looks at the Saproling Burst that created the token. Example: Saproling Burst has an ability that reads “Remove a fade counter from Saproling Burst: Put a green Saproling creature token into play.1a A copy of an object copies that object’s mana cost. 203. This represents an unpayable cost. regardless of anything else printed on the cards. even if it isn’t the appropriate characteristic at the time. See rule 503. 202. regardless of any name changes caused by game effects. Two cards have the same name if the English versions of their names are identical.

regardless of the color of its frame. 203.2a Objects with no colored mana symbols in their mana costs are colorless. 203.2b An object with two or more different colored mana symbols in its mana cost is each of the colors of those mana symbols. Most multicolored cards are printed with a gold frame, but this is not a requirement for a card to be multicolored. 203.2c The five colors are white, blue, black, red, and green. The white mana symbol is represented by {W}, blue by {U}, black by {B}, red by {R}, and green by {G}. Example: An object with a mana cost of {2}{W} is white, an object with a mana cost of {2} is colorless, and one with a mana cost of {2}{W}{B} is both white and black. 203.2d If a player is asked to choose a color, he or she must choose one of the five colors. “Multicolored” is not a color. 203.2e An object with one or more hybrid mana symbols in its mana cost is all of the colors of those mana symbols, in addition to any other colors the object might be. Most cards with hybrid mana symbols in their mana costs are printed in a two-tone frame. See rule 104.3f. 203.3. The converted mana cost of an object is a number equal to the total amount of mana in its mana cost, regardless of color. Some effects ask a player to pay mana equal to an object’s converted mana cost; this cost may be paid with any combination of colored and/or colorless mana, regardless of the colors in the object’s mana cost. Example: A mana cost of {3}{U}{U} translates to a converted mana cost of 5. 203.3a The converted mana cost of an object with no mana cost is 0. 203.3b When calculating the converted mana cost of an object with an {X} in its mana cost, X is treated as 0 while the object is not on the stack, and X is treated as the number chosen for it while the object is on the stack. 203.3c When calculating the converted mana cost of an object with a hybrid mana symbol in its mana cost, use the largest component of each hybrid symbol. Example: The converted mana cost of a card with mana cost {1} {W/U}{W/U} is 3. Example: The converted mana cost of a card with mana cost {2/B} {2/B}{2/B} is 6. 203.4. Any additional cost listed in an object’s rules text or imposed by an effect isn’t part of the mana cost. (See rule 409, “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.”) Such costs are paid at the same time as the spell’s other costs. 204. Illustration 204.1. The illustration is printed on the upper half of a card and has no game significance. For example, a creature doesn’t have the flying ability unless stated in its rules text, even if it’s depicted as flying.

205. Type Line 205.1. The card type (and subtype and supertype, if applicable) of a card is printed directly below the illustration. (See rule 212, “Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype.”) 205.2. Card Types 205.2a The card types are artifact, creature, enchantment, instant, land, planeswalker, sorcery, and tribal. 205.2b Some objects have more than one card type (for example, an artifact creature). Such objects satisfy the criteria for any effect that applies to any of their card types. 205.3. Subtypes 205.3a A card can have one or more subtypes printed on its type line. 205.3b Subtypes are always single words and are listed after a long dash. Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. 205.3c Subtypes of a [card type] object are also called [card type] types. For example, creature subtypes are also called creature types. Objects may have multiple subtypes. Example: “Basic Land — Mountain” means the card is a land with the Mountain subtype. “Creature — Goblin Wizard” means the card is a creature with the subtypes Goblin and Wizard. “Artifact — Equipment” means the card is an artifact with the subtype Equipment. 205.3d Artifact, enchantment, land, and planeswalker each have their own unique set of possible subtypes. Instant and sorcery share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. Creature and tribal also share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. (You can find complete lists of subtypes in the glossary at the end of this document under “Creature Types,” “Land Types,” and so on.) 205.3e If a card with multiple card types has one or more subtypes, each subtype is correlated to its appropriate card type. Example: Dryad Arbor’s type line says “Land Creature — Forest Dryad.” Forest is a land type, and Dryad is a creature type. 205.4. Supertypes 205.4a A card can also have one or more supertypes. These are printed directly before its card types. If an object’s card types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new card type. 205.4b Any land with the supertype “basic” is a basic land. Any land that doesn’t have this supertype is a nonbasic land. Example: Note that cards printed in sets prior to the Eighth Edition core set didn’t use the word “basic” to indicate a basic land. Cards from those sets with the following names are basic lands: Forest,

Island, Mountain, Plains, Swamp, Snow-Covered Forest, Snow-Covered Island, Snow-Covered Mountain, Snow-Covered Plains, and SnowCovered Swamp. 205.4c Any permanent with the supertype “legendary” is subject to the statebased effect for legendary permanents, also called the “legend rule” (see rule 420.5e). 205.4d Any permanent with the supertype “world” is subject to the state-based effect for world permanents, also called the “world rule” (see rule 420.5i). 205.4e Any permanent with the supertype “snow” is a snow permanent. Any permanent that doesn’t have this supertype is a nonsnow permanent, regardless of its name. 206. Expansion Symbol 206.1. The expansion symbol indicates which Magic set a card is from. It’s normally printed below the right edge of the illustration. 206.2. The color of the expansion symbol indicates the rarity of the card within its set. A red-orange symbol indicates the card is mythic rare. A gold symbol indicates the card is rare. A silver symbol indicates the card is uncommon. A black or white symbol indicates the card is common or is a basic land. A purple symbol signifies a special rarity; to date, only the Time Spiral® “timeshifted” cards, which were rarer than that set’s rare cards, have had purple expansion symbols. (Prior to the Exodus™ set, all expansion symbols were black, regardless of rarity. Also, prior to the Sixth Edition core set, Magic core sets didn’t have expansion symbols at all.) 206.3. A spell or ability that affects cards from a particular set “looks” only for that set’s expansion symbol. A card reprinted in the core set receives the core set’s expansion symbol. Any reprinted version of the card no longer counts as part of its original set unless it was reprinted with that set’s expansion symbol. The first five editions of the core set had no expansion symbol. 207. Text Box 207.1. The text box is printed on the lower half of the card. It usually contains rules text defining the card’s abilities. 207.2. The text box may also contain italicized reminder text (in parentheses), which summarizes a rule that applies to that card, and italicized flavor text, which has no game function, but like the illustration, adds artistic appeal to the game. 207.3. A guild icon appears in the text box of many Ravnica® block cards. These cards either have the specified guild’s exclusive mechanic or somehow relate to the two colors associated with that guild. Guild icons have no effect on game play. 208. Power/Toughness 208.1. A creature card has two numbers separated by a slash printed in its lower right corner. The first number is its power (the amount of damage it deals in

This ability functions everywhere.1. “Abilities. 208. Loyalty 209. even outside the game. use 0 instead of that number. supertypes.1. For example. Example: Lost Order of Jarkeld has power and toughness each equal to 1+*. Abilities don’t have card types.2.1. General 212.”) 212.combat). A noncreature permanent has no power or toughness. Information Below the Text Box 210. Supertype. If the ability needs to use a number that can’t be determined. 211. a paintbrush icon. This information is printed in the form [card number]/[total cards in the set]. choose an opponent” and “Lost Order of Jarkeld’s power and toughness are each equal to 1 plus the number of creatures that opponent controls. This indicates its loyalty while it’s not in play. 208. The object has a characteristic-defining ability that sets its power and/or toughness according to some stated condition. 210. permanents.3. and spells can all have card types.1a The illustration credit for a card is printed on the first line below the text box.] 212. (See rule 402. the new card type(s) replaces any . there won’t be a chosen opponent. and it also indicates that the planeswalker comes into play with that many loyalty counters on it.1c Some card sets feature collector numbers.” While Lost Order of Jarkeld isn’t in play.1a Cards. Its power and toughness will each be equal to 1 plus 0.1b. 2/3 means the object has power 2 and toughness 3.1b Legal text (the fine print at the bottom of the card) lists the trademark and copyright information. even if it’s a card with a power and toughness printed on it (such as a Licid that’s become an Aura). Each planeswalker card has a loyalty number printed in its lower right corner. When an object’s card type changes. 210. supertypes. so it’s a 1/1. [This section has been intentionally left blank to preserve the ordering of other rules. the second is its toughness (the amount of damage needed to destroy it). Instead. and subtypes.” or. tokens. immediately following the legal text. It says “As Lost Order of Jarkeld comes into play. 210. Some creature cards have power and/or toughness represented by a * instead of a number. or subtypes. Card Type. Power and toughness can be modified or set to particular values by effects. 210. It follows the abbreviation “Illus. Each card features text printed below the text box that has no effect on game play. in more recent years. there are various categories of abilities. 209. and Subtype 212.

2a A player who has priority may play an artifact card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. artifact types. Similarly. In such cases. and damage affecting the object remain with it. enchantment types. they are also removed for the entire time the object’s card type is removed.” or “truck” can’t be chosen because they aren’t creature types.1e If an instruction requires choosing a subtype. (Use the Oracle card reference to determine whether a creature type exists. supertype.2. supertype.existing card types. If an object’s card type is removed. and only one. This rule applies to effects that use the phrase “in addition to its types” or that state that something is “still a [card type]. 212. they are still legendary. planeswalker types. all the object’s prior card types.” 212. it will become an “artifact enchantment creature. those lands would become “artifact land creatures. you can’t choose a land type if an instruction requires choosing a creature type. and subtypes are retained. or subtype. these effects also allow the object to retain all of its prior card types and subtypes. Counters. If there were any lands that were also artifacts before the ability’s effect applied to them. “Playing Spells and . “All lands are 1/1 creatures that are still lands.” If a permanent is both an artifact and an enchantment. you must choose one. When an object gains or loses a supertype. Example: An ability reads.” Example: An ability reads. see rule 200.” etc.1c Some effects change an object’s card type. Words like “artifact.” “Swamp. 212.” If any of the affected lands were legendary. effects. Changing an object’s supertype won’t change its card type or subtype. and the subtype you choose must be for the appropriate card type.” or “land creatures. “All artifacts are 1/1 artifact creatures.2.” The affected lands now have two card types: creature and land.” not just “creatures. Removing an object’s subtype doesn’t affect its card types at all.1d An object’s supertype is independent of its card type and subtype. Playing an artifact as a spell uses the stack. existing subtype.” “Land Types.” Some effects state that an object becomes an “artifact creature”. the new subtype(s) replaces any existing subtypes from the appropriate set (creature types. supertypes. You can also find complete lists of subtypes in the glossary at the end of this document under “Creature Types. Artifacts 212. (See rule 409. when one or more of an object’s subtypes changes. the subtypes correlated with that card type will remain if they are also the subtypes of a card type the object currently has. Changing an object’s card type or subtype won’t change its supertype.) Example: When choosing a creature type. land types. but “Merfolk Wizard” is not. Example: An ability reads.” “opponent. 212. it retains any other supertypes it had. otherwise. For example. or spell types).” The effect allows them to retain both the card type “artifact” and the card type “land. or subtype but specify that the object retains a prior card type. “Merfolk” or “Wizard” is acceptable. “All lands are 1/1 creatures that are still lands. even if they are meaningless to the new card type.

2e Artifact creatures combine the characteristics of both creatures and artifacts. and are therefore colorless. Control of the creature matters only when the equip ability is played and when it resolves. See rule 420.2c Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Artifact — Equipment. However. Artifacts may have multiple subtypes. Only the Equipment’s controller can play its abilities. and vice versa.) 212. An Equipment doesn’t come into play attached to a creature. (This is a state-based effect. Equipment that loses the subtype “Equipment” can’t equip a creature.33. and colorless objects may be card types other than artifact. “Equip”). However.2f Artifact lands combine the characteristics of both lands and artifacts. 212. if the Equipment adds an ability to the equipped creature (with “gains” or “has”). They can’t be played as spells.2m Some artifacts have the subtype “Fortification. An Equipment can’t equip itself. . 212. and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both card types. there is no correlation between being colorless and being an artifact: artifacts may be colored. the two need not be the same. 212.”) 212.” Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types.2i An Equipment that’s also a creature can’t equip a creature.” that creature. The creature to which the Equipment is to be moved must be able to be equipped by it.” The Equipment is attached to.” An Equipment can be attached to a creature. 212. 212. Changing control of the creature doesn’t change control of the Equipment. An Equipment that equips an illegal or nonexistent permanent becomes unattached from that permanent but remains in play.2g Some artifacts have the subtype “Equipment. the equipped creature’s controller is the only one who can play that ability. The equip keyword ability moves the Equipment onto a creature you control (see rule 502.Activated Abilities. It can’t legally be attached to an object that isn’t a creature. Artifact lands can only be played as lands. and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both card types.2j The creature an Equipment is attached to is called the “equipped creature. 212.2k An Equipment’s controller is separate from the equipped creature’s controller.2d Artifacts have no characteristics specific to their card type. 212. If it can’t. the Equipment doesn’t move. It can’t legally be attached to an object that isn’t a land. 212.2h An Equipment is played and comes into play just like any other artifact.2b When an artifact spell resolves. (You can find the complete list of artifact subtypes under “Artifact Types” in the glossary at the end of this document.) 212. or “equips. Most artifacts have no colored mana symbols in their mana costs. its controller puts it into play under his or her control.” A Fortification can be attached to a land.

Rules 212.2h–k apply to Fortifications in relation to lands just as they apply to Equipment in relation to creatures. Fortification’s analog to the equip keyword ability is the fortify keyword ability. (See rule 502.65, “Fortify.”) 212.3. Creatures 212.3a A player who has priority may play a creature card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Playing a creature as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 409, “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.”) 212.3b When a creature spell resolves, its controller puts it into play under his or her control. 212.3c Creature subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Creature — Human Soldier,” “Artifact Creature — Golem,” and so on. Creature subtypes are also called creature types. Creatures may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of creature subtypes under “Creature Types” in the glossary at the end of this document.) Example: “Creature — Goblin Wizard” means the card is a creature with the subtypes Goblin and Wizard. 212.3d Power and toughness are characteristics only creatures have. A creature’s power is the amount of damage it deals in combat, and its toughness is the amount of damage needed to destroy it. To determine a creature’s power and toughness, start with the numbers printed in its lower right corner, then apply any applicable continuous effects. (See rule 418.5, “Interaction of Continuous Effects.”) 212.3e Creatures can attack and block. (See rule 308, “Declare Attackers Step,” and rule 309, “Declare Blockers Step.”) 212.3f A creature’s activated ability with the tap symbol or the untap symbol in its activation cost can’t be played unless the creature has been under its controller’s control since the start of his or her most recent turn. A creature can’t attack unless it has been under its controller’s control since the start of his or her most recent turn. This rule is informally called the “summoning sickness” rule. Ignore this rule for creatures with haste (see rule 502.5). 212.3g Damage dealt to a creature stays on that creature. If the total accumulated damage on that creature is equal to or greater than its toughness, that creature has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed as a state-based effect (see rule 420.5c). All damage on a creature is removed when it regenerates (see rule 501.5, "Regenerate") and during the cleanup step (see rule 314.2). 212.3h Creature lands combine the characteristics of both lands and creatures, and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both card types. Creature lands can only be played as lands. They can’t be played as spells. 212.4. Enchantments 212.4a A player who has priority may play an enchantment card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Playing an enchantment as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 409, “Playing

Spells and Activated Abilities.”) 212.4b When an enchantment spell resolves, its controller puts it into play under his or her control. 212.4c Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Enchantment — Shrine.” Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. Enchantments may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of enchantment subtypes under “Enchantment Types” in the glossary at the end of this document.) 212.4d Some enchantments have the subtype “Aura.” An Aura comes into play attached to an object or player. What an Aura can be attached to is restricted by its enchant keyword ability (see rule 502.45, “Enchant”). Other effects can limit what a permanent can be enchanted by. 212.4e An Aura spell requires a target, which is restricted by its enchant ability. 212.4f If an Aura is enchanting an illegal object or player, the object it was attached to no longer exists, or the player it was attached to has left the game, the Aura is put into its owner’s graveyard. (This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.) 212.4g An Aura can’t enchant itself, and an Aura that’s also a creature can’t enchant anything. If this occurs somehow, the Aura is put into its owner’s graveyard. (This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.) 212.4h The object or player an Aura is attached to is called enchanted. The Aura is attached to, or “enchants,” that object or player. 212.4i An Aura’s controller is separate from the enchanted object’s controller; the two need not be the same. Changing control of the object doesn’t change control of the Aura, and vice versa. Only the Aura’s controller can play its abilities. However, if the Aura adds an ability to the enchanted object (with “gains” or “has”), the enchanted object’s controller is the only one who can play that ability. 212.4j If an Aura is coming into play under a player’s control by any means other than by being played, and the effect putting it into play doesn’t specify the object or player the Aura will enchant, that player chooses what it will enchant as the Aura comes into play. The player must choose a legal object or player according to the Aura’s enchant ability and any other applicable effects. If no legal choice can be made, see rule 212.4k. 212.4k If an Aura is coming into play and there is no legal object or player for it to enchant, the Aura remains in its current zone, unless that zone is the stack. In that case, the Aura is put into its owner’s graveyard instead of coming into play. 212.4m If an effect attempts to attach an Aura in play to an object or player, that object or player must be able to be enchanted by it. If the object or player can’t be, the Aura doesn’t move. 212.5. Instants

212.5a A player who has priority may play an instant card from his or her hand. Playing an instant as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 409, “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.”) 212.5b When an instant spell resolves, the actions stated in its rules text are followed. Then it’s put into its owner’s graveyard. 212.5c Instant subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Instant — Arcane.” Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. The set of instant subtypes is the same as the set of sorcery subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. Instants may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of instant subtypes under “Spell Types” in the glossary at the end of this document.) 212.5d Instants can’t come into play. If an instant would come into play, it remains in its previous zone instead. 212.5e If text states that a player may do something “any time he or she could play an instant,” it means only that the player must have priority. The player doesn’t need to have an instant he or she could actually play. 212.6. Lands 212.6a Playing a land card is a special action (see 408.2d). To play a land card, the player simply puts it into play. The land card doesn’t go on the stack, and is never a spell, so players can’t respond to it with instants or activated abilities. 212.6b A player who has priority may choose to play a land card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn, when the stack is empty. Continuous effects may allow the player to play land cards from other zones this way, or to play land cards at other times. 212.6c A player may normally play only one land card during his or her turn; however, continuous effects may increase this number. If any such effects exist, the player announces which effect, or this rule, applies to each land play as it happens. 212.6d A player can’t play a land, for any reason, if it isn’t his or her turn. Ignore any part of an effect that instructs a player to do so. Similarly, a player can’t play a land, for any reason, if that player has used all of his or her land plays for that turn. Ignore any part of an effect that instructs a player to do so. 212.6e Effects may also allow players to “put” lands into play. This isn’t the same as “playing a land” and doesn’t count as a player’s one land played during his or her turn. 212.6f Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash. Land subtypes are also called land types. Lands may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of land subtypes under “Land Types” in the glossary at the end of this document.) Example: “Basic Land — Mountain” means the card is a land with the Mountain subtype.

212.7c Sorcery subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Sorcery — Arcane. Any land that doesn’t have this supertype is a nonbasic land.”) An object with a basic land type is treated as if its text box included “{T}: Add [mana symbol] to your mana pool. Tribals 212. The set of sorcery subtypes is the same as the set of instant subtypes. ability. “Mana Abilities. Islands. Playing and resolving a tribal . red.6j If an object is both a land and another card type.6h If an effect changes a land’s subtype to one or more of the basic land types.212. Island.7e If a spell. the land no longer has its old land type. Note that this doesn’t remove any abilities that were granted to the land by other effects.7b When a sorcery spell resolves.8. Sorceries may have multiple subtypes. (See rule 406. Then it’s put into its owner’s graveyard. It loses all abilities generated from its rules text and its old land types.” it means only that the player must have priority.”) 212. Swamp.8a Each tribal card has another card type. it keeps its land types and rules text. it can be played only as a land. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. black.) 212.7d Sorceries can’t come into play. If a sorcery would come into play. green. these subtypes are called spell types. Mountains. 212. and it gains the new land types and mana abilities. 212. Changing a land’s subtype doesn’t add or remove any card types (such as creature) or supertypes (such as basic. Plains produce white mana. the actions stated in its rules text are followed. Sorceries 212.7.6g The basic land types are Plains. and it gains the appropriate mana ability for each new basic land type. legendary.7a A player who has priority may play a sorcery card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty.” it’s referring to one of these subtypes. (See rule 409. It can’t be played as a spell.” even if the text box doesn’t actually contain text or the object has no text box. If a land gains one or more land types in addition to its own. 212. it must be during the main phase of his or her turn. and the stack must be empty. or effect states that a player can do something only “any time he or she could play a sorcery. Swamps.6i Any land with the supertype “basic” is a basic land.” Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. (You can find the complete list of sorcery subtypes under “Spell Types” in the glossary at the end of this document. and snow) the land may have. it remains in its previous zone instead. Playing a sorcery as a spell uses the stack. Mountain. blue. 212. The player doesn’t need to have a sorcery he or she could actually play. and Forests. A basic land type implies an intrinsic ability to produce colored mana. If an object uses the words “basic land type. and Forest. 212. 212.

212. The loyalty of a planeswalker in play is equal to the number of loyalty counters on it. See rule 420. “This permanent comes into play with a number of loyalty counters on it equal to its printed loyalty number”. The loyalty of a planeswalker not in play is equal to the number printed in its lower right corner. loyalty counters are put on it or removed from it. See rule 420.5.9f Each planeswalker has a number of activated abilities.8b Tribal subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Tribal Enchantment — Merfolk. Playing a planeswalker as a spell uses the stack. all are put into their owners’ graveyards as a state-based effect. Planeswalker subtypes are also called planeswalker types. Damage dealt to a planeswalker results in that many loyalty counters being removed from it. Tribals may have multiple subtypes.9c Planeswalker subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Planeswalker — Jace. 212.5. Planeswalkers may have multiple subtypes. A planeswalker is treated as if its text box included. Planeswalkers 212.1). 212. it’s put into its owner’s graveyard as a statebased effect. The cost to play an activated ability of a planeswalker is to put on or remove from that planeswalker a certain number of loyalty counters. If a planeswalker’s loyalty is 0. As a planeswalker gains or loses loyalty.”) 212. respectively.9d Loyalty is a characteristic only planeswalkers have. that opponent may have that source deal that damage to a planeswalker the first player controls instead. (You can find the complete list of tribal subtypes under “Creature Types” in the glossary at the end of this document. (See rule 308.9g If noncombat damage would be dealt to a player by a source controlled by an opponent. 212. An ability with a negative loyalty cost can’t be played unless the planeswalker has at least that many loyalty counters on it.) If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are in play. (See rule 409.) 212.9b When a planeswalker spell resolves.9e Planeswalkers can be attacked. as shown by the loyalty symbol in the ability’s cost. and only if none of its activated abilities have been played that turn. these subtypes are called creature types. when he or she has priority and the stack is empty. this ability creates a replacement effect (see rule 419. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.” The set of tribal subtypes is the same as the set of creature subtypes. A player may play an activated ability of a planeswalker only during a main phase of his or her turn. “Declare Attackers Step.card follows the rules for playing and resolving a card of the other card type.9a A player who has priority may play a planeswalker card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. This is a redirection effect .”) 212.” Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. (You can find the complete list of planeswalker subtypes under “Planeswalker Types” in the glossary at the end of this document. its controller puts it into play under his or her control. 212.9.

(see rule 419. a spell’s controller is the player who played it. supertype. 214. By default. It’s still a permanent.3. If an effect changes any characteristics of a spell that becomes a permanent. A permanent is a card or token in play. it remains in play. Permanents stay in play unless moved to another zone by an effect or rule. Specifically. creature.2. Every nonland card is a spell while it’s being played (see rule 409. For more information.9). it’s used to refer to a card that’s not in play or on the stack. a permanent’s controller is the player who put it into play. A card or token becomes a permanent when it comes into play and it stops being a permanent when it leaves play. Permanents come into play untapped. enchantment. Once it’s played. By default. and planeswalker.1. such as a creature card in a player’s hand. 213. Permanents 214. A nontoken permanent’s card types. and subtypes are the same as those printed on its card.3. 214. For more information.1a The term “permanent card” is used to refer to a card that could be put into play. depending on their other card types. supertypes. see rule 217. rather. Every spell has a controller. The term “card” isn’t used to refer to a card that’s in play as a permanent. 213. The term “spell” is used to refer to a card. is countered. and subtype are the same as those of its card.6c) and is subject to the normal rules for ordering replacement effects (see rule 419. Instant and sorcery cards can’t come into play. it means an artifact. while it’s on the stack. supertypes. a card remains a spell until it resolves. see rule 401.1b If a permanent somehow loses all its permanent types. Some tribal cards can come into play and some can’t.4. 214. Every permanent has a controller.” 213. “Zones. or otherwise leaves the stack. “Spells on the Stack. the effect continues to apply to the permanent when the spell resolves. land. 213. There are five permanent types: artifact. and subtypes are set by the spell or ability that created it.1.2. 214. A token’s card types. 213. The term “permanent” is used to refer to a card or token while it’s in play. or planeswalker card. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities”) and while it’s on the stack.” 214. enchantment. land. The opponent chooses whether to redirect the damage as the redirection effect is applied. or a copy of a spell or card.5. 214.4. creature. Spells 213. Example: If an effect changes a black creature spell to white. A spell’s card type. the creature is white when it comes into play and remains white for the duration of the effect changing its color. .

If an effect says that a player can’t gain life. For more information.3. A “Goblin Scout creature token. the token is owned by whoever put it into play. that player loses the game as a state-based effect. Tokens 216. in that case.1.5. If a player pays life. Damage dealt to a player causes that player to lose that much life.7. (Players can always pay 0 life. Every permanent has a value in each of three status categories: tapped/untapped. 216. a permanent comes into play untapped. 216. If an effect causes a player to gain life or lose life.) 215. If a cost or effect allows a player to pay an amount of life greater than 0. Some effects put tokens into play. By default. A token is controlled by whoever put it into play and owned by the controller of the spell or ability that created it. its name is the same as its creature type(s).” for example. the player gains or loses the necessary amount of life to end up with the new total. unflipped. and face up. see rule 606. a cost that involves having that player gain life can’t be paid. A token doesn’t have any characteristics not defined by the spell or ability that created it. Life 215.” 215.1a A spell or ability that creates a creature token sets both its name and its creature type. “Two-Headed Giant Variant.5. the exchange won’t happen. “Status. (Players can always pay 0 life.6.1.) The spell or ability may define any number of characteristics for the token.5. In a Two-Headed Giant game. see rule 510. is named “Goblin Scout” and has the creature subtypes . If the spell or ability doesn’t specify the name of the creature token. they define the token’s copiable values. the payment is subtracted from his or her team’s life total. 215. flipped/unflipped.214.2.) 215. and a replacement effect that would replace a life gain event affecting that player won’t do anything. each team begins the game with a shared life total of 30 instead. the payment is subtracted from his or her life total.” The characteristics defined this way are functionally equivalent to the characteristics that are printed on a card. for example. In addition. Each player begins the game with a life total of 20. that player’s life total is adjusted accordingly. 215.4. that player can’t exchange life totals with a player who has a higher life total. This becomes the token’s “text. (If no player controlled the effect that created it. 215. If a player has 0 or less life.4a If a cost or effect allows a player to pay an amount of life greater than 0 in a Two-Headed Giant game. the player may do so only if his or her team’s life total is equal to or greater than the amount of the payment. 215. and face up/face down. If a player pays life. If an effect sets a player’s life total to a specific number.” 215. See rule 420. the player may do so only if his or her life total is equal to or greater than the amount of the payment.

and graveyard. and removed from the game. it goes to its owner’s corresponding zone. 217. A token in a zone other than the in-play zone ceases to exist. graveyard. hand. (3) Abilities of a permanent that require information about choices made when that permanent was played use information about the spell that became that permanent. enchantment.1a If an object would go to any library. or relation to. A token isn’t a card (even if represented by a card that has a Magic back or that came from a Magic booster pack). hand. 216. If an instant or sorcery card would come into play. or on the stack can’t be changed except when effects or rules allow it. and vice versa. 217. A token is subject to anything that affects permanents in general or that affects the token’s card type or subtype. 217. it remains in its previous zone. (6) If an effect grants a nonland card an ability that allows it to be played.3. “When Rancor is put into a graveyard from play”) can find the new object that it became in the zone it moved to when the ability triggered. (7) Permanents that phase out or in “remember” their earlier states. 217. in a graveyard. The other zones are shared by all players. enchantment. creature. This is a state-based effect. in play. A zone is a place where objects can be during a game. Zones 217. or hand other than its owner’s. Each player has his or her own library. (5) Abilities of Auras that trigger when the enchanted permanent leaves play can find the new object that permanent became in the zone it moved to. Objects in other zones can be arranged however their owners wish.) 216. (Note that a token changing zones sets off triggered abilities before the token ceases to exist. or planeswalker spell on the stack will continue to apply to damage from the permanent that spell becomes. or planeswalker spell on the stack continue to apply to the permanent that spell becomes. that ability will continue to apply to the new object that card became after it moved to the stack as a result of being played this way. If such a token would return to play. graveyard. changing its name doesn’t change its creature type. (2) Prevention effects that apply to damage from an artifact. although who controls those objects. creature. and triggered abilities that change the characteristics of an artifact. Some older cards also use the ante and phased-out zones. whether they’re tapped or flipped. it remains in its current zone instead. . It ceases to exist the next time state-based effects are checked.Goblin and Scout. and what other objects are attached to them must remain clear to all players. they can also find the new object the Aura became in its owner’s graveyard after state-based effects have been checked. (4) Abilities that trigger when an object moves from one zone to another (for example.2. There are seven exceptions to this rule: (1) Effects from spells. its previous existence.1b The order of objects in a library.4 A token that has left play can’t come back into play. There are normally six zones: library. 216. activated abilities. Once a token is in play.1.1c An object that moves from one zone to another becomes a new object with no memory of. stack.

Players can’t look at or change the order of cards in a library.1d If an object would move from one zone to another.2f Some effects tell a player to play with the top card of his or her library revealed. stack.2e If a spell or ability causes a card to be drawn while another spell or ability is being played. If any effects or rules try to do two or more contradictory or mutually exclusive things to a particular object.2b Each library must be kept in a single face-down pile.1i). the owner of those cards may arrange them in any order. 217. determine what event is moving the object. Library and hand are hidden zones. If the top card of the player’s library changes while a spell or ability is being played. two simultaneous “destroy” effects.) Then the event moves the object. it becomes a new object. the drawn card is kept face down until that spell or ability becomes played (see rule 409. it doesn’t change zones.2g If an effect causes a player to play with the top card of his or her library revealed. Outside the game is not a zone. If the object is moving to a public zone.2c Any player may count the number of cards remaining in any player’s library at any time.2a When a game begins. whether they come from that object or from elsewhere. for example.8c. each player’s deck becomes his or her library. ante. and that particular card stops being revealed for any length of time before being revealed again. Hidden zones are zones in which not all players can be expected to see the cards. 217. All other objects are inside the game. 217. Library 217.1e An object is outside the game if it’s in the removed-from-the-game zone.2. and what that effect does. that object’s controller—or its owner if it has no controller—chooses which effect to apply. 217. 217. 217.1f If an object in the removed-from-the-game zone is removed from the game. 217. the new top card won’t be revealed until the spell or ability becomes played (see rule 409. That library’s owner doesn’t reveal the order in which the cards go into his or her library. (Note that multiple instances of the same thing may be mutually exclusive.See rule 217.1i). 217. in play. . Then any appropriate replacement effects. but it becomes a new object that has just been removed from the game. Graveyard. 217. its owner looks at it to see if it has any abilities that would affect the move. or if it isn’t in any of the game’s zones. removed from the game. 217. even if all the cards in one such zone happen to be revealed. are applied to that event.1g Public zones are zones in which all players can see the cards. 217. except for those cards that some rule or effect specifically allow to be face down. and phased-out are public zones.2d If an effect puts two or more cards on the top or bottom of a library at the same time.

The in-play zone starts out empty.3a The hand is where a player holds cards that have been drawn but not yet played. 217. (See rule 101.”) 217.5a Most of the area between the players represents the in-play zone. it’s considered a brandnew permanent and has no relationship to any previous permanent represented by the same object. At the beginning of the game. but as part of his or her cleanup step. When an ability is played.1c). or sacrificed is put on top of its owner’s graveyard.5c Whenever a permanent enters the in-play zone.3c A player may arrange his or her hand in any convenient fashion and look at it as much as he or she wishes.4a A graveyard is a discard pile.4b Each graveyard is kept in a single face-up pile. the player must discard excess cards down to the maximum hand size. A player may have any number of cards in his or her hand. Any object that’s countered. as is any instant or sorcery spell that’s finished resolving. the owner of those cards may arrange them in any order. Permanents a player controls are normally kept in front of him or her in the in-play zone. “Starting the Game. A player can’t look at the cards in another player’s hand but may count those cards at any time. though there are some cases (such as an Aura attached to another player’s permanent) when a permanent one player controls is kept closer to a different player. Objects that aren’t either in play or on the stack aren’t controlled by any player.217.3. 217.3b Each player has a maximum hand size.5d An object not in the in-play zone isn’t “in play” and isn’t considered tapped or untapped. 217. This is also true for any objects entering any zone (see rule 217. 217.6a When a spell is played. Stack 217. . discarded. In Play 217. the physical card is put on the stack. destroyed. 217. Each player’s graveyard starts out empty. 217.1a).4c If an effect or rule puts two or more cards into the same graveyard at the same time. 217. which is normally seven cards. 217. it goes on top of the stack without any card associated with it (see rule 409.6. Hand 217. 217. A player can examine the cards in any graveyard at any time but can’t change their order.4. Graveyard 217. each player draws a hand of seven cards. Permanents exist only in the in-play zone.5.5b A spell or ability affects and checks only the in-play zone unless it specifically mentions a player or another zone.

7c Cards that might return to play should be kept in separate piles to keep track of their respective ways of returning. The controller of a triggered ability is the player who controlled the ability’s source when it triggered. Some effects may provide a way for a card to return to a zone and use the term “set aside.4). Cards “removed from the game face down” can’t be examined by any player except when instructions allow it. 217. unless it’s a delayed triggered ability.6e When all players pass in succession. 217. followed by each other player’s objects in APNAP order (see rule 103. 217. it doesn’t change zones.8. If a player controls more than one of these objects.7d An object may have one ability printed on it that somehow causes one or more cards to be removed from the game.” 217. in the same way as other objects that use the stack. that player chooses their relative order on the stack. See rule 407. (See rule 408. 217. the top (last-added) spell or ability on the stack resolves. 217.6f Combat damage also uses the stack. 217.6c If an effect puts two or more objects on the stack at the same time.6d Each spell has all the characteristics of the card associated with it. The controller of a spell is the person who played the spell. but it becomes a new object that has just been removed from the game.7e If an object in the removed-from-the-game zone is removed from the game. the current step or phase ends and the next begins. Each activated or triggered ability that’s on the stack has the text of the ability that created it and no other characteristics. “Linked Abilities.”) 217. 217. “Timing of Spells and Abilities.7.” Cards that are set aside this way are still removed from the game. Phased Out . 217.7a Objects can be removed from the game. even though that removal may be temporary.6b The stack keeps track of the order that spells and/or abilities were added to it. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it.217.” These abilities are linked: the second refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone removed due to the first. Objects that aren’t cards that would return to a zone remain removed from the game instead. those controlled by the active player are put on lowest. it’s put on top of all objects already there. The controller of an activated ability is the player who played the ability. If the stack is empty when all players pass. Each time an object is put on the stack. Removed from the Game 217.7b Cards in the removed-from-the-game zone are kept face up and may be examined by any player at any time. and another ability that refers either to “the removed cards” or to cards “removed from the game with [this object].

and it’s allowed only where it’s not forbidden by law or by other rules.8b Face-up objects in the phased-out zone may be examined by any player at any time. or Fortifications that were attached to those tokens remain phased out for the rest of the game. the winner becomes the owner of all the cards in the ante zone. an object in this zone “remembers” the state of the permanent as it phased out and returns to play in the same state as when it left.15. However. “Phasing. nor are they controlled by anyone.”) 217. The owner of an object is the only person who can ante that object.” Playing Magic games for ante is now considered an optional variation on the game.9b When playing for ante. At the end of the game.26. (See rule 502.8c Phased-out objects are not in play. 217. each player puts one random card from his or her deck into the ante zone at the beginning of the game. 217. Ante 217.9a Earlier versions of the Magic rules included an ante rule as a way of playing “for keeps. 217.”) 217.”) 217.8a Permanents that phase out are placed in the phased-out zone.wizards. Cards in the ante zone may be examined by any player at any time. “State-Based Effects”).217.aspx? x=dci/doccenter/home).9c A few cards have the text “Remove [this card] from your deck before playing if you’re not playing for ante. Playing for ante is strictly forbidden under the DCI Universal Tournament Rules (http://www.9d To ante an object is to put that object into the ante zone from whichever zone it’s currently in.8d Tokens in the phased-out zone cease to exist.15. (See rule 502. “Phasing.9. “Face-Down Spells and Permanents. so they do not count as tapped or untapped.” These are the only cards that can add or remove cards from the ante zone or change a card’s owner. . “Morph. (See rule 502. Any phased-out Auras. This is a state-based effect (see rule 420.” and rule 504.com/Magic/TCG/Events. Equipment. 217. Face-down objects in the phased-out zone are covered by the rules for face-down permanents.

any unused mana left in a player’s mana pool is lost. or steps. each player gets a chance to add new things to the stack before that phase or step ends. so it can’t be prevented or altered by effects that affect damage. Because of this. When a phase or step begins.3. 300.9. A step in which no players receive priority ends when all specified actions that take place during that step are completed. The most recently created turn will be taken first. combat. Some effects can cause a step. any effects scheduled to last “until end of” that phase or step expire. Beginning Phase .5.1. Some effects can add steps to a phase. When a phase or step begins. This is called mana burn. 300. If a player gets multiple extra turns or if multiple players get extra turns during a single turn. No game events can occur between turns. Some effects can add phases to a turn. 300. Effects that last “until end of combat” expire at the end of the combat phase. which proceed in order. That player loses 1 life for each one mana lost this way.8.6e and rule 419. They do this by adding the phases directly after the specified phase. postcombat main. If multiple extra steps are created after the same step.6. Mana burn is loss of life. phase. and end phases are further broken down into steps. combat. If multiple extra phases are created after the same phase. Turn Structure 300. phase. Simply having the stack become empty doesn’t cause such a phase or step to end. the extra turns are added one at a time. not at the beginning of the end of combat step. (See rule 406. phases. See rule 419. Each of these phases takes place every turn. 300. even if nothing happens during the phase. When a phase ends (but not a step).4. 301. any abilities that trigger “at the beginning of” that phase or step are added to the stack.7. precombat main. the most recently created step will occur first. They do this by adding the turns directly after the current turn. 300. “Mana Abilities. or turn to be skipped.2. the most recently created phase will occur first.2. A phase or step in which players receive priority ends when the stack is empty and all players pass in succession. not damage. and end. When a phase or step ends.3. in this order: beginning. any effects scheduled to last “until” that phase or step expire. 300. They do this by adding the steps directly after a specified step (or directly before a specified step). This game action doesn’t use the stack.”) 300. Effects that last “until end of turn” are subject to special rules. To skip a step. all players have to pass with the stack empty. The beginning. 300. or turn is to proceed past it as though it didn’t exist. Some effects can give a player extra turns.6f. A turn consists of five phases. The only such steps are the untap step (see rule 302) and certain cleanup steps (see rule 314). see rule 314. General 300.

In each turn. First. There are two main phases in a turn. This game action doesn’t use the stack.1. creature. (See rule 303. and the second main phase.4. and sorcery spells. “Combat Phase”). and all phased-out objects that the active player controlled when they phased out simultaneously phase in (this game action doesn’t use the stack). 305. (See rule 410.) 305. Main Phase 305. but effects can keep one or more of a player’s permanents from untapping. the active player may play one land card from his or her hand if the stack is empty. No player receives priority during the untap step. Draw Step 304. See rule 217. “Lands.” 302. are separated by the combat phase (see rule 306. in this order: untap. The main phase has no steps. all permanents with phasing that the active player controls phase out. so no spells or abilities can be played or resolved.) 305. “Handling Triggered Abilities.3. Next the active player determines which permanents he or she controls will untap. Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities.”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. and if he or she hasn’t yet taken this special action this turn. enchantment.6.8.301. “Phasing. if the player has priority. Then he or she untaps them all simultaneously (this game action doesn’t use the stack). As the upkeep step begins.1. the active player draws a card. Then any abilities that trigger at the beginning of the draw step and any other abilities that have triggered go on the stack. 302. Any ability that triggers during this step will be held until the next time a player would receive priority. First. the first main phase.” and rule 502. so a main phase ends when all players pass in succession while the stack is empty. (See rule 410. Untap Step 302. known as the postcombat main phase. all of a player’s permanents untap. 302. “Upkeep Step. As the main phase begins. “Handling Triggered Abilities. 305. Normally.2. (See rule 212. “Phased Out. (See rule 300.1.15. 304.2.”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. and only the active player may play these spells. and draw. known as the precombat main phase.1. Upkeep Step 303. The precombat and postcombat main phases are individually and collectively known as the main phase. planeswalker. which is usually during the upkeep step.1.”) 303. The beginning phase consists of three steps.”) This . any abilities that trigger at the beginning of that upkeep step and any abilities that triggered during the turn’s untap step go on the stack.3.2. upkeep. any abilities that trigger at the beginning of that main phase go on the stack. (This is the only phase in which a player can normally play artifact. During either main phase.

306. but it’s never considered to be an attacking creature. There are two combat damage steps if any attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 502. combat damage. Only a player or a planeswalker can be attacked.4c If a creature is attacking a planeswalker. Some multiplayer games allow the active player to attack multiple other players. that creature does come into play. Only a creature can attack or block.” and rule 606. The combat phase has five steps. “Attack Multiple Players Option. that player and planeswalkers he or she controls may be attacked. although it is attacking neither a player nor a . the active player chooses one of his or her opponents. or if it’s an attacking or blocking creature that regenerates (see rule 419. if an effect specifically removes it from combat. A permanent is removed from combat if it leaves play. 306. and/or unblocked creature. removing that planeswalker from combat doesn’t remove that creature from combat. Combat Phase 306. declare attackers.28). See rule 602. A creature that’s removed from combat stops being an attacking.” 306. the active player is the attacking player. 306.4a Once a creature has been declared as an attacking or blocking creature. which proceed in order: beginning of combat. 306.action doesn’t use the stack and it isn’t a spell or ability of any kind. The chosen opponent is the defending player. if it’s a planeswalker that’s being attacked and stops being a planeswalker.4. blocking.6b) or stops being a creature. 306. The declare blockers and combat damage steps are skipped if no creatures are declared as attackers or put into play attacking (see rule 308. 306. and players can’t respond to it with instants or activated abilities. 306.3a If an effect would put a noncreature permanent into play attacking or blocking. A planeswalker that’s removed from combat stops being attacked.3b If an effect would put a creature into play attacking under the control of any player except an attacking player. It continues to be an attacking creature. As the combat phase starts. that creature does come into play. but it’s never considered to be a blocking creature.2. 306. 306.3c If an effect would put a creature into play blocking but the creature it would block isn’t attacking either the first creature’s controller or a planeswalker that player controls. It can’t be countered. the permanent does come into play but it’s never considered to be an attacking or blocking permanent. blocked.5). “Two-Headed Giant Variant.1.2) or double strike (see rule 502. declare blockers. and end of combat. if its controller changes.3. During the combat phase.4b Tapping or untapping a creature that’s already been declared as an attacker or blocker doesn’t remove it from combat and doesn’t prevent its combat damage. spells or abilities that would have kept that creature from attacking or blocking don’t remove the creature from combat. creatures that player controls may attack.

1. Then he or she determines whether this set of attackers is legal.2a The active player chooses which creatures that he or she controls. “Banding. If the defending player controls any planeswalkers. “Handling Triggered Abilities. A creature is blocking alone if it’s blocking but no other creatures are. it will deal no combat damage. any abilities that trigger at the beginning of combat go on the stack. if any. A creature attacks alone if it’s the only creature declared as an attacker during the declare attackers step. To declare attackers. attacking simply causes creatures to . Beginning of Combat Step 307. 308. the active player follows the steps below. If it is unblocked.”) 308.2.2b If any of the chosen creatures have banding or a bands with other ability. “Legal Attacks and Blocks. (See rule 500. As the declare attackers step begins. the game returns to the moment before the declaration (see rule 422. As the beginning of combat step begins. the active player chooses an opponent or a planeswalker controlled by an opponent for that creature to attack. Effects from a creature that refer to a defending player refer only to the defending player it’s attacking (if it’s attacking a player) or the controller of the planeswalker it’s attacking (if it’s attacking a planeswalker). 307. 308. the active player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below. if any. Declare Attackers Step 308.”) 308. or the game allows the active player to attack multiple other players. (See rule 502. the declaration was illegal.4d A permanent that’s both a blocking creature and a planeswalker that’s being attacked is partially removed from combat if it stops being either a creature or a planeswalker (but not both). are banded with which.10. and each one must either have haste or have been controlled by the active player continuously since the beginning of the turn.planeswalker. For each of the chosen creatures. It’s not removed from the portion of combat that’s relevant to the card type it still is. the active player announces which creatures. he or she declares which player or planeswalker each creature is attacking.”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. It may be blocked. the active player declares attackers. If at any point during the declaration of attackers.1.2c The active player taps the chosen creatures. The chosen creatures must be untapped. 306.5. Tapping a creature when it’s declared as an attacker isn’t a cost. “Legal Attacks and Blocks”). A creature is attacking alone if it’s attacking but no other creatures are.” and rule 500. 306. “Handling Triggered Abilities.”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. “Handling Illegal Actions. (See rule 410. Then any abilities that triggered on attackers being declared go on the stack. This game action doesn’t use the stack. in order. 308. will attack. (See rule 410. A creature blocks alone if it’s the only creature declared as a blocker during the declare blockers step.

308. the active player then has a chance to play mana abilities (see rule 411.2e If any of the costs require mana.” If effects would change the total cost after this time. 309. “Legal Attacks and Blocks”). discarding cards. As the declare blockers step begins. the defending player declares blockers (this game action doesn’t use the stack). the defending player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below.4. Declare Blockers Step 309. The chosen creatures must be untapped.2a The defending player chooses which creatures that he or she controls. or a planeswalker he or she controls.2f Once the player has enough mana in his or her mana pool. will block. Example: A permanent has the ability “Whenever a green creature attacks.” If a blue creature attacks and is later turned green. her. the active player determines the total cost to attack. if any.2. Abilities that trigger on a creature attacking trigger only at the point the creature is declared as an attacker.4. 309. the ability will not trigger. See rule 306. destroy that creature at end of combat. 309. For each of the chosen creatures. 308. Once the total cost is determined. “Handling Triggered Abilities. sacrificing permanents. Costs may include paying mana. 308. the defending player chooses one creature for it to block that’s attacking him. tapping permanents. 308. whichever comes first. it becomes “locked in. 308.2d If any of the creatures require paying costs to attack. (See rule 500. If at any point during the declaration of blockers. but only if it’s still controlled by the active player. It remains an attacking creature until it’s removed from combat or the combat phase ends. “Legal . skip the declare blockers and combat damage steps.2g Each chosen creature becomes an attacking creature if all costs have been paid. its controller chooses which defending player or which planeswalker a defending player controls it’s attacking as it comes into play (unless the effect that put it into play specifies what it’s attacking). 308.5. Then any abilities that triggered on blockers being declared go on the stack. Such creatures are “attacking” but. the defending player follows the steps below. in order. If a creature is put into play attacking. “Handling Illegal Actions. To declare blockers.” and rule 500. Then he or she determines whether this set of blocks is legal. the declaration was illegal. “Playing Mana Abilities”). he or she pays all costs in any order. the game returns to the moment before the declaration (see rule 422. Partial payments are not allowed.3. They will not trigger if a creature attacks and then that creature’s characteristics change to match the ability’s trigger condition. (See rule 410.” 308.1. and so on.”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. ignore this change.become tapped. they never “attacked. If no creatures are declared as attackers or put into play attacking. for the purposes of trigger events and effects.

its controller chooses which attacking creature it’s blocking as it comes into play (unless the effect that put it into play specifies what it’s blocking). the defending player then has a chance to play mana abilities (see rule 411. and then the blocking creature’s characteristics change to match the ability’s trigger condition.2d Once the player has enough mana in his or her mana pool. They will trigger if a creature becomes blocked by a creature declared as a blocker. 309.4.3. the defending player determines the total cost to block. This remains unchanged until the creature is removed from combat or the combat phase ends. 309.” If effects would change the total cost after this time. Abilities that trigger on a creature becoming blocked trigger only at the first point the creature becomes blocked that combat.” If that creature is blocked by a black creature that is later turned white. (See rule 410. Then any abilities that triggered on damage being assigned go on the stack. If a creature is put into play blocking.2f An attacking creature with one or more creatures declared as blockers for it becomes a blocked creature.”) 309. It remains a blocking creature until it’s removed from combat or the combat phase ends. discarding cards. ignore this change. “Handling Triggered Abilities. Partial payments are not allowed. 309.4. for the purposes of trigger events and effects. and so on. 309. Abilities that trigger on a creature blocking trigger only at the point the creature is declared as a blocker. All assignments of combat damage go on the stack as a single object. and then that creature’s characteristics change to match the ability’s trigger condition.2c If any of the costs require mana. See rule 306. (Some effects can change whether a creature is blocked or unblocked. whichever comes first. Example: A creature has the ability “Whenever this creature becomes blocked by a white creature. whichever comes first.5. the active player announces how each attacking creature will assign its combat damage.2e Each chosen creature becomes a blocking creature. They will not trigger if a creature becomes blocked. Then the defending player announces how each blocking creature will assign its combat damage. They will not trigger if a creature blocks. one with no blockers becomes an unblocked creature. Each one is blocking the attacking creature chosen for it.” 310. he or she pays all costs in any order. they never “blocked.”) Then the active player gets priority and . Once the total cost is determined. 309. sacrificing permanents. 309. destroy that creature at end of combat. or by an effect. Costs may include paying mana. As the combat damage step begins. but only if the attacking creature hadn’t yet been blocked that combat.) 309.Attacks and Blocks. but only if it’s controlled by the defending player. Such creatures are “blocking” but. the ability will not trigger. by a creature that’s put into play as a blocker.2b If any of the creatures require paying costs to block. tapping permanents. Combat Damage Step 310.1. it becomes “locked in. “Playing Mana Abilities”).

310. the active player gets priority. At the start of the combat damage step. The combat damage object is then removed from the stack and ceases to exist. 310. it was attacking a planeswalker that has left play). After combat damage finishes resolving. If no creatures are currently blocking it (if. the damage assigned to it isn’t dealt. any attackers and blockers that didn’t assign combat damage in the first step. Although combat-damage assignments go on the stack as an object. 310. 310. creatures without first strike or double strike don’t assign combat damage. assign their combat damage. Combat damage resolves as an object on the stack. 310. it’s all dealt at once. If it’s no longer in play. divided as its controller chooses. as originally assigned. plus any creatures with double strike.3.players may play spells and abilities. In the second combat damage step. the phase gets a second combat damage step (see rule 310.2d A blocking creature will assign combat damage. for example. they were destroyed or removed from combat).2b An unblocked attacking creature that’s attacking a player will assign all its combat damage to the defending player. or is neither a creature nor planeswalker. . 310. to the attacking creatures it’s blocking.28). divided as its controller chooses. An unblocked attacking creature that’s attacking a planeswalker will assign all its combat damage to the planeswalker it’s attacking. to the creatures blocking it. If the creature isn’t currently attacking anything (if.2. If it isn’t currently blocking any creatures (if.4c If a creature or planeswalker that was assigned combat damage is no longer in play.2c A blocked creature will assign combat damage. for example.1) to handle the remaining creatures. Instead of proceeding to end of combat. they were destroyed or removed from combat). for example. it will assign no combat damage.2a Each attacking creature and each blocking creature will assign combat damage equal to its power. its power has changed. it will assign no combat damage. Dividing combat damage is subject to the following restrictions: 310.4. When it resolves. 310. it will assign no combat damage. or the creature or planeswalker receiving damage has left combat.2) or double strike (see rule 502. they aren’t spells or abilities. A player may divide a creature’s combat damage as he or she chooses among the legal recipients. Creatures with power less than 0 assign 0 combat damage. if at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 502.4a Combat damage is dealt as it was originally assigned even if the creature dealing damage is no longer in play.5. 310. 310. so they can’t be countered. its last known information is used. if it’s still in play.4b The source of the combat damage is the creature as it currently exists. 310.

all “at end of combat” abilities trigger and go on the stack. another cleanup step begins. The end phase consists of two steps: end of turn and cleanup. no player receives priority and the step ends.1.” (See rule 314. Cleanup Step 314. End of Combat Step 311. If the active player’s hand contains more cards than his or her maximum hand size (normally seven).1. “Handling Triggered Abilities. the combat phase is over and the postcombat main phase begins.3. the following actions happen simultaneously: all damage is removed from permanents and all “until end of turn” and “this turn” effects end (this game action doesn’t use the stack).2.”) 314. (See rule 410. Once the stack is empty and all players pass.”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. End of Turn Step 313. 313. he or she discards enough cards to reduce the hand size to that number (this game action doesn’t use the stack). . “Cleanup Step. the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. If the conditions for any state-based effects exist or if any triggered abilities are waiting to be put onto the stack. 313. Otherwise. If “at end of turn”-triggered abilities are created or if cards with “at end of turn”-triggered abilities come into play after preexisting ones have already gone on the stack at the beginning of the end of turn step.2. those abilities won’t go on the stack until the next turn’s end phase. all abilities that trigger “at end of turn” go on the stack. (See rule 410.1.311. 314. After discarding.”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. the step doesn’t “back up” so new “at end of turn”-triggered abilities can go on the stack. As soon as the end of combat step ends. 311.1. As the end of turn step begins. In other words. 314.” It doesn’t apply to continuous effects whose durations say “until end of turn” or “this turn.2. This only applies to triggered abilities that say “at end of turn. As the end of combat step begins. After the end of combat step ends. End Phase 312. all creatures and planeswalkers are removed from combat. “Handling Triggered Abilities. 312.

(See rule 413. These include. enchantment.7. or otherwise leaves the stack. additional costs. As the final part of an artifact. but are not limited to.5.1.5). “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.4). any abilities that define the zone from which it can be played (see rule 401. General 400. 400.6. activated abilities. Abilities generate effects.4. “Resolving Spells and Activated Abilities.1. Spells. (See rule 217. is countered. A card on the stack is a spell. Text itself is never an effect. the card is put into its owner’s graveyard. the card becomes a spell and goes on the stack from the zone it was played from (usually the player’s hand). 401. alternative costs. 401. unless the instructions can only be applied at some other time. These include restrictions on playing the object and abilities that allow the object to be played at a time that it otherwise could not or in a manner that it otherwise could not.3. 401.2.”) If any spell . A spell stops being a spell when it resolves (see rule 413. any abilities that apply while the spell is in a zone from which it can be played (see rule 401.4. Reminder text and flavor text always appear in italics. Example: A played creature card is a creature spell until it resolves. Static abilities generate continuous effects.” 401. Reminder text and flavor text are not abilities. “Countering Spells and Abilities”). Any spell can have static abilities that apply while the spell is on the stack. is countered (see rule 414. An object’s abilities are defined in the object’s text box (if it has one) or by the effect that created the object. Example: Some abilities that are not followed when the spell resolves are activated abilities or triggered abilities. An ability is something an object does or can do. “Resolving Spells and Abilities”). just like any other objects. 401. Any object can have static abilities that apply while the object is in a zone from which it can be played. Abilities can also be granted to objects by effects or rules. Instant and sorcery spells have abilities. and triggered abilities generate effects when they resolve. Spells. “Stack. These abilities are instructions that are followed when the spells resolve. As the final part of an instant or sorcery spell’s resolution. even if it has no card associated with it. These abilities are active while the object is in that zone.”) 401. creature. See rule 409. 401.6). the card becomes a permanent and is put into the in-play zone under the control of the spell’s controller. and cost reductions. or leaves the stack. and Effects 400.6.1a A copy of a spell is also a spell. Any object can have static abilities that allow it to be played from a zone other than a player’s hand.2. or planeswalker spell’s resolution. Abilities. Spells on the Stack 401. 401. or any abilities that apply while the spell is on the stack (see rule 401. As the first step of being played.

if the source is no longer in play. 402. 402. Abilities 402. Otherwise. (See rule 416.”) Abilities can affect the objects they’re on. the card is put into its owner’s graveyard as part of the resolution of the countering spell or ability.8.” “gains. there are three general categories of abilities: activated.8b An ability that states which zones it functions in functions only from .) 402. Activated and triggered abilities can also be mana abilities.3). Abilities of an instant or sorcery usually function only while the object is on the stack. Abilities can be beneficial or detrimental. 402. an ability with one or more targets is countered if all its targets become illegal).1). Aside from certain defined abilities that may be strung together on a single line (see rule 502. In these cases. “Effects.7. 402. An object may also have multiple instances of the same ability.6. it will check that information when it resolves. (See rule 405. “Keyword Abilities”). each paragraph break in a card’s text marks a separate ability.” or “gain” are used. Abilities can grant abilities to other objects or to the objects they’re on. An additional cost or alternative cost to play a card is an ability of the card.1. any activated or triggered ability that references information about the source because the effect needs to be divided checks that information when the ability is put onto the stack. Each instance functions independently. Abilities can be countered by effects that specifically counter abilities. Static abilities don’t use the stack and thus can’t be countered at all. Some effects are replacement effects or prevention effects. 402. Destruction or removal of the source after that time won’t affect the ability. Abilities can generate one-shot effects or continuous effects.5.4. refer to the specific ability for more information. 402. 402.2. The exceptions are as follows: 402.3.8a Characteristic-defining abilities function everywhere. An object may have multiple abilities. triggered. Abilities of all other objects usually function only while that object is in play. Activated and triggered abilities aren’t spells. as well as by the rules (for example. In both instances. “Prodigal Sorcerer deals 1 damage to target creature or player”) rather than the ability doing anything directly. 402. Example: “[This creature] can’t block” is an ability. The result of following such an instruction is an effect. even outside the game. Once activated or triggered. and static. Note that some abilities cause a source to do something (for example. its last known information is used.2. This may or may not produce more effects than a single instance. an ability exists independently of its source as an ability on the stack. they do so when the words “has. and therefore can’t be countered by anything that counters only spells. An ability is text on an object that’s not reminder text or flavor text (see rule 400. they can also affect other objects and/or players.is countered. Aside from the abilities that are followed as instructions while an instant or sorcery spell is resolving (see rule 401.” “have.

402. When an object “gains” or “has” an ability.aspx? x=dci/doccenter/home. that ability can be removed by another effect. it’s not granting an ability. “Haunt. destroy target enchantment. or a previous part of that ability’s cost or effect. is different from an ability granted by an effect.8d An object’s ability that restricts or modifies how that object can be played functions in any zone from which it could be played. 402.8g A trigger condition that can trigger only in a zone other than the in-play zone triggers from that zone. but also the Magic: The Gathering DCI Floor Rules and any other documents that set the deck construction rules for a specific Constructed format. 402.51. “Interaction of Continuous Effects.6i.10. specifies that the object is put into that zone. (See rule 405. Example: Absolver Thrull has the ability “When Absolver Thrull comes into play or the creature it haunts is put into a graveyard. Such an ability modifies not just the Comprehensive Rules. If an effect defines a characteristic of the object (“[permanent] is [characteristic value]”).8h An ability whose cost or effect specifies that it moves the object it’s on out of a particular zone functions only in that zone. The current Magic: The Gathering DCI Floor Rules can be found at http://www.8e An object’s ability that modifies how it comes into play functions as that object is coming into play. If two or more effects add and remove the same ability.com/Magic/TCG/Events. Effects can add or remove abilities of objects. 402.wizards. Sacrifice a creature: Return Necrosavant from your graveyard to play.”) 402.) Example: An effect reads. including whether it’s banned or restricted.5. 402. An effect that removes an ability will state that the object “loses” that ability. 402. unless that ability’s trigger condition. “Enchanted creature has ‘This creature is an . Example: Necrosavant says “{3}{B}{B}.8i An ability that modifies the rules for deck construction functions before the game begins. An effect that adds an ability will state that the object “gains” or “has” that ability.those zones.” The first trigger condition triggers from the inplay zone and the second trigger condition functions from the removed-from-the-game zone. Effects that remove an ability remove all instances of it.8c An ability of an object that modifies what it costs to play functions on the stack. Play this ability only during your upkeep. Other trigger conditions of the same triggered ability may function in different zones.9. See rule 419. or simply states a quality of that object.”) 402. (See rule 502. such an ability can’t affect the format legality of a card. in general the most recent one prevails. 402.2.8f An object’s activated ability that has a cost that can’t be paid while the object is in play functions from any zone in which its cost can be paid. An effect that sets an object’s characteristic. (See rule 418.” A player may play this ability only if Necrosavant is in his or her graveyard. However.

A triggered ability begins with the word “when. Instead. An activated ability is written as “[Cost]: [Effect. this rule only applies to an “if” that immediately follows a trigger condition. the ability rechecks the condition. “Enchanted creature is an artifact creature. 403.’” This effect grants an ability to the creature that can be removed by other effects. If an activated ability has a restriction on its use (for example. though the ability isn’t actually an instant. .” The ability checks for the stated condition to be true when the trigger event occurs.5). which defines the trigger event. Once an ability has triggered.]” The activation cost is everything before the colon (:). It doesn’t grant an ability.” This effect simply defines a characteristic of the creature. 404. Activated abilities that read “Play this ability only any time you could play an instant” mean the player must follow the timing rules for playing an instant spell. .artifact creature.4. the ability triggers. Priority. though the ability isn’t actually a sorcery. the ability does nothing. the restriction continues to apply to that object even if its controller changes. Only an object’s controller (or its owner. On resolution.2. 403. See rule 408. Triggered Abilities 404. . it goes on the stack the next time a player would receive priority. Another effect reads. a triggered ability automatically “triggers” each time its trigger event occurs. identically worded abilities. Ignore this rule for creatures with haste (see rule 502. so effects that would cause the creature to lose its abilities wouldn’t cause the enchanted creature to stop being an artifact.” and rule 410.” 404. If the condition isn’t true at either of those times. [effect]. and the Stack.2. if [condition].1. if it doesn’t have a controller) can play its activated ability unless the object specifically says otherwise. If it is. 403.3. 403. that restriction applies only to that ability as acquired from that object. 404. Triggered abilities aren’t played. 403. Activated Abilities 403.” or “at. Activated abilities that read “Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery” mean the player must follow the timing rules for playing a sorcery spell. 403. A triggered ability may read “When/Whenever/At .3.1. Note that the word “if” has only its normal English meaning anywhere else in the text of a card. “Play this ability only once each turn”).” The phrase containing one of these words is the trigger condition. . A creature’s activated ability with the tap symbol ({T}) or the untap symbol ({Q}) in its activation cost can’t be played unless the creature has been under its controller’s control since the start of his or her most recent turn. An ability’s activation cost must be paid by the player who is playing it.] [Play restriction (if any). This rule is referred to as the “intervening ‘if’ clause” rule.1. “Handling Triggered Abilities. It doesn’t apply to other. “Timing.4a If an object acquires an activated ability with a restriction on its use from another object.5.” “whenever.

Example: An ability that reads “Remove this creature from the game at end of turn” won’t do anything if the creature leaves play before the end of turn step. 404.4d A delayed triggered ability that refers to a particular permanent will fail if the permanent leaves play (even if it returns again before the specified time).” Such abilities apply only while the ability is on a permanent in play. The source of a delayed triggered ability created by another ability is the same as the source of that other ability.4c A delayed triggered ability that refers to a particular object still affects it even if the object changes characteristics.4e The source of a delayed triggered ability created by a spell is that spell.” 404. A static ability does something all the time rather than being activated or triggered. Example: Part of an effect reads “When this creature leaves play. Whenever you reveal a basic land card this way.” “whenever. 404. Example: If an effect reads “When this creature becomes untapped” and the named creature becomes untapped before the effect resolves. Example: An ability that reads “Reveal the first card you draw each turn. That means a delayed triggered ability won’t trigger until it has actually been created. followed by the triggered ability. A very few objects have triggered abilities which are written with the trigger condition in the middle of the ability. 404. (See rule 407.4a Delayed triggered abilities come from spells or other abilities that create them on resolution.4b A delayed triggered ability will trigger only once—the next time its trigger event occurs—unless it has a stated duration.”) These objects combine both abilities into one paragraph. An effect may create a delayed triggered ability that can do something at a later time. rather than at the beginning.” or “at.4. Other events that happen earlier may make the trigger event impossible.” but the creature in question leaves play before the spell or ability creating the effect resolves.404.5. 404. Static Abilities 405. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the same as the controller of the spell or ability that created it. 405. Example: An ability that reads “Destroy that creature at end of turn” will destroy the permanent even if it’s no longer a creature during the end of turn step. the ability waits for the next time that creature untaps. The ability isn’t played—it just “exists. the delayed ability never triggers. abilities that create a one-shot effect that applies to an object in a particular zone will fail if the object leaves that zone. even if that player no longer controls its source.” although that word won’t usually begin the ability. Similarly. Some objects have a static ability that’s linked to a triggered ability.1. draw a card” is a static ability linked to a triggered ability. with the static ability first. A delayed triggered ability will contain “when. unless the ability is covered by rule . even if its trigger event occurred just beforehand. 404. such as “this turn. “Linked Abilities. In this case.

or it was acquired by the object it affects as the result of a copy effect. Example: Meteor Crater has the ability “{T}: Choose a color of a permanent you control. A mana ability is either (a) an activated ability without a target that could put mana into a player’s mana pool when it resolves or (b) a triggered ability without a target that triggers from a mana ability and could produce additional mana.” and rule 408. Example: A permanent has an ability that reads “{T}: Add {G} to your mana pool for each creature you control.6.” If you control no colored permanents. 2) It is printed on the card it affects. 406. They also function outside the game.” This is still a mana ability even if you control no creatures or if the permanent is already tapped.7. 4) It is not an ability that an object grants to itself.2. A mana ability can generate other effects at the same time it produces mana. 405. and 5) It does not set the values of such characteristics only if certain conditions are met. They’re played and resolved exactly like any other spells. or power/toughness box). or toughness. 406. but they don’t go on the stack.402. A characteristic-defining ability is a kind of static ability. so they can’t be countered or responded to. 406. If a mana ability would produce one or more mana of an undefined type. Ignore . Spells that put mana into a player’s mana pool aren’t mana abilities. Mana abilities are played and resolved like other abilities. type line. playing Meteor Crater’s mana ability produces no mana.4. taking into account any applicable replacement effects in any possible order.8. A mana ability remains a mana ability even if the game state doesn’t allow it to produce mana.3.2.5.1.2a A static ability is a characteristic-defining ability if it meets the following criteria: 1) It defines an object’s colors. The type of mana a permanent “could produce” at any time includes any type of mana that an ability of that permanent would generate if the ability were to resolve at that time. it produces no mana instead.2. Add one mana of that color to your mana pool. A mana ability can be activated or triggered. So do abilities that don’t produce mana but trigger on playing mana abilities. 405. subtypes. See rule 411. power. 3) It does not directly affect the characteristics of any other objects. It conveys information about an object’s characteristics that would normally be found elsewhere on that object (such as in its mana cost. Abilities that produce mana but trigger from events other than playing mana abilities do use the stack. 406. Mana Abilities 406. “Playing Mana Abilities. it was granted to the token it affects by the effect that created the token. “Actions That Don’t Use the Stack. Characteristic-defining abilities function in all zones.” 406. 406. 406. Some abilities produce mana based on the type of mana another permanent or permanents could produce.

2d If an object has an ability printed on it that causes a player to “choose a [value]” or “name a card. The triggered ability refers only to actions taken as a result of the static ability.” If your opponent controls no lands.” these abilities are linked.2. those abilities are linked.” “the last chosen [value]. If that permanent wouldn’t produce any mana under these conditions.2b If an object has an ability printed on it that generates a replacement effect which causes one or more cards to be removed from the game.” those abilities are linked. and another ability printed on it that refers to objects “put into play with [this object]. The second can refer only to objects put into play as a result of the first.2e If an object has both a static ability and a triggered ability printed on it in the same paragraph. playing Exotic Orchard’s mana ability will produce no mana.2f If an object has a kicker ability printed on it. See rule 404. 407.6. If a kicker ability lists . and your opponent controls an Exotic Orchard. Linked Abilities 407. See rule 419.” these abilities are linked. then each Exotic Orchard could produce {G}. An object may have two abilities printed on it such that one of them causes actions to be taken or objects to be affected and the other one directly refers to those actions or objects. 407. Example: Exotic Orchard has the ability “{T}: Add to your mana pool one mana of any color that a land an opponent controls could produce.” these abilities are linked. 407. and another ability printed on it that refers to whether the kicker cost was paid. “Replacement Effects. if you control a Forest and an Exotic Orchard.1. there’s no type of mana it could produce. 407.” and another ability printed on it that refers to “the chosen [value].” or “the named card. 407. The second ability refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone that were moved there as a result of the first ability.2c If an object has an activated or triggered ability printed on it that puts one or more objects into play. and not by any other ability. or no type of mana can be defined this way. and another ability printed on it that refers either to “the removed cards” or to cards “removed from the game with [this object].2a If an object has an activated or triggered ability printed on it that removes one or more cards from the game. those abilities are linked.whether any costs of the ability couldn’t be paid. The second ability refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone that were moved there as a direct result of a replacement event caused by the first ability. and another ability printed on it that refers either to “the removed cards” or to cards “removed from the game with [this object]. 407.” 407. The second refers only to whether the kicker cost listed in the first was paid when the object was played as a spell. If so. 407. The same is true if you and your opponent each control no lands other than Exotic Orchards. these two abilities are linked: the second refers only to actions that were taken or objects that were affected by the first. There are different kinds of linked abilities. The second ability refers only to a choice made as a result of the first ability.5. However.

take a special action. the abilities will be similarly linked to one another on that object even though they weren’t printed on that object.” Quicksilver Elemental has the ability “{U}: Quicksilver Elemental gains all activated abilities of target creature until end of turn.72. 408. If he or she plays a spell or ability. “Handling Triggered Abilities”). Creature cards Quicksilver Elemental removed from the game with Arc-Slogger’s ability can’t be returned. If all players pass in succession (that . Each of those abilities will specify which kicker cost it refers to. only the creature card Quicksilver Elemental removed from the game with Sisters of Stone Death’s ability can be returned to play.” 407. then has Quicksilver Elemental gain Sisters of Stone Death’s abilities. Timing of Spells and Abilities 408. Example: Arc-Slogger has the ability “{R}: Remove the top ten cards of your library from the game: Arc-Slogger deals 2 damage to target creature or player. 408. the next player in turn order receives priority.1b Spells and activated abilities are played by players (if they choose) using a system of priority. all applicable state-based effects resolve first as a single event (see rule 420.1a Spells and activated abilities can be played only at certain times and follow a set of rules for doing so. or pass. it will have multiple abilities linked to it. while other kinds of abilities and effects are automatically generated by the game rules.” 407. after any game actions are dealt with and abilities that trigger at the beginning of that phase or step go on the stack.2g The two abilities represented by the champion keyword are linked abilities. plays it. These steps repeat in order until no further state-based effects or triggered abilities are generated.” Sisters of Stone Death has the ability “{B}{G}: Remove from the game target creature blocking or blocked by Sisters of Stone Death” and the ability “{2}{B}: Put a creature card removed from the game with Sisters of Stone Death into play under your control.3). Timing.1. and the Stack 408. Priority. take a special action (such as playing a land). “Champion. No player gets priority during the untap step and players usually don’t get priority during the cleanup step (see rule 314. Then. If an object acquires a pair of linked abilities as part of the same effect. they resolve as a single event.” If a player has Quicksilver Elemental gain Arc-Slogger’s ability.3. Then the player who would have received priority does so and may play a spell or ability. if any new state-based effects have been generated. “State-Based Effects”). or takes a special action.1c The active player gets priority at the beginning of most phases and steps. the player again receives priority. plays the remove-from-game ability. See rule 502. and then plays the return-to-play ability. or pass. otherwise.multiple costs. Each time a player would get priority. This process repeats until no more applicable state-based effects are generated. They can’t be linked to any other ability. 408. The player with priority may play a spell or ability. regardless of what other abilities the object may currently have or may have had in the past. Then triggered abilities are added to the stack (see rule 410. See rule 502. “Kicker.21. as governed by the rules for that phase or step.

2d). that player gets priority after this special action. however.1h Static abilities aren’t played—they continuously affect the game.1g Combat damage goes on the stack once it’s been assigned. and these may go on the stack when they trigger (see rule 404. For more information. the top object on the stack resolves. see rule 310.” rule 418.”) 408. 408.1e When a spell is played. each ability that has triggered is put on the stack (if it hasn’t already been put on the stack). (See rule 405. if all players pass without taking any actions in between passing). 408. 408. “Combat Damage Step. Spells other than instants may be played during a player’s main phase.is. “Lands. stopping delayed triggered abilities from triggering or ending continuous effects (see rule 408. when he or she has priority and the stack is empty.4). it goes on top of the stack. When an activated ability is played.” and rule 419. they’re the result of spells and abilities resolving. “Static Abilities. If a mana ability produces both mana and another effect. If a player had priority before playing a land.6.”) . 408. (See rule 212. then the active player receives priority. (See rule 410. nothing actually happens at the time the abilities trigger. The special actions are playing a land (see rule 408. 408.2e Mana abilities resolve immediately. (See rule 406. it goes on top of the stack. ignoring continuous effects (see rule 408. Then the player gets priority and may play spells or abilities.2i). “Mana Abilities.2j). turning a face-down creature face up (see rule 408.” 408.”) 408.2k).2a Effects don’t go on the stack. If the stack is empty when all players pass in succession. the phase or step ends and the next one begins. Priority doesn’t apply to them.1f Triggered abilities can trigger at any time.2d Playing a land is a special action consisting of putting that land into play. If a player had priority before a mana ability was played.2h).1i Special actions don’t use the stack. Effects may create delayed triggered abilities. “Replacement and Prevention Effects. and removing a card with suspend in your hand from the game (see rule 408.2b Static abilities continuously generate effects and don’t go on the stack.2c State-based effects (see rule 420) resolve whenever a player would receive priority as long as the required game condition is true. Each time a player would receive priority. both the mana and the other effect happen immediately. including during the playing or resolution of a spell or another ability. when that player has priority and the stack is empty.2. that player gets priority after it resolves. 408. 408. “Continuous Effects.1d A player may play an instant spell or an activated ability any time he or she has priority. However. Actions That Don’t Use the Stack 408. 408.”) A player can choose to perform this special action only during a main phase of his or her turn. “Handling Triggered Abilities.

2i Some effects allow a player to take an action at a later time. removing damage from permanents and ending “until end of turn” effects during the cleanup step (see rule 314. It has all the characteristics of the card (or the copy of a card) associated with it. 408. Its controller is the player who played the ability. usually to end a continuous effect or to stop a delayed triggered ability. (See also rule 405. If. “Handling Illegal Actions”). and mana burn as each phase ends (see rule 300. The player who took the action gets priority after this special action.1. If a spell is being played. untapping at the start of the untap step (see rule 302. declaring attackers at the start of the declare attackers step (see rule 308.1). This is a special action. the card that has that ability is revealed. it’s created on the stack as an object that’s not a card. “Suspend. Playing a spell or activated ability follows the steps listed below.2.1). A player can take an action to ignore an effect only when he or she has priority. declaring blockers at the start of the declare blockers step (see rule 309. This is a special action. (See rule 502. Playing Spells and Activated Abilities 409.2f Characteristic-defining abilities. the spell was played illegally. That player gets priority after this special action. (See rule 504. in order. at any point during the playing of a spell or ability.1). If an activated ability is being played.2k A player who has a card with suspend in his or her hand may remove that card from the game.”) A player can remove a card with suspend in his or her hand from the game only when he or she has priority.2).2g Game actions don’t use the stack. This is a special action. 409.408. The game actions are phasing in and out at the start of the untap step (see rule 302. and its controller is the player who played it. a player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below.1). such as “[This object] is red. 408. The spell or ability remains .” are simply read and followed as applicable.2). the ability has the text of the ability that created it.) 408. 408. The player who took the action gets priority after this special action. drawing a card at the start of the draw step (see rule 304. This is a special action. that card (or that copy of a card) physically moves from the zone it’s in to the stack.2j Some effects from static abilities allow a player to take an action to ignore the effect from that ability for a duration.2h The controller of a face-down permanent may turn it face up.1). the active player discarding down to his or her maximum hand size at the start of the cleanup step (see rule 314. 408. If an activated ability is being played from a hidden zone.”) A player can turn a face-down permanent face up only when he or she has priority.3). 409. “Face-Down Spells and Permanents.59. and no other characteristics.1a The player announces that he or she is playing the spell or activated ability. A player can stop a delayed triggered ability from triggering or end a continuous effect only if the ability or effect allows it and only when he or she has priority. the game returns to the moment before that spell or ability was played (see rule 422. On the stack. Announcements and payments can’t be altered after they’ve been made. That player gets priority after this special action.

1d If the spell or ability requires any targets. Some effects may increase or reduce the cost to pay. or special cost (such as a buyback or kicker cost) is paid for it. or zone can be chosen once for each instance of the word “target” (as long as it fits the targeting criteria).40).on the stack until it’s countered or resolves.1f The player determines the total cost of the spell or ability. then announces his or her choice of an appropriate player. the spell or ability is played as though it did not have those targets. All of a spell or ability’s targets are chosen at the same time. or other special costs that will be paid as it’s being played (such as buyback. If the spell or ability has a variable cost that will be paid as it’s being played (such as an {X} in its mana cost). sacrificing permanents. If the player wishes to splice any cards onto the spell (see rule 502. the player announces the nonhybrid equivalent cost he or she intends to pay. Some cards list additional or alternative costs in their text. Example: If an ability reads “Tap two target creatures. object. the player announces the division.” or “[specified player] chooses one —”). tapping permanents. The chosen players. Costs may include paying mana. or may provide other alternative costs. the ability requires two different legal targets. the player first announces how many targets he or she will choose (if the spell or ability has a variable number of targets). The same target can’t be chosen multiple times for any one instance of the word “target” on the spell or ability. An ability that reads “Destroy target artifact and target land. 409. the player announces the value of that variable at this time. or zone for each of those targets.” “Choose two —.1f).1e If the spell or ability requires the player to divide or distribute an effect (such as damage or counters) among one or more targets. . 409. 409. objects. or convoke costs). the player announces the mode choice. can target the same artifact land twice because it uses the word “target” in multiple places. 409.1c The player checks whether the spell or ability targets one or more targets only if an alternative. or if a particular mode is chosen for it. player. 409. the player announces his or her intentions to pay any or all of those costs (see rule 409.1b If the spell or ability is modal (uses the phrase “Choose one —. the same object. A spell or ability can’t be played unless the required number of legal targets are chosen for it. Its controller will need to choose those targets only if he or she announced the intention to pay that cost or chose that mode. Usually this is just the mana cost (for spells) or activation cost (for abilities). additional. You can’t apply two alternative methods of playing or two alternative costs to a single spell or ability. Each of these targets must receive at least one of whatever is being divided.” then the same target can’t be chosen twice. kicker. additional. Previously made choices (such as choosing to play a spell with flashback from his or her graveyard or choosing to play a creature with morph face down) may restrict the player’s options when making these choices. If the spell or ability has alternative. and/or zones each become a target of that spell or ability. If the spell or ability uses the word “target” in multiple places. If a cost that will be paid as the spell or ability is being played includes hybrid mana symbols.” “Choose one or both —. he or she reveals those cards in his or her hand.” however. otherwise.

and effects that prevent abilities from . In these cases. Because a spell’s total cost is “locked in” before payments are actually made.4a If an effect allows a card that’s prohibited from being played to be played face down. you pay {2}{B}. Mana abilities must be played before costs are paid.2a If there is more than one opponent who could make such a choice. Playing a spell or ability that alters costs won’t do anything to spells and abilities that are already on the stack. 409.4. the player then has a chance to play mana abilities (see rule 411. You sacrifice Thunderscape Familiar. Handling Triggered Abilities 410. then the other player. 409. it becomes “locked in. 409. it is considered to be {0}. The total cost is the mana cost. This is an exception to rule 103. even though you’re sacrificing the Familiar. 409.2. Unpayable costs can’t be paid. and minus all cost reductions. It can’t be reduced to less than {0}. he or she gets priority. “Playing Mana Abilities”).1i Once the steps described in 409. If the mana component of the total cost is reduced to nothing by cost reduction effects.1a–h are completed. and the face-down spell would not be prohibited.2b If the spell or ability instructs its controller and another player to do something at the same time as the spell or ability is being played.4. 409. See rule 504. and so on. If the spell or ability’s controller had priority before playing it. 409. plus all additional costs and cost increases. activation cost. the spell’s controller goes first. Any abilities that trigger on a spell or ability being played or put onto the stack trigger at this time. whose effect makes your black spells cost {1} less to play. triggered abilities can trigger even when it isn’t legal to play spells and abilities. A player can’t begin to play a spell or activated ability that’s prohibited from being played by an effect.1. that spell can be played face down. Because they aren’t played.3. the spell or ability’s controller decides which of those opponents will make the choice. Example: You play Death Bomb. which costs {3}{B} and has an additional cost of sacrificing a creature. they have no effect. the spell or ability becomes played. Some spells and abilities specify that one of their controller’s opponents does something the controller would normally do while it’s being played. not {3}{B}.discarding cards. Once the total cost is determined. such as choose a mode or choose targets. the opponent does so when the spell or ability’s controller normally would do so. or alternative cost (as determined in rule 409.1g If the total cost includes a mana payment.1h The player pays the total cost in any order.1b).” 410. “Face-Down Spells and Permanents. 409.” If effects would change the total cost after this time. 409. 409. Partial payments are not allowed.

410. When a triggered ability goes on the stack. (See rule 103. all abilities that trigger “at the beginning of” that phase or step trigger. puts triggered abilities he or she controls on the stack in any order he or she chooses. Likewise.7. If multiple abilities have triggered since the last time a player received priority. then abilities that triggered during this process go on the stack. 410. or if a rule or a continuous effect otherwise makes the ability illegal. An ability triggers only once each time its trigger event occurs. its controller announces the mode choice when he or she puts the ability on the stack.4a If a triggered ability is modal (that is. that mode can’t be chosen. the ability will trigger once for each land put into the graveyard during the spell’s resolution. Each triggered ability on the stack has the text of the ability that created it. . If one of the modes would be illegal to play (due to an inability to choose legal targets. The choice is made when the ability resolves. 410. An ability triggers only if its trigger event actually occurs. If a choice is required when the triggered ability goes on the stack but no legal choices can be made for it. you may draw a card”). The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. in APNAP order. for example). the ability is simply removed from the stack. the controller of the ability makes any choices that would be required while playing an activated ability. it uses the phrase “Choose one —” or “[specified player] chooses one —”).) Then players once again check for and resolve state-based effects until none are generated.6. . However. the ability is removed from the stack.being played don’t affect them. that ability triggers. triggered abilities that have an effect “unless” something is true or a player chooses to do something will go on the stack normally. but it’s automatically put on the stack by its controller as soon as a player would receive priority. . If no mode can be chosen. Then the appropriate player gets priority.2. each player. it can trigger repeatedly if one event contains multiple occurrences. 410. the ability does not trigger. The ability doesn’t do anything when it triggers. 410. unless it’s a delayed triggered ability.5. This process repeats until no new state-based effects are generated and no abilities trigger. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities”). Whenever a game event or game state matches a triggered ability’s trigger event. and no other characteristics. 410. following the same procedure (see rule 409. See also rule 410. The ability is controlled by the player who controlled its source at the time it triggered.4.9.2a If a triggered ability’s trigger condition is met. Example: A permanent has an ability whose trigger condition reads. Some triggered abilities’ effects are optional (they contain “may.3. “Whenever a land is put into a graveyard from play. the “unless” part of the ability is dealt with when the ability resolves. When a phase or step begins.” as in “At the beginning of your upkeep. 410.” If someone plays a spell that destroys all lands. An event that’s . but the object with that triggered ability is at no time visible to all players. regardless of whether their controller intends to exercise the ability’s option or not.4. . 410. These abilities go on the stack when they trigger.

410.9e If an ability triggers when a creature blocks or becomes blocked by a particular number of creatures. The ability checks the condition again on resolution. Trigger events that involve objects changing zones are called “zonechange triggers.” Many abilities with zone-change triggers attempt to do something to that object after it changes zones. depending on the wording of the ability.9c An ability that reads “Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked. “When/Whenever/At [trigger]. the ability triggers if the creature blocks or is blocked by that many creatures when blockers are declared. such as a library or an opponent’s hand. or because it is in a zone that is hidden from a player. even if it had already been blocked that combat. 410. It triggers only if the creature is declared as a blocker. . It won’t trigger if the creature becomes blocked by an effect rather than a creature.” triggers once for each attacking creature the creature with the ability blocks. the ability does nothing. these abilities look for the object in the zone that it moved to. (This rule applies even if the object leaves the zone and returns again before the ability resolves. Some abilities trigger when creatures block or are blocked in combat. .9a An ability that reads “Whenever [this creature] blocks. .”) They may trigger once or repeatedly. . 410. the ability doesn’t trigger. the part of the ability attempting to do something to the object will fail to do anything.10. It will trigger if the creature becomes blocked by an effect rather than a creature. . . This rule is referred to as the “intervening ‘if’ clause” rule. if [condition].8. . 410. (See rules 306–311 and rule 500.) The . because it left the zone before the ability resolved. . If it’s not satisfied. It triggers only if the creature is declared as a blocker. Example: An ability that triggers on damage being dealt won’t trigger if all the damage is prevented.9. The ability could be unable to find the object because the object never entered the specified zone. Effects that add or remove blockers can also cause such abilities to trigger. 410. check for the condition to be true as part of the trigger event. . . During resolution. but only if it hadn’t already been blocked that combat. . 410. Note that this rule doesn’t apply to any triggered ability with an “if” condition elsewhere within its text. even if it blocks multiple creatures. If the object is unable to be found in the zone it went to. . It will also trigger if an effect causes a creature to block the attacking creature. 410.9d An ability that reads “Whenever a creature blocks [this creature]. 410.prevented or replaced won’t trigger anything. Triggered abilities with a condition directly following the trigger event (for example. [effect]”). Note that this mirrors the check for legal targets. This applies to abilities that trigger on a creature blocking or being blocked by at least a certain number of creatures as well. “Legal Attacks and Blocks. if it isn’t. It will also trigger if an effect causes a creature to block the attacking creature.” triggers once for each creature that blocks the named creature.9b An ability that reads “Whenever [this creature] blocks a creature.” triggers only once each combat for that creature.” triggers only once each combat for that creature. even if it’s blocked by multiple creatures.

Example: Two creatures are in play along with an artifact that has the ability “Whenever a creature is put into a graveyard from play.10c Leaves-play abilities trigger when a permanent leaves the in-play zone.” An ability that attempts to do something to the card that left play checks for it only in the first zone that it went to. . Example: If an effect reads “All lands are creatures” and a land card is played. Continuous effects that exist at that time are used to determine what the trigger conditions are and what the objects involved in the event look like. so it would trigger abilities that trigger when a creature comes into play. the effect makes the land card into a creature the moment it enters play.10e). . . .10b Continuous effects that modify characteristics of a permanent do so the moment the permanent is in play (and not before then).10d Normally. even if an object is put into that zone from play. “When [this object] comes into play. all permanents in play (including the newcomers) are checked for any comes-into-play triggers that match the event. . The game has to “look back in time” to determine if these abilities trigger. These are written. . . .” Each time an event puts one or more permanents into play. “ or “Whenever a [type] comes into play. even though the artifact goes to its owner’s graveyard at the same time as the creatures.” or “[This permanent] comes into play tapped. may have moved to a hand or library. however (see rule 410. . 410. . Continuous effects don’t apply before the permanent is in play. . . . These are written as. . The artifact’s ability triggers twice. so the comes-into-play ability won’t trigger. some triggered abilities must be treated specially because the object with the ability may no longer be in play.10a Comes-into-play abilities trigger when a permanent enters the in-play zone. Conversely. . and the appearance of objects. . and enchantments.most common zone-change triggers are comes-into-play triggers and leavesplay triggers. or may no longer be controlled by the appropriate player. Leaves–play abilities. The permanent is never in play with its unmodified characteristics.” Someone plays a spell that destroys all artifacts. objects that exist immediately after an event are checked to see if the event matched any trigger conditions.” “As [this permanent] comes into play . 410. .” “[This permanent] comes into play as . . 410. abilities that trigger when an object that all players can see is put into a hand or library.” or “Whenever [something] is put into a graveyard from play.” Such text is a static ability—not a triggered ability—whose effect occurs as part of the event that puts the permanent into play. if an effect reads “All creatures lose all abilities” and a creature card with a comes-into-play triggered ability enters play. creatures. and abilities that trigger when a player loses control of an object will trigger based on their existence. abilities that trigger specifically when an object becomes unattached. . . . However. but aren’t limited to. . 410. “When [this object] leaves play. you gain 1 life. An ability that triggers when a card is put into a certain zone “from anywhere” is never treated as a leaves-play ability. . that effect will cause it to lose its abilities the moment it enters play. prior to the event rather than afterward. 410.10e Some permanents have text that reads “[This permanent] comes into play with .

such as a player controlling no permanents of a particular card type. or has otherwise left the stack.12. without waiting for priority. Example: A permanent’s ability reads. if the object with the ability is still in the same zone and the game state still matches its trigger condition. It resolves immediately after it is played and doesn’t go on the stack. Triggered mana abilities trigger when an activated mana ability is played. These abilities trigger when a player loses or leaves the game.2.1. “Whenever you have no cards in hand. (Note that state triggers aren’t the same as state-based effects. A player may play an activated mana ability whenever he or she has priority. If an activated or triggered ability produces both mana and another effect. Some triggered abilities trigger on a game state.” If a player taps lands for mana while playing a spell.10f Some Auras have triggered abilities that trigger on the enchanted permanent leaving play. These abilities resolve immediately after the mana ability that triggered them.1b–i. the player announces that he or she is playing it and pays the activation cost. To play a mana ability. Then. following the steps in rules 409. These triggered abilities can find the new object that permanent card became in the zone it moved to. they can also find the new object the Aura card became in its owner’s graveyard after state-based effects have been checked. that player adds one mana of that type to his or her mana pool. See rule 102.) 411. then draw that many cards.” the ability will trigger during the spell’s resolution because the player’s hand was momentarily empty. a spell or ability.410. the additional mana is added to the player’s mana pool immediately and can be used to pay for the spell.) A state-triggered ability doesn’t trigger again until the ability has resolved.3. 412. If its controller plays a spell that reads “Discard your hand. Example: An enchantment reads. rather than triggering when an event occurs. or a Game Loss awarded by a judge in a tournament. the ability will trigger once and won’t trigger again until it has resolved. even in the middle of playing or resolving a spell or ability.” If its controller plays the last card from his or her hand.11. draw a card. A player may also play one whenever a rule or effect asks for a mana payment. “Whenever a player taps a land for mana. A static ability may generate a continuous effect or a prevention or replacement effect. These abilities trigger as soon as the game state matches the condition. (See rule 408. Some triggered abilities trigger specifically when a player loses the game. These are called state triggers. has been countered. They’ll go onto the stack at the next available opportunity.1. These effects last as long as the object with the static . both the mana and the other effect resolve immediately. See rule 217. regardless of the reason: Due to a state-based effect. the ability will trigger again. 411. 410.3. Playing Mana Abilities 411. Handling Static Abilities 412. 410. a concession.2e. or whenever he or she is playing a spell or activated ability that requires a mana payment.1c. 411.

if it has gained protection from white or left play). and Fortifications have static abilities that modify the object they’re attached to.” are now illegal. A target that’s moved out of the zone it was in when it was targeted is illegal. its last known information is used during this process. then Aura Blast is countered. Also. 412. . .” and “You may play [this object] without paying its mana cost” work while a spell is on the stack. . for example. for every instance of the word “target. . Unlike spells and other kinds of abilities. Draw a card. . its characteristics may have changed or an effect may have changed the text of the spell. Plagues Spores isn’t countered because the black creature land is still a legal target for the “target land” part of the spell. the spell or ability can’t perform any actions on it or make the target perform any actions. If the source of an ability has left the zone it was in.1. These are limited to those that read. These steps are followed in the order listed below. . but those abilities don’t target that object. They can’t be regenerated. Some static abilities apply while a spell is on the stack.” and “Play [this card] only . abilities that say “As an additional cost to play .2a If the spell or ability specifies targets.4.3. The spell or ability is countered if all its targets. . . Each time all players pass in succession. If a target is illegal. “Destroy target nonblack creature and target land. the object (a spell. Resolution of a spell or ability may involve several steps. 413. Resolving Spells and Abilities 413. it will resolve normally.” If the enchantment isn’t a legal target during Aura Blast’s resolution (say. These are often abilities that refer to countering the spell. Example: Plague Spores reads. affecting only the targets that are still legal. . 412.2. .2. Its controller doesn’t draw a card. “Destroy target enchantment. If an Aura.ability remains in the appropriate zone. it checks whether the targets are still legal.” 412. Example: Aura Blast is a white instant that reads. or combat damage) on top of the stack resolves. Many Auras.” “You can’t play [this card] . . an ability. 413. Equipment. “You may play [this card] . .2b The controller of the spell or ability follows its instructions in the order .” “You may pay [cost] rather than pay [this object]’s mana cost. Some static abilities apply while a card is in any zone that you could play it from (usually your hand).5. 412. or Fortification is moved to a different object. 413. and the color of the creature land is changed to black before Plague Spores resolves. If the spell or ability is not countered. “Effects. (See rule 416. Other changes to the game state may cause a target to no longer be legal.” Suppose the same animated land is chosen both as the nonblack creature and as the land.”) 413. static abilities can’t use an object’s last known information for purposes of determining how their effects are applied. the ability stops applying to the original object and starts modifying the new one. Equipment.

2e If an effect gives a player the option to pay mana. 413. 413. 413. you lose 4 life. the amount and division were determined as the spell or ability was put into the stack (see rule 402. it still affects . If you don’t. denoted by separate sentences or clauses. The player can’t choose an option that’s illegal or impossible. which may include playing other spells this way. the answer is determined only once. There are two exceptions: (1) if an effect deals damage divided among some number of creatures or players. If the effect requires information from a specific object. that involve multiple players. Example: An effect that reads “Destroy all black creatures” destroys a white-and-black creature. 413.6).3). but one that reads “Destroy all nonblack creatures” doesn’t. Example: A spell’s instruction reads. and then the first action is processed simultaneously.2f If an effect requires information from the game (such as the number of creatures in play).5). In some cases.4. otherwise. replacement effects may modify these actions. 413. he or she does so by putting that spell on top of the stack.2h If an ability’s effect refers to a specific untargeted object that has been previously referred to by that ability’s cost or trigger condition.2c If an effect offers any choices other than choices already made as part of playing the spell or ability.1a–i. No other spells or abilities can normally be played during resolution. put it on top of its owner’s library instead of into its owner’s graveyard. it’s the object as it exists—or as it most recently existed—that does it. the player announces these while applying the effect. and so on. the choices for the first action are made in APNAP order. later text on the card may modify the meaning of earlier text (for example. 413. Then the choices for the second action are made in APNAP order. The currently resolving spell or ability then continues to resolve. regardless of any related ones an object may also have. when the effect is applied. it checks only for the value of the specified characteristics. See rule 103. not the ability.”) Don’t just apply effects step by step without thinking in these cases—read the whole text and apply the rules of English to the text. and (2) static abilities can’t use last known information (see rule 412. If an effect specifically instructs or allows a player to play a spell during resolution. “Destroy target creature. and then that action is processed simultaneously. the effect uses the current information of that object if it hasn’t changed zones. “You may sacrifice a creature. except no player receives priority after it’s played. It can’t be regenerated” or “Counter target spell. If that spell is countered this way. However. including the source of the ability itself.2d Some spells and abilities have multiple steps or actions.” A player who controls no creatures can’t choose the sacrifice option. then continuing to play it by following the steps in rules 409. the effect uses the last known information the object had before leaving the zone it was expected to be in. he or she may play mana abilities before taking that action. with the exception that having an empty library doesn’t make drawing a card an impossible action (see rule 423.2g If an effect refers to certain characteristics.written. In these cases. If the ability text states that an object does something.

413.2j If an effect could result in a tie. 415. but the spell is not. Targeted Spells and Abilities 415. player. An activated or triggered ability of an Aura permanent can be targeted. see rule 502.1. “Equip. Aura spells are always targeted.” If Wall of Tears blocks a creature. Clone can’t come into play from the stack. that player puts it into its owner’s graveyard. instead it doesn’t.3. 413. you may choose a creature in play. 414. only the spell is targeted. 415.) Example: A sorcery card has the ability “When you cycle this card.that object even if the object has changed characteristics. the text of the spell or ability that created the effect will specify what to do in the event of a tie. An Aura’s target is specified by its enchant keyword ability (see rule 502. 414. 415. An instant or sorcery spell is targeted if the text that will be followed when it resolves uses the phrase “target [something]. (If an activated or triggered ability of an instant or sorcery uses the word target.2.” If a player plays Clone and chooses to copy Dryad Arbor (a land creature) while Worms of the Earth is in play. or zone. Countering an ability removes it from the stack. To counter a spell is to move the spell from the stack to its owner’s graveyard. then that creature ceases to be a creature before the triggered ability resolves. If you do.1. Neither Equipment spells nor Equipment permanents target anything. If a permanent spell resolves but its controller can’t put it into play. An Aura permanent doesn’t target anything.” where the “something” is a phrase that describes an object. the permanent will still be returned to its owner’s hand. Example: Worms of the Earth says “If a land would come into play. Spells and abilities that are countered don’t resolve and none of their effects occur. The player who played the countered spell or ability doesn’t get a “refund” of any costs that were paid.” This triggered ability is targeted. The Magic game has no default for ties. . “Enchant”). or zone.” An activated or triggered ability of an Equipment permanent can be targeted. that ability is targeted.2.33.2i A spell is put into play from the stack under the control of the spell’s controller (for permanents) or is put into its owner’s graveyard from the stack (for instants and sorceries) as the final step of the spell’s resolution.45. target creature gets -1/-1 until end of turn. It’s put into its owner’s graveyard. Clone comes into play as a copy of that creature.” Clone says “As Clone comes into play. The equip ability is targeted.” where the “something” is a phrase that describes an object. An ability is removed from the stack and ceases to exist as the final step of its resolution. Countering Spells and Abilities 414. An activated or triggered ability is targeted if it uses the phrase “target [something]. Example: Wall of Tears says “Whenever Wall of Tears blocks a creature. return that creature to its owner’s hand at end of combat. but that doesn’t make the card it’s on targeted. player.

The word “you” in an object’s text doesn’t indicate a target. Effects 416.7a The target of a spell or ability can change only to another legal target.2. the original target is unchanged.2. Example: An effect that changes all lands into creatures won’t alter land cards in players’ graveyards.8. The fortify ability is targeted.1. Spells and abilities that can have zero or more targets are targeted only if one or more targets have been chosen for them. 417. This kind of effect . “Fortify. 416. Some effects are replacement effects or prevention effects. If an effect moves cards out of the library (as opposed to drawing).” An activated or triggered ability of a Fortification permanent can be targeted. an effect that reads “Discard two cards” causes him or her to discard only that card. Static abilities may create one or more continuous effects. 415. 417. it does only as much as possible. 415. 415. But an effect that says spells cost more to play will apply only to spells on the stack.1. unless a spell or ability (a) specifies that it can target an object in another zone or a player or (b) targets an object that can’t exist in the in-play zone. destruction of permanents.5. see rule 502. such as a spell or ability. 415.6. it may create one or more one-shot or continuous effects. When a spell or ability resolves. A spell or ability on the stack is an illegal target for itself. One-Shot Effects 417. State-based effects are not created by spells or abilities. it moves as many as possible. 415. If the target can’t be changed to another legal target.Neither Fortification spells nor Fortification permanents target anything.3. 415. If an effect attempts to do something impossible. 416.4. Changing Targets 415. Changing a spell or ability’s target can’t change its mode. and moving objects between zones.7. 416. they are generated by specific rules of the game (see rule 420). since a spell is always on the stack while you are playing it. Effects apply only to permanents unless the instruction’s text states otherwise or they clearly can apply only to objects in one or more other zones. Examples include damage dealing. A one-shot effect does something just once and doesn’t have a duration.7b Modal spells and abilities may have different targeting requirements for each mode. Only permanents are legal targets for spells and abilities.65. Some one-shot effects instruct a player to do something later in the game (usually at a specific time) rather than when they resolve. Example: If a player is holding only one card.

so it’s modifying the rules of the game.3b The set of objects that are affected by continuous effects from spells. See rule 413. They don’t wait until the permanent is in play and then change it.4. or affects players or the rules of the game. . (See rule 404. After that point. on resolution. apply them before determining whether the permanent will cause an ability to trigger when it comes into play. 418. . Continuous Effects from Spells or Abilities 418. That means the effect will apply even to damage from creatures that weren’t in play when the continuous effect began. 418. A continuous effect modifies characteristics of objects.3d Some effects from activated or triggered abilities have durations worded “as long as .1. and triggered abilities that modify the characteristics or change the controller of those objects is determined when that continuous effect begins. Continuous effects that don’t modify characteristics or change the controller of objects modify the rules of the game.2. the value of that variable is determined only once.) 418. 418. it lasts until the end of the game. . so they can affect objects that weren’t affected when the continuous effect began. It also affects damage from permanents that become creatures later in the turn.3. and it doesn’t last forever. Example: An effect that reads “All white creatures get +1/+1 until end of turn” gives the bonus to all permanents that are white creatures when the spell or ability resolves—even if they change color later—and doesn’t affect those that come into play or turn white afterward. the set won’t change.2f. for a fixed or indefinite period.” If you play this ability and then Endoskeleton becomes untapped before the ability resolves. Example: An effect that reads “Prevent all damage creatures would deal this turn” doesn’t modify any object’s characteristics. If no duration is stated.actually creates a new ability that waits to be triggered. Continuous Effects 418.3a A continuous effect generated by the resolution of a spell or ability lasts as long as stated by the spell or ability creating it (such as “until end of turn”). Because such effects apply as the permanent comes into play. modifies control of objects. . 418. Example: Endoskeleton is an artifact with an activated ability that reads “{2}. 418. Continuous effects that modify characteristics of permanents do so simultaneously with the permanent coming into play. activated abilities. It doesn’t start and immediately stop again.3c If a resolving spell or ability that creates a continuous effect contains a variable such as X. A continuous effect may be generated by the resolution of a spell or ability or by a static ability of an object. {T}: Target creature gets +0/+3 as long as Endoskeleton remains tapped. it does nothing. because its duration—remaining tapped—was over before the effect began. the effect does nothing.” If the “as long as” duration ends before the moment the effect would first be applied. Note that these work differently than continuous effects from static abilities.

(6b) all other effects not specifically applied in 6c.4a A continuous effect generated by a static ability isn’t “locked in”. a creature that stops being white loses it. (4) type-changing effects (which includes effects that change an object’s card type.and/or toughness-changing effects. If a creature becomes white. or 6e. 418. “Copying Objects”). (6c) changes from counters.5b–418. apply effects in timestamp order. becoming 3/3. making it a 1/4 (0/1. making it 3/3. 418. apply effects in a series of sublayers in the following order: (6a) effects from characteristic-defining abilities. If an effect then turns the creature white (layer 5). 6d. and it will return to being a 2/2. a 2/2 creature. plus +1/+1 from the counter.418. is in play. An effect that says “Target creature becomes 0/1 until end of turn” is applied to it (layer 6b). 418. making it a 7/9. Continuous Effects from Static Abilities 418. Note that dependency may alter the order in which effects are applied within a layer or sublayer.5a The values of an object’s characteristics are determined by starting with the actual object.5g).” Crusade and a 2/2 black creature are in play. Interaction of Continuous Effects 418. and (6) power. An effect that says “Target creature gets +4/+4 until end of turn” is applied to it (layer 6b).5b If an effect should be applied in different layers. Inside each layer from 1 through 5. The creature doesn’t come into play as 1/1 and then change to 2/2. except those that change power and/or toughness.5. (3) text-changing effects. it gets this bonus. If the creature’s color is later changed to red (layer 5). Example: A permanent with the static ability “All white creatures get +1/+1” generates an effect that continuously gives +1/+1 to each white creature in play. apply effects from characteristicdefining abilities first. it will continue to be applied to the same set of objects in each other applicable layer. the parts of the effect each apply in their appropriate layers. plus +0/+2 from the enchantment). and (6e) effects that switch a creature’s power and toughness. subtype. Crusade’s effect stops applying to it.4. A creature spell that would normally create a 1/1 white creature instead creates a 2/2 white creature. even if the ability generating the effect is removed during . Example: Crusade is an enchantment that reads “White creatures get +1/+1. it gets +1/+1 from Crusade (layer 6d). An effect puts a +1/+1 counter on it (layer 6c). (2) control-changing effects. (6d) effects from static abilities that modify power and/or toughness but don’t set power and/or toughness to a specific number or value. Inside layer 6. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418. (5) all other continuous effects. Example: Gray Ogre. it applies at any given moment to whatever its text indicates. making it 7/7. If an effect starts to apply in one layer.4b The effect applies at all times that the permanent generating it is in play or the object generating it is in the appropriate zone. then applying continuous effects in a series of layers in the following order: (1) copy effects (see rule 503. then all other effects in timestamp order. and/or supertype). An enchantment that says “Creatures you control get +0/+2” enters play (layer 6d). Within each sublayer.

If several dependent effects form a dependency loop.’ It’s still a land. 5. the active player determines their timestamp order at that time. . An effect that says “Target creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn” is applied to it (layer 6b). making it a 4/4 land creature. Example: Grab the Reins has an effect that reads “Until end of turn.5d An effect dependent on one or more other effects waits to apply until just after all of those effects have been applied. 418. 418. (c) Permanents that phase in keep the same timestamps they had when they phased out.” This is both a control-changing effect and an “other” effect. If a creature card enters or leaves your graveyard. Svogthos’s power and toughness will be modified accordingly. It becomes a 10/10 land creature.and toughness-setting effect is applied to those same permanents in layer 6. or Fortification becomes attached to an object or player. 418. if applicable. or Fortification receives a new timestamp. and (c) neither effect is from a characteristic-defining ability.”) while you have ten creature cards in your graveyard (layers 4. Svogthos. even though those permanents aren’t noncreature artifacts by then. sublayer) as the other effect (see rule 418. the Restless Tomb. and 6b). An effect that says “Until end of turn. the Restless Tomb becomes a black and green Plant Zombie creature with ‘This creature’s power and toughness are each equal to the number of creature cards in your graveyard.5e An object’s timestamp is the time it entered the zone it’s currently in. Example: Svogthos. it will become a 3/3 land creature again. the Aura. (b) applying the other would change the text or the existence of the first effect. and then the “it gains haste” part is applied in layer 5. Example: An effect that reads “All noncreature artifacts become 2/2 artifact creatures until end of turn” is both a type-changing effect and a power. such as by entering a zone simultaneously or becoming attached simultaneously. If the first effect is applied to it again. Equipment.and toughness-setting effect. they’re applied in “timestamp order” relative to each other. The type-changing effect is applied to all noncreature artifacts in layer 4 and the power. you gain control of target creature and it gains haste. the effect is considered to be independent of the other effect. If multiple dependent effects would apply simultaneously in this way. Equipment. is in play. Otherwise. then this rule is ignored and the effects in the dependency loop are applied in timestamp order. (b) If two or more objects would receive a timestamp simultaneously. Example: An effect that reads “Wild Mongrel gets +1/+1 and becomes the color of your choice until end of turn” is both a powerand toughness-changing effect and an “other” kind of effect. The “you gain control” part is applied in layer 2. target land becomes a 3/3 creature that’s still a land” is applied to it (layers 4 and 6b). with three exceptions: (a) Whenever an Aura. what it applies to. and then the “gets +1/+1” part is applied in layer 6. The “becomes the color of your choice” part is applied in layer 5.5c An effect is said to “depend on” another if (a) it’s applied in the same layer (and.5a).this process. or what it does to any of the things it applies to. Then you activate Svogthos’s ability (“Until end of turn.

Its new power and toughness is 4/1. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418. These effects are applied after all other effects that affect power and toughness.) Example: A 1/3 creature is given +0/+1 by an effect. For example. Its new power and toughness is 4/1.5b–g). 418. When they’re applied. 418.1f. whichever is later. Example: Two Auras are played on the same creature: “Enchanted creature gains flying” and “Enchanted creature loses flying. and take the object’s toughness and apply it to the object’s power.6a An effect that changes the text of an object changes only those words that are used in the correct way (for example. Text-Changing Effects 418. a Magic color word being used as a color word. or a creature . effects may modify a player’s maximum hand size. “Enchanted creature is white.5j Some continuous effects affect players rather than objects.5g A continuous effect generated by the resolution of a spell or ability receives a timestamp at the time it’s created.5k Some continuous effects affect game rules rather than objects. 418. a land type word used as a land type.418.” The enchanted creature gets +1/+1 from the first effect.5b–418. regardless of its previous color. All other such effects are applied in timestamp order. For example. so its actual power and toughness is 4/6.5g). 418. Applying them in timestamp order means the one that was generated last “wins.5i Some effects switch a creature’s power and toughness. an effect might give a player protection from red. Sometimes the results of one effect determine whether another effect applies or what another effect does.5a. Continuous effects that affect the costs of spells or abilities are applied according to the order specified in rule 409. These effects are applied after all other continuous effects have been applied. Its “unswitched” power and toughness would be 6/4. A new effect gives the creature +5/+0. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418. “White creatures get +1/+1.5f A continuous effect generated by a static ability has the same timestamp as the object the static ability is on.” Neither of these depends on the other. Example: A 1/3 creature is given +0/+1 by an effect. since nothing changes what they affect or what they’re doing to it.5h One continuous effect can override another. Example: One effect reads. (See rule 418. All such effects are applied in timestamp order after the determination of objects’ characteristics.” and another.6. they take the value of power and apply it to the object’s toughness. the creature becomes a 3/1. 418. 418. or the timestamp of the effect that created the ability. Then another effect switches the creature’s power and toughness. Then another effect switches the creature’s power and toughness.” It’s irrelevant whether an effect is temporary (such as “Target creature loses flying until end of turn”) or global (such as “All creatures lose flying”). If the +0/+1 effect ends before the switch effect ends.

418.type word used as a creature type). There are no special restrictions on playing a spell or ability that generates a replacement or prevention effect. because they are being used as creature types. Most replacement effects use the word “instead” to indicate what events will be replaced with other events and use the word “skip” to indicate what events.1d Effects that use the word “prevent” are prevention effects. .3. such as a card name. phases.” are replacement effects. . Example: A player can play a regeneration ability in response to a spell . 419. 419. 419.6b Effects that add or remove abilities don’t change the text of the objects they affect.2.” “As [this permanent] comes into play . These effects act like “shields” around whatever they’re affecting. Usually spells and abilities that generate these effects are played in response to whatever would produce the event and thus resolve before that event would occur. The effect can’t change a proper noun.1b Effects that read “[This permanent] comes into play with . Prevention effects use “prevent” to indicate what events will not occur. even if that proper noun contains a word or a series of letters that is the same as a Magic color word.1c Continuous effects that read “[This permanent] comes into play . 419. . . 419.6c Most spells and abilities that create creature tokens use creature types to define both the creature types and the names of the tokens.” or “[Objects] come into play . ” are replacement effects. Replacement and prevention effects are continuous effects that watch for a particular event to happen and then completely or partially replace that event. 419. 419.1e Effects that read “As [this permanent] is turned face up . . .” or “[This permanent] comes into play as .” are replacement effects. These characteristics can be changed by text-changing effects. These words can be changed. or turns will be replaced with nothing. . . . . . Replacement and Prevention Effects 419. . so any abilities that are granted to an object can’t be changed by effects that change the text of that object. Replacement and prevention effects apply continuously as events happen —they aren’t locked in ahead of time. .1. . 418. basic land type. Such effects last until they’re used up or their duration has expired. 419. steps.4. Replacement or prevention effects must exist before the appropriate event occurs—they can’t “go back in time” and change something that’s already happened. even though they’re also being used as names. 418. .1a Effects that use the word “instead” are replacement effects.6d A creature token’s creature type and rules text are defined by the spell or ability that created the token. 419. or creature type.

each with an ability that reads “If a creature you control would deal damage to a creature or player. which may in turn trigger abilities. or turn.5a If a source would deal 0 damage.6b Regeneration is a destruction-replacement effect. phase.” Once a step. and not an infinite amount. Example: A player controls two permanents. so they have no effect. or turn has started.” Abilities that trigger from damage being dealt still trigger even if the permanent regenerates. step. or is no longer a creature or planeswalker when the damage would be redirected.6e Skipping an event. 419. 419. such effects are called “redirection” effects. or player with the same damage dealt to another creature. “Skip [something]” is the same as “Instead of doing [something].6d Some spells and abilities replace part or all of their own effect(s) when they resolve. Replacement Effects 419. Note that the modified event may contain instructions that can’t be carried out. “Regenerate [permanent]” means “The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn. it does not deal damage at all. 419. When applying replacement effects to an event. It also means that replacement effects that increase damage dealt have no event to replace. planeswalker. while the other will remain until another occurrence can be skipped. or turn won’t happen.” A creature that normally deals 2 damage will deal 8 damage —not just 4. phase. remove it from combat. A modified event occurs instead. then apply other replacement effects. 419. 419. in which case the impossible instruction is simply ignored. apply self-replacement effects first. The word “instead” doesn’t appear on the card but is implicit in the definition of regeneration. That action is considered to be the first thing that happens during .6c Some effects replace damage dealt to one creature. or player.5. instead remove all damage from it and tap it. If it’s an attacking or blocking creature. Anything scheduled for the “next” occurrence of something waits for the first occurrence that isn’t skipped. planeswalker. it never happens. phase. 419. Such effects are called self-replacement effects. 419. If two effects each cause a player to skip his or her next occurrence. phase. it can no longer be skipped—any skip effects will wait until the next occurrence. or turn is a replacement effect. 419. the effect does nothing.that would destroy a creature he or she controls. If either creature or planeswalker is no longer in play when the damage would be redirected. That means abilities that trigger on damage being dealt won’t trigger.6. 419. do nothing.6f Anything scheduled for a skipped step. that player must skip the next two. If an event is prevented or replaced.6g Some effects cause a player to skip a step. it deals double that damage to that creature or player instead. one effect will be satisfied in skipping the first occurrence. then another action.6a A replacement effect doesn’t invoke itself repeatedly and gets only one opportunity for each event.

Example: Yixlid Jailer says “Cards in graveyards have no abilities.7. They may also come from other sources. Example: Voice of All says “As Voice of All comes into play. before resuming the sequence. Prevention Effects 419.” These abilities are linked: the second refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone that were moved there as a direct result of the replacement event caused by the first. 419. and the draw is replaced. so Orb of Dreams is put into play untapped. If an effect would have a player both draw a card and perform an additional action on that card. choose a color” and “Voice of All has protection from the chosen color. or turn to actually occur.7b Some prevention effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability refer to a specific amount of damage—for example. 419. Each 1 damage that would be dealt to the “shielded” creature or player is prevented. Example: Orb of Dreams is an artifact that says “Permanents come into play tapped. Preventing 1 damage reduces the remaining shield by 1.” An effect creates a token that’s a copy of Voice of All. the abilities will be similarly linked on that object. If an effect replaces a draw within a sequence of card draws.1c). (See rules 419. regardless of what other abilities the object may currently have or may have had in the past. its controller chooses a color for it. They can’t be linked to any other ability. and continuous effects from the permanent’s own static abilities.” 419.” Scarwood Treefolk says “Scarwood Treefolk is put into play tapped. and another ability that refers either to “the removed cards” or to cards “removed from the game with [this object]. 419. all actions required by the replacement are completed.6h Some effects replace card draws. “Linked Abilities.” These work like shields. See rule 407. phase. but ignoring continuous effects from any other source that would affect it. taking into account replacement effects that have already modified how it comes into play. “Prevent the next 3 damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn. These effects are applied even if no cards could be drawn because there are no cards in the affected player’s library.6j An object may have one ability printed on it that generates a replacement effect which causes one or more cards to be removed from the game.the next step.1b-c. the additional action is not performed on any cards that are drawn as a result of that replacement effect. check the characteristics of the permanent as it would exist in play. If another object gains a pair of linked abilities. if possible.) Such effects may come from the permanent itself if they affect only that permanent (as opposed to a general subset of permanents that includes it). To determine how and whether these replacement effects apply.” It will not affect itself.7a Prevention effects usually apply to damage that would be dealt.” A Scarwood Treefolk that’s put into play from a graveyard is put into play tapped.6i Some replacement effects modify how a permanent comes into play. If damage would be dealt to the shielded creature or player by . As that token is put into play. continuous effects generated by the resolution of spells or abilities that changed the permanent’s characteristics on the stack (see rule 217. 419.

Example: Wojek Apothecary has an ability that says “{T}: Prevent the next 1 damage that would be dealt to target creature and each other creature that shares a color with it this turn. “If a source would deal damage to you. the shield isn’t used up. It will apply separately to damage from other applicable sources.8b Some effects from spells and abilities prevent or replace damage from sources with certain properties. 419. The prevention takes place at the time the original event would have happened. Such an effect creates a prevention shield for each applicable creature when the spell or ability that generates that effect resolves. creature. 419. it gives the target creature and each other creature in play that shares a color with it at that time a shield preventing the next 1 damage that would be dealt to it. prevent that damage. or a creature that assigned combat damage on the stack. enchantment.7e Some prevention effects also include an additional effect.7d Some prevention effects prevent the next N damage that would be dealt to each of a number of untargeted creatures. prevent 1 of that damage. 419. 419. the effect will apply to any damage from that spell and from the permanent that it becomes when it resolves. enchantment.” When the ability resolves. even if the creature is no longer in play or is no longer a creature. When the source would deal damage. Changing creatures’ colors after the ability resolves doesn’t add or remove shields. or planeswalker spell). and creatures that come into play later in the turn don’t get the shield. the number of events or sources dealing it doesn’t matter. such as a creature or a source of a particular color. The source is chosen when the effect is created.8a Some effects apply to damage from a source—for example.8. the rest of the effect takes place immediately afterward. any remaining damage is dealt normally.” If an effect requires a player to choose a source. any card or permanent referred to by an object on the stack. the “shield” rechecks the source’s properties. the damage isn’t prevented or replaced. If for any reason the shield prevents no damage or replaces no damage. 419.7c Some prevention effects generated by static abilities refer to a specific amount of damage—for example. or to damage that would be dealt by the same source at a different time. “The next time a red source of your choice would deal damage to you this turn. If the player chooses a permanent. Sources of Damage 419. or planeswalker spell.” Such an effect prevents only the indicated amount of damage from any applicable source at any given time.8c Some effects from static abilities prevent or replace damage from . Once the shield has been reduced to 0. 419. the effect will apply to the next damage from that permanent. regardless of whether it’s from one of that permanent’s abilities or combat damage dealt by it. creature. If the player chooses an artifact. which may refer to the amount of damage that was prevented. If the properties no longer match. the player or the controller of the creature chooses which damage the shield prevents. Such effects count only the amount of damage.two or more applicable sources at the same time. a spell on the stack (including an artifact. he or she may choose a permanent.

State-based effects are always active and are not controlled by any player. instead shuffle it into its owner’s library. State-Based Effects 420. Example: A player controls a creature with the ability “This creature’s power and toughness are each equal to the number of cards in your . 419. Unlike triggered abilities.” and the other is a creature that reads “If [this creature] would be put into a graveyard from play. one of them must be chosen. the player puts a card from his or her graveyard into his or her hand.9. 420. the prevention or replacement applies to sources that are permanents with that property and to any sources that aren’t in play that have that property. Example: Two permanents are in play. One is an enchantment that reads “If a card would be put into a graveyard. the affected object’s controller (or its owner if it has no controller) or the affected player chooses one to apply.” The controller of the creature that would be destroyed decides which replacement to apply first. This check is also made during the cleanup step (see rule 314).9a If two or more replacement or prevention effects are attempting to modify the way an event affects an object or player. 420. state-based effects pay no attention to what happens during the resolution of a spell or ability. 419. For these effects. the other does nothing. Whenever a player would get priority (see rule 408. return a card from your graveyard to your hand instead. If any of those effects are self-replacement effects (see rule 419. instead draw a card.” and another reads “If you would draw a card.sources with certain properties. this process is repeated (taking into account only replacement or prevention effects that would now be applicable) until there are no more left to apply.” Both effects combine (regardless of the order they came into existence): Instead of gaining 1 life. then the check is repeated.9b A replacement effect can become applicable to an event as the result of another replacement effect that modifies the event. All applicable effects resolve simultaneously as a single event. the active player receives priority. instead remove it from the game. Otherwise. Abilities that watch for a specified game state are triggered abilities. and then the appropriate player gets priority.4. Example: One effect reads “For each 1 life you would gain. If two or more players have to make these choices at the same time. any of the applicable effects may be chosen. “Triggered Abilities. triggered abilities go on the stack. (See rule 404. Interaction of Replacement or Prevention Effects 419.6d). choices are made in APNAP order (see rule 103. if any of the listed conditions apply.2. Once no more state-based effects have been generated. the game checks for any of the listed conditions for state-based effects.4). but any of those effects would modify under whose control an object would come into play. not state-based effects. Once the chosen effect has been applied. one of them must be chosen.”) 420.1.3. State-based effects are a special category that apply only to those conditions listed below. “Timing of Spells and Abilities”). If not. 420.

420. 420.hand” and plays a spell whose effect is “Discard your hand.5h A player with ten or more poison counters loses the game.5a A player with 0 or less life loses the game. or not attached to an object or player.5n If a permanent has both a +1/+1 counter and a -1/-1 counter on it.5g A player who attempted to draw a card from an empty library since the last time state-based effects were checked loses the game. The state-based effects are as follows: 420. this rule doesn’t apply. This is called the “world rule. This is called the “legend rule. where N is the smaller of the number of +1/+1 and -1/-1 counters on it. It remains in play.5j If a copy of a spell is in a zone other than the stack. If a copy of a card is in any zone other than the stack or the in-play zone.” The creature will temporarily have toughness 0 in the middle of the spell’s resolution but will be back up to toughness 7 when the spell finishes resolving. it ceases to exist. an ability that triggers when the player has no cards in hand goes on the stack after the spell resolves. but greater than 0 toughness. but is attached to another permanent. 420. is destroyed. 420. Regeneration can replace this event. N +1/+1 and N -1/-1 counters are removed from it.5c A creature with lethal damage. It remains in play. it ceases to exist.5b A creature with toughness 0 or less is put into its owner’s graveyard. then draw seven cards.5d An Aura attached to an illegal object or player. 420. an Equipment. 420.5f A token in a zone other than the in-play zone ceases to exist. 420. nor a Fortification.5e If two or more legendary permanents with the same name are in play. because its trigger event happened during resolution.” 420. 420. 420.5i If two or more permanents have the supertype world. becomes unattached from that permanent. In the event of a tie for the shortest amount of time. 420. . is put into its owner’s graveyard. all are put into their owners’ graveyards. 420. 420. Regeneration can’t replace this event. all except the one that has been a permanent with the world supertype in play for the shortest amount of time are put into their owners’ graveyards.5.5m A permanent that’s neither an Aura. Thus the creature will survive when statebased effects are checked.” If only one of those permanents is legendary. all are put into their owners’ graveyards. 420.5p A planeswalker with loyalty 0 is put into its owner’s graveyard. In contrast. Lethal damage is an amount of damage greater than or equal to a creature’s toughness.5k An Equipment or Fortification attached to an illegal permanent becomes unattached from that permanent.

420. which says “If you would lose the game.4b. one player controls a creature with the ability “{0}: [This creature] gains flying.5g. It can be higher. the active player (or. 421. whichever comes first. if the active player is not involved.) 421. If the loop contains more than one set of optional.” Or he or she can agree to the number the first player chose. in which case the loop continues that number of times plus whatever fraction is necessary for the first player to “have the last word. in turn order. 421. Example: You control Lich’s Mirror. your graveyard. 421. then draw seven cards and your life total becomes 20.” (Note that either fraction may be zero. Lich’s Mirror replaces that game loss and you keep playing. if the active player is not involved. Instead. and all permanents you own into your library. (See rule 102. the first involved player after the active player in turn order) chooses a number. the remaining players.6.4. The loop is treated as repeating that many times or until another player intervenes. the nonactive player will always have the final choice and therefore be able to determine whether the creature has flying. He or she can choose a lower number. the first involved player after the active player in turn order) chooses a number for his or her set of actions.) This sequence of choices is extended to all applicable players if there are more than two players involved. Handling “Infinite” Loops 421.) 421. If a loop contains optional actions controlled by two players and actions by both of those players are required to continue the loop. If the loop contains only mandatory actions.2. then the active player (or. each controlled by different players. Occasionally the game can get into a state in which a set of actions could be repeated forever. each choose a number for his or her sets of actions. Then each set of actions occurs . Example: In a two-player game. The next time state-based effects are checked. instead shuffle your hand. in which case the loop continues that number of times plus whatever fraction is necessary for the second player to “have the last word. If multiple state-based effects would have the same result at the same time. lower.” The “infinity rule” ensures that regardless of which player initiated the gain/lose flying ability. that player chooses a number. independent actions. If the loop contains one or more optional actions and one player controls them all. you’d lose the game due to rule 420. or the same. Knowing that number. The other player then has two choices.5.3. This is called the “planeswalker uniqueness rule. (Note that this assumes that the first player attempted to give the creature flying at least once.1. a single replacement effect will replace all of them. all are put into their owners’ graveyards.” There’s one card in your library and your life total is 1. the game ends in a draw.” 420.” and another player controls a permanent with the ability “{0}: Target creature loses flying.5a and rule 420. These rules (sometimes called the “infinity rules”) govern how to break such loops.5q If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are in play. A spell causes you to draw two cards and lose 2 life.

Drawing a Card 423. If an effect moves cards from a player’s library to that player’s hand without using the word “draw.5.2b If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a TwoHeaded Giant game. .6. The player may redo the reversed action in a legal way or take any other action allowed by the rules. When reversing illegal spells and abilities. 423. A player who attempts to draw a card from an empty library loses the game the next time a player would receive priority.3. 423.5g.2.) 423. If there are no cards in a player’s library and an effect offers that player the choice to draw a card. then the secondary player on that team performs all of his or her draws. Handling Illegal Actions 422. If a player realizes that he or she can’t legally take an action after starting to do so. 423. No abilities trigger and no effects apply as a result of an undone action. If a player is instructed to draw multiple cards.1.4. A player draws a card by putting the top card of his or her library into his or her hand. If no player chooses to perform [Y]. The player may also reverse any legal mana abilities played while making the illegal play. that player performs that many individual card draws. 423. the spell returns to the zone it came from. Players may not reverse actions that moved cards to a library or from a library to any zone other than the stack. the loop will continue as though [X] were mandatory. However. 423. then the nonactive team does the same. 422. the active player performs all of his or her draws first. no player can be forced to perform [Y] to break the loop.1. then each other player in turn order does the same. This makes a difference for abilities that trigger on drawing cards or that replace card draws. 423. See rule 420.” where [X] and [Y] are each actions.2. Cards may only be drawn one at a time. first the primary player (seated on the right) on the active team performs all of his or her draws. (This is a state-based effect. unless mana from them or from any triggered mana abilities they triggered was spent on another mana ability that wasn’t reversed. If the action was playing a spell.” the player has not drawn those cards. that player can’t choose to do so.2a If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards. the player who had priority retains it and may take another action or pass. 422.the appropriate number of times. It may also be done as part of a cost or effect of a spell or ability. the entire action is reversed and any payments already made are canceled. 421. as well as if the player’s library is empty. If the loop contains an effect that says “[X] unless [Y]. This is done as a game action during each player’s draw step. that player can choose to do so. if an effect says that a player can’t draw cards and another effect offers that player the choice to draw a card.

1f–h. causing Hesitation’s ability to trigger. If the draw is replaced. If [a player] [does or doesn’t]. 424. but a cost reduction effect means you spend only {W} when paying for the spell. 423. Paying the cost to play a spell or activated ability follows the steps in rules 409. A player can’t pay a cost unless he or she has the necessary resources to pay it fully. If [that player] [does or doesn’t]. If a cost includes a mana payment.6. the player paying the cost has a chance to play mana abilities. counter that spell. 424. sacrifice Hesitation. [effect].423.5. See rule 203.6c Some effects perform additional actions on a card after it’s drawn. Unpayable costs can’t be paid. “[X]. . (See rule 203. Some spells. activated abilities. Costs 424. If you do. “Mana Cost and Color. it is considered to be {0}. Paying a cost changed or reduced by an effect counts as paying the original cost.” and rule 403. Example: You control Hesitation. What a player actually needs to do to pay a cost may be changed or reduced by effects. paid when the spell or ability resolves.7. [effect]. regardless of what events actually occurred. Some replacement effects result in multiple card draws. the replacement effect is completed before resuming the sequence. A cost is an action or payment necessary to take another action or to stop another action from taking place. 423. and a permanent that’s already tapped can’t be tapped to pay a cost.1b.” The action [X] is a cost.” or “[a player] may [X].2. 423.1.” 424. any parts of the original event that haven’t been replaced by the effect occur first. an enchantment that says “When a spell is played.6b If an effect replaces a draw within a sequence of card draws. When Hesitation’s ability resolves. The spell is not countered. Then an ability is played that removes Hesitation from the game. and triggered abilities read. The spell’s “if the kicker cost was paid” effect will be applied. you’re unable to pay the “sacrifice Hesitation” cost.4. the additional action is not performed on any cards that are drawn as a result of that replacement effect or any subsequent replacement effects. 424.) 424. For example. then the card draws happen one at a time.” A spell is played. In such a case. The “If [a player] [does or doesn’t]” clause checks whether the player chose to pay an optional cost or started to pay a mandatory cost. If the mana component of a cost is reduced to nothing by cost reduction effects. “Activated Abilities.6a An effect that replaces a card draw is applied even if no cards could be drawn because there are no cards in the affected player’s library. Some effects replace card draws.6. You choose to pay the kicker.3. 423. a player with only 1 life can’t pay a cost of 2 life. 424. Example: You play a spell with mana cost {W} that has kicker {1}.

you may put a creature card with morph from your hand into play face up. it comes into play under your opponent’s control instead of yours. since you chose to pay the cost. If you do. return Dermoplasm to its owner’s hand. a spell that says “If a creature would come into play under an opponent’s control this turn. Due to Gather Specimens.” You turn Dermoplasm face up. However. a creature with morph that says “When Dermoplasm is turned face up.Example: Your opponent has played Gather Specimens. Dermoplasm is still returned to its owner’s hand. and you choose to put a creature card with morph from your hand into play. it comes into play under your control instead.” You control a face-down Dermoplasm. .

”) A restriction is an effect that says a creature can’t block (or attack) or it can’t block (or attack) unless some condition is met. Example: A player controls one creature that “blocks if able” and another creature with no abilities. If such a restriction or requirement conflicts with the proposed attack. the defending player checks each creature he or she controls to see whether it must block. Evasion abilities are static abilities that modify the declare blockers step of the combat phase. If there are multiple scenarios in which all restrictions are being followed and the maximum possible number of requirements are being followed (even if not all of them are). can’t attack. or is affected by some other blocking restriction or requirement.1. “No more than one creature can attack each turn. or attack with neither. (Tapped creatures and creatures with unpaid costs to block are exempt from effects that would require them to block. It’s illegal to attack with the other creature. 500. the attack is illegal. “Declare Attackers Step.5. An effect states. As part of declaring attackers. 500.4. A requirement is an effect that says a creature must block (or attack) or it must block (or attack) if some condition is met. Additional Rules 500. each with a restriction that states “[This creature] can’t attack alone. If such a restriction or requirement conflicts with the proposed set of blocking creatures. Legal Attacks and Blocks 500. attack with both. then any of those scenarios are legal.) 500. the active player checks each creature he or she controls to see whether it must attack. Evasion abilities are cumulative. the block is illegal.2. Some effects restrict declaring attackers or blockers in combat or require certain creatures to be declared as attackers or blockers.” Having only the first creature . Example: A creature with flying and shadow can’t be blocked by a creature with flying but without shadow. “Creatures can’t be blocked except by two or more creatures. An effect states.3.” and rule 309. (See rule 308. As part of declaring blockers. If a creature gains or loses an evasion ability after a legal block has been declared.” It’s legal to declare both as attackers. Example: A player controls two creatures: one that “attacks if able” and one with no abilities. 500. A restriction conflicts with a proposed set of attackers or blockers if it isn’t being followed. (Tapped creatures and creatures with unpaid costs to attack are exempt from effects that would require them to attack.3a An evasion ability is an ability an attacking creature has that restricts what can block it. it doesn’t affect that block.” The only legal attack is for just the creature that “attacks if able” to attack. or is affected by some other attacking restriction or requirement.) Example: A player controls two creatures. and the active player must then propose another set of attacking creatures. “Declare Blockers Step. can’t block. A requirement conflicts with a proposed set of attackers or blockers if it isn’t being followed and (1) the requirement could be obeyed without violating a restriction and (2) doing so will allow the total number of requirements that the set obeys to increase. and the defending player must then propose another set of blocking creatures.

or Fortification that was attached to something ceases to be attached to it. Regenerate 501. that counts as “becoming unattached. or Fortification to the object it’s already attached to.2c Attaching an Aura. A countered spell is put into its owner’s graveyard.block violates the restriction. remove it from combat. instead remove all damage from it and tap it. Equipment. If something is attached to a permanent in play. Keyword Actions 501. or Fortification can’t be attached to an object it couldn’t enchant. Destroy 501. 501.3. An Aura.5. sometimes reminder text summarizes their meanings. “Countering Spells and Abilities. Having both creatures block the same attacking creature fulfills both the restriction and the requirement. respectively. Equipment. Counter 501. or Fortification to receive a new timestamp. “Regenerate [permanent]” means “The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn. or fortify. it’s customary to place it so that it’s physically touching the permanent.4a To destroy a permanent. Attach 501. See rule 414.” 501. If it’s an attacking or blocking creature.2.2a To attach an Aura. so that’s the only option. or Fortification to an object means to take it from where it currently is and put it onto that object. In this case. 501. Equipment.” 501. but some specialized verbs are used whose meanings may not be clear. If an Aura. move it from the in-play zone to its owner’s graveyard. It should no longer be physically touching any creature.3a To counter a spell or ability means to cancel it.5a If the effect of a resolving spell or ability regenerates a permanent. it creates a replacement effect that protects the permanent the next time it would be destroyed this turn. These “keywords” are game terms. or Fortification in play to a different object causes the Aura. Equipment. Equipment. 501. 501. Equipment. equip. removing it from the stack. 501. Most actions described in a card’s rules text use the standard English definitions of the verbs within.1. the effect does nothing. It doesn’t resolve and none of its effects occur.2d To “unattach” an Equipment from a creature means to move it away from that creature so the Equipment is in play but is not equipping anything. 501.” .4. Having neither creature block fulfills the restriction but not the requirement.2b If an effect tries to attach an Aura.

6. First Strike 502.7a To tap a permanent. rotate it back to the upright position from a sideways position.8. though.7.8a To “scry N” means to look at the top N cards of your library. a player reveals the top card of his or her library.”) . 501.6a To sacrifice a permanent.2. Tap 501. 501.10c A player wins a clash if that player revealed a card with a higher converted mana cost than all other cards revealed in that clash. its controller moves it from the in-play zone directly to its owner’s graveyard. You and that opponent each clash.2a First strike is a static ability that modifies the rules for the combat damage step.10a To clash. Fateseal 501. so regeneration or other effects that replace destruction can’t affect this action. “Regenerate [permanent]” means “Instead remove all damage from [permanent] and tap it. 501. and put the rest on top of your library in any order. In these cases. A player can’t sacrifice something that isn’t a permanent. are very common or would require too much space to define on the card. If it’s an attacking or blocking creature.9a To “fateseal N” means to look at the top N cards of an opponent’s library. 501. 502. Most abilities describe exactly what they do in the card’s rules text.7b To untap a permanent. sometimes reminder text summarizes the game rule. That player may then put that card on the bottom of his or her library.5b If the effect of a static ability regenerates a permanent. turn it sideways from an upright position. In this case.501. put any number of them on the bottom of your library in any order.10.” 501. or something that’s a permanent he or she doesn’t control. it replaces destruction with an alternate effect each time that permanent would be destroyed. 501.10b “Clash with an opponent” means “Choose an opponent. put any number of them on the bottom of that library in any order. Sacrifice 501.9. “Combat Damage Step. and put the rest on top of that library in any order.” 501. remove it from combat. 502. Clash 501. (See rule 310. Scry 501. Sacrificing a permanent doesn’t destroy it. the object lists only the name of the ability as a “keyword”. Keyword Abilities 502. 501.1. Some.

502.) 502.502. 502. (See rule 309.4. “Declare Blockers Step.”) “Flanking” means “Whenever this creature becomes blocked by a creature without flanking.” and rule 502. the phase gets a second combat damage step to handle the remaining creatures.5c Multiple instances of haste on the same creature are redundant.70. 502.3f. 502. (See rule 212. surviving attackers and blockers that didn’t assign combat damage in the first step.2b At the start of the combat damage step. (See rule 309. 502.2c Adding or removing first strike any time after combat damage has been put on the stack in the first combat damage step won’t prevent a creature from dealing combat damage or allow it to deal combat damage twice.28).4a Flying is an evasion ability.”) 502. if at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike or double strike (see rule 502. A creature with landwalk is unblockable as long as the defending player controls at least one . Flanking 502. “Declare Blockers Step. Haste 502. each triggers separately.5.6a Landwalk and snow landwalk are generic terms. plus any creatures with double strike. Landwalk 502. a card’s rules text will give a specific subtype or supertype (such as in “islandwalk.2d Multiple instances of first strike on the same creature are redundant. Instead of proceeding to end of combat. creatures without first strike or double strike don’t assign combat damage.” 502. 502.3a Flanking is a triggered ability that triggers during the declare blockers step.” “snow swampwalk.4c Multiple instances of flying on the same creature are redundant. 502. In the second combat damage step. 502. “Reach. assign their combat damage.6.4b A creature with flying can’t be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. the blocking creature gets -1/-1 until end of turn.5b A creature with haste can attack or use activated abilities whose cost includes the tap symbol or the untap symbol even if it hasn’t been controlled by its controller continuously since the start of his or her most recent turn.3b If a creature has multiple instances of flanking. A creature with flying can block a creature with or without flying. Flying 502.” or “legendary landwalk”).5a Haste is a static ability. 502.3.6b Landwalk and snow landwalk are evasion abilities.

502.7b A permanent or player with protection can’t be targeted by spells with the stated quality and can’t be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality. “State-Based Effects. but remain in play.6d Landwalk or snow landwalk abilities don’t “cancel” one another. it behaves as two separate protection abilities. (See rule 309. (See rule 420. that player can’t block an attacking creature with snow forestwalk even if he or she also controls a creature with snow forestwalk. 502. Example: If a player controls a snow Forest.7a Protection is a static ability.6c Snow landwalk is a special kind of landwalk.” This quality is usually a color (as in “protection from black”) but can be any characteristic value. written “Protection from [quality]. 502. If an effect causes a permanent to lose all landwalk abilities.7c A permanent or player with protection can’t be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality.7d A permanent with protection can’t be equipped by Equipment that have the stated quality or fortified by Fortifications that have the stated quality. “State-Based Effects.7f Attacking creatures with protection can’t be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality. (See rule 420. that player may choose a snow landwalk ability.7h “Protection from all [characteristic]” is shorthand for “protection from [quality A].9. 502.land with the specified subtype and/or supertype. or supertype. If an effect causes an object with such an ability to lose protection from [quality A]. “Declare Blockers Step. or supertype. 502. Such Equipment or Fortifications become unattached from that permanent. subtype. If the quality is a card type. or supertype and to any sources not in play that are of that card type. that object would still have protection from [quality B]. If a player is allowed to choose any landwalk ability. subtype. 502.”) 502. Such Auras attached to the permanent or player with protection will be put into their owners’ graveyards as a state-based effect.”) 502.”) 502. snow landwalk abilities are removed as well. 502. subtype. the protection applies to sources that are permanents with that card type.” “protection from [quality B].7. This is an exception to rule 200.” and so on for each possible . for example. 502. A creature with snow landwalk is unblockable as long as the defending player controls at least one snow land with the specified subtype. Protection 502.7e Any damage that would be dealt by sources that have the stated quality to a permanent or player that has protection is prevented.7g “Protection from [quality A] and from [quality B]” is shorthand for “protection from [quality A]” and “protection from [quality B]”.6e Multiple instances of the same kind of landwalk or snow landwalk on the same creature are redundant.

all its damage is assigned to the player or planeswalker it’s attacking.quality the listed characteristic could have. “Declare Blockers Step. If all those blocking creatures are assigned lethal damage.9b The controller of an attacking creature with trample first assigns damage to the creature(s) blocking it. take into account damage already on the creature and damage from other creatures that will be assigned at the same time (see rule 502.9a Trample is a static ability that modifies the rules for assigning an attacking creature’s combat damage.8. The attacking creature’s controller can then choose to assign the rest of the damage to the defending player.8b A creature with shadow can’t be blocked by creatures without shadow. (See rule 310. equipped by Equipment. any remaining damage is assigned as its controller chooses among those blocking creatures and the player or planeswalker the creature is attacking.7j Multiple instances of protection from the same quality on the same permanent or player are redundant. Shadow 502. . 502. Trample 502. 502. “Combat Damage Step. but there are no creatures blocking it when damage is assigned.”) 502. [quality C].8a Shadow is an evasion ability. A creature with trample has no special abilities when blocking or dealing noncombat damage. 502. fortified by Fortifications.8c Multiple instances of shadow on the same creature are redundant. even though that damage will be prevented by the blocker’s protection ability.9.9e). If an effect causes an object with such an ability to lose protection from [quality A]. 502. 502. and a creature without shadow can’t be blocked by creatures with shadow. 502. Example: A 6/6 green creature with trample is blocked by a 2/2 creature with protection from green. for example. and all damage that would be dealt to it is prevented. and so on.9c If an attacking creature with trample is blocked. 502. When checking for assigned lethal damage. (See rule 309.”) 502. enchanted by Auras. or blocked by creatures.9d Assigning damage from a creature with trample considers only the actual toughness of a blocking creature. not any abilities or effects that might change the final amount of damage dealt.7i “Protection from everything” is a variant of the protection ability. Such a permanent can’t be targeted by spells or abilities. it behaves as multiple separate protection abilities. that object would still have protection from [quality B]. A permanent with protection from everything has protection from each object regardless of that object’s characteristic values. The attacking creature’s controller must assign at least 2 damage to the blocker. The controller need not assign lethal damage to all those blocking creatures but in that case can’t assign any damage to the player or planeswalker it’s attacking.

10h. the entire band becomes blocked. Example: A player attacks with a band consisting of a creature with flying and a creature with swampwalk. it’s legal to assign damage from those without trample so as to maximize the damage of those with trample. The defending player.) 502. If he or she does.10e If an attacking creature becomes blocked by a creature. 502. If the creature had banding when it attacked or blocked but the ability was removed before the combat damage step. .10. Banding 502. 502. each other creature in the same band as the attacking creature becomes blocked by that same blocking creature. 502.10g If one member of a band would become blocked due to an effect. but each creature may be a member of only one of them. 502. creatures in a band that are removed from combat are also removed from the band. 502. and up to one of those creatures without banding. damage is assigned normally.10a Banding is a static ability that modifies the rules for declaring attackers and assigning combat damage.9e When there are several attacking creatures. (Defending players can’t declare bands but may use banding in a different way. it lasts for the rest of combat.10h A player who controls an attacking creature with banding chooses how combat damage is assigned by creatures blocking that creature. are all in a “band.10b As a player declares attackers.10c A player may declare as many attacking bands as he or she wants. The attacking player could assign 1 damage from the first attacker and 1 damage from the second to the blocking creature. can block the flying creature if able. The attacking creatures in a band are separate permanents. then the creature with swampwalk will also become blocked by the blocking creature(s). Example: A 2/2 creature with an ability that enables it to block multiple attackers blocks two attackers: a 1/1 with no special abilities a 3/3 with trample. see rule 502. A player who controls a blocking creature with banding chooses how combat damage is assigned by creatures it blocks. 502.” All of those creatures must attack the same player or planeswalker.10d Once an attacking band has been announced. However. and 2 damage to the defending player from the creature with trample. he or she may declare that any number of those creatures with banding. who controls a Swamp. 502.9f Multiple instances of trample on the same creature are redundant. even if something later removes the banding ability from one or more creatures. nor does it remove any abilities. 502.502.10f Banding doesn’t cause attacking creatures to share abilities.

Blocking this band follows the same general rules as for banding. Cumulative Upkeep 502. If an effect causes a permanent to lose banding. Partial payments aren’t allowed.” (See rule 309. or none of them is paid.11c If an attacking creature is blocked by at least two creatures with the same “bands with other [quality]” ability.11d Multiple instances of bands with other of the same kind on the same creature are redundant. Adding or removing blockers later in combat won’t change the bonus. If you don’t. the creature’s controller puts an age counter on it and then may pay {W} {W}{W}. the attacking player chooses how the blocking creature’s damage is assigned.11. 502. {W}{W}{U}. {W}{U}{U}. the permanent loses all bands with other abilities as well. “Declare Blockers Step. 502. 502. 502. each triggers separately. Rampage 502. Creatures with banding can also join this band. then either the entire set of costs is paid. or {U}{U}{U} to keep the creature in play. The creatures in this band don’t have to have the creature type specified in the “bands with other [quality]” ability. sacrifice it. when the triggered ability resolves.13. Then you may pay [cost] for each age counter on it. if a blocking creature blocks at least two attacking creatures with the same “bands with other [quality]” ability. it gets +N/+N until end of turn for each creature blocking it beyond the first. but creatures without banding can’t. 502.12a Rampage is a triggered ability.11a Bands with other is a special form of banding. Example: A creature has “Cumulative upkeep—Sacrifice a creature” and one age counter on it.13a Cumulative upkeep is a triggered ability that imposes an increasing cost on a permanent. Example: A creature has “Cumulative upkeep {W} or {U}” and two age counters on it.12. the defending player chooses how the attacking creature’s damage is assigned.12c If a creature has multiple instances of rampage. “Cumulative upkeep [cost]” means “At the beginning of your upkeep.12b The rampage bonus is calculated only once per combat. When its ability next triggers and resolves.” If [cost] has choices associated with it. Bands with Other 502. its controller can’t choose the same creature to sacrifice twice. put an age counter on this permanent. When its ability next triggers and resolves. “Rampage N” means “Whenever this creature becomes blocked. Similarly. Either .”) 502. 502.10i Multiple instances of banding on the same creature are redundant.502.11b An attacking creature with “bands with other [quality]” can form an attacking band with other creatures that have the same “bands with other [quality]” ability. each choice is made separately for each age counter. 502.

14b Attacking doesn’t cause creatures with vigilance to tap.14.1. all objects that had phased out under that player’s control phase in. each triggers separately. 502. 502. the controller adds a counter and then chooses to pay 1 life. which stipulates that a permanent “forgets” its previous existence when it changes zones.8.) 502. Abilities and effects that specifically mention phasing can modify or trigger on these events. “Declare Attackers Step. 502. 502. “Phased Out. before the active player untaps his or her permanents. however. This is an exception to rule 217.” The creature currently has no counters but both cumulative upkeep abilities trigger.1c. Phasing 502.15.15b During each player’s untap step.15g Effects with limited duration and delayed triggered abilities that specifically reference a permanent will be unable to further affect that permanent if it phases out.15f A card that returns to play from the phased-out zone is considered the same permanent it was when it left. (See rule 308. all permanents with phasing the player controls phase out. 502.14a Vigilance is a static ability that modifies the rules for the declare attackers step.15a Phasing is a static ability that modifies the rules of the untap step.15d Permanents phasing in or out don’t trigger any comes-into-play or leaves-play abilities. the controller adds another counter and then chooses to pay an additional 2 life. other effects that reference the permanent (including effects with unlimited duration) can affect the permanent when it returns to play. or the creature with cumulative upkeep must be sacrificed. (See rule 217. each cumulative upkeep ability will count the total number of age counters on the permanent at the time that ability resolves. the age counters are not connected to any particular ability. (Because no player receives priority during the untap step.” and rule 302. . Vigilance 502. Example: A creature has two instances of “Cumulative upkeep—Pay 1 life.) 502. any abilities triggering off of the phasing event won’t go onto the stack until the upkeep step begins. However. all damage dealt to it is removed. When the first ability resolves.14c Multiple instances of vigilance on the same creature are redundant. the phasing event simply doesn’t occur that turn. 502. Simultaneously. 502.”) 502.13b If a permanent has multiple instances of cumulative upkeep. and effects that modify how a permanent comes into play are ignored. 502.15c If an effect causes a player to skip his or her untap step. However. When the second ability resolves.two different creatures must be sacrificed.15e When a permanent phases out.

not attached to anything. it won’t get the +3/+3 bonus from the Giant Growth because its effect has a limited duration.” If Diseased Vermin phases out. then it “remembers” the permanent it was attached to and returns to play attached to that permanent. or Fortifications attached to that permanent phase out at the same time. the Aura returns to play and then is placed in its owner’s graveyard. any choices made when they first came into play. 502. whether they were flipped when they left play.15i When a permanent phases out. it “remembers” how many counters it has and also which opponents it has previously damaged.15n A spell or ability that targets a permanent will resolve normally with respect to that permanent if the permanent phases out and back in before the spell or ability resolves.15p Multiple instances of phasing on the same permanent are redundant. see rule 420. This doesn’t change the fact that the permanents phase in simultaneously.” An Aura. If the creature phases back in somehow before the turn is over. Example: Diseased Vermin reads. 502. 502. 502. This alternate way of phasing out is known as phasing out “indirectly. They also “remember” who controlled them when they phased out.15j If an Aura. or Fortification phased out directly (rather than phasing out along with the permanent it’s attached to).5e) they had when they phased out.16. the Equipment or Fortification returns to play and then stays in play. “At the beginning of your upkeep. in part.5d and 418. Equipment. Buyback .15m A permanent that phases in can attack or use activated abilities whose cost includes the tap symbol ({T}) or the untap symbol ({Q}) as though that permanent had haste. This is a state-based effect. although they may phase in under the control of a different player if a control effect with limited duration has expired. it will still be able to target those opponents with its upkeep-triggered ability. 502. They “remember” any counters they had on them.15k Permanents that phase in keep the same timestamps (see rules 418. see rule 420. or Fortification that phased out indirectly won’t phase in by itself.15h Phased-out cards “remember” their past histories and will return to play in the same state. If an Equipment or Fortification phases in but it’s no longer legal for it to be attached to the permanent it was attached to.Example: A creature is affected by Giant Growth and then phases out during the same turn. and whether they were tapped or untapped when they left play. any Auras. Equipment. 502. Diseased Vermin deals X damage to target opponent previously dealt damage by it. This is a state-based effect. When it phases back in. however. 502. This applies even if that permanent phased out and phased back in the turn it came into play. 502. where X is the number of infection counters on it. but instead phases in along with the card it’s attached to. If an Aura phases in but it’s no longer legal for it to be attached to the object or player it was attached to. Equipment. The permanent remains able to do so until it changes controllers or leaves play.

1b and 409.”) 502.17c Multiple instances of horsemanship on the same creature are redundant.” 502. “Echo [cost]” means “At the beginning of your upkeep.17a Horsemanship is an evasion ability that appeared in the Portal Three Kingdoms™ set.16a Buyback appears on some instants and sorceries. 502.20a Fading is a keyword that represents two abilities. Fading 502. it continues to exist while the object is in play and in all other zones. if this permanent came under your control since the beginning of your last upkeep.18b Although the cycling ability is playable only if the card is in a player’s hand.18c Some cards with cycling have abilities that trigger when they’re cycled.” This type is usually a subtype (as in “mountaincycling”) but can be any card type.” These abilities trigger from whatever zone the card winds up in after it’s cycled. Cycling 502.18a Cycling is an activated ability that functions only while the card with cycling is in a player’s hand. “[Type]cycling [cost]” means “[Cost].19a Echo is a triggered ability.” 502.17. sacrifice it unless you pay [cost]. put this spell into its owner’s hand instead of into that player’s graveyard as it resolves. 502.18.1f–h. 502. and put it into your hand.19. “Cycling [cost]” means “[Cost]. Horsemanship 502. “Declare Blockers Step. A creature with horsemanship can block a creature with or without horsemanship.17b A creature with horsemanship can’t be blocked by creatures without horsemanship. or combination thereof (as in “basic landcycling”). 502.18e Any cards that trigger when a player cycles a card will trigger when a card is discarded to pay a typecycling cost. reveal it. Discard this card: Search your library for a [type] card.” Paying a spell’s buyback cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.502. (See rule 309. Echo 502. Discard this card: Draw a card.18d Typecycling is a variant of the cycling ability. Then shuffle your library. 502. It represents two static abilities that function while the spell is on the stack. “When you cycle [this card]” means “When you discard [this card] to pay a cycling cost. 502. supertype. Therefore objects with cycling will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities. subtype.20. “Buyback [cost]” means “You may pay an additional [cost] as you play this spell” and “If the buyback cost was paid. “Fading N” means “This permanent comes into play with N fade counters on it” and “At the . Any effect that stops players from cycling cards will stop players from playing cards’ typecycling abilities. 502.

Threshold 502. This text just refers to one kicker cost or the other.21. regardless of what the spell’s controller actually spent when paying the cost.1b and 409. All cards printed with the threshold keyword have received errata.1f–h. It represents two static abilities: one functions while the card is in a player’s graveyard and the other functions while the card is on the stack. “Kicker [cost]” means “You may pay an additional [cost] as you play this spell. See rule 407. Madness . 502.23. It is now an ability word and has no rules meaning. read “if the [A] kicker cost was paid” as “if the first listed kicker cost was paid.23a Threshold used to be a keyword ability.” 502. remove a fade counter from this permanent. Kicker 502. Updated wordings are available in the Oracle card reference. Otherwise. and that part of the ability includes any targets.1c.” Each of those abilities is linked to the kicker ability. kicker [cost 2]. 502. They can’t refer to any other kicker costs that may have been paid when the object was played.21a Kicker is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.22. “Flashback [cost]” means “You may play this card from your graveyard by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost” and “If the flashback cost was paid. 502.” Paying a spell’s kicker cost(s) follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.” where A and B are the first and second kicker costs listed on the card. 502. sacrifice the permanent. In other words.” 502.21d If part of a spell’s ability has its effect only if a kicker cost was paid.24. “Linked Abilities. These abilities refer to whether the player who played the object as a spell chose to pay the kicker costs. They contain the phrases “if the [A] kicker cost was paid” and “if the [B] kicker cost was paid.beginning of your upkeep. Flashback 502. See rule 409.” The phrase “Kicker [cost 1] and/or [cost 2]” means the same thing as “Kicker [cost 1]. the spell is played as if it did not have those targets.” and read “if the [B] kicker cost was paid” as “if the second listed kicker cost was paid.1f–h.21c Objects with more than one kicker cost have abilities that each correspond to a specific kicker cost.1b and 409. respectively.” Playing a spell using its flashback ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409. If you can’t. 502.21b Objects with kicker have additional abilities that specify what happens if the kicker cost is paid. they don’t check what that player actually spent to do so.22a Flashback appears on some instants and sorceries. remove this card from the game instead of putting it anywhere else any time it would leave the stack. These abilities are linked to the kicker abilities printed on that object: they can refer only to those specific kicker abilities. the spell’s controller chooses those targets only if he or she declared the intention to pay that kicker cost.

no subtypes.”) 502. 502. and no mana cost by paying {3} rather than its mana cost.502. (See rule 504.25a Fear is an evasion ability. . no subtypes.24a Madness is a keyword that represents two abilities. It becomes a 2/2 face-down creature card. “Copying Objects. Any abilities relating to the permanent coming into play don’t trigger when it’s turned face up and don’t have any effect. that player discards it.5.” Any time you could play an instant. then turn the permanent face up.”) 502.26c You can’t play a card face down if it doesn’t have morph. it comes into play with the same characteristics the spell had.26b To play a card using its morph ability.” 502. no name. “Madness [cost]” means “If a player would discard this card.1f–h. you may show all players the morph cost for any facedown permanent you control. The morph effect applies to the face-down object wherever it is. 502.26a Morph is a static ability that functions in any zone from which you could play the card it’s on. You can use morph to play a card from any zone from which you could normally play it. The second is a triggered ability that functions when the first ability is applied. The morph effect on it ends.25b A creature with fear can’t be blocked except by artifact creatures and/or black creatures. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with madness is in a player’s hand. (See rule 418. no expansion symbol.26d Any time you could play an instant. 502. no expansion symbol.25c Multiple instances of fear on the same creature are redundant. pay that cost. turn it face down. pay that cost.24b Playing a spell using its madness ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.25. To do this. with no text. but may remove it from the game instead of putting it into his or her graveyard” and “When this card is removed from the game this way. Any effects or prohibitions that would apply to playing a card with these characteristics (and not the face-up card’s characteristics) are applied to playing this card. and the morph effect works any time the card is face down. and pay {3} rather than pay its mana cost.”) Put it onto the stack (as a face-down spell with the same characteristics). and it regains its normal characteristics. “Morph [cost]” means “You may play this card as a 2/2 facedown creature. you may turn a face-down permanent you control face up. with no text. Fear 502.26. then turn the permanent face up.” and rule 503. and it ends when the permanent is turned face up. This action does not use the stack.1b and 409. These values are the copiable values of that object’s characteristics. “Interaction of Continuous Effects. When the spell resolves. and no mana cost. “Declare Blockers Step. no name. he or she puts this card into his or her graveyard. its owner may play it by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost. This follows the rules for paying alternative costs. “Face-Down Spells and Permanents. show all players what the permanent’s morph cost will be when the effect ends. Morph 502. If that player doesn’t. 502. (See rule 309. 502.

reveal any number of cards from your hand that share a creature type with it. with no text.” . 502. plus any creatures with double strike. “Copying Objects.2. This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it for each card revealed this way. assign their combat damage. “First Strike”) don’t assign combat damage. Instead of proceeding to end of combat. and no mana cost. “Interaction of Continuous Effects. 502. (See rule 418.”) The rules for morph and facedown permanents apply to it normally. In the second combat damage step.28b At the start of the combat damage step.”) 502.28a Double strike is a static ability that modifies the rules for the combat damage step. no name. These values are the copiable values of that object’s characteristics.” and rule 503. no expansion symbol. Amplify 502. you may choose to have target creature defending player controls block this creature this combat if able.28c Removing double strike from a creature during the first combat damage step will stop it from assigning combat damage in the second combat damage step.26f See rule 504.27b If a creature has multiple instances of amplify. If you do.28e Multiple instances of double strike on the same creature are redundant. if at least one attacking or blocking creature has double strike or first strike.because the permanent has already come into play. surviving attackers and blockers that didn’t assign combat damage in the first step. You can’t reveal this card or any other cards that are coming into play at the same time as this card. 502. 502.29.26e If a face-up permanent is turned face down by a spell or ability. Double Strike 502. untap that creature. “Provoke” means “Whenever this creature attacks.28d Giving double strike to a creature with first strike after it has already put first strike combat damage onto the stack in the first combat damage step will allow the creature to assign combat damage in the second combat damage step. creatures without double strike or first strike (see rule 502. Provoke 502. no subtypes. (See rule 310. 502.27a Amplify is a static ability.28. “Face-Down Spells and Permanents. 502. 502.5. “Amplify N” means “As this object comes into play.” 502. each one works separately.” for more information on how to play cards with morph. the phase gets a second combat damage step to handle the remaining creatures.29a Provoke is a triggered ability. “Combat Damage Step. 502. it becomes a 2/2 face-down creature.27.

“Entwine [cost]” means “You may choose to use all modes of this spell instead of just one.” Using the entwine ability follows the rules for choosing modes and paying additional costs in rules 409. see rule 212.32a Entwine is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. it doesn’t reduce how much colored mana you have to pay for a spell. follow the text of each of the modes in the order written on the card when the spell resolves. 502. If a permanent has more than one card .” 502. 502.34a Imprint is an activated or triggered ability. 502.30a Storm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack.30b If a spell has multiple instances of storm.33b For more information about Equipment.2. each triggers separately. written “Imprint — [text]. put a copy of it onto the stack for each other spell that was played before it this turn. each of them applies. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery. Imprint 502.29b If a creature has multiple instances of provoke. If you do.31a Affinity is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.” 502. “Equip [cost]” means “[Cost]: Attach this Equipment to target creature you control.31b The affinity ability reduces only generic mana costs.30. 502.1b and 409. 502.31. any of its equip abilities may be used. 502.” 502. you may choose new targets for any of the copies.33c If an Equipment has multiple instances of equip.32. 502. “Storm” means “When you play this spell. If the spell has any targets.1f–h. 502.34b The phrase “imprinted [quality] card” means the card with that quality that’s imprinted on the permanent. Equip 502.33a Equip is an activated ability of Equipment cards. Affinity 502.34. Cards that are in the removed-from-the-game zone because they were removed from the game by an imprint ability are imprinted on the source of that ability.” where “[text]” is a triggered or activated ability. you pay an additional [cost]. Storm 502. “Affinity for [text]” means “This spell costs you {1} less to play for each [text] you control. “Artifacts. Entwine 502.31c If a spell has multiple instances of affinity.32b If the entwine cost was paid.502. each triggers separately.33.” 502.

“Declare Blockers Step. “Sunburst” means “If this object is coming into play from the stack as a creature.37d If an object has multiple instances of sunburst. you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent.35.36a Shroud is a static ability.35b If a creature has multiple instances of modular.” (See rule 309. “Bushido N” means “Whenever this creature blocks or becomes blocked.36b Multiple instances of shroud on the same permanent or player are redundant. 502. it doesn’t matter whether the ability is on a creature spell or on a noncreature spell.38b If a creature has multiple instances of bushido. it gets +N/+N until end of turn.35a Modular represents both a static ability and a triggered ability.” 502.37a Sunburst is a static ability that functions as an object is coming into play from the stack. Example: The ability “Modular—Sunburst” means “This permanent comes into play with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to play it” and “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play. Mana paid for additional or alternative costs applies.”) 502. 502. each of those cards is an “imprinted [quality] card. Bushido 502.37b Sunburst applies only as the spell is resolving and only if one or more colored mana was spent on its costs.” 502.38. each triggers separately.38a Bushido is a triggered ability. 502. each one works separately. you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent. Shroud 502.” 502.37. If the keyword is used in this way. Modular 502. Sunburst 502. . “Shroud” means "This permanent or player can’t be the target of spells or abilities.” 502.with that quality imprinted on it.37c Sunburst can also be used to set a variable number for another ability. each one works separately. it comes into play with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to play it. “Modular N” means “This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it” and “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play.36. 502. it comes into play with a charge counter on it for each color of mana spent to play it." 502. If this object is coming into play from the stack and isn’t coming into play as a creature.

color.” Paying a card’s splice cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.) of the spliced cards. It can even be discarded to pay a “discard a card” cost of the spell it’s spliced onto.39. Defender 502.1d). 502.40.502.40e The spell loses any splice changes once it leaves the stack (for example. plus the text boxes of each of the spliced cards. Example: Since the card with splice remains in the player’s hand.41b A creature with defender can’t attack. Example: Glacial Ray is a red card with splice onto Arcane that reads.40a Splice is a static ability that functions while a card is in your hand. The spell doesn’t gain any other characteristics (name. “Soulshift N” means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play. not the card from which the text was copied. each triggers separately. “Splice onto [subtype] [cost]” means “You may reveal this card from your hand as you play a [subtype] spell.40b You can’t choose to use a splice ability if you can’t make the required choices (targets. 502.” 502. Splice 502. copy this card’s text box onto that spell and pay [cost] as an additional cost to play that spell. mana cost. 502. If you do. Soulshift 502. 502. or it resolves). subtypes. .” Suppose Glacial Ray is spliced onto Reach Through Mists. You can’t splice any one card onto the same spell more than once. you may return target Spirit card with converted mana cost N or less from your graveyard to your hand.40d Choose targets for the added text normally (see rule 409. a blue spell.40c The spell has the characteristics of the main spell. and Reach Through Mists deals the damage. This means that the ability can target a creature with protection from red and deal 2 damage to that creature. card types. reveal them all at once and choose the order in which their instructions will be followed.1b and 409. 502. when it’s countered. “Glacial Ray deals 2 damage to target creature or player. 502.1f–h.39a Soulshift is a triggered ability. The spell is still blue.41. etc. 502.41a Defender is a static ability. If you’re splicing more than one card onto a spell.) for that card’s instructions. it can later be played normally or spliced onto another spell. The instructions on the main spell have to be followed first. etc. Note that a spell with one or more targets will be countered if all of its targets are illegal on resolution. Text copied onto the spell that refers to a card by name refers to the spell on the stack. it’s removed from the game.39b If a permanent has multiple instances of soulshift. supertypes.

” 502.10.44. or is in excess of the card’s colored mana cost. 502. Epic 502. If the spell has any targets. 502.42b The permanent is sacrificed at the same time the spell is announced (see rule 409.44b A player can’t play spells once a spell with epic he or she controls resolves. Ninjutsu 502. The creature with ninjutsu is put into play unblocked.” and “At the beginning of each of your upkeeps.43.45a Enchant is a static ability.41c Multiple instances of defender on the same creature are redundant.43a Ninjutsu is an activated ability that functions only while the card with ninjutsu is in a player’s hand. but effects (such as the epic ability itself) can still put copies of spells onto the stack. 502.43c A ninjutsu ability may be played only while a creature in play is unblocked (see rule 309. reduces that much generic mana in the total cost.42c Generic mana in the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost reduces generic mana in the total cost to play the card with offering. you may choose new targets for the copy. “For the rest of the game. Colored mana in the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost reduces mana of the same color in the total cost to play the card with offering.” See rule 503.502. Enchant 502.44a Epic represents both a static ability and a delayed triggered ability. 502.1f). If you do. It will be attacking the same player or planeswalker as the creature that was returned to its owner’s hand. you can’t play spells.1a). . 502. Offering 502. the total cost to play this card is reduced by the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost.” 502. Return an unblocked creature you control to its owner’s hand: Put this card into play from your hand tapped and attacking.45. copy this spell except for its epic ability.43b The card with ninjutsu remains revealed from the time the ability is announced until the ability leaves the stack.” The enchant ability restricts what an Aura spell can target and what an Aura can enchant. Colored mana in the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost that doesn’t match colored mana in the colored mana cost of the card with offering. 502. 502.2f). “Ninjutsu [cost]” means “[Cost].42a Offering is a static ability of a card that functions in any zone from which the card can be played. Reveal this card from your hand. written “Enchant [object or player]. The total cost of the spell is reduced by the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost (see rule 409. “Epic” means.42. “[Text] offering” means “You may play this card any time you could play an instant by sacrificing a [text] permanent.

46a Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. 502. Each creature tapped this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1} or by one mana of any of that creature’s colors.1f–h. “Enchantments. all of them apply. a red creature. Discard this card: Search your library for a card with the same converted mana cost as the discarded card.46. Convoke 502. “Transmute [cost]” means “[Cost].46b Multiple instances of convoke on the same spell are redundant. The Aura can enchant only objects or players that match all of its enchant abilities. Example: You play Guardian of Vitu-Ghazi.48.1b and 409. Substance .” Using the convoke ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.” 502.502. You announce that you’re going to tap a colorless creature. Transmute 502. and a green-and-white creature to help pay for it. The Aura’s target must follow the restrictions from all the instances of enchant.47. it continues to exist while the object is in play and in all other zones. Such Auras can’t target permanents and can’t be attached to permanents.49. Dredge 502. “Dredge N” means “As long as you have at least N cards in your library. Therefore objects with transmute will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities.45c If an Aura has multiple instances of enchant. You choose whether the green-white creature reduces the spell’s cost by {1}.45b For more information on Auras. you may instead put N cards from the top of your library into your graveyard and return this card from your graveyard to your hand. 502.47a Dredge is a static ability that functions only while the card with dredge is in a player’s graveyard.48b Although the transmute ability is playable only if the card is in a player’s hand. or {W}. Then the creatures become tapped as you pay Guardian of Vitu-Ghazi’s cost. a spell with convoke that costs {6}{G}{W}. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery. reveal that card. see rule 212. The colorless creature and the red creature each reduce the spell’s cost by {1}. 502. and put it into your hand.” 502. Then shuffle your library.4.48a Transmute is an activated ability that functions only while the card with transmute is in a player’s hand. 502. {G}. 502. 502.45d Auras that can enchant a player can target and be attached to players. “Convoke” means “As an additional cost to play this spell. if you would draw a card.47b A player with fewer cards in his or her library than the number required by a dredge ability can’t put any of them into his or her graveyard this way. you may tap any number of untapped creatures you control.” 502.

” “Haunt” on an instant or sorcery spell means “When this spell is put into a graveyard during its resolution.53a A forecast ability is a special kind of activated ability that can be played only from a player’s hand. 502. where X is the total damage your opponents have been dealt this turn. you may pay [cost] any number of times” and “When you play this spell.50b “Bloodthirst X” is a special form of bloodthirst.51a Haunt is a triggered ability. Forecast 502. you may choose new targets for any number of the copies.52. 502.53b A forecast ability may be played only during the upkeep step of the .” Paying a spell’s replicate cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.51. “Bloodthirst X” means “This permanent comes into play with X +1/+1 counters on it. if a replicate cost was paid for it. The phrase “creature it haunts” refers to the object targeted by the haunt ability. remove it from the game haunting target creature. Bloodthirst 502.51c Triggered abilities of cards with haunt that refer to the haunted creature can trigger in the removed-from-the-game zone. not any other instance of replicate.1b and 409.1f–h. 502.” 502.52a Replicate is a keyword that represents two abilities. copy it for each time its replicate cost was paid. 502. each is paid separately and triggers based on the payments made for it. “Bloodthirst N” means “If an opponent was dealt damage this turn. regardless of whether or not that object is still a creature. Replicate 502.53.50c If an object has multiple instances of bloodthirst. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.” 502. remove it from the game haunting target creature. It’s written “Forecast — [Activated ability].50a Bloodthirst is a static ability.51b Cards that are in the removed-from-the-game zone as the result of a haunt ability “haunt” the creature targeted by that ability.502. “Replicate [cost]” means “As an additional cost to play this spell. If the spell has any targets. each applies separately. 502.” 502.52b If a spell has multiple instances of replicate.49a Substance is a static ability with no effect.50.” 502. 502. Haunt 502. this permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it. “Haunt” on a permanent means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play.

57b Multiple instances of flash on the same object are redundant. return this card from your graveyard to your hand. If you do. Suspend . The controller of the forecast ability reveals the card with that ability from his or her hand as the ability is played.56b If a spell has multiple instances of ripple.54b If a creature has multiple instances of graft. 502. Recover 502.” 502.55. “Recover [cost]” means “When a creature is put into your graveyard from play.” 502. you may reveal all the cards in your library. you may play any of those cards with the same name as this spell without paying their mana costs. 502. That player plays with that card revealed in his or her hand until it leaves the player’s hand or until a step or phase that isn’t an upkeep step begins. or.” 502.55a Recover is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with recover is in a player’s graveyard. Split Second 502. you may move a +1/+1 counter from this permanent onto that creature.58b Multiple instances of split second on the same spell are redundant. Graft 502.58. 502.57a Flash is a static ability that functions in any zone from which you could play the card it’s on. If you reveal cards from your library this way. each triggers separately. “Flash” means “You may play this card any time you could play an instant. each one works separately. 502. “Graft N” means “This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it” and “Whenever another creature comes into play.59.” 502. if there are fewer than N cards in your library.” 502. 502. remove this card from the game.58a Split second is a static ability that functions only while the spell with split second is on the stack. if this permanent has a +1/+1 counter on it. Ripple 502. you may reveal the top N cards of your library.54a Graft represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. players can’t play other spells or abilities that aren’t mana abilities.56a Ripple is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with ripple is on the stack. you may pay [cost]. Flash 502. then put all revealed cards not played this way on the bottom of your library in any order. Otherwise. whichever comes first.54.56. “Split second” means “As long as this spell is on the stack.57.card’s owner and only once each turn. “Ripple N” means “When you play this spell.

has suspend.1f–h. remove a time counter from it” and “When the last time counter is removed from this permanent. if this permanent has a time counter on it. Absorb 502. If you can’t.” and “At the beginning of your upkeep. 502. “Suspend N—[cost]” means “If you could play this card from your hand.60.” 502.62a Aura swap is an activated ability of some Aura cards. the ability has no effect. 502. 502. sacrifice it. 502.” and “When the last time counter is removed from this card. if this permanent has a time counter on it. or to damage dealt by the same source at a different time.” 502.62b If either half of the exchange can’t be completed. remove a time counter from it.” “At the beginning of your upkeep.” 502. if this card is suspended.59b A card is “suspended” if it’s in the removed-from-the-game zone.61a Absorb is a static ability. . each works separately.61c If an object has multiple instances of absorb. “Aura swap [cost]” means “[Cost]: You may exchange this permanent with an Aura card in your hand.502. play it without paying its mana cost if able. The second and third are triggered abilities that function in the removedfrom-the-game zone. “Absorb N” means “If a source would deal damage to this creature.62. if it’s removed from the game.59c Playing a spell as an effect of its suspend ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with suspend is in a player’s hand. remove a time counter from it.61. This action doesn’t use the stack. If you play a creature spell this way. sacrifice it.60c If a permanent has multiple instances of vanishing. it gains haste until you lose control of the spell or the permanent it becomes. prevent N of that damage.60b Vanishing without a number means “At the beginning of your upkeep. Vanishing 502.61b Each absorb ability can prevent only N damage from any one source at any one time. It will apply separately to damage from other sources. “Vanishing N” means “This permanent comes into play with N time counters on it. 502. and has a time counter on it.” 502.” and “When the last time counter is removed from this permanent. each applies separately.” 502. it remains removed from the game.60a Vanishing is a keyword that represents three abilities. you may pay [cost] and remove it from the game with N time counters on it.59a Suspend is a keyword that represents three abilities.1b and 409. Aura Swap 502.

63a Deathtouch is a triggered ability. Example: You play the aura swap ability of an Aura that you control but you don’t own.” 502. destroy that creature.68. you may remove any number of cards in your graveyard from the game.63.65c If a Fortification has multiple instances of fortify. 502.65a Fortify is an activated ability of Fortification cards.63b If a permanent has multiple instances of deathtouch.66. each triggers separately. 502. 502. Deathtouch 502. The ability has no effect. it gets +N/+0 until end of turn.66a Frenzy is a triggered ability. any of its fortify abilities may be used. see rule 212.67. put a copy of it onto the stack for each permanent that was put into a graveyard from play this turn. “Gravestorm” means “When you play this spell.Example: You play the aura swap ability of an Aura. each triggers separately.64b Multiple instances of delve on the same spell are redundant. each triggers separately.1f–h. 502.” 502. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery.” 502. Frenzy 502. Lifelink . 502. “Delve” means “As an additional cost to play this spell.64. Delve 502. you may choose new targets for any of the copies.1b and 409.” 502.66b If a creature has multiple instances of frenzy. “Frenzy N” means “Whenever this creature attacks and isn’t blocked. Fortify 502. “Artifacts.67a Gravestorm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. If the spell has any targets.67b If a spell has multiple instances of gravestorm. Gravestorm 502.” 502.2.65b For more information about Fortifications.65. “Fortify [cost]” means “[Cost]: Attach this Fortification to target land you control.” Using the delve ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. The only Aura card in your hand can’t enchant the permanent that’s enchanted by the Aura with aura swap.64a Delve is a static ability that functions while the spell that has it is on the stack. “Deathtouch” means “Whenever this permanent deals damage to a creature. Each card removed this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1}. The ability has no effect. 502. 502.

73a Changeling is a characteristic-defining ability.” 502.70c Multiple instances of reach on the same creature are redundant. Transfigure 502. See rule 405. each triggers separately.70b A creature with flying can’t be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. “Transfigure [cost]” means “[Cost]. sacrifice it unless you remove another [object] you control from the game” and “When this permanent leaves play.71. 502.2. “Champion an [object]” means “When this permanent comes into play. “Declare Blockers Step” and rule 502.4.72b The two abilities represented by champion are linked.” 502. Sacrifice this permanent: Search your library for a creature card with the same converted mana cost as this permanent and put it into play. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery.72a Champion represents two triggered abilities. Reach 502.3d. “Linked Abilities. “Changeling” means “This object is every creature type. 502.” 502.69a Poisonous is a triggered ability.72. Changeling 502.72c A permanent is “championed” by another permanent if the latter removes the former from the game as the direct result of a champion ability.73. Champion 502. “Lifelink” means “Whenever this permanent deals damage.68b If a permanent has multiple instances of lifelink. return the removed card to play under its owner’s control.69b If a creature has multiple instances of poisonous.502.69. even outside the game. 502.” (For information about poison counters.. 502. “Poisonous N” means “Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player.” This ability works everywhere. 502. each triggers separately. you gain that much life. See rule 407.70.” 502.73b Multiple instances of changeling on the same object are redundant.”) 502.71a Transfigure is an activated ability. . that player gets N poison counters. (See rule 309. Poisonous 502. see rule 102. “Flying.68a Lifelink is a triggered ability. Then shuffle your library. 502.70a Reach is a static ability.) 502.

1b and 409. If the spell has any targets. its controller sacrifices it. look at the top four cards of your library. 502. “Evoke [cost]” means “You may play this card by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost” and “When this permanent comes into play.” Paying a card’s evoke cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.75a Hideaway represents a static ability and a triggered ability.78a Conspire is a keyword that represents two abilities. if its conspire cost was paid. it continues to exist while the object is in play and in all other zones. Discard this card: Put N +1/+1 counters on target creature. Remove one of them from the game face down and put the rest on the bottom of your library in any order.” Paying a spell’s prowl cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.” 502. “Conspire” means “As an additional cost to play this spell.77a Reinforce is an activated ability that functions only while the card with reinforce is in a player’s hand. “Reinforce N—[cost]” means “[Cost]. Conspire 502.74. at the time it dealt that damage. copy it. Hideaway 502.77b Although the reinforce ability is playable only if the card is in a player’s hand. The removed card gains ‘Any player who has controlled the permanent that removed this card from the game may look at this card in the removed-from-the-game zone.1b and 409.1f–h. 502. 502. . Prowl 502.74a Evoke represents two abilities: a static ability that functions in any zone from which the card can be played and a triggered ability that functions in play. Therefore objects with reinforce will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities. you may choose new targets for the copy. “Hideaway” means “This permanent comes into play tapped” and “When this permanent comes into play.78. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. Reinforce 502.1b and 409.75.” Paying a spell’s conspire cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. Evoke 502. was under your control and had any of this spell’s creature types.’” 502.502.76b If a source that assigned combat damage left play before combat damage resolved. you may tap two untapped creatures you control that each share a color with it” and “When you play this spell. its last known information is used to determine its controller and its creature types.76a Prowl is a static ability that functions on the stack.76.1f–h.1f–h. “Prowl [cost]” means “You may pay [cost] rather than pay this spell’s mana cost if a player was dealt combat damage this turn by a source that. if its evoke cost was paid.77. 502.

79. Devour 502.84. “Exalted” means “Whenever a creature you control attacks alone. 502. that creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn. Unearth 502.” 502. Rather.” 502. This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it for each creature sacrificed this way. Persist 502.80b Multiple instances of wither on the same object are redundant. it causes that many -1/-1 counters to be put on that creature.81a Retrace appears on some instants and sorceries. you may sacrifice any number of creatures. It represents a static ability that functions while the card is in a player’s graveyard.1f–h. each is paid separately and triggers based on its own payment. See rule 306. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery. Cascade 502.1b and 409.85a Cascade is a triggered ability that functions only while the spell with .” 502. “It devoured” means “sacrificed as a result of its devour ability as it came into play. remove it from the game instead of putting it anywhere else. “Retrace” means “You may play this card from your graveyard by discarding a land card as an additional cost to play it. It gains haste.84a Unearth is an activated ability that functions while the card is in a graveyard. 502. Exalted 502. 502.” 502.78b If a spell has multiple instances of conspire.83a Exalted is a triggered ability. If it would leave play. “Unearth [cost]” means “[Cost]: Return this card from your graveyard to play.3g). 502. “Persist” means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play.83b A creature “attacks alone” if it’s the only creature declared as an attacker in a given combat phase.82a Devour is a static ability.79a Persist is a triggered ability.5. “Devour N” means “As this object comes into play.85. return it to play under its owner’s control with a -1/-1 counter on it.82.” Playing a spell using its retrace ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.81.83. Retrace 502. Wither 502.80. not any other instance of conspire. if it had no -1/-1 counters on it.502. 502.82b Some objects have abilities that refer to the number of creatures the permanent devoured.80a Damage dealt to a creature by a source with wither doesn’t stay on that creature (see rule 212. Remove it from the game at end of turn.” 502.

The Clone is a 2/2 blue Bear named Grizzly Bears that has the Doppelganger’s upkeep-triggered ability. “Cascade” means “When you play this spell. whether a kicker cost was paid. expansion symbol. not a 5/5 artifact creature. how it will affect multiple targets. for an object on the stack. rules text.” This section doesn’t cover those cards. comes into play” and “as . Example: Vesuvan Doppelganger reads. however. (The copy has the Staff’s ability.” 502. If you do. loyalty) and.3. each triggers separately.’” A Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of Grizzly Bears (a 2/2 green creature with no abilities). and so on). a Clone comes into play as a copy of it. supertype. and counters are not copied. which have received new text in the Oracle card reference. Then a Clone comes into play as a copy of the Doppelganger. “As Clone comes into play. as modified by other copy effects. no abilities. Copying Objects 503. You may play that card without paying its mana cost. Example: Chimeric Staff is an artifact that reads “{X}: Chimeric Staff becomes an X/X artifact creature until end of turn. .” After a Staff has become a 5/5 artifact creature. Then put all cards removed from the game this way that weren’t played on the bottom of your library in a random order. remove cards from the top of your library from the game until you remove a nonland card whose converted mana cost is less than this spell’s converted mana cost. Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of that creature except for its color and gains ‘At the beginning of your upkeep. Example: Tomoya the Revealer (a flipped flip card) becomes a copy of Nezumi Shortfang (an unflipped flip card). Some objects become or turn another object into a “copy” of a spell.1. and by abilities that caused the object to be face down. Clone comes into play as a copy of that creature. Other effects (including type-changing and textchanging effects). targets. the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object’s characteristics (name. . or card. The “copiable values” are the values that are printed on the object. card type. (Certain older cards were printed with the phrase “search for a copy. and will become a creature if that ability is activated. . is turned face up” abilities that set characteristics. no types. you may choose a creature in play. Objects that copy the object will use the new copiable values. “As Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play. Some effects put a token into play as a copy of another object.) Example: Clone comes into play as a copy of a face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph {2}{B}{B}). 503. the value of X. and no mana cost.” Clone is a creature that reads.2.85b If a spell has multiple instances of cascade. this creature gains this ability. The Clone is a colorless 2/2 creature with no name. The Clone is an artifact. as modified by the copy’s status (see rule 510). If you do. status. you may have this creature become a copy of target creature except for its color. When copying an object. mana cost. you may choose a creature in play. . power. 503.) 503. by “as . If you do.cascade is on the stack. choices made when playing it (mode. Tomoya’s characteristics . Its controller can’t pay {2}{B}{B} to turn it face up. permanent. It will still be face up. toughness. subtype. The copy’s copiable values become the copied information. color.

it will have the characteristics of Wandering Ones.6. If it’s turned face up. However. Some effects cause a permanent that’s copying a permanent to copy a different object while remaining in play. or abilities.5. If the text that’s being copied includes any abilities that replace the comes-into-play event (such as “comes into play with” or “as [this] comes into play” abilities). which is the flipped version of Nezumi Shortfang. if an object comes into play as a copy of another permanent. It doesn’t come into play.” A Clone that comes into play as a copy of a Skyshroud Behemoth will also come into play tapped with two fade counters on it. 503. “Fading 2 (This creature comes into play with two fade counters on it. “As Chameleon Spirit comes into play. “When Striped Bears comes into play. those abilities will take effect. any choices that have been made for that permanent aren’t copied. At the beginning of your upkeep. It remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name. but it will still get +3/+3 from the Giant Growth. 503.” If a creature comes into play later this turn. If you can’t. types. When copying a permanent. sometimes a copy card will gain an ability that refers to a choice that was . Example: Unstable Shapeshifter reads. The change doesn’t trigger comes-intoplay or leaves-play abilities. Instead. Example: Striped Bears reads. If an effect turns it face up. This also doesn’t change any noncopy effects presently affecting the permanent. It can be turned face up for {G}.” A Clone comes into play as a copy of Striped Bears. any comes-intoplay triggered abilities of the copy will have a chance to trigger. Also. and then become a copy of that permanent. the object’s controller will get to make any “as comes into play” choices for it. so the Clone’s controller draws a card. The Demon’s characteristics become the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian. 503. since the creature is face down. Example: A Clone comes into play as a copy of Chameleon Spirit. in part. The Clone has the Bears’ comes-into-play triggered ability. and no mana cost. Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of Wandering Ones (a 1/1 blue Spirit creature that doesn’t have morph). rather. which reads “Target creature gets +3/+3 until end of turn. Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of a face-up Branchsnap Lorian (a 4/1 green creature with trample and morph {G}). remove a fade counter from it.become the characteristics of Stabwhisker the Odious. It will be a face-down Wandering Ones. or abilities. Chameleon Spirit reads. types.” It’s affected by Giant Growth.4.)” and “Skyshroud Behemoth comes into play tapped. Its controller can’t turn it face up as a special action. it remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name. and no mana cost. draw a card.7. Because any choices that have been made for a permanent aren’t copied. An object that comes into play “as a copy” of another object becomes a copy as it comes into play. the controller of the Clone will get to make a new choice. sacrifice it. Unstable Shapeshifter becomes a copy of that creature and gains this ability. Unstable Shapeshifter will become a copy of that creature.” The Clone won’t copy the color choice of the Spirit. Example: Skyshroud Behemoth reads. choose a color. 503. “Whenever a creature comes into play. it will have the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian.

In that case. 503. If an effect of the copy refers to objects used to pay its costs. (This is a change from previous rules. some copy effects specifically state that they don’t copy certain characteristics. the Doppelganger copies Quirion Elves. To copy a spell or activated ability means to put a copy of it onto the stack.” 503. The copiable values of the Shapeshifter now match those of the Elves.” If an ability refers to an undefined choice. so the protection ability doesn’t protect it from anything at all. but either (a) doesn’t copy that ability’s linked ability or (b) does copy the linked ability but no choice is made.9.” Even though a color was chosen for the Doppelganger.” and “Voice of All has protection from the chosen color. The Elves has the ability. Also. that part of the ability has no effect. targets.never made. including modes. that part of the ability won’t do anything.”) Choices that are normally made on resolution are not copied. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.” Unstable Shapeshifter never had a chance for a color to be chosen for it.” and a second. 503. One ability refers only to actions that were taken or objects that were affected by the other. a copy of a spell or ability isn’t “played.10. they retain their original values instead.” A copy of a spell or ability copies both the characteristics of the spell or ability and all decisions made for it. Later. including the ability that the Shapeshifter gave itself when it copied the Elves. in part. the value of X. See rule 407. regardless of what other abilities the copy may currently have or may have had in the past. Voice of All reads.” If an ability refers to an undefined choice.” Then a Clone comes into play as a copy of the Unstable Shapeshifter. and the Doppelganger’s controller chooses blue. Some copy effects give an ability to the copy as part of the copying process. 503. An object doesn’t “remember” that choice and use it for other abilities it may copy later. Unstable Shapeshifter becomes a copy of that creature and gains this ability. those abilities will be similarly linked to one another on the object that copied them. A copy of a spell is owned by the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. it uses the objects used to pay the costs of the original spell or ability. They can’t be linked to any other ability. it was chosen for a different linked ability.8a If an ability causes a player to “choose a [value]” or “name a card. “{T}: Add one mana of the chosen color to your mana pool. If a pair of linked abilities are copied. “Linked Abilities. the choice is considered to be “undefined. and additional or alternative costs. If that mana ability of the Doppelganger is played. A copy of a spell or ability is controlled by the . because it didn’t come into play as a Voice of All card. “As Voice of All comes into play. then the choice is considered to be “undefined. the second ability is the only ability that can refer to that choice.8. it will not produce mana.) If an object copies an ability that refers to a choice. except that the Shapeshifter also has the ability “Whenever a creature comes into play. choose a color. Example: Quirion Elves comes into play and an Unstable Shapeshifter copies it. linked ability refers to that choice. along with any other abilities that were copied. (See rule 409. Example: A Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of Chameleon Spirit. Example: Voice of All comes into play and Unstable Shapeshifter copies it. This ability becomes part of the copiable values for the copy. The Clone copies the new copiable values of the Shapeshifter.

” If this activated ability of the Shapeshifter is played.10b A copy of an ability has the same source as the original ability.1a–h of rule 409. Example: A player plays Fork. 503. Fork reads.player who put it on the stack. “As an additional cost to play Fling. even if those targets would be illegal.26) allow spells and permanents to be face down. 503. If the player chooses to change some or all of the targets. even if it’s no longer a copy of Crazed Armodon at that time. Example: An Unstable Shapeshifter copies a Crazed Armodon. 503. A copy of an ability is itself an ability.10a If a copy of a spell is in a zone other than the stack. The copy has the same mode that was chosen for the original Emerald Charm. “Put a copy of target instant or sorcery spell onto the stack. even though it has no spell card associated with it. the new targets must be legal. the copy is put onto the stack with those targets. it checks the power of the creature sacrificed to pay for the original Fling. “Choose one — Untap target permanent.” When the Fork resolves. it ceases to exist. The copy is considered to be the same ability by effects that count how many times that ability has resolved during the turn. the copy refers to that same object and not to any other object with the same name. Example: Fling is an instant that reads. Face-Down Spells and Permanents 504. “{G}: Crazed Armodon gets +3/+0 and gains trample until end of turn. but only because Fork allows choosing of new targets. and just like any other spell it can resolve or be countered. the effect still tracks that permanent even if it changes names or becomes a copy of something else. or target creature loses flying until end of turn.” When determining how much damage a copy of Fling deals. Play this ability only once each turn.” Emerald Charm reads. See rule 420. An effect that instructs a player to “play a copy” of an object follows the rules for playing spells and abilities. except that it copies Fork’s color and you may choose new targets for the copy.12.” and “Fling deals damage equal to the sacrificed creature’s power to target creature or player. . 503. Playing a copy of a nonland object follows steps 409. If a copy of a card is in any zone other than the stack or the in-play zone. The played copy is a spell on the stack. It does not necessarily have the same target. or destroy target non-Aura enchantment. These are state-based effects.11. A copy of a spell is itself a spell. Two cards (Illusionary Mask and Ixidron) and the morph ability (see rule 502. The player may leave any number of the targets unchanged. If an effect refers to a permanent by name. sacrifice a creature. 504. the Shapeshifter will be destroyed at end of turn. Once the player has decided what the copy’s targets will be. it puts a copy of the Emerald Charm on the stack. 503. except that the copy is played while another spell or ability is resolving. Crazed Armodon reads.10c Some effects copy a spell or ability and state that its controller may choose new targets for the copy. If the ability refers to its source by name. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. it ceases to exist.” then the copy becomes played. targeting an Emerald Charm.1. Destroy Crazed Armodon at end of turn.

in the phased-out zone. the order that facedown permanents came into play. Any effects or prohibitions that would apply to playing an object with these characteristics (and not the face-up object’s characteristics) are applied to playing this object. Any listed characteristics are the copiable values of that object’s characteristics. Face-down spells on the stack. or a face-down card in the phased-out zone you controlled when it phased out. so effects that care about the characteristics of a spell will see only the face-down spell’s characteristics. If a phased-out face-down object moves to any zone other than the in-play zone. its copiable values become the values it copied from the other permanent. so the permanent’s comes-intoplay abilities won’t trigger (if triggered) or have any effect (if static). a face-down permanent you control.”) Objects that are put into play face down are turned face down before they come into play. 504. you may look at a face-down spell you control on the stack. spell. its copiable values revert to its normal copiable values. face-down spells or permanents controlled by another player. 504. or clearly placing those objects in order on the table.4. This includes.6. all facedown objects in play. or permanent to be turned face down. “Interaction of Continuous Effects. If a face-down spell moves from the stack to any zone other than the in-play zone. . as modified by its face-down status. Any effects that have been applied to the face-down permanent still apply to the face-up permanent. and any other differences between face-down spells or permanents. or face-down cards in the phased-out zone last controlled by another player. its owner must reveal it to all players as he or she moves it.3.” and rule 503. 504. because the permanent has already come into play. you must ensure at all times that your face-down spells and permanents can be easily differentiated from each other. Common methods for distinguishing between face-down objects include using counters or dice to mark the different objects. At any time. knowing the order spells were played. If a face-down permanent moves from the in-play zone to any zone other than the phased-out zone. Its characteristics therefore remain the same: the characteristics listed by the ability or rules that allowed it to be turned face down. Spells normally can’t be turned face up.504. if it is turned face up. which creature attacked last turn. As a face-down permanent is turned face up.7. but is not limited to. (See rule 418. face-down permanents in play. The ability or rules that allow a permanent to be face down may also allow the permanent’s controller to turn it face up.2. Objects that are played face down are turned face down before they are put onto the stack.5. If you control multiple face-down spells on the stack or face-down permanents in play. its owner must reveal it as he or she moves it. “Copying Objects. or on the stack must be revealed to all players. However. 504. and facedown cards in the phased-out zone have no characteristics other than those listed by the ability or rules that allowed the card. At the end of each game.5. If a face-down permanent becomes a copy of another permanent. its copiable values become the copiable values of that permanent. Any abilities relating to the permanent coming into play don’t trigger and don’t have any effect. its owner must reveal it to all players as he or she moves it. You can’t look at face-down cards in any other zone. 504.

5. Although split cards have two playable halves. Example: Void reads. 505. Each split card that consists of two halves with different colored mana symbols in their mana costs is a multicolored card while it’s not a spell on the stack.” You get five creature tokens. This answer is “yes” if either side of each split card in the comparison would return a “yes” answer if compared individually. 505. and 4.6. Split cards have two card faces on a single card. “At the beginning of each player’s upkeep.” If a player plays Void and chooses 1.3. that ability is applied while that permanent is being turned face up. 505. The other half’s characteristics are treated as though they didn’t exist. a player who has drawn or discarded a split card has drawn or discarded one card. In every zone except the stack. An effect that performs a negative comparison (such as asking if cards have different names) involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack also gets only one answer. not afterward. Example: Infernal Genesis has an ability that reads. Destroy all artifacts and creatures with converted mana cost equal to that number. If an effect performs a comparison involving multiple characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack. 505. the game sees its converted mana cost as “1. If each of the individual comparisons would return a “yes” answer. He or she then puts X 1/1 black Minion creature tokens into play. each split card is only one card. .” If the top card of your library is Assault/Battery when this ability resolves. it’s only the color or colors of the half being played.504. As long as a split card is a spell on the stack. split cards have two sets of characteristics and two converted mana costs. only the characteristics of the half being played exist. each characteristic is compared separately. If the player chooses 5. 505. that player puts the top card from his or her library into his or her graveyard.2. the whole comparison returns a “yes” answer.” ability after it’s turned face up. 505. For example. While it’s a spell on the stack.4. If a face-down permanent would have an “As [this permanent] is turned face up . his or her opponent would discard Assault/Battery because the game sees its converted mana cost as “1. Then target player reveals his or her hand and discards all nonland cards with converted mana cost equal to the number. This answer is “yes” if performing the analogous positive comparison would return a “no” answer. . “Choose a number. Split Cards 505. however. where X is that card’s converted mana cost.” The same is true if the player chooses 4.1. An effect that asks for a particular characteristic of a split card while it’s in a zone other than the stack gets two answers (one for each of the split card’s two halves). The back of a split card is the normal Magic: The Gathering card back. and 4. Assault/Battery . not two.8. An effect that performs a positive comparison (such as asking if a card is red) or a relative comparison (such as asking if a card’s converted mana cost is less than 2) involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack gets only one answer.

506. each player puts all cards he or she owns that are in the subgame into his or her library in the main game. if any main-game abilities triggered while the subgame was in progress due to cards being removed from the main game. abilities in the main game that trigger on objects leaving a main-game zone will trigger. the spell or ability that created the subgame finishes resolving.4. The main game is temporarily discontinued while the subgame is in progress. This includes cards in the subgame’s removed-from-the-game zone. regardless of any mulligans that player takes. then shuffles them. All players not currently in the subgame are considered outside the subgame.1a A “subgame” is a completely separate Magic game created by a card’s effect. “Starting the Game. At the end of a subgame.5. (See rule 420. The subgame proceeds like a normal game. .would be unaffected. If an effect instructs a player to name a card and the player wants to name a split card.3. any player with fewer than seven cards in his or her deck will lose the subgame when state-based effects are checked during the upkeep step of the first turn. and shuffles them. An object has the chosen name if it has at least one of the two names chosen this way. as do the zones created for the subgame. All objects in the main game and all cards outside the main game are considered outside the subgame (except those specifically brought into the subgame). The “main game” is the game in which the spell or ability that created the subgame was played. The main game continues from the point at which it was discontinued: First. 506. those abilities are put onto the stack. 506. Some cards allow players to play a Magic subgame. Subgames 506. because each player draws seven cards when a game begins. except as defined by the effect that created the subgame. Each player takes all the cards in his or her main-game library. 506.2. an entirely new set of game zones is created. If a card is brought into a subgame from a main game. “StateBased Effects. Then. Any rules regarding the size of a player’s deck are ignored for the subgame. As the subgame starts. All other objects in the subgame cease to exist.”) 506. However.7. 506. Randomly determine which player goes first.4a Some effects can bring cards into a game from outside of it. moves them to his or her subgame library. It resumes when the subgame ends.1b No effects or definitions created in either the main game or the subgame have any meaning in the other. the player must name both halves of the split card. 505. No other cards in a main-game zone are moved to their corresponding subgame zone. even if it was created by a spell card that’s no longer on the stack.1. For example. the effect may say that something happens in the main game to the winner or loser of the subgame.” 506. 506. but they won’t be put onto the stack until the main game resumes. following all other rules in section 101.

and how those creatures assign their combat damage. 507. See rule 102. any pending turn-controlling effects wait until the player who would be affected actually takes a turn. This includes choices and decisions about what to play. A player may concede the game at any time.1a Multiple turn-controlling effects that affect the same player overwrite each other. Example: The controller of the turn decides which spells to play and what those spells target. The entire turn is controlled. and choices and decisions called for by spells and abilities.3c The controller of another player’s turn can’t make choices or decisions for that player that aren’t called for by the rules or by any objects. 507. takes an intentional draw. If information about an object would be visible to the player whose turn is controlled. mana. Example: If the controller of the turn decides that the player will play a spell with an additional cost of discarding cards. 507. The controller also can’t make any choices or decisions for the player that would be called for by the tournament rules.2. 507. This effect applies to the next turn that the affected player actually takes.1c Only the control of the turn changes. Example: The controller of a player’s turn can see that player’s hand and the identity of any face-down creatures he or she controls. Example: The player whose turn it is still chooses whether he or she leaves to visit the restroom.1. All objects are controlled by their normal controllers. The last one to be created is the one that works.Example: If a card was brought into the subgame either from the main game or from outside the main game. 507. The existing subgame becomes the main game in relation to the new subgame. even if his or her turn is controlled by another player. the effect doesn’t end until the beginning of the next turn. 507. that card will be put into its owner’s main-game library when the subgame ends. One card (Mindslaver) allows a player’s turn to be controlled by another player. . The controller of another player’s turn makes all choices and decisions that player is allowed to make or is told to make during that turn by the rules or by any objects. the cards are discarded from the player’s hand. and makes any required decisions when those spells resolve.3a The controller of another player’s turn can use only that player’s resources (cards. 507.3a. 506.1b If a turn is skipped. Example: The controller of the turn decides which of the player’s creatures attack. it’s visible to both that player and the controller of the turn. Controlling Another Player’s Turn 507. 507.3. A subgame can be created within a subgame.3b The controller of another player’s turn can’t make that player concede. or calls a judge about an error or infraction. trades a card to someone else. 507. and so on) to pay costs for that player.6.

mana cost. In every zone other than the in-play zone. but it does affect Tok-Tok. (Unused mana in players’ mana pools is still lost when a phase ends. A player doesn’t lose life due to mana burn while another player controls his or her turn.) 508. 508. and toughness. 509.1. An effect that says “search your library for a legendary card” can’t find this flip card. any changes to it by external effects will still apply.3d A player who controls another player’s turn also continues to make his or her own choices and decisions. Additional alternative characteristics appear upside down on the card. See rule 510. 508. Once a permanent in the in-play zone is flipped.1a The top half of a flip card contains the card’s normal name. follow these steps in order.2. 508. if a flipped permanent leaves play. and also in the in-play zone before the permanent flips.3. type line. . However. type line.1b The bottom half of a flip card contains an alternative name. and toughness. a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the card. 508. Flip Cards 508. 508. both when it’s untapped and when it’s tapped. Flipping a permanent is a one-way process. The back of a flip card is the normal Magic: The Gathering card back. it’s impossible for it to become unflipped. “Resolving Spells and Abilities”). The text that appears right side up on the card defines the card’s normal characteristics. 508. Once a permanent is flipped. text box. Common methods for distinguishing between flipped and unflipped permanents include using coins or dice to mark flipped objects. Volcano Born. The text box usually contains an ability that causes the permanent to “flip” if certain conditions are met. the player may do so. as they differ from the normal process for resolving spells and abilities (see rule 413. Also. power.507. its normal name. type line. One card (Time Stop) ends the turn when it resolves. “Status. You must ensure that it’s clear at all times whether a permanent you control is flipped or not. Ending the Turn 509. See rule 300. When an effect ends the turn. illustration credit. 507.1.” 508. expansion symbol. If an effect instructs a player to name a card and the player wants to name a flip card’s alternative name. and toughness don’t apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead. it retains no memory of its status. An effect that says “legendary creatures get +2/+2” doesn’t affect Akki Lavarunner. Example: Akki Lavarunner is a nonlegendary creature that flips into a legendary creature named Tok-Tok. These characteristics are used only if the permanent is in play and only if the permanent is flipped. power.1c A flip card’s color.4. text box.5.3. and legal text don’t change if the permanent is flipped. Flip cards have a two-part card frame on a single card.4. text box. power.

there’s a chance to play spells and abilities in the cleanup step. Only permanents have status. from combat.1a Remove every object on the stack from the game. so triggered abilities are not put onto the stack. this creature flips.1.” It becomes a copy of Jushi Apprentice. ability. a flip card. If this permanent then becomes a copy of Grizzly Bears. Skip any phases or steps between this phase or step and the cleanup step. Even though the turn ends.1b Check state-based effects. If any triggered abilities have triggered between the spell or ability resolving and the cleanup step ending. Dimir Doppelganger becomes a copy of that card and gains this ability.3). Remove all planeswalkers from combat. “at end of turn” triggered abilities don’t trigger because the end of turn step is skipped. this has no correlation to the face-down status of a permanent. If its copy ability is activated again. 510. and face up unless a spell or ability says otherwise. 510. 510. though it may affect a permanent’s characteristics.509.3. There are three status categories. this time targeting a Nezumi Shortfang card (another flip card). 510.1c The current phase and/or step ends. and face up/face down. 510. “State-Based Effects). and no triggered abilities are put onto the stack. Permanents come into play untapped. No player gets priority during this process. A permanent retains its status until a spell. Status is not a characteristic. Then there will be another cleanup step before the turn finally ends (see rule 314. Through use of Jushi Apprentice’s ability. or game action changes it. 509. 509.2. Status 510. All objects not in play or on the stack that aren’t represented by cards will cease to exist the next time state-based effects are checked (see rule 420. Cards not in play do not. flipped/unflipped. . Each permanent always has one of these values for each of these categories. The game skips straight to the cleanup step. each of which has two possible values: tapped/untapped. 509. this permanent’s flipped status means it will have the characteristics of Stabwhisker the Odious (the flipped version of Nezumi Shortfang) with the Dimir Doppelganger ability.5. Example: Dimir Doppelganger says “{1}{U}{B}: Remove target creature card in a graveyard from the game. Remove all attacking and blocking creatures. if any. making it a copy of Tomoya the Revealer with the Dimir Doppelganger ability. 509. unflipped.3. even if that status is not relevant to it.4. No player gets priority. Although a card in the removed-from-the-game zone may be face down. A permanent’s status is its physical state. it will retain its flipped status even though that has no relevance to Grizzly Bears.2.

511. 511. If the coin that’s being flipped doesn’t have an obvious “heads” or “tails. that player wins the flip.” or roll an evensided die and designate that “odds” means “heads” and “evens” means “tails. the affected player flips the coin and calls “heads” or “tails.3. each affected player flips a coin without making a call. Flipping a Coin 511. To flip a coin for an object that cares whether the coin comes up heads or tails.6.” designate one side to be “heads.510.1. as well as other information about the permanent (such as who controls it or whether it has any counters on it). For example. the player loses the flip. no other players are involved. No player wins or loses this kind of flip. If it was face down when it phased out. the player may roll an even-sided die and call “odds” or “evens. To flip a coin for an object that cares whether a player wins or loses the flip. 511. A permanent that phases out remembers its status.” If the call matches the result. it will stay face down in the phased-out zone. A coin used in a flip must be a two-sided object with easily distinguished sides and equal likelihood that either side lands face up. It will phase in with the same status it had when it phased out.” and the other side to be “tails.” Other methods of randomization may be substituted for flipping a coin as long as there are two possible outcomes of equal likelihood and all players agree to the substitution.2. Otherwise.” . Only the player who flips the coin wins or loses the flip.

If a token would be put into play under the control of a . instead. so does Control Magic. Many multiplayer Magic tournaments have additional rules not included here. “You control enchanted creature. If Alex leaves the game. Bianca leaves the game. which reads.com/Magic/TCG/Events. if Genesis Chamber is untapped. Alex puts Wall of Wood into play from Bianca’s library.6. which reads. These rules consist of a series of options that can be added to a multiplayer game and a number of variant styles of multiplayer play. those objects leave the game. 600. If. If Alex leaves the game.4a. A multiplayer game is a game that begins with more than two players.2. 600. priority passes to the next player in turn order who’s still in the game. Example: Alex plays Threaten. If an object would change to the control of a player who has left the game. all spells and abilities controlled by that player on the stack cease to exist.” targeting Bianca’s Wall of Wood. including rules for deck construction. A single game may use multiple options but only one variant.) This is not a state-based effect. 600. Then. all Myr tokens created by Genesis Chamber while it was under Alex’s control leave the game as well because Alex owns the tokens. General 600. in part. A player leaving the game doesn’t affect combat damage on the stack. which reads. Unlike two-player games. all objects (see rule 200. When a player leaves the game. and any change-of-control effects which give that player control of any objects end.4. If the player who left the game had priority at the time he or she left. It happens as soon as the player leaves the game. Wall of Wood still leaves the game. They can be found at http://www.8) owned by that player leave the game. Example: Alex plays Bribery. 600.” targeting Bianca. Wall of Wood leaves the game. “Search target opponent’s library for a creature card and put that card into play under your control. instead. Threaten’s change-of-control effect ends and Wall of Wood reverts to Bianca’s control. if there are any objects still controlled by that player.” If Alex leaves the game. and Wall of Wood reverts to Bianca’s control. so does Wall of Wood.3. “Untap target creature and gain control of it until end of turn. If. Example: Alex plays Control Magic. Then that player shuffles his or her library.aspx? x=dci/doccenter/home. If Alex leaves the game. multiplayer games can continue after one or more players have left the game. it doesn’t. This section contains additional optional rules that can be used for multiplayer play. 600. an Aura that reads.wizards. Example: Alex controls Genesis Chamber. Multiplayer Rules 600. that creature’s controller puts a 1/1 Myr artifact creature token into play.1. “Whenever a nontoken creature comes into play. Bianca leaves the game.4b. and Control Magic is put into Alex’s graveyard. (Any objects leaving the game this way that aren’t owned by the player leaving the game are placed in the removed-from-the-game zone.” on Bianca’s Wall of Wood. See the most current Magic: The Gathering DCI Floor Rules for more information.

Hypnotic Specter never returns to play. the effect uses the last known information about that player before he or she left the game. it isn’t put on the stack. the first time a player takes a mulligan.5 In a multiplayer game. Range of influence covers spells. 600. If you do. objects that player owns in the ante zone do not leave the game. Limited range of influence is an option that can be applied to most multiplayer games. or the phase or step ends. 600. you may remove target creature from the game. no token is created. A player’s range of influence is the maximum distance from that player.4g When a player leaves the game. See rule 217. 601.” 600. the controller of the object chooses another player to make that choice. return that creature to play under its owner’s control at end of turn. 600. “Ante.2.4d If an object requires a player who has left the game to make a choice. or the top object on the stack resolves. that the player can affect. damage dealing. and it’s often used for games involving five or more players. instead the next player in turn order receives priority. the delayed triggered ability generated by Astral Slide that would return Hypnotic Specter to play triggers. abilities. he or she draws a new hand of seven cards rather than six cards. Before the end of that turn. 600. it isn’t created. making choices. and winning the game. 601.6a. It’s always used in the Emperor variant (see rule 607). 601.” During Alex’s turn. effects. 600. If a triggered ability that would be controlled by a player who has left the game would be put onto the stack.1. At end of turn.4e If an effect requires information about a specific player.4c If an object that would be owned by a player who has left the game would be created in any zone.2a The most commonly chosen limited ranges of influence are 1 seat and 2 .9. the effect uses the current information about that player if he or she is still in the game.4f If a player leaves the game during his or her turn. Players within that many seats of the player are within that player’s range of influence. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal. If the original choice was to be made by an opponent of the controller of the object. Example: Astral Slide is an enchantment that reads. but it isn’t put on the stack.player who has left the game. see rule 606.4a. attacking. The Two-Headed Giant variant employs more extensive changes to the mulligan rule. whichever is appropriate. Limited Range of Influence Option 601. Objects controlled by players within a player’s range of influence are also within that player’s range of influence. “Whenever a player cycles a card. Bianca uses Astral Slide’s ability to remove Alex’s Hypnotic Specter from the game. that turn continues to its completion without an active player. This is an exception to rule 600. If the active player would receive priority. Bianca leaves the game. measured in player seats. that player chooses another opponent if possible. otherwise.

seats. Different players may have different ranges of influence. Example: A range of influence of 1 means that only you and the players seated directly next to you are within your range of influence. Example: A range of influence of 2 means that you and the two players to your left and the two players to your right are within your range of influence. 601.2b A player is always within his or her own range of influence. 601.2c The particular players within each player’s range of influence are determined as each turn begins. Example: In a game with a range of influence of 1, Alex is seated to the left of Rob, and Carissa is seated to the right of Rob. Carissa is not in Alex’s range of influence. If Rob leaves the game, Carissa will enter Alex’s range of influence at the start of the next turn. 601.2d An object is within a player’s range of influence if it’s controlled by that player or by another player within that many seats of that player. 601.3. Creatures can attack only opponents within their controller’s range of influence. If no opponents are within a player’s range of influence, creatures that player controls can’t attack. 601.4. Objects and players outside a player’s range of influence can’t be the targets of spells or abilities that player controls. 601.5. Some cards require players to make choices. These cards work differently when the limited range of influence option is used. 601.5a If a player is asked to choose an object or player, he or she must choose one within his or her range of influence. Example: In a game with a range of influence of 1, Alex is seated to the left of Rob. Alex activates the ability of Cuombajj Witches, which reads, “Cuombajj Witches deals 1 damage to target creature or player and 1 damage to target creature or player of an opponent’s choice,” targeting Rob and choosing Rob as the opponent who picks the other target. Rob must choose a target that’s in both his range of influence and in the range of influence of the controller of Cuombajj Witches. He must therefore choose himself, Alex, or a creature controlled by either himself or Alex. 601.5b If a player is asked to choose between one or more options (and not between one or more objects or players), he or she can choose between those options even if those options refer to objects or players outside the player’s range of influence. Example: Alex, who has a range of influence of 2, is seated to the left of Rob, and Carissa, who has range of influence of 1, is seated to the right of Rob. Alex plays a card that reads, “An opponent chooses one — You draw 2 cards; or each creature you control gets +2/+2 until end of turn,” and chooses Carissa to make that choice. Carissa can choose the mode even though Alex is out of her range. 601.5c If an effect requires a choice and there’s no player who can make that choice within its controller’s range of influence, the closest appropriate player to its controller’s left makes that choice.

Example: In an Emperor game in which all players have range of influence 1, an emperor plays Fact or Fiction, which reads, “Reveal the top five cards of your library. An opponent separates those cards into two piles. Put one pile into your hand and the other into your graveyard.” Since no opponent is within the emperor’s range of influence, the nearest opponent to the emperor’s left separates the cards into piles. 601.6. A player can’t play the activated abilities of an object outside of his or her range of influence. 601.7. A triggered ability doesn’t trigger unless its trigger event happens entirely within the range of influence of its source’s controller. Example: In a game with range of influence limited to 1, Alex is seated to the left of Rob. Rob controls two Auras attached to Alex’s Grizzly Bears: One with the trigger condition “Whenever enchanted creature becomes blocked,” and one with the trigger condition “Whenever enchanted creature becomes blocked by a creature.” Alex’s Grizzly Bears attacks the player to Alex’s left and becomes blocked. The ability of Rob’s first Aura triggers because the entire event (Grizzly Bears becomes blocked) happens within Rob’s range of influence. The ability of Rob’s second Aura doesn’t trigger, however, because that event includes the blocking creature, which is out of Rob’s range. 601.7a If a trigger event includes an object moving out of or into a player’s range of influence, use the game state before or after the event as appropriate to determine whether the triggered ability will trigger. See rule 410.10. Example: Carissa and Alex are outside each other’s range of influence. Carissa controls a creature owned by Alex and they each control a Soul Net, an artifact which reads, “Whenever a creature is put into a graveyard from play, you may pay {1}. If you do, you gain 1 life.” The creature is destroyed and is put into Alex’s graveyard. Alex’s Soul Net doesn’t trigger because the destruction event was outside Alex’s range of influence. Carissa’s Soul Net does trigger, even though the creature is going to a graveyard outside her range, because the destruction event was within her range. 601.8. An Aura can’t enchant an object or player outside its controller’s range of influence. If an Aura is attached to an illegal object or player, the Aura is put into its owner’s graveyard as a state-based effect. See rule 420. 601.9. An Equipment can’t equip an object outside its controller’s range of influence, and a Fortification can’t fortify an object outside its controller’s range of influence. If an Equipment or Fortification is attached to an illegal permanent, it becomes unattached from that permanent but remains in play. This is a state-based effect. See rule 420. 601.10. Spells and abilities can’t affect objects or players outside their controller’s range of influence. The parts of the effect that attempt to affect an out-ofrange object or player will do nothing. The rest of the effect will work normally. Example: In a six-player game where each player has range of influence 1, Alex plays Pyroclasm, which reads, “Pyroclasm deals 2 damage to each creature.” Pyroclasm deals 2 damage to each creature controlled by Alex, the player to Alex’s left, and the player to Alex’s right. No other

creatures are dealt damage. 601.11. If a spell or ability requires information from the game, it gets only information from within its controller’s range of influence. It doesn’t see objects or events outside its controller’s range of influence. Example: In a six-player game where each player has range of influence 1, Alex controls Coat of Arms, which reads, “Each creature gets +1/+1 for each other creature in play that shares a creature type with it.” Coat of Arms will boost Alex’s creatures based only on what creatures are controlled by Alex, the player to Alex’s left, and the player to Alex’s right. It won’t take other creatures into account. Example: In the same game, Rob is sitting to the right of Alex. Coat of Arms will boost Rob’s creatures based only on what creatures are controlled by Rob and Alex. They are the only two players within range of both Rob and the controller of Coat of Arms. 601.12. The “legend rule” (see rule 420.5e) applies to a permanent only if other legendary permanents with the same name are within its controller’s range of influence. Example: Alex has range of influence 1, and Carissa has range of influence 2. Rob sits between them. If Alex controls a legendary permanent and Carissa puts a legendary permanent with the same name into play, only the one controlled by Carissa will be put into a graveyard. 601.13. The “world rule” (see rule 420.5i) applies to a permanent only if other world permanents are within its controller’s range of influence. 601.14. The “planeswalker uniqueness rule” (see rule 420.5q) applies to a planeswalker only if other planeswalkers with the same planeswalker type are within its controller’s range of influence. 601.15. Replacement and prevention effects watch for a particular event to happen and then completely or partially replace that event. The limited range of influence option can cause the modified event to contain instructions that can’t be carried out, in which case the player simply ignores the impossible instructions. See rule 419, “Replacement and Prevention Effects.” 601.15a If a replacement effect tries to cause a spell or ability to affect an object or player outside its controller’s range of influence, that portion of the event does nothing. Example: Alex plays Lava Axe (“Lava Axe deals 5 damage to target player”) targeting Rob. In response, Rob plays Captain’s Maneuver (“The next X damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn is dealt to another target creature or player instead.”) with X = 3, targeting Carissa. Carissa isn’t in Alex’s range of influence. When Lava Axe resolves, it deals only 2 damage to Rob and no damage to Carissa. 601.15b If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt by a source, it can affect only sources within the spell or ability’s controller’s range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt to a creature or player, it can affect only creatures and players within the spell or ability’s controller’s range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage, but neither the source nor the would-be recipient of the damage is specified, it

”) Carissa and Rob’s creatures deal combat damage to each other.” 602. Some multiplayer games allow the active player to attack multiple other players. Example: Rob is within Alex’s range of influence. “Legal Attacks and Blocks. “Declare Attackers Step. if there are multiple defending players that could be chosen. the attacking player doesn’t choose an opponent to become the defending player. Carissa plays Lightning Blast (“Lightning Blast deals 4 damage to target creature or player”) targeting Rob. not to all of the defending players. If creatures are attacking more than one player.3. Restrictions and requirements that apply to attacking a specific player apply only to creatures attacking that player. 602. The damage to Rob is prevented.3a Restrictions and requirements that don’t apply to attacking a specific player are evaluated based on the entire group of attacking creatures. As the attacking player declares each attacking creature. “Banding. a player can also choose to attack only one player during a particular combat.1.prevents damage only if both the source and recipient of that damage are within the spell or ability’s controller’s range of influence.4. See rule 308. Alex controls an enchantment that says.16. 601. This will usually be the defending player that the creature with the ability is attacking. (See rule . If an effect states that a player wins the game. and Rob blocks with a creature. Alex plays Holy Day (“Prevent all combat damage that would be dealt this turn.” Carissa attacks Rob with a creature. In response.”) targeting Rob. Carissa attacks Rob with a creature. 602. or effect that refers to a “defending player” refers to one specific defending player. the controller of the ability chooses one. but Carissa is not. Example: Rob is within Alex’s range of influence. but Carissa is not. 602.2. The creature deals combat damage to Rob. he or she chooses a defending player for it to attack. See rule 500.3b Creatures in a band can’t attack different players. Instead. 602. each defending player declares blockers in APNAP order as the declare blockers step begins. If this option is used. As the combat phase starts.10. The entire group of attacking creatures must still be legal. but Carissa is not. all of that player’s opponents within his or her range of influence lose the game instead. Whether the creature with mountainwalk is unblockable depends only on whether Carissa controls a Mountain. 602. all the attacking player’s opponents are defending players during the combat phase.” 602.” Example: Rob attacks Alex with Grizzly Bears and attacks Carissa with a creature with mountainwalk. Attack Multiple Players Option 602. Alex plays Mending Hands (“Prevent the next 4 damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn. “Prevent all damage that would be dealt by creatures. Example: Rob is within Alex’s range of influence. See rule 502. object.2a Any rule.

4b When determining whether a defending player’s blocks are legal. ignore any creatures attacking other players and any blocking creatures controlled by other players. . then the second defending player.” 605. Some multiplayer games use the optional attack left or attack right rules. the player can’t attack. Other than that. Each creature has the ability “{T}: Target teammate gains control of this creature. Free-for-All Variant 605. 602.1a If the attack left option is used. they can’t block creatures attacking other players. and it can be used in other variants that allow players to compete in teams. See rule 604.2c The deploy creatures option isn’t used in the Free-for-All variant. Deploy Creatures Option 603. “Declare Blockers Step. Attack Left and Attack Right Options 604.4 and rule 309. 603. 605.103. Combat damage is assigned in APNAP order. Multiplayer formats in which players compete as individuals usually don’t use this option. If a player’s nearest opponent to the left is more than one seat away.2a The limited range of influence option usually isn’t used in Free-for-All games.1b If the attack right option is used. If a player’s nearest opponent to the right is more than one seat away. The Emperor variant always uses the deploy creatures option. “Attack Multiple Players Option. In Free-for-All multiplayer games. If it is.5.1. which is determined before play begins.” and rule 602. Any multiplayer options used are determined before play begins. each player has the same range of influence. “Limited Range of Influence Option.” 603.2.1. a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately to his or her left. a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately to his or her right. and so on. attack right. the combat damage step proceeds just as in a two-player game.” 604. 602. See rule 310.4a A defending player can block only with creatures he or she controls.”) The first defending player declares all his or her blocks. “Attack Left and Attack Right Options. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery.” 605. The Freefor-All variant uses the following default options. 605.1.2. 604. the player can’t attack. Those creatures can block only creatures attacking that player. 604. a group of players compete as individuals against each other. See rule 601. and attack multiple players options must be used.2b Exactly one of the attack left. 602. “Combat Damage Step. 605.

5. The team who plays first skips the draw step of their first turn. and so on) are not shared in the Two-Headed Giant variant. Each team sits together on one side of the table.6b.2. 606. All players on that team who chose to do so take their mulligans at the same time. Each team takes turns rather than each player.3. the team repeats the process. No other multiplayer options are used in Two-Headed Giant games. not individual players.6e A player may play a spell or activated ability. Two-Headed Giant games are played with two teams of two players each. 605. Teammates may consult during this process.6a A player who is dissatisfied with his or her initial hand may mulligan. each player on that team decides whether to shuffle his or her hand back into the deck and then draw a new hand of seven cards (see rule 101.1. then the nonactive team makes any choices required. 606.4a Each team has a shared life total.4b. The team whose turn it is is the active team. With the exception of life total. 606.6c Teams have priority. as modified by rule 601.4a). Once a player has decided to keep a hand. The players are randomly seated around the table. but his or her teammate may. The player seated on the right within each team is the primary player. those cards become his or her opening hand. 606. mana. First. Once each player on the starting team decides to keep an opening hand. Free-for-All games use the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102). 606. 606. first the active team makes any choices required. until the hand size reaches zero cards.4. The Two-Headed Giant variant has two unique features. Two-Headed Giant Variant 606. Each team decides the order in which its players sit. a team’s resources (cards in hand. but a player can’t see the result of his or her teammate’s mulligan before deciding whether to take a mulligan at the same time. Teammates can’t manipulate each other’s cards or permanents. the other team may take mulligans.4) is modified for Two-Headed Giant play.4.6d The Active Player. Timing of Team Turns 606. . 606. Nonactive Player order rule (see rule 103.6. the starting team takes any mulligans.605. After each player on that team who took a mulligan looks at his or her new hand. 606. 606.3. That player can’t take any more mulligans. resulting in a hand of one fewer card each time. Teammates may review each other’s hands and discuss strategies at any time. which starts at 30 life. Then the actions happen simultaneously. If both teams would make choices and/or take actions at the same time. 606.16. or take a special action. and the player seated on the left is the secondary player. 606. The other team is the nonactive team. For a team to take a mulligan. 606.

606. then the secondary player on that team performs all of his or her draws. or turn. During the combat phase.6f If multiple triggered abilities have triggered since the last time a team received priority. The same is true for all other cases that refer to the “attacking player. then the members of the nonactive team do the same. 606. that player’s team does so.” . Each player on a team draws a card during that team’s draw step. The same is true for any one-shot effect that refers to the “attacking player. it also gets only one answer.7a Each team’s creatures attack the other team as a group. phase. it gets only one answer. If an effect causes a player to skip a step. If the reference involves a negative comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls no black permanents). not to both of the defending players. 606.7. phase. If a single effect causes both players on the same team to add or skip the same step. This answer is “yes” if performing the analogous positive comparison would return a “no” answer. Each player on a team may play a land during each of that team’s turns. If the reference involves a positive comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls an Island) or a relative comparison (such as asking whether you control more creatures than the defending player). If an effect causes a player to control another player’s turn. The Two-Headed Giant variant uses different combat rules than other multiplayer variants.6g If a team has priority and neither player on that team wishes to do anything. if both teams pass without any player taking any actions in between passing). that team passes. first the primary player on the active team performs all of his or her draws. then the nonactive team does the same. the active team is the attacking team and each player on the active team is an attacking player. 606.6h If an effect gives a player an extra turn or adds a phase or step to that player’s turn. or step. If both players on a team want to take an action at the same time. 606. that player’s team takes the extra turn.” All other cases in which the “defending player” is referred to actually refer to both defending players. the phase or step ends and the next one begins. that team adds or skips only that step. the members of the active team put all triggered abilities either of them controls on the stack in any order they choose. If the stack is empty when both teams pass in succession. Any one-shot effect or characteristic-defining ability that refers to the “defending player” refers to one specific defending player. the controller of that effect controls the affected player’s team’s turn. or turn. phase. This answer is “yes” if either defending player in the comparison would return a “yes” answer if compared individually.only when his or her team has priority. The controller of the effect or of the object with the characteristic-defining ability chooses which one the spell or ability refers to. If both teams pass in succession (that is. the top object on the stack resolves. then the active team receives priority. 606. or turn. Likewise.6i If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a TwoHeaded Giant game. the primary player decides who takes the action. the nonactive team is the defending team and each player on the nonactive team is a defending player. phase.

” Creatures of the chosen color without flying can’t attack that player’s team.606. As the declare attackers step begins. which reads. 606. and neither player on the opposing team can win the game. If an effect would prevent a player from losing the game. If either player on a team loses the game. That player loses the game. that team doesn’t lose the game. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game.8c If a player concedes. (This is a state-based effect. “You don’t lose the game for having 0 or less life. the creature can’t be blocked. See rule 420.7b. 606.” If that player’s team’s life total is 0 or less. and that set of attacking creatures must be legal as a whole. not as individuals. . loss of life.) 606.7c As the declare blockers step begins. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. If either player on a team wins the game. that creature can’t attack the defending team. and that set of blocking creatures must be legal as a whole. which says “As Teferi’s Moat comes into play. Damage. the active team announces how each attacking creature will assign its combat damage. 606. The Two-Headed Giant variant uses the normal rules for winning or losing the game (see rule 102). the defending team declares blockers.8. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game.” Neither that player nor his or her teammate can lose the game while Platinum Angel is in play. a player controls Platinum Angel. 606. If an attacking creature would assign combat damage to the defending team. choose a color.9. Then the defending team announces how each blocking creature will assign its combat damage. the team loses the game. Creatures controlled by the defending players can block any attacking creatures. Example: One player in a Two-Headed Giant game controls Teferi’s Moat. so that player’s entire team loses the game. with the following additions. a player attempts to draw a card while there are no cards in that player’s library. That team loses the game. If an effect would prevent a player from winning the game.8b Players win and lose the game only as a team. the team loses the game the next time a team would receive priority. “You can’t lose the game and your opponents can’t win the game. the entire team wins the game. 606. which reads. that player’s team can’t win the game. the active team declares attackers.8a If a team’s life total is 0 or less.7d As the combat damage step begins. that player’s team can’t lose the game. and gaining life happen to each player individually. If an effect of an object controlled by a defending player prohibits a creature from attacking him or her. The defending team has one combined block. Example: If an attacking creature has forestwalk and either player on the defending team controls a Forest. the active team chooses only one of the defending players for that creature to assign its combat damage to. in part.” and “Creatures of the chosen color without flying can’t attack you. The active team has one combined attack. 606. a player controls Transcendence. his or her team leaves the game immediately.

the player’s team wins the game only if his or her share of the team’s life total is 50 or more.” For the purposes of this ability. a player plays Flame Rift. “At the beginning of your upkeep. “When an opponent has 10 life or less. Heartless Hidetsugu deals 4 damage to each of those players. instead.9a If an effect needs to know the value of an individual player’s life total. 606. even though the team didn’t lose a total of 19 life. 606. “Your life total becomes 20. and the second player is considered to have lost 9 life (13 – 4). if you have 50 or more life. a player plays Biorhythm. The team will end up at 9 life. rounded down.” If the opposing team has 22 life and 1 damage is dealt to a particular opponent.9c If an effect would set a single player’s life total to a number. The team’s life total is adjusted by the amount of life that player gained or lost. that effect uses the team’s life total divided by two.” Each team is dealt a total of 8 damage. Emperor Variant 607. which reads. Lurking Jackals won’t become a creature. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. that team’s life total becomes 7. . “Flame Rift deals 4 damage to each player. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game.) 607. which reads. for a total of 8 damage. “Heartless Hidetsugu deals to each player damage equal to half that player’s life total.1. The opposing team’s life total must be 20 or less for that to happen. which reads. rounded up. Four-Headed Giant. each player on that team is considered to be at 9 life. that player’s individual life total becomes that number.9b If an effect would set the life total of each player on a team to a number.The result is applied to the team’s shared life total. “Each player’s life total becomes the number of creatures he or she controls.” At the beginning of your upkeep. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. so it becomes 20 and the team’s life total becomes 32 (25 + (20 – 13)). 606. The Two-Headed Giant variant can also be played with equally sized teams of more than two players. a player on a team that has 25 life plays a spell that reads. the result is the sum of all the numbers. a player controls Lurking Jackals. it becomes a 3/2 Hound creature. (These variants are unofficially called Three-Headed Giant. Each team’s starting life total is equal to 15 times the number of players on the team. an enchantment that reads. The team’s life total must be 99 or more for that to happen.10. you win the game. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. a player controls Test of Endurance. and so on.” If one member of a team that has 25 life controls three creatures and the other member controls four creatures. which reads. 606.” That player’s life total is considered to be 13 for the purpose of the spell. The first player is considered to have lost 10 life (13 – 3). The Emperor variant involves two or more teams of three players each. if Lurking Jackals is an enchantment. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. a team is at 17 life when a player activates Heartless Hidetsugu’s ability.

Teammates may review each other’s hands and discuss strategies at any time. The Emperor variant uses the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102). 608.3b Emperor games use the deploy creatures option (see rule 603).4. the range of influence of each player should be adjusted. 608. 608. 607. Randomly determine which emperor goes first. mana. Each team sits together on one side of the table. 608. and so on) are not shared.2a Each player has a range of influence of 1 (see rule 601). Turn order goes to players’ left.5a A team loses the game if its emperor loses. Teammates can’t manipulate each other’s cards or permanents. 608. “Limited Range of Influence Option. even though both of the opposing generals are within their spell range. 607. The players are seated at random. who sits in the middle of the team. as modified by rule 601.1. Grand Melee Variant 608. 608.7.4. The remaining players on the team are generals whose job is to protect the emperor.6. in which a group of players compete against each other as individuals. The Emperor variant uses the following default options.5. Each team decides the order in which it’s seated. 607. 607. Each team has one emperor.2c The attack multiple players and deploy creatures options aren’t used in the Grand Melee variant.2b The attack left option is used (see rule 604). If the teams have more than two players. 607. See rule 601. 607. 607. Grand Melee is normally used only in games begun with ten or more players.3c A player can attack only an opponent seated immediately next to him or her. The Grand Melee variant uses the following default options. The Grand Melee variant is a modification of the Free-for-All variant. In the Emperor variant.16. neither emperor can attack any opponents.3a The range of influence is limited to 2 for emperors and 1 for generals. The Grand Melee variant allows multiple players to take turns at the same time. Example: At the start of an emperor game. a team’s resources (cards in hand.3.607.3.2.” 607. 608. 607. Moving turn markers keep track of which players are currently taking . and with the following addition.2. The Emperor variant can also be played with any number of equally sized teams. Any multiplayer options used are decided before play begins.

unless another turn marker is too close on either side at that time. If more than one player has left the game and there are multiple turn markers that could be removed.4d If an effect causes a player with a turn marker to take an extra turn after the current one. If this is the case. wait until the player four seats to his or her left takes the other turn marker. the player must specify which . that player will take the extra turn immediately before his or her next turn instead. A game with fifteen players has three turn markers. Example: A Grand Melee game with sixteen players has four turn markers. Grand Melee games contain multiple stacks. 608.5b If a player has priority for multiple stacks and plays a spell or ability. and the player will take the extra turn immediately before his or her next turn. After Alex’s current turn ends. The player four seats to that player’s left (the fifth player) takes the second turn marker.turns.5. Example: During Alex’s turn. Then all players with turn markers start their turns at the same time. remove the marker with the lower number. 608.4a There is one turn marker for each full four players in the game. the player passes the turn marker to his or her left when the turn ends rather than keeping it. He won’t take the extra turn from Time Walk until just before his normal turn the next time he receives a turn marker. During the same turn. 608. A player can’t receive a turn marker if any player in the three seats to his or her left has a turn marker. 608. the player to Alex’s left leaves the game. 608. or a triggered ability he or she controls triggers. Each turn marker represents an active player’s turn.4e If a player leaves the game and that player leaving the game would reduce the number of turn markers in the game. Each turn marker represents its own stack. a turn marker is removed. Remove the turn marker immediately to the departed player’s right. Each turn marker is assigned a number in this way. which causes the number of turn markers to be reduced. he plays Time Walk. which causes him to get an extra turn after this one. 608. Rather than having a single stack. 608. If a turn marker is within three seats on the player’s left. that player keeps the turn marker and starts his or her next turn after the current turn ends. 608.4f If an effect would cause a player to take an extra turn after the current turn. the extra turn waits to begin until the player four seats to his or her left takes the other turn marker.5a A player gets priority for a particular turn marker’s stack only if the turn marker is within his or her range of influence or an object on that stack is controlled by a player within his or her range of influence. 608. and so on until all the turn markers have been handed out.4b The starting player in the game gets the first turn marker. his turn marker is removed. If a turn marker is within three seats on the player’s right. that player passes the turn marker to the player on his or her left.4c When a player ends his or her turn. Turn markers are removed only between turns. but that player wouldn’t have a turn marker at the start of that turn.

B1.1. C1. 609. Any multiplayer options used are determined before play begins. A2. a team’s resources (cards in hand. attack right.16. See rule 601. B2. Teammates can’t review each other’s hands unless they are sitting next to each other.” 609.2b Exactly one of the attack left.6 In the Teams variant. . players are seated so that no one is next to a teammate and each team is equally spaced out.3. C3. B. Teams Variant 609. “Attack Multiple Players Option. 609.” and rule 602. as modified by rule 601. Teammates can’t manipulate each other’s cards or permanents. C2.2. the player must put it on that stack. A player can’t attack opponents who aren’t seated next to him or her. See rule 604.5. the seating around the table at the start of the game is A1. mana. 609.2c The deploy creatures option isn’t normally used in the Teams variant. At the start of the game. If a spell or ability targets an object on one of those stacks. 609.” 609. The Teams variant uses the following default options. The Grand Melee variant uses the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102). and so on. the new spell must be put on the same stack. 608. “Attack Left and Attack Right Options. 609. B3. The Teams variant involves two or more teams of equal size. and so on) are not shared. A3. it must be put on the same stack as its target. Teammates may discuss strategies at any time. 609. If an object on one of those stacks caused the triggered ability to trigger. Example: In a Teams game with three teams.one of those stacks the spell or ability is put on. and attack multiple players options must be used.6. and C. If a resolving spell or ability on one of those stacks causes a player to play a spell or create a copy of a spell. “Limited Range of Influence Option.4. 609. A. as modified by rule 601.2a The recommended range of influence is 2. Team games use the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102). it can’t target objects on multiple stacks.16.

Ability words are similar to keywords in that they tie together cards that have similar functionality. triggered abilities (see rule 404). is as follows: channel. This is called the “Active Player. but they have no special rules meaning and no individual entries in the Comprehensive Rules. static abilities (see rule 405). An instruction in an object’s text is an ability. Nonactive Player Order Whenever multiple players are instructed to make choices at the same time. Ability Word An ability word appears in italics at the beginning of some abilities on cards. If an effect defines a property of an object (“[card or permanent] is [property]”). updated through the Alara Reborn™ set. Absorb Absorb is a static ability that prevents damage. {T}: You gain 1 life” is two mana of any color plus tapping the permanent. When an activated ability is played. “Enchanted creature is red. “Activated Abilities. The list of ability words. radiance. see section 4.” The Aura isn’t granting an ability of any kind. an Aura might read. and after combat damage resolves. grandeur. prevent N of that damage.Glossary Ability “Ability” and “effect” are often confused with one another. chroma.61. Abilities. Active Player The active player is the player whose turn it is. hellbent. The result of following such an instruction is an effect.6d. then the nonactive players do so in turn order. it’s not granting an ability. after any spell or ability (except a mana ability) resolves. The active player gets priority at the start of each phase or step (except for the untap and cleanup steps). “Absorb.4. the active player makes all his or her choices first. it resolves.]” By paying the activation cost. see rule 606. domain. See rule 502. When an effect states that an object “gains” or “has” an ability. it’s granting that object an ability. it’s simply changing the enchanted creature’s color to red. See rule 103. For more information. It must be paid to play the ability. and Effects.” Activated Ability An activated ability is written as “[Cost]: [Effect.” Activation Cost The activation cost of an activated ability is everything that appears before the colon in that ability’s text.” Example: The activation cost of an ability that reads “{2}. See rule 403. sweep. “Absorb N” means “If a source would deal damage to this creature. a player may play such an ability whenever he or she has priority. “Spells.” Each absorb ability can prevent only N damage from any one source at any one time. For example.” The general categories of abilities are activated abilities (see rule 403). . or it otherwise leaves the stack. it goes onto the stack and stays there until it’s countered.] [Play restriction (if any). Active Player. See rule 403. or “APNAP order” rule. kinship. This rule is modified for Two-Headed Giant play. and the abilities that are followed as instructions while an instant or sorcery spell is resolving (see rule 401.3). Nonactive Player order” rule. “Activated Abilities. and threshold.

and after combat damage resolves.2. its controller puts it into play under his or her control.” APNAP Order See Active Player. reveal any number of cards from your hand that share a creature type with it. The active player may play artifacts during his or her main phase when the stack is empty.” or includes the phrase. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. Additional Cost Some spells have additional costs listed in their text. and it is allowed only where it’s not forbidden by law or by other rules. Artifact Artifact is a card type. “Ante.” The affinity ability reduces only generic mana costs.27. it still applies to the alternative cost. The active team gets priority at the start of each phase or step (except for the untap and cleanup steps). Nonactive Player Order. When an artifact spell resolves. See rule 212.” Alternative Cost The rules text of some spells reads.” Ante (Obsolete) Earlier versions of the Magic rules included an ante rule as a way of playing “for keeps. If an effect requires paying additional costs to play a spell. the winner becomes the owner of all cards in the ante zone. When using the ante rule. “Artifacts. See rule 409. Playing for ante is strictly forbidden under DCI tournament rules. “Amplify N” means “As this object comes into play. See rule 212. See rule 606.” See rule 502. Only one such alternative cost can be applied to any one spell. after any spell or ability (except a mana ability) resolves. not what was paid to play the spell. This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it for each card revealed this way. Other spells and abilities that ask for a spell’s mana cost still see the actual mana cost.” Amplify Amplify is a static ability. At the end of the game.” These are alternative costs. and it’s subject to the rules for both.6d. “Amplify. You can’t reveal this card or any other cards that are coming into play at the same time as this card. “Artifacts. See rule 217. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.” Artifact Creature An artifact creature is a combination of artifact and creature. “You may [action] rather than pay [this object’s] mana cost. See rule 502.2.Active Team In the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant. each player puts one random card from his or her deck into the ante zone at the beginning of the game. “Affinity.” Affinity Affinity is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. “you may play [this object] without paying its mana cost. See rule 409. These are paid at the same time the player pays the spell’s mana cost. “Affinity for [text]” means “This spell costs you {1} less to play for each [text] you control.31. It doesn’t reduce how much colored mana you have to pay for a spell.” Playing Magic games for ante is now considered an optional variation on the game.9.” . the active team is the team whose turn it is.

Equipment. “Artifacts. it will affect the new enchanted object when it resolves. equip. Equipment. Nothing else about the Aura changes. the Aura is put into its owner’s graveyard instead of coming into play. or Fortification stays where it is. nothing happens. treat the game normally. If the Aura. treat the game exactly as if the stated condition were true. updated through the Alara Reborn set. respectively. or fortify. If an ability of the moved Aura affecting “enchanted [object]” was on the stack when the Aura moved. The Aura. (See rule 308. it phases in and is then put into its owner’s graveyard as a state-based effect. is as follows: Contraption. Fortification. or Fortification no longer exists or the object it will move onto is no longer in the correct zone when the effect would attach it. with two exceptions: If an Aura would phase in but can no longer enchant the object it was attached to. If two cards state that a player may (or a creature can) do the same thing “as though” different conditions were true. and if an Aura is coming into play from the stack and there is no legal object for it to enchant.Artifact Land An artifact land is a combination of artifact and land. Then the defending player(s) announce how each blocking creature will assign its combat damage. (See rule 212. If one “as though” effect satisfies the requirements for another “as though” effect. Equipment. then both effects will apply.2. and it’s subject to the rules for both. Attack Alone A creature attacks alone if it’s the only creature declared as an attacker during the . All assignments of combat damage go on the stack as a single entry. They can’t be played as spells.” Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. or Fortification to the object it’s already attached to. or Fortification can’t be attached to an object it couldn’t enchant.”) Playing a spell or ability (even during the combat phase) is never considered to be an attack. The Aura never left play. The list of artifact types. Assign Combat Damage As the combat damage step begins. For purposes of that action. Similarly. the active player or team announces how each attacking creature will assign its combat damage. The same is true for moved Equipment and Fortifications. See rule 310. Equipment. For all other purposes. Attach To attach an Aura. If an effect tries to attach an Aura. or Fortification to an object means to take it from where it currently is and put it onto that object. Attack A creature attacks when it’s declared as an attacker during the combat phase. “As Though” Text that states a player may do something “as though” some condition were true or a creature can do something “as though” some condition were true applies only to the stated action. Equipment. the effect does nothing. Artifact Type Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Artifact — Equipment. so no comes-into-play or leaves-play triggered abilities will trigger. both conditions could apply. Equipment. Attaching an Aura in play to a different object causes the Aura to receive a new timestamp. an Aura.”) Artifact lands can only be played as lands. “Declare Attackers Step. not the old one. “Combat Damage Step.

Each of the attacked players is a defending player.” Attacks and Isn’t Blocked An ability that triggers when a creature “attacks and isn’t blocked” triggers when the creature becomes an unblocked attacking creature. Any land with the supertype basic is a basic land. it stops being a creature. Attack Left Option Some multiplayer games use the optional “attack left” rules.) Aura Swap Aura swap is an activated ability of some Aura cards. If a player’s nearest opponent to the right is more than one seat away. See rule 502.” Banding. “Attack Multiple Players Option. “Banding. the player can’t attack. “Attack Left and Attack Right Options. Each defending player can block only the creatures attacking him or her.62. Any land . the ability has no effect. See rule 212. An Aura attached to an illegal object or player. the player can’t attack. “Bands with Other.” and rule 502. Aura Some enchantments have the subtype “Aura. It remains an attacking creature until it’s removed from combat. See rule 420. a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately to his or her right.declare attackers step. or the combat phase ends.5.2f. If the attack right option is used. a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately to his or her left.” Attack Right Option Some multiplayer games use the optional “attack right” rules. “Aura swap [cost]” means “[Cost]: You may exchange this permanent with an Aura card in your hand.” Basic Basic is a supertype.” and rule 502. is put into its owner’s graveyard.10.11. “Declare Attackers Step. See rule 502.” Attack Multiple Players Option Some multiplayer games allow the active player to attack multiple opponents. “Enchant. See rule 308. See rule 306. If a player’s nearest opponent to the left is more than one seat away. Attacking creatures don’t exist outside of the combat phase. A creature may also be put into play attacking. See rule 604.” If either half of the exchange can’t be completed.4. “Bands with other” is a specialized version of the ability. (This is a statebased effect. “Aura Swap. An Aura permanent comes into play attached to the object or player the spell targeted. A creature is attacking alone if it’s attacking but no other creatures are.” An Aura can enchant only an object or player whose properties are indicated by its enchant keyword ability. “Enchantments. if any. have been paid.” An Aura spell requires a target whose properties are indicated by its enchant keyword ability. its controller changes. or not attached to an object or player.45. “Bands with Other” Banding is a static ability that modifies the rules for declaring attackers and assigning combat damage. See rule 602. “Attack Left and Attack Right Options. See rule 309.” Attacking Creature A creature becomes an attacking creature when (a) it’s declared as part of a legal attack during the combat phase and (b) all costs to attack. If the attack left option is used. See rule 604.

“Declare Blockers Step. and draw. See rule 301.5. “Declare Blockers Step.” Block Alone A creature blocks alone if it’s the only creature declared as a blocker during the declare blockers step. “Supertypes. “Bloodthirst N” means “If an opponent was dealt damage this turn. “Lands. See rule 307. “becomes tapped” or “becomes blocked”). “Beginning Phase. Basic Land Type There are five basic land types: Plains. These trigger only at the time the named event happens—they don’t trigger if that state already exists or retrigger if it persists. See rule 309. A player may play spells and abilities during this step whenever he or she has priority. See rule 309. Every basic land type has a mana ability associated with it. its controller changes. Swamp.” . if any. upkeep. it stops being a creature. Island.” Becomes Some trigger events use the word “becomes” (for example. its controller changes.” Basic Landcycling See Typecycling.without that supertype is a nonbasic land.” Beginning Phase The beginning phase is the first phase of the turn. it stops being a creature. or the combat phase ends. A creature may also be put into play blocking. “becomes tapped” triggers only when a permanent’s status changes from untapped to tapped.” Blocking Creature A creature becomes a blocking creature when (a) it’s declared as part of a legal block during the combat phase and (b) all costs to block. Beginning of Combat Step The beginning of combat step is the first step of the combat phase.” Block A creature blocks when it’s declared as a blocker during the combat phase. “Bloodthirst. For example. Mountain. A creature is blocking alone if it’s blocking but no other creatures are. have been paid. A blocked creature doesn’t become unblocked if the blocking creature is later removed from combat.4. It has three steps: untap.6. “Beginning of Combat Step. Blocked Creature An attacking creature becomes a blocked creature when another creature blocks it or an effect causes it to become blocked during the combat phase. See rule 306. Blocked creatures don’t exist outside of the combat phase. See rule 309.” Bloodthirst Bloodthirst is a static ability. See rule 212.” See rule 502. or the combat phase ends. this permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it. It remains a blocking creature until it’s removed from combat. “Declare Blockers Step. and Forest. It remains a blocked creature until it’s removed from combat. Blocking creatures don’t exist outside of the combat phase.50. See rule 205.

In general. You may play that card without paying its mana cost. See rule 205.1. planeswalker.85. land. “Declare Blockers Step. “Bushido N” means “Whenever this creature blocks or becomes blocked. enchantment.” or “Sacrifice [a permanent]. put this spell into its owner’s hand instead of into that player’s graveyard as it resolves. or allowing an object to retain its card types. Use the Oracle card reference to determine a card’s text. It can’t be regenerated.” Paying a spell’s buyback cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.” Bushido Bushido is a triggered ability. Tokens aren’t considered cards—even a card that represents a token isn’t considered a card for rules purposes. In general.1c. Each card type has its own rules for how to play with one. When an effect changes an object’s card type. “Buyback.” it means a Magic card with a Magic card front and the Magic card back.Bury (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the term “bury.1f–h. “Type Line. and Subtype.”) Buyback Buyback appears on some instants and sorceries. The card types are artifact. Cascade Cascade is a triggered ability that functions only while the spell with cascade is on the stack. cards that were printed with the term “bury” now read.” . If the effect is adding a card type. it gets +N/+N until end of turn.” (See rule 309. See rule 212. “Cascade” means “When you play this spell. sorcery. cards that were printed with the term “cast” now use the term “play. Card Type The card type is printed on a card’s type line.” and rule 212.16. It represents two static abilities that function while the spell is on the stack. it will say so. In general. and tribal. “Card Type.” Tokens and copies of spells have card types. cards that were printed with the term “caster” now refer to the object’s “controller.1b and 409.” See rule 502. even though they’re not cards.” Cast (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “cast” to describe the playing of a spell. directly below its illustration. Supertype.” which meant to put a permanent into its owner’s graveyard. “Cascade. remove cards from the top of your library from the game until you remove a nonland card whose converted mana cost is less than this spell’s converted mana cost. See rule 200. instant. “Buyback [cost]” means “You may pay an additional [cost] as you play this spell” and “If the buyback cost was paid. “Destroy [a permanent]. the new card type replaces all previous card types. Card When a rule or text on a card refers to a “card. See rule 502. Then put all cards removed from the game this way that weren’t played on the bottom of your library in a random order.” Caster (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “caster” to describe the player who played a spell.” Cantrip (Informal) This is a nickname for any spell that has “Draw a card” as part of its effect. creature.

Changing a spell or ability’s target can’t change its modes. Characteristicdefining abilities function in all zones.” Changeling Changeling is a keyword ability that represents a characteristic-defining ability. “Characteristics. expansion symbol. You and that opponent each clash. type line. In general.” See rule 502. You can change the target of a spell or ability only if an effect tells you to change its target. color. Characteristics don’t include any other information. “Changeling. See rule 501. abilities. power.” Characteristics An object’s characteristics are name.7. the original target is unchanged.” Cleanup Step Cleanup is the second and final step of the end phase. “Changing Targets. “Changeling” means “This object is every creature type.” Characteristic-Defining Ability A characteristic-defining ability is a kind of static ability that conveys information about an object’s characteristics that would normally be found elsewhere on that object (such as in its mana cost. That player may then put that card on the bottom of his or her library.” Champion Champion is a keyword ability that represents two triggered abilities. and so on. If the target can’t change to another legal target.” This ability works everywhere. cards that were printed with the term “casting cost” now use the term “mana cost. a spell or permanent’s controller. “Cleanup Step. such as whether a permanent is tapped.10. See rule 201.” A permanent is “championed” by another permanent if the latter removes the former from the game as the direct result of a champion ability. and loyalty. a spell’s target. See rule 405.” Cards that used the term “total casting cost” now use the term “converted mana cost.” . rules text. subtype. mana cost. supertype.Casting Cost (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “casting cost” to describe the mana cost of a spell.” A player wins a clash if that player revealed a card with a higher converted mana cost than all other cards revealed in that clash. “Clash. Change a Target The target of a spell or ability can change only to another legal target. toughness. See rule 314. or power/toughness box). what an Aura enchants. Spells and abilities may be played during this step only if the conditions for any state-based effects exist or if any abilities have triggered. See rule 502. See rule 415. “Clash with an opponent” means “Choose an opponent.72. In that case. “Champion. card type. return the removed card to play under its owner’s control. even outside the game. They also function outside the game.73. “Champion an [object]” means “When this permanent comes into play.2. sacrifice it unless you remove another [object] you control from the game” and “When this permanent leaves play.” a player reveals the top card of his or her library. Clash To “clash. the step repeats.

This information is printed in the form [card number]/[total cards in the set].” and so on.Collector Number Some card sets feature collector numbers. blue.” “brown.28).” If any attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 502. These numbers have no effect on game play. first apply any replacement effects. red. A player may play spells and abilities during this step whenever he or she has priority. The combat phase has five steps: beginning of combat.” “gold. Lands are colorless because they have no mana cost. it isn’t put into play untapped and then tapped.” or something similar. Face-down creatures are colorless due to the effects that turn them face down. Most artifacts are colorless because they have no colored mana in their mana costs. declare attackers. Effects may change an object’s color. Combat Phase Combat is the third phase of the turn. Comes into Play A permanent comes into play when the card or token representing it is moved into the in-play zone.2. “Colorless” isn’t a color. “Information Below the Text Box. An object’s color is determined by the color(s) of the mana symbols in its mana cost. A colorless object can be given a color by an effect. See rule 203. Colorless mana Numeral symbols (such as {1}) and variable symbols (such as {X}) can represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or ability that reads. then apply continuous effects. An object can be one or more of those colors or it can be colorless. See rule 310. If an effect gives an object a new color. there are two combat damage steps. See rules 306–311. It doesn’t include damage dealt by spells and abilities during the combat phase.” Permanents come into play untapped and under the control of whoever put them into play. . neither are “artifact.2. A hybrid mana symbol is all of its component colors. When a permanent comes into play. See rule 104. Attacking and blocking creatures deal damage in the combat damage step.” “land. then check to determine if the current form of the permanent generates any triggered abilities. the new color replaces all previous colors the object had. See rule 203. Combat Damage Combat damage is dealt during the combat damage step of the combat phase by attacking creatures and blocking creatures. “Combat Damage Step.” Color The only colors in the Magic game are white. See rule 310.3d. black. immediately following the legal text. “add [mana symbol] to your mana pool. and end of combat. Example: If an instruction causes something to come into play tapped. A permanent whose card type or controller changes doesn’t “come into play. combat damage. “Combat Damage Step. See rule 210. and green.” Combat Damage Step The combat damage step is the fourth step of the combat phase.2) or double strike (see rule 502. Colorless An object with no color is colorless. declare blockers.

during that turn by rules or by any objects. See rule 507. if its conspire cost was paid. each player needs his or her own deck of at least sixty cards.” Conspire Conspire is a keyword that represents two abilities. “Conspire. If anything asks for the controller of an object that doesn’t have a controller. If no duration is specified.” Control. A copy of a spell is controlled by the player who put it on the stack.1f– h. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. you may tap two untapped creatures you control that each share a color with it” and “When you play this spell. Controller A permanent’s controller is whoever put it into play unless the spell or ability that put the permanent into play states otherwise. Controlling Another Player’s Turn One card (Mindslaver) allows a player to control another player’s turn. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it.78.1b and 409. or is told to make. See rule 418.2. A constructed deck can have any number of basic land cards and no more than four of any card with a particular English name other than basic land cards. See rule 100. See rule 102.” Constructed In constructed play. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. “Winning and Losing. He or she loses the game. Continuous Effect Continuous effects are usually active as long as the permanent with the associated static ability remains in play or the object with the associated static ability remains in the appropriate zone. Objects in zones other than in play or the stack have no controller. Other effects can later change a permanent’s controller. The controller of another player’s turn makes all choices and decisions that player is allowed to make. A spell or activated ability on the stack is controlled by whoever played it. you may choose new targets for the copy. These last as long as the spell or ability specifies. A player doesn’t lose life due to mana burn while another player controls his or her turn.Concede A player may concede a game at any time. A spell or ability can create a continuous effect that doesn’t depend on a permanent. “Controlling Another Player’s Turn. “Conspire” means “As an additional cost to play this spell. They were artifacts without activated abilities. See rule 502.” Paying a spell’s conspire cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. copy it. If the spell has any targets.” Continuous Artifact (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “continuous artifact” on the card’s type line. “Continuous Effects. unless it’s a delayed triggered ability.” . and some way to clearly track life totals. use its owner instead. Cards that were printed with the term “continuous artifact” now simply use “artifact. small items to represent any tokens and counters. a continuous effect lasts the rest of the game. A player who concedes leaves the game immediately. A triggered ability on the stack is controlled by the player who controlled its source at the time it triggered.

See rule 502. In such instances. Most costs are paid in mana.” Example: An Air Elemental has a mana cost of {3}{U}{U} and a converted mana cost of 5. tapping or sacrificing permanents.3d. plus any values set for face-down spells or permanents and any values set by “comes into play as” abilities. use the largest component of each hybrid symbol.” and rule 403. These bonuses are added after permanent-type changing effects and after most other power and toughness changing effects. but costs may also include paying life.” Some spells and abilities have no cost. See rule 414. you may tap any number of untapped creatures you control. It doesn’t resolve and none of its effects occur. the cost can’t be paid. A player can’t pay a cost unless he or she has the necessary resources to pay it fully.” rule 203. “Copying Objects. A countered spell is put into its owner’s graveyard. See rule 424. See rules 503.46. adds X to that permanent’s power and Y to that permanent’s toughness. See rule 418. N +1/+1 and N -1/-1 counters are removed from it. and a permanent that’s already tapped can’t be tapped to pay a cost. 1. as modified by other copy effects. Other effects (including type-changing effects) and counters are not copied.3.Converted Mana Cost The converted mana cost of an object is the total amount of mana in its mana cost. removing it from the stack. discarding cards. regardless of color. See rule 203. When calculating the converted mana cost of an object with a hybrid mana symbol in its mana cost.” Copiable Values An object’s “copiable values” are the values that are printed on the object.5a. For information about poison counters. “Mana Cost and Color. a player with only 1 life can’t pay a cost of 2 life. where N is the smaller of the number of +1/+1 . Each creature tapped this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1} or by one mana of any of that creature’s colors. “Activated Abilities.” 2. Counters with the same name or description are interchangeable. “Convoke. For example. “Costs. Convoke Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.1b and 409. To counter a spell or ability is to cancel it. Counters may also be given to players. A counter is a marker placed on an object. If a permanent has both a +1/+1 counter and a -1/-1 counter on it. -X/-Y counters subtract from power and toughness. see rule 102. Copy A “copy” of an object is an object whose copiable values have been set to those of the first object. where X and Y are numbers. A +X/+Y counter on a permanent.” Using the convoke ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1f–h. See rule 503. “Countering Spells and Abilities. Counter Counter has two meanings in the Magic game.” Cost A cost is an action or payment necessary to take another action or to stop another action from taking place. either modifying its characteristics or interacting with an effect. If an object has no mana cost. Playing spells and activated abilities requires paying a cost. its converted mana cost is 0. “Mana Cost and Color.2 and 503. Similarly. and so on. “Convoke” means “As an additional cost to play this spell.

” . Rogue. Specter. Cat.” Cycling Cycling is an activated ability that functions only while the card with cycling is in a player’s hand. Whale. Squid. Moonfolk. Pentavite. Beast. “Cycling. Efreet. Squirrel. then either the entire set of costs is paid. Kirin. Monk. Kor. Crocodile.13. Basilisk. Imp. Eye. Shaman. Graveborn. Atog. Ape. each creates a separate triggered ability at the beginning of upkeep that counts all the age counters on the permanent from all abilities. Pirate. The list of creature types. Manticore.18. Griffin. Gorgon. Djinn. Splinter. Blinkmoth. Shapeshifter. Prism. Soltari. Wurm. Myr. Orb. Kithkin. Pegasus.3. Devil. Monger. Carrier. Elk. Metathran.5n.) Creature Creature is a card type. Warrior. Horse. Mystic. Wall. Thalakos. Spider.” See rule 502. Pincher. Sponge. Triskelavite. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Creature — Human Soldier. Slith. Rebel. Lammasu. Archer. Starfish.” “Artifact Creature — Golem. Nautilus. Dreadnought. Vedalken. Phoenix. Egg. Worm. Tetravite. Serpent. Harpy. Brushwagg. Nightmare. Ogre. Dryad. Homunculus. Angel. Ouphe. each choice is made separately for each age counter. As far as the game rules and other cards are concerned. Nightstalker. “Cumulative Upkeep. Leviathan. Wombat. Boar. Octopus. is as follows: Advisor. Survivor. Sheep. Thrull. Soldier. Zombie. Licid. Druid. Scorpion. Elemental. Nomad. Elder. Cyclops. Plant. Gargoyle. Skeleton. Saproling.” If [cost] has choices associated with it. Thopter. its controller puts it into play under his or her control. Camel. Scarecrow. Goat. Orc. Nephilim. Rhino. Masticore. updated through the Alara Reborn set. Samurai. Jellyfish. “Creatures. Counts As (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with text stating that the card “counts as” something. Merfolk. Partial payments aren’t allowed. Pest. Caribou. The active player may play creatures during his or her main phase when the stack is empty. Noggle. Incarnation. (Newer Magic cards use “is” instead. Lhurgoyf. Kobold. Fish. Human. Cephalid.” Creature Type Creatures and tribals share the same set of subtypes. Unicorn. Goblin. Insect.” and so on. Antelope. Wolverine. Fungus. Turtle. Archon. Spike. Spirit. Discard this card: Draw a card. “Cumulative upkeep [cost]” means “At the beginning of your upkeep. Wizard. Homarid. “Cycling [cost]” means “[Cost]. If you don’t. Treefolk. Construct. Giant. Spawn. Centaur. Slug. Barbarian. Assembly-Worker. Dragon. Golem. Minotaur. Frog. see rule 420. Ferret. Mercenary. Demon. Zubera Cumulative Upkeep Cumulative upkeep is a triggered ability that imposes an increasing cost on a permanent. Weird. Salamander. Reflection. Dwarf. These subtypes are also called creature types. Hippo. Berserker. Ox. Then you may pay [cost] for each age counter on it. Fox. Sliver. Bringer. Drake. Orgg. Drone. or none of them are paid. Mutant. Juggernaut. Elephant. Snake. Scout. Wraith. Shade. Mongoose. Rigger. Leech. Viashino. Cleric. Crab. Rat. Sand. Hag. Bat. put an age counter on this permanent. Lizard. Ninja. Phelddagrif. Yeti. Cockatrice. Sphinx. Spellshaper. Camarid. Serf. See rule 212. Horror. Rabbit. Note that if a permanent has more than one instance of cumulative upkeep. Avatar. Vampire. Deserter. Hyena. Chimera. Bear. Dauthi. Aurochs. Citizen. the card is that thing. Beeble. sacrifice it. Minion. Kraken. Hydra. Kavu. Badger. See rule 502.and -1/-1 counters on it. Bird. Artificer. Flagbearer. Assassin. Volver. Wolf. Faerie. Coward. Anteater. Knight. When a creature spell resolves. Gnome. Hound. Oyster. Hellion. Troll. Illusion. Satyr. Ooze. This is a state-based effect. Elf.

the defending player chooses a set of creatures that will block and pays any costs they require to block. Other effects may also affect whether or not a set of creatures could attack.” If a permanent has multiple instances of deathtouch.” Declare Attackers To declare attackers. all damage is removed from permanents.” Declare Blockers Step The declare blockers step is the third step of the combat phase.” Declare Attackers Step The declare attackers step is the second step of the combat phase. Deathtouch Deathtouch is a triggered ability. “Deathtouch” means “Whenever this permanent deals damage to a creature.63. “General. and players. Creatures with defender can’t attack. “Declare Blockers Step. and pays any costs required to allow those creatures to attack. each player’s deck becomes his or her library. “Declare Attackers Step. (See rule 420. See section 100. Only creatures can attack. When the game begins. “Deathtouch. See rule 308. declares whether each creature is attacking the defending player or a planeswalker that player controls. “Starting the Game.” Declare Blockers To declare blockers. “StateBased Effects. “Legal Attacks and Blocks. each triggers separately. planeswalkers. See rule 502. Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities.” and section 101. destroy that creature. Damage dealt to a creature stays on the permanent until the cleanup step. Costs and effects that read “lose life” or “pay life” don’t deal damage. The active player declares attackers during this step (or chooses not to attack). Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. See rule 500. See rule 309. the active player chooses a set of creatures that will attack. but blocking doesn’t cause creatures to tap. The defending player declares blockers during this step (or chooses not to block). See rule 500. and that loss of life can’t be prevented or otherwise altered by effects that prevent or replace damage. During the cleanup step.” Defender Defender is a static ability. .” Deck A player’s deck is the collection of cards that player starts the game with. Damage dealt to a planeswalker causes that planeswalker to lose that much loyalty. “Legal Attacks and Blocks. Other effects may also affect whether or not a set of creatures could block.”) Damage doesn’t alter a creature’s toughness. even if it stops being a creature. Only untapped creatures can block. A creature with damage greater than or equal to its toughness has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed. Damage dealt to a player causes that player to lose that much life.Damage Damage can be dealt to creatures. and the following creatures can’t attack: tapped creatures (even those that can attack without tapping) and creatures the active player didn’t control continuously since the beginning of the turn (except those with haste).

” Using the delve ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. See rule 602. “It devoured” means “sacrificed as a result of its devour ability as it came into play. “Deploy Creatures Option.” The Two-Headed Giant variant uses different combat rules than other multiplayer variants. “Devour N” means “As this object comes into play. If the “attack multiple players” option is used in a multiplayer game. Creatures can attack only the defending player or a planeswalker the defending player controls.” See rule 603. “Delve.82. there is no defending player.7. the active player chooses one opponent. . you may sacrifice any number of creatures. If the deploy creatures option is used. require a random discard or allow another player to choose which card is discarded. or what it does to any of the things it applies to. they can’t attack other creatures.” Destroy To destroy a permanent is to move it from the in-play zone to its owner’s graveyard. “Replacement and Prevention Effects. By default. Some effects.Defending Player During the combat phase. This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it for each creature sacrificed this way.64. there can be more than one defending player. the active player is attacking and is the attacking player. “Devour.” Devour Devour is a static ability. Delve Delve is a static ability that functions while the spell that has it is on the stack.5.” Discard A player discards a card by putting a card from his or her hand into his or her graveyard. As the combat phase starts.” See rule 502. See rule 419. The chosen opponent is the defending player. “Interaction of Continuous Effects.” Deploy Creatures Option Some multiplayer games allow players to give creatures to their teammates. what it applies to. See rule 418. effects that cause a player to discard a card allow the affected player to choose which card to discard.2. During phases other than combat. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery. Each card removed this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1}. See rule 502. “Delve” means “As an additional cost to play this spell. you may remove any number of cards in your graveyard from the game. See rule 306. Regeneration or other destruction-replacement effects can replace this action. see rule 606. Delayed Triggered Ability A delayed triggered ability is created by effects generated when some spells or abilities resolve.1f–h.” Depend On An effect is said to “depend on” another if it is applied at the same time as the other effect and applying the other would change the text or the existence of the first effect.” Some objects have abilities that refer to the number of creatures the permanent devoured.4. “Attack Multiple Players Option. each creature has the ability “{T}: Target teammate gains control of this creature.1b and 409. however. See rule 404.

This is done as a game action during each player’s draw step. Dual land cards have the default abilities of both basic land types and are treated as both by all spells and abilities that specifically refer to those land types. or players must receive at least one of whatever is being distributed. as well as if the player’s library is empty. See rule 102. 1. “Dredge.” Draw Draw has two meanings in the Magic game. you may instead put N cards from the top of your library into your graveyard and return this card from your graveyard to your hand. objects. each of these has two basic land types. A drawn game is a game where the game ends and there is no winner. “Drawing a Card.” the player has not drawn those cards.” Dredge Dredge is a static ability that functions only while the card with dredge is in a player’s graveyard. Double Strike Double strike is a static ability that modifies the rules for the combat damage step. If a spell or ability requires a player to distribute something (such as counters) as he or she chooses among one or more targets. See rule 502. A player draws a card by putting the top card of his or her library into his or her hand.” 2. or among any number of untargeted objects or players. or any number of untargeted objects or players. “Double Strike. the active player draws a card (this game action does not use the stack). Draw Step The draw step is the third step of the beginning phase. This makes a difference for abilities that trigger on drawing cards or that replace card draws.1e and 310. See rules 409. It may also be done as part of a cost or effect of a spell or ability.2. For example. they are not basic lands.47.” A player with fewer cards in his or her library than the number required by a dredge ability can’t put any of them into his or her graveyard this way. See rule 423.Distribute Distribute has its normal English meaning in the Magic game. Creatures with double strike deal combat damage in both the first-strike combat damage step and the normal combat damage step. See rule 304. Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. “Dredge N” means “As long as you have at least N cards in your library. See rule 502. or players must receive at least one of whatever is being divided.1e and 310. See rules 409. “Draw Step.” Dual Land (Informal) The Ravnica block and early Magic core sets contain “dual lands”. This doesn’t apply to dividing combat damage. Divide Divide has its normal English meaning in the Magic game. If an effect moves cards from a player’s library to that player’s hand without using the word “draw. then each of these targets.2. then each of these targets. objects.28. if you would draw a card. Temple Garden has the land types Forest and Plains.4. A dual land doesn’t count as two lands while in play—it’s just one land with multiple land types. As the draw step begins. However. If a spell or ability requires a player to divide something (such as damage or counters) as he or she chooses among one or more targets. .

these cards have been given errata to have an echo cost equal to their mana cost.During (Obsolete) Some older cards used the phrase “during [phase]. cards that were printed with phase abilities now have abilities that trigger at the beginning of a step or phase. Enchant Player Auras with the “enchant opponent” or “enchant player” ability can target and be attached to players.4. “Enchant. who sits in the middle of the team. Static abilities may create one or more continuous effects. Shrine.” In general. When a spell or ability resolves. “Echo. they are generated by specific states of the game. Enchantment Type Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Enchantment — Shrine. See rule 607. . “Emperor Variant. Each team has one emperor. and (c) a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately next to him or her. is as follows: Aura.” See also Aura. The list of enchantment types. “During” still appears in current card text.4. [action]. See rule 502. The active player may play enchantments during his or her main phase when the stack is empty.45. a team loses if its emperor loses the game.19.” Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types.” The enchant ability restricts what an Aura spell can target and what an Aura can enchant. The Emperor variant involves two or more teams of three players each. but only in its normal English sense and not as game terminology.” These abilities were called “phase abilities.” and rule 502. “Enchantments. written “Enchant [object or player]. “Effects. if this permanent came under your control since the beginning of your last upkeep. “Enchantment. (b) Emperor games use the deploy creatures option (see rule 603). Enchantment Enchantment is a card type.” Emperor Emperor is a multiplayer variant with its own rules. See rule 212.” Effect “Ability” and “effect” are often confused with one another. Each team sits together on one side of the table. See rule 212.” The Emperor variant uses the following default multiplayer options: (a) The range of influence is limited to 2 for emperors and 1 for generals (see rule 601). Such Auras can’t target objects and can’t be attached to objects. “Echo [cost]” means “At the beginning of your upkeep. The remaining players on the team are generals whose job is to protect the emperor. Some effects are replacement effects or prevention effects. Echo Echo is a triggered ability. updated through the Alara Reborn set. sacrifice it unless you pay its echo cost. See rule 416.” Urza block cards with the echo ability were printed without an echo cost. See also Aura. State-based effects are not created by spells or abilities. In addition to the normal rules for winning and losing. it may create one or more one-shot or continuous effects. Enchant.” Enchant Opponent. Enchant Enchant is a static ability.

The game skips straight to the cleanup step. An Equipment that’s also a creature or an Equipment that loses the subtype “Equipment” can’t equip a creature. “Artifacts.” Ending the Turn One card (Time Stop) ends the turn when its resolves. Equipment doesn’t come into play equipping a creature. if any.) Evasion Ability Evasion abilities restrict what creatures can block an attacking creature.”) The creature an Equipment is attached to is called “equipped. Check state-based effects. “Equip. See rule 311. “End of Combat Step. you can’t play spells. Remove all planeswalkers from combat. follow the text of each of the modes in the order they’re written on the card. Remove all attacking and blocking creatures.” The Equipment is attached to. (This is a state-based effect. you pay an additional [cost]. The equip keyword ability moves the Equipment onto a creature you control. copy this spell except for its epic ability. See rule 313. The current step and/or phase ends. but remains in play.” Equip Equip is an activated ability. “End Phase. “For the rest of the game. If the spell has any targets. An Equipment is played and comes into play just like any other artifact. (See rule 502. A player may play spells and abilities during this step whenever he or she has priority. or “equips. An Equipment that equips an illegal or nonexistent permanent becomes unattached from that permanent.33. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery. “Entwine. if the entwine cost was paid. “Equip [cost]” means “[Cost]: Attach this Equipment to target creature you control. “Ending the Turn.” These artifacts can be attached to (can “equip”) creatures.” See rule 502.” Equipment Some artifacts have the subtype “Equipment. They can’t equip objects that aren’t creatures. See rule 509. See rule 502. from combat.” End of Turn Step This is the first step of the end phase.1f–h.2. “Epic. If you do. “Entwine [cost]” means “You may choose to use all modes of this spell instead of just one. A player may play spells and abilities during this step whenever he or she has priority. “Equip. “End of Turn Step.44.1b and 409. “Epic” means. See rule 420.” Using the entwine ability follows the rules for choosing modes and paying additional costs in rules 409.” that creature.” End Phase The end phase is the fifth and final phase of the turn. An Equipment can’t equip itself. you may choose new targets for the copy.” Entwine Entwine is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.” and rule 212.” See rule 502.32. These are . follow these steps in order: Remove every object on the stack from the game.” Epic Epic represents both a static ability and a delayed triggered ability. When the spell resolves.End of Combat Step The end of combat step is the fifth step of the combat phase. See rule 312. When an effect ends the turn.” and “At the beginning of each of your upkeeps.33. It has two steps: end of turn and cleanup.

If a card in one zone is exchanged with a card in a different zone.74. no part of the exchange occurs. One “happening” may be treated as a single event by one ability and as multiple events by another. on the other hand. each of those players simultaneously gains control of the permanent that was controlled by the other player. if those permanents are controlled by different players. this is one event for a triggered ability that reads “Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked” but two events for a triggered ability that reads “Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked by a creature. if the entire exchange can’t be completed. if its evoke cost was paid. Multiple events may take place during the resolution of a spell or ability. Expansion Symbol The small icon normally printed below the right edge of the illustration on a Magic card is the expansion symbol. When control of two permanents is exchanged. See rule 500. its controller sacrifices it.1f–h. that card stops being attached to that object and the other card becomes attached to that object.” See rule 502. “Evoke. “Exalted. that creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn. Example: If a spell attempts to exchange control of two target creatures but one of those creatures is destroyed before the spell resolves. Event Anything that happens in a game is an event. Cards reprinted in a core set .” Paying a card’s evoke cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409. Example: If an attacking creature is blocked by two defending creatures. life totals or control of two permanents) as part of its resolution. the cards in the zones are still exchanged. “Evoke [cost]” means “You may play this card by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost” and “When this permanent comes into play.” Exchange A spell or ability may instruct players to exchange something (for example. These spells and abilities work the same as other “exchange” spells and abilities. except they can exchange the cards only if all the cards are owned by the same player. and one of the zones is empty.83. the spell does nothing to the other creature. the exchange effect does nothing. The text of triggered abilities and replacement effects defines the event they’re looking for.” Exalted Exalted is a triggered ability. each player gains or loses the amount of life necessary to equal the other player’s previous life total. and either of them is attached to an object. See rule 502. “Exalted” means “Whenever a creature you control attacks alone.1b and 409. those permanents are controlled by the same player. and triggered abilities may trigger on them. The symbol indicates the set in which the card was published. When such a spell or ability resolves.3a. When life totals are exchanged. and its color indicates the rarity of the card. cards removed from the game and cards in a player’s hand).” Evoke Evoke is a keyword ability that represents two abilities: a static ability that functions in any zone from which the card can be played and a triggered ability that functions in play. If a spell or ability instructs a player to simply exchange two zones. Some spells or abilities may instruct a player to exchange cards in one zone with cards in a different zone (for example.static abilities that modify the declare blockers step of the combat phase. If. Replacement effects may modify these gains and losses.

If a player gets multiple extra turns or if multiple players get extra turns during a single turn.” Fear Fear is an evasion ability. spell. See rule 608.” Fateseal To “fateseal N” means to look at the top N cards of an opponent’s library.” and rule 502.” . or permanent to be turned face down. sacrifice the permanent. “Fading N” means “This permanent comes into play with N fade counters on it” and “At the beginning of your upkeep.wizards.” See rule 502. the extra turns are added one at a time.20. See the Magic Floor Rules for the current definitions of the constructed formats (http://www.9. you must ensure at all times that your face-down spells and permanents can be easily differentiated from each other.26. or a face-down card in the phased-out zone you controlled when it phased out.com/Magic/TCG/Article. remove a fade counter from this permanent. Spells and abilities that affect cards from a particular expansion only affect cards with that set’s expansion symbol.25. a facedown permanent you control. The Grand Melee multiplayer variant has special rules to handle what happens when extra turns are created. See rule 501. “Expansion Symbol.6. See rule 504. The first five editions of the core set had no expansion symbol.magicthegathering. You can’t look at face-down cards in any other zone (including cards “removed from the game face down”).or another expansion receive its expansion symbol. “Face-Down Spells and Permanents.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home). Extra Turn Some spells and abilities can give a player extra turns.com for the full list of expansions and expansion symbols (http://www. Visit the products section of www. and face-down cards in the phased-out zone have no characteristics other than those listed by the ability or rules that allowed the card. you may look at a face-down spell you control on the stack. face-down spells or permanents controlled by another player. At any time. “Fear. Players may include cards from any printing in their constructed decks if those cards appear in sets allowed in that format (or allowed by the Magic Floor Rules). Any listed characteristics are the copiable values of that object’s characteristics.aspx? x=mtg/tcg/products/allproducts). If you control multiple face-down spells on the stack or face-down permanents in play. put any number of them on the bottom of that library in any order. or face-down cards in the phased-out zone last controlled by another player. and put the rest on top of that library in any order. “Morph. If you can’t. The most recently created turn will be taken first.” Fading Fading is a keyword ability that represents two abilities. face-down permanents in play. “Fateseal. “Fading.com/Magic/TCG/Events. Cards printed before the Exodus set had black expansion symbols regardless of rarity. Spells normally can’t be turned face up. See rule 300. See rule 502. “Grand Melee Variant.wizards. A creature with fear can’t be blocked except by artifact creatures and/or black creatures. They do this by adding the turns directly after the current turn. See rule 206.” Face Down Face-down spells on the stack. The ability or rules that allowed a permanent to be turned face down may also allow the permanent’s controller to turn it face up.

2. “Flash. “First Strike.” Other methods of randomization may be substituted for flipping a coin as long as there are two possible outcomes of equal likelihood and all players agree to the substitution. See rule 413. Otherwise. “Flanking” means “Whenever this creature becomes blocked by a creature without flanking.” If the call matches the result. the player loses the flip.57. if at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike or double strike (see rule 502. that player wins the flip. Only the player who flips the coin wins or loses the flip.” Flashback Flashback appears on some instants and sorceries.22.” Flavor Text This is text in italics (but not in parentheses) in the text box of a card. “Flashback [cost]” means “You may play this card from your graveyard by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost” and “If the flashback cost was paid. remove this card from the game instead of putting it anywhere else any time it would leave the stack. used for when a spell or ability was countered as a result of all its targets being missing or illegal when it resolved. each affected player flips a coin without making a call. At the start of the combat damage step. “Flash” means “You may play this card any time you could play an instant.2a.” designate one side to be “heads.” See rule 502. See rule 207. “Flashback. Flip Cards Flip cards have a two-part card frame on a single card. no other players are involved. See rule 502. the affected player flips the coin and calls “heads” or “tails.” Fizzle (Informal) The term “fizzle” is an informal term. To flip a coin for an object that cares whether the coin comes up heads or tails.28). See rule 502.” Playing a spell using its flashback ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409. The text that appears right . the phase gets a second combat damage step to handle the remaining creatures. A coin used in a flip must be a two-sided object with easily distinguished sides and equal likelihood that either side lands face up. If the coin that’s being flipped doesn’t have an obvious “heads” or “tails.First Strike First strike is a static ability that modifies the rules for the combat damage step. No player wins or loses this kind of flip. the blocking creature gets -1/-1 until end of turn.2.3. Flip a Coin To flip a coin for an object that cares whether a player wins or loses the flip. creatures without first strike or double strike don’t assign combat damage. “Flanking. Flanking Flanking is a triggered ability that triggers during the declare blockers step of the combat phase.1b and 409.1f–h.” See rule 502.” and the other side to be “tails. It represents two static abilities: one functions while the card is in a player’s graveyard and the other functions while the card is on the stack. Instead of proceeding to end of combat.” Flash Flash is a static ability that functions in any zone from which you could play the card it’s on. It provides a mood or gives interesting background detail for the game world but has no effect on play.

A creature with flying can’t be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. If an effect tells you to name a card. Once a permanent is flipped. It’s written “Forecast — [Activated ability]. The bottom half of a flip card contains an alternative name. Forestcycling See Typecycling. type line.com/Magic/TCG/Events. Additional alternative characteristics appear upside down on the card. The back of a flip card is the normal Magic: The Gathering card back. The controller of the forecast ability reveals the card with that ability from his or her hand as the ability is played. Flipping a permanent is a one-way process. A flip card’s color.” A forecast ability may be played only during the upkeep step of the card’s owner and only once each turn. Also.” See rule 212. See rule 502. text box. and legal text don’t change if the permanent is flipped. you may name a flip card’s alternative name. Any land with the land type Forest has the ability “{T}: Add {G} to your mana pool.4. text box. and toughness of the flip permanent don’t apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead. power. Flying Flying is an evasion ability. Forest “Forest” is one of the five basic land types. power. “Flip Cards. A creature with flying can block a creature with or without flying. and toughness.” The top half of a flip card contains the card’s normal name. it’s impossible for it to become unflipped. mana cost. Floor Rules The current DCI Magic: The Gathering Floor Rules can be found at http://www. power. both when it’s untapped and when it’s tapped. See rule 508. illustration credit. Forestwalk See Landwalk. Common methods for distinguishing between flipped and unflipped permanents include using coins or dice to mark flipped objects.” Forecast Forecast is a special kind of activated ability that can be played only from a player’s hand. if flipped permanent leaves play. In every zone other than the in-play zone. If you control a flip permanent. and also in the in-play zone before the permanent flips. type line. it retains no memory of its status. any changes to it by external effects will still apply.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home.6h. you must ensure that it’s clear at all times whether the permanent is flipped or not. The text box usually contains an ability that causes the permanent to “flip” if certain conditions are met. These characteristics are used only if the permanent is in play and only if the permanent is flipped. type line. expansion symbol. text box. “Flying. Once the flip permanent in the in-play zone is flipped. That player plays with that card revealed in his or her hand until it leaves the player’s hand or until a step or phase that isn’t an upkeep step begins. a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the permanent. whichever comes first. the normal name.side up on the card defines the card’s normal characteristics.wizards. . However. and toughness.

These actions are game actions.2). (This is a state-based effect. and removing damage from permanents and ending “until end of turn” effects during the cleanup step (see rule 314. Mana burn at the end of a phase is also a game action (see rule 300.” and rule 212.” See also Aura and Enchantment. declaring blockers at the start of the declare blockers step (see rule 309.65. Any color of mana.Fortification Some artifacts have the subtype “Fortification. A Fortification that fortifies an illegal or nonexistent permanent becomes unattached from that permanent. General The player seated in the middle of a team in the Emperor multiplayer variant is called the team’s emperor.) Fortify Fortify is an activated ability.1). “Artifacts. See rule 104.” The Fortification is attached to.1). or “fortifies. “Graft N” means “This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it” and “Whenever another creature comes into play.” Free-for-All Free-for-All is a multiplayer variant in which a group of players complete as individuals against each other. A Fortification that’s also a creature or a Fortification that loses the subtype “Fortification” can’t fortify a land.2.” that land. Graft Graft represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. “Emperor Variant.1).65.” Frenzy Frenzy is a triggered ability. Global Enchantment (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “global enchantment.66. “Frenzy N” means “Whenever this creature attacks and isn’t blocked. but remains in play. as well as colorless mana. They can’t fortify objects that aren’t lands. Fortification doesn’t come into play fortifying a land. “Frenzy. The other players are called generals. See rule 607. may be used to pay a generic mana cost. A Fortification is played and comes into play just like any other artifact.” If a creature has multiple . “Fortify. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery. drawing a card at the start of the draw step (see rule 304.” See rule 502.” These artifacts can be attached to (can “fortify”) lands. The fortify keyword ability moves the Fortification onto a land you control.” See rule 502. (See rule 502.” These cards now say “nonAura enchantment. if this permanent has a +1/+1 counter on it. “Free-for-All Variant. the active player discarding down to his or her maximum hand size at the start of the cleanup step (see rule 314. A Fortification can’t fortify itself. “Fortify [cost]” means “[Cost]: Attach this Fortification to target land you control.”) The land a Fortification is attached to is called “fortified. you may move a +1/+1 counter from this permanent onto that creature.1). untapping at the start of the untap step (see rule 302. See rule 420. declaring attackers at the start of the declare attackers step (see rule 308. See rule 605.3b.” Generic Mana Cost A generic mana cost is represented by a number in a gray circle. “Fortify.” Game Action Several steps contain actions that don’t use the stack. it gets +N/+0 until end of turn.2). The game actions are phasing in and out at the start of the untap step (see rule 302.1).3).

5.” See rule 502. For example.” Haste Normally a creature can’t attack or use activated abilities with costs that include the tap symbol ({T}) or the untap symbol ({Q}) unless its controller has controlled it continuously since the start of his or her most recent turn. Instant and sorcery spells are put into their owner’s graveyard as the last step in resolving. facedown cards in any zone and the contents of players’ libraries and hands are hidden information. “Zones. Hidden Zone Hidden zones are zones in which not all players can be expected to see the cards.67. even if all the cards in one such zone happen to be revealed. and (b) the attack left option is used (see rule 604). If an effect “reveals” a card that’s normally hidden.” Graveyard Each player’s discard pile is his or her graveyard. destroyed or sacrificed permanents. Haste is a static ability that allows a creature to ignore this rule. “Haste. you may choose new targets for any of the copies.” The Grand Melee variant uses the following default options: (a) Each player has a range of influence of 1 (see rule 601). Gravestorm Gravestorm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. “Haunt. Grand Melee is normally used only in games begun with ten or more players. “Haunt” on a permanent means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play. See also Public Information.” Hand The hand is the zone where a player holds cards that haven’t been played yet. See rule 217. Countered spells. “Gravestorm. If the spell has any targets.” “Haunt” on an instant or sorcery spell means “When this spell is put into a graveyard during its resolution.” Hidden Information (Informal) Some information within a Magic game isn’t known by all players. “Gravestorm” means “When you play this spell.instances of graft. remove it from the game haunting target creature. . each one works separately. remove it from the game haunting target creature.51. See rule 217. “Grand Melee Variant. and discarded cards are put into their owner’s graveyard. See also Public Zone. The attack multiple players and deploy creatures options aren’t used in the Grand Melee variant. See rule 608. Moving turn markers keep track of which players are currently taking turns. the card is public information as long as it remains revealed.” See rule 502. Grand Melee The Grand Melee variant is a modification of the Free-for-All variant. The Grand Melee variant allows multiple players to take turns at the same time. “Zones.” Haunt Haunt is a triggered ability. See rule 502. Library and hand are hidden zones. Each turn marker represents both an active player’s turn and an individual stack. put a copy of it onto the stack for each permanent that was put into a graveyard from play this turn.” A card with haunt typically has another ability that triggers “when the creature this card haunts is put into a graveyard.

is illegal. No abilities trigger and no effects apply as a result of an undone action. use the largest component of each hybrid symbol. look at the top four cards of your library. If See Intervening “If” Clause. Illegal Action If a player realizes that he or she can’t legally take an action after starting to do so. the player who had priority retains it and may take another action or pass. {R/W} red or white.” Horsemanship Horsemanship is an evasion ability. See rule 502. A target that’s removed from play. {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana. “Hideaway” means “This permanent comes into play tapped” and “When this permanent comes into play. The removed card gains ‘Any player who has controlled the permanent that removed this card from the game may look at this card in the removed-from-thegame zone. Each of the monocolored hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid with one mana of a specific color or two mana of any type. See rule 413. A target may also become illegal if its characteristics changed since the spell or ability was played or if an effect changed the text of the spell.” Illegal Target If a spell or ability specifies targets. See rule 422.75.Hideaway Hideaway is a keyword ability that represents a static ability and a triggered ability. and {2/G} one green mana or two mana of any type. {W/B} white or black. {U/R} blue or red. The player may redo the reversed action in a legal way or take any other action allowed by the rules. “Horsemanship. The card is all of the colors of its mana symbols. it checks whether the targets are legal when it resolves.” Hybrid Card A hybrid card is a card with one or more hybrid mana symbols in its mana cost. {2/U} one blue mana or two mana of any type. “Handling Illegal Actions.” .’” See rule 502. {B/R} black or red.2a. Most hybrid cards costs are printed in a two-tone frame. A creature with horsemanship can’t be blocked by creatures without horsemanship. the entire action is reversed and any payments already made are canceled. {R/G} red or green. and {G/U} green or blue.17. {2/W} can be paid with either one white mana or two mana of any type. When calculating the converted mana cost of an object with a hybrid mana symbol in its mana cost. A creature with horsemanship can block a creature with or without horsemanship. A hybrid mana symbol is all of its component colors. Remove one of them from the game face down and put the rest on the bottom of your library in any order. as represented by the two halves of the hybrid mana symbol. “Hideaway. Hybrid Mana Symbols Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid in one of two ways. When reversing illegal spells and abilities. {2/R} one red mana or two mana of any type. {U/B} blue or black. {G/W} green or white. or from the zone designated by the spell or ability. Illustration The illustration is printed on the upper half of a card and has no game significance. See rule 204. “Illustration. {B/G} black or green. {2/B} one black mana or two mana of any type.

and they ignore the lethal-damage state-based effect (see rule 420. Most replacement effects use the word “instead” to indicate what events will be replaced with other events. “Information Below the Text Box. See rule 217.5. “Imprint. Cards that are in the removed-from-the-game zone because they were removed from the game by an imprint ability are imprinted on the source of that ability.” Instead Effects that use the word “instead” are replacement effects. rules and effects can’t destroy it. When an artifact. “Replacement and Prevention Effects.” In Play In play is the zone in which permanents exist. put into a graveyard. written “Imprint — [text]. and applying the other would change the text or the existence of the first effect. or planeswalker spell resolves.” Imprinted [quality] card The phrase “imprinted [quality] card” means the card with that quality that’s imprinted on the permanent. Such permanents are not destroyed by lethal damage. it’s put into the in-play zone as a permanent. All abilities that were played as interrupts are now played like . See rule 418.” See rule 502.” Indestructible If a permanent is indestructible.” Independent An effect is said to “depend on” another if it is applied at the same time as the other effect. “Interaction of Continuous Effects.5c). Otherwise.5.” Imprint Imprint is an activated or triggered ability. See rule 210. When a land is played. Occasionally the game can get into a state where a set of actions could be repeated forever. Instant subtypes are called spell types (see Spell Types).” where “[text]” is an activated or triggered ability.” All interrupt cards are now instant cards. what it applies to. “Imprint. “Zones. enchantment. Infinity Rule (Informal) There’s no such thing as “infinity” in the Magic rules. or what it does to any of the things it applies to.34. each of those cards is an “imprinted [quality] card. or removed from the game. creature. See rule 212. An instant spell is put into its owner’s graveyard as the last step of its resolution. The credit has no effect on game play.” Interrupt (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the card type “interrupt. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.Illustration Credit The illustration credit for a card is printed directly below the text box.” Instant Instant is a card type. The “infinity rule” governs how to break such loops. it’s put into the in-play zone as a permanent.” and rule 409. See rule 502. See rule 421.34. the effect is considered to be independent of the first effect. “Handling ‘Infinite’ Loops. Tokens also exist in this zone. Rules or effects may cause an indestructible permanent to be sacrificed. See rule 419. “Instants. If a permanent has more than one card with that quality imprinted on it. A player may play instants whenever he or she has priority.

Intervening “If” Clause Triggered abilities with a condition directly following the trigger event (for example. but some specialized verbs are used whose meanings may not be clear. If it’s not satisfied. sometimes reminder text summarizes the game rule. These “keywords” are game terms.1b). Paying a spell’s kicker cost causes the spell to have an additional or alternative effect.1f–h). Keyword Ability Some abilities are very common or would require too much space to define on a card. The ability checks the condition again on resolution. The active player may play a land once each turn during his or her main phase when he or she has priority and the stack is empty. Islandwalk See Landwalk. Note that this mirrors the check for legal targets.normal activated abilities (and are mana abilities if they produce mana). Paying a kicker cost is always optional.” Keyword Action Most actions described in a card’s rules text use the standard English definitions of the verbs within. Any land with the land type Island has the ability “{T}: Add {U} to your mana pool. which means “This creature can’t attack unless the defending player controls an Island” and “When you control no Islands. Island “Island” is one of the five basic land types. See rule 404.” Kicker Kicker is a keyword ability with a cost and an effect. A spell’s controller chooses targets (see rule 409. “Keyword Actions.6h.” You declare whether you intend to pay a spell’s kicker cost at the same time you would choose the spell’s mode (see rule 409. “When/Whenever/At [trigger]. See rule 502. Note that this rule doesn’t apply to any triggered ability with an “if” condition elsewhere within its text.” See rule 212. sometimes reminder text summarizes their meanings. [effect]”) check for the condition to be true as part of the trigger event. “Kicker. Islandcycling See Typecycling. sacrifice this creature. the ability does nothing. the ability doesn’t trigger.3. See rule 501. Land Land is a card type. See rule 502. It can’t be played .1c) for a kicker effect only if he or she declared the intention to pay the kicker cost for that effect. “Keyword Abilities.” “Kicker [cost]” means “You may pay an additional [cost] as you play this spell. if [condition]. If the spell’s controller declared that he or she wouldn’t pay a particular kicker cost. These abilities list only the name of the ability as a “keyword”. If an object is both a land and another card type. it can only be played as a land.21. and you actually pay the cost when you pay the rest of the spell’s costs (see rule 409. Lands aren’t spells and don’t go on the stack. he or she doesn’t choose the targets for the effect associated with that kicker cost.” Cards that previously had islandhome now simply have the two parts of islandhome written out without using the keyword. they are simply played from the hand. if it isn’t. Islandhome (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the term islandhome.

5.as a spell. This is a state-based effect. Layer Continuous effects are applied in order. See rule 210.4e. see rule 502. it becomes an entirely new permanent with no “memory” of anything from its former existence.” “legendary. Lair.” Permanents that phase out also don’t trigger any comes-into-play or leaves-play abilities. See rule 418. See rule 413. “Information Below the Text Box.and/or toughness-changing effects.” All of these cards have been given errata to have the legendary supertype. (2) control-changing effects. a card’s rules text will give a specific property to look for.5. Legend is no longer a creature type. If a token leaves play.” Leaves Play A permanent leaves play when it moves from the in-play zone to any other zone (see rule 410. See rule 502. See rule 212.15. subtype. “Copying Objects”).6.” Last Known Information The last known information about an object is the information that it had just before it left the zone it was in. If a permanent leaves play and later returns to play. effects are applied in a series of sublayers. The list of land types.” See also Basic Land Type.2f. (3) text-changing effects. it ceases to exist.6. Forest. See rule 212.) Legal Text Legal text (the fine print at the bottom of the card) lists the trademark and copyright information. “Lands.” and “nonbasic” aren’t land types. and/or supertype). See rule 600. except those that change power and/or toughness. Island. Effects use last known information if a specific object they require information from isn’t in the zone it’s expected to be in (unless the effect divides damage). the effect uses the last known information about that player before he or she left the game. Note that “basic. “Landwalk. Locus. “Lands. and (6) power.10c) or when its owner leaves the game (see rule 600. (5) all other continuous effects. See rule 420. It has no effect on game play. Tower. updated through the Alara Reborn set.6. Land subtypes are also called land types.” Legend (Obsolete) Many creature cards were printed with the creature type “Legend. A creature with landwalk is unblockable as long as the defending player controls at least one land which has the specified subtype or supertype. in six layers: (1) copy effects (see rule 503.” Land Type Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Land — Locus. is as follows: Desert. Swamp.” Landwalk is an evasion ability. Land — Urza’s Mine. such as “islandwalk. See Legendary. (4) typechanging effects (which includes effects that change an object’s card type. Urza’s Landwalk “Landwalk” is a generic term.” etc. Plains. Mountain. Mine. “Interaction of Continuous Effects. “Phasing. If an effect requires information about a specific player in a multiplayer game and that player has left the game.4a). . (Phasing is an exception to this. Power-Plant. Inside layer 6.

Each player starts the game with 20 life.” Limited Range of Influence Limited range of influence is an optional rule used in some multiplayer games. This “legend rule” is a state-based effect. “Limited Range of Influence Option. “Linked Abilities. “Library. The second ability can refer only to actions that were taken or objects that were affected by the first ability. see rule 420.5.” LIFO is the order in which spells and abilities resolve after going on the stack. See rule 409. making choices. This is a state-based effect. those abilities are linked. “Lifelink.” and so on).” and rule 413. Any decrease in a player’s life total is considered to be losing life. Any increase in a player’s life total is considered to be gaining life. Objects controlled by players within a player’s range of influence are also within that player’s range of influence. See rule 420.” Lifelink Lifelink is a triggered ability. abilities. but greater than 0 toughness. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. effects. damage dealing. all are put into their owners’ graveyards. and not by any other ability. Lethal Damage Lethal damage is an amount of damage greater than or equal to a creature’s toughness. that the player can affect.5. See rule 217.” “Legendary Artifact. This is a state-based effect. Players within that many seats of the player are within that player’s range of influence. Library The library is the zone from which a player draws cards. A creature with lethal damage. “Resolving Spells and Abilities. Grand Melee variant (see rule 608). Linked Abilities If an object has two abilities printed on it such that one of them causes actions to be taken or objects to be affected and the other one directly refers to those actions or objects. Life Total Life total is a sort of score. and winning the game. each player’s deck becomes his or her library. When a game begins.” LIFO (Informal) An acronym for “Last In. you gain that much life. and it’s often used for other games involving five or more players. See rule 420. is destroyed.5. The last played is resolved first.Legendary Legendary is a supertype that may apply to any permanent type (“Legendary Land.” Local Enchantment (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “local enchantment” for enchantments that are . See rule 407.” The limited range of influence option is always used in the Emperor variant (see rule 607). See also rule 215. this doesn’t change its supertypes. A player’s range of influence is the maximum distance from that player. attacking. If a legendary permanent’s card types or subtypes change. “Lifelink” means “Whenever this permanent deals damage. First Out. measured in player seats. If two or more legendary permanents with the same name are in play.” Life.68. The permanent will still be legendary.2. Range of influence covers spells. “Life. A player whose life total drops to 0 or less loses.” See rule 502. See rule 601.

The “main game” is the game in which the spell or ability that created the subgame was played.attached to other permanents while they’re in play. red.3. A player can concede the game at any time. and it can be used to pay costs immediately or can stay in the player’s mana pool. “Subgames. that player discards it. see rule 420). Mana Mana is the resource used to play spells and is usually produced by lands.” Main Game Some cards allow players to play a Magic subgame. Colored mana costs. A planeswalker with loyalty 0 is put into its owner’s graveyard. “Madness. The types of mana are white. If a player attempts to draw a card from an empty library. planeswalker. enchantment.” Loyalty Loyalty is a characteristic that only planeswalkers have. See rule 406. see rule 420. In a multiplayer game between teams.24. See rule 209. If a player has ten or more poison counters. Lose the Game There are several ways to lose the game. red. and sorcery spells may be played only by the active player during his or her main phase. If a player would both win and lose simultaneously. black. or with colorless. See rule 104. he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority (this is a state-based effect. Mana is created by mana abilities (and sometimes by spells). Each planeswalker card has a loyalty number printed in its lower right corner. This indicates its loyalty while it’s not in play. A player may also play one land each turn during his or her main phase. creature. and it also indicates that the planeswalker comes into play with that many loyalty counters on it. If that player doesn’t. he or she puts this card into his or her graveyard. These cards now have the Aura subtype. black. blue.” Damage dealt to a planeswalker causes that many loyalty counters to be removed from it. mana. If a player’s life total is 0 or less. green. Generic mana costs can be paid with any color of. and only when the stack is empty. blue. See rule 102.3a). See rule 506. he or she loses.” Main Phase The term “main phase” comprises the first main and second main phases. Artifact. see rule 420). its owner may play it by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost. but may remove it from the game instead of putting it into his or her graveyard” and “When this card is removed from the game this way.” See rule 502. and green. “Mana Abilities. see rule 420). This is a statebased effect. and colorless. “Loyalty. The spell or ability that adds mana to a mana pool may restrict how it can be . also called the “precombat” and “postcombat” main phases. a player who concedes loses the game (see rule 102. (this is a state-based effect. “Madness [cost]” means “If a player would discard this card. “Winning and Losing. he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. a team loses the game if all players on that team have lost. he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority (this is a state-based effect.” The colors of mana are white. represented by colored mana symbols. can be paid only with the appropriate color of mana. Madness Madness is a keyword that represents two abilities.

{2/B}. {B} black. A mana ability doesn’t go on the stack —it resolves immediately. Each of the colored mana symbols represents one colored mana: {W} white. any unused mana remaining in a player’s mana pool is lost. The mana pool is cleared at the end of each phase. The type of mana a permanent “could produce” at any time includes any type of mana that an ability of that permanent would generate if it were to resolve at that time. Abilities that used to read “Play this ability as a mana source” are now mana abilities. {R} red. and {G} green. See also Mana Burn. {B/G}.3. mana. it has no mana cost.” All mana source cards are now instant cards. Tokens have no mana cost unless the effect that creates them specifies otherwise. {W/B}. See rule 406. Mana Source (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the card type “mana source. the hybrid symbols {W/U}. Ignore whether any costs of the ability couldn’t be paid. To tap a permanent for mana is to play an activated mana ability of that permanent that includes the {T} symbol in its cost and produces mana as part of its effect. “Playing Mana Abilities. The player loses 1 life for each mana lost this way. See rule 104.3b. {R/W}.” A player may play an activated mana ability whenever he or she has priority and whenever a rule or effect asks for a mana payment. {U} blue. {G/W}. that mana goes into a player’s mana pool. {1}. The symbol {X} represents an unspecified amount of mana. {4}. See rule 104. If that permanent wouldn’t produce any mana under these conditions.3a. {2/R}.used. {B/R}. {R}. “Mana Abilities. its controller decides the value of that .3. and {G/U}. when playing a spell or activated ability with {X} in its cost.” Mana Pool When an effect creates mana. or colorless. and {2/G}. taking into account any applicable replacement effects in any possible order. {2}. See rule 104. {3}. The mana can be used immediately to pay a cost. {B}. the numerals {0}. This is called “mana burn. or stored in the mana pool for use later in the phase. From there. “Mana Cost and Color. the monocolored hybrid symbols {2/W}. and the snow symbol {S}. and {X}. Land cards and face-down spells and permanents normally have no mana cost. Mana Symbol The mana symbols are {W}. See rule 203. A copy of an object copies that object’s mana cost. This is the only kind of ability that can be played in the middle of playing or resolving a spell or ability. {2/U}. {R/G}. Numeral symbols (such as {1}) are generic mana costs and represent an amount of mana that can be paid with any color of.” Mana Burn When a phase ends. If a card has no mana symbols printed in its upper right corner. and so on. {U/B}. An ability might produce mana that can be used only to play creature spells or only to pay activation costs. it can be used to pay for spells and abilities. {U}. Mana Cost The mana cost of a card is indicated by the mana symbols printed on its upper right corner. there’s no type of mana it could produce. Mana Ability A mana ability is either activated or triggered. or no type of mana can be defined this way. {U/R}. See rule 411.” See rule 300. {G}.

See rule 104. See rule 104. {G/W} green or white. They were artifacts that had activated abilities that included the tap symbol. Each of the monocolored hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid with one mana of a specific color or two mana of any type.3d. and {G/U} green or blue.variable. you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent. Maximum Hand Size Each player’s maximum hand size is normally seven cards. if he or she has too many cards in his or her hand. {B/R} black or red.” See rule 502. {B/G} black or green. Modular Modular represents both a static ability and a triggered ability.” Modal.3f. Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid in one of two ways. {2/R} one red mana or two mana of any type. {R/G} red or green.3c. Numeral symbols and variable symbols can also represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or of a mana ability that reads “add [mana symbol] to your mana pool” or something similar. A modal spell or ability’s controller must choose the mode(s) as part of playing the spell or ability or as part of putting the ability on the stack (in the case of triggered abilities).” Modal spells and abilities offer a choice of effects.wizards.3e. A spell or ability whose cost is {0} must still be played the same way as one with a cost greater than zero. “Modular N” means “This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it” and “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play. “Cleanup Step.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home). as represented by the two halves of the hybrid mana symbol. Match A match is a series of Magic games and is important only for tournament or league play.” or “[a specified player] chooses one —. A multiplayer match usually consists of only one game.com/Magic/TCG/Events. {2/U} one blue mana or two mana of any type.” Mono Artifact (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “mono artifact” on the card’s type line. As the first part of the active player’s cleanup step. Cards that were . “Modular.1b. See rule 314.3i. See rule 104. {U/B} blue or black. A two-player match usually consists of the best two of three games. see rule 409. See rule 104. If a mode has targets.” “Choose one or both —. The symbol {S} represents a cost that can be paid with one mana produced by a snow permanent. {R/W} red or white. {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana. {2/W} can be paid with either one white mana or two mana of any type. a player can’t choose that mode unless all of its targets can be chosen. though effects may modify this.35. {2/B} one black mana or two mana of any type. it won’t play itself automatically. that player chooses and discards as many cards as needed to reduce his or her hand to its maximum size (but no more than that).” “Choose two —.3f. For more information. or sometimes the best three of five. See rule 104. See rule 104. Mode A spell or ability is modal if it is written “Choose one —. and {2/G} one green mana or two mana of any type. consult the DCI Magic Floor Rules (http://www. {W/B} white or black. {U/R} blue or red. The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder when a spell or activated ability costs nothing to play. A hybrid mana symbol is all of its component colors.

Mountaincycling See Typecycling.” Mountain “Mountain” is one of the five basic land types. Morph Morph is a static ability that functions any time you could play the card it’s on. “Destroy target nonblack creature. Any player dissatisfied with his or her starting hand may mulligan as often as he or she wishes. Mountainwalk See Landwalk. or either that object or any possible objects the counter would move onto are no longer in the correct zone when the effect would move the counter. Most multicolored cards are printed with gold frames to reinforce this. Move To move a counter means to take it from where it currently is and put it onto another object. Any land with the land type Mountain has the ability “{T}: Add {R} to your mana pool. and the morph effect works any time the card is face down. These cards now say “attach.2. See rule 101. no subtypes.” Monocolored A monocolored card has exactly one color. no expansion symbol. see rule 606. For example.” See rule 212. so that same creature can’t be targeted by a spell or ability that reads.6h.6a. drawing one fewer card each time.” Mulligan A player can “mulligan” by shuffling his or her hand back into his or her library and drawing a new hand with one fewer card before taking the first turn. “Destroy all green creatures. and no mana cost by paying {3} rather than its mana cost. See rule 203. pay that cost. Monocolored Hybrid Mana Symbols See Hybrid Mana Symbols. Some older cards used “move” to describe taking an Aura on one object and putting it onto another.4. “Morph. A multicolored object is affected by anything that singles out any of its colors. A colorless card isn’t monocolored. with no text. then turn the permanent face up. In a multiplayer game. This action doesn’t use the stack. See rule 502. nothing happens. no name. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal.” Any time you could play an instant. If the object the counter would move from has no counters. “Morph [cost]” means “You may play this card as a 2/2 face-down creature. the first time a player takes a mulligan. he or she draws a new hand of seven cards rather than six cards.” .printed with the term “mono artifact” now simply use “artifact. a black-and-green creature is destroyed by a spell that reads. you may show all players the morph cost for any face-down permanent you control.” Something that can’t affect a particular color doesn’t affect a multicolored object with that color. Multicolored A multicolored card has two or more colors.26. The Two-Headed Giant variant employs more extensive changes to the mulligan rule.

If a calculation or comparison that would determine the result of an effect needs to use a negative value. a token. changes a creature’s power or toughness. See rule 502. See section 6. Use the Oracle card reference to determine whether a land has the supertype “basic. “Multiplayer Rules. Example: If a 3/4 creature gets -5/-0. and combat damage on the stack. “[Text] offering” means “You may play this card any time you could play an instant by sacrificing a [text] permanent. gain negative life. Updated wordings for all cards that used these terms are available in the Oracle card reference. deal negative damage.Multiplayer A multiplayer game is a game that begins with more than two players. tokens. “Numbers and Symbols.” Ninjutsu Ninjutsu is an activated ability that functions only while the card with ninjutsu is in a player’s hand. It assigns 0 damage in combat. See rule 200.” See rule 502. “One-Shot . See rule 202. gain fractional life. such as a creature’s power. If such a calculation yields a negative number. or combat damage on the stack. a spell. The term “object” is used in these rules when a rule applies to cards. a copy of a card. unless that effect sets a creature’s power or toughness. If you do.” Most of the time. to be less than zero. Return an unblocked creature you control to its owner’s hand: Put this card into play from your hand tapped and attacking. If a spell or ability could generate a fractional number.” Number The Magic game uses only integers. You can’t choose a negative number. it does so. and so on. Obsolete Terms marked “(Obsolete)” in this glossary were used only on older cards. However. See rule 417. permanents. Reveal this card from your hand. a permanent. copies of cards. “Offering. “Ninjutsu. the total cost to play this card is reduced by the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost.8. or sets a player’s life total. abilities on the stack.” Generic mana in the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost reduces only the generic mana in the offering card’s total cost.” Nonbasic Land Any land that doesn’t have the supertype “basic” is nonbasic. deal fractional damage. Offering Offering is a static ability of a card that functions in any zone from which the card can be played. Object An “object” is a card.43. “Ninjutsu [cost]” means “[Cost]. an ability on the stack. Its total power and toughness is 2.42. See rule 104. it’s possible for a game value. You’d have to give it +3/+0 to raise its power to 1. You can’t choose a fractional number. spells.” Name The name of a card is printed on its upper left corner. it’s a -2/4 creature. and so on.” One-Shot Effect One-shot effects do something only once and then end. Games that begin with only two players aren’t multiplayer games. zero is used instead. the spell or ability will tell you whether to round up or down. “Name. the Magic game uses only positive numbers.

” Pay Playing most spells and activated abilities requires paying costs.wizards. although who controls those objects. See rule 200.Effects.1b. and what enchants or equips them must remain clear to all players. (Legal ownership is irrelevant to the game rules.1a. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. “Multiplayer Rules. “Timing.com. Order The order of objects in a library. “Declare . Opponent In a two-player game. a player’s opponent is the other player. and the Stack. An effect can change a permanent’s controller but never its owner. ability. See rule 217. Opening Hand Before a game begins.” Declaring attackers (see rule 308. Outside the Game An object is “outside the game” if it’s in the removed-from-the-game zone. the player who brought the card into the game. or of a copy of a spell. the spell.1.9. If the stack is empty. “Outside the game” is not a zone. or performing any special actions in between.” Oracle Use the Oracle card reference when determining a card’s wording. his or her opponent receives priority. See section 6.”) A card is always put into its owner’s library. Objects in other zones can be arranged however their owners wish. Priority.1a. See rule 217.” See also Continuous Effects. See rule 408. a player has multiple opponents. for cards that didn’t start the game in a player’s deck. regardless of who controlled the card in its previous zone. or on the stack can’t be changed except when effects allow it. or graveyard.” These are the only cards that can change a card’s owner. in a graveyard. See rule 408. When a player passes. the hand of cards he or she chooses to keep is that player’s opening hand. hand.) See rule 200. “Ante.1e. is the controller of the effect that created it. All other objects are inside the game. Priority. or if it isn’t in any of the game’s zones. “Timing. Owner The owner of a card is the player who started the game with that card in his or her deck or.2. but after a player has taken any mulligans. See rule 217.” Pass in Succession To pass in succession means that all players pass without playing any spells.1. See rule 217. In multiplayer games. If all players pass in succession. The owner of a token. whether they’re tapped. the phase or step ends. A card’s Oracle text can be found using the Gatherer card database at http://gatherer. except for the rules for ante. A player can’t take any mulligans once he or she has decided to keep an opening hand. or combat damage on top of the stack resolves. and the Stack. (A few cards have the text “Remove [this card] from your deck before playing if you’re not playing for ante. see rule 409. Pass To pass is to decline to take any action (usually playing a spell or ability) when you have priority. playing any abilities.

“Phasing. See section 3. Zero life or zero mana can always be paid. combat.79.” Permanent Card A permanent card is a card that isn’t in play but could be put into play.” Phased Out The phased-out zone is a special zone for permanents with phasing that are temporarily out of play. For example. “Persist” means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play. “Persist. Example: An ability that originally read “Gain control of target creature permanently” would now read as follows: “Gain control of target creature. or effect. A player can’t pay more mana than the amount of mana in his or her mana pool or more life than his or her life total. Paying life subtracts the indicated amount of life from the player’s life total. It’s illegal to attempt paying a cost when unable to successfully follow the instructions. the resolution of a spell or ability doesn’t pay another spell or ability’s cost.” Pile If a player is asked to separate a group of objects into two or more piles. It doesn’t make the permanent immune to other control effects. Unpayable costs can’t be paid. land. See rule 214. the player carries out the instructions specified by the spell. “Phasing. it means an artifact. Specifically. “Permanents. return it to play under its owner’s control with a -1/-1 counter on it.” Phasing Phasing is a static ability that causes a permanent to leave play and later return. “Phased Out. Mana abilities must be played before the costs are paid.” This effect grants control of the permanent until something else changes the controller or it leaves play. or planeswalker card. even if part of its effect is doing the same thing the other cost asks for. Permanent A permanent is any card or token in the in-play zone.Attackers Step”) and declaring blockers (see rule 309.15. ability. If cards in a graveyard are split into piles.15. even if the player has less than zero life. precombat main. Persist Persist is a triggered ability. For example. See rule 217. Permanently (Obsolete) Certain older cards were printed with the term “permanently” to indicate effects with no expiration. mana abilities may be played. creature.” See rule 502. “Declare Blockers Step”) can also require paying costs. To pay any cost. without losing its “memory. Also.8. Paying mana is done by removing the indicated amount of mana from the player’s mana pool. “Turn Structure.” Phase Each turn is divided into five phases: beginning. Any time a player is asked to pay mana.” See rule 502. a player can’t pay a cost that requires tapping a creature if that creature is already tapped. if it had no -1/-1 counters on it. . a player can’t sacrifice just one creature to play the activated abilities of two permanents that require sacrificing a creature as a cost. postcombat main. the objects do not leave the zone they’re currently in.” and rule 502. and end. enchantment. This term is no longer used. Each payment applies to only one spell or ability.

Tezzeret. its controller puts it into play under his or her control.9. See rule 200.6h. Garruk. Other multiplayer variants don’t use the play/draw rule. Play The act of playing a spell. The active player is the player whose turn it is.” Triggered abilities and static abilities aren’t played—they happen automatically. . See rule 410. Planeswalker Planeswalker is a card type.” In a Two-Headed Giant multiplayer game. This “planeswalker uniqueness rule” is a statebased effect.10c. Sarkhan. “Playing Mana Abilities. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.” Planeswalker subtypes are also called planeswalker types.” See rule 212.” Planeswalker Type Planeswalker subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Planeswalker — Jace. If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are in play.5. or that permanent coming into play with a counter. “Handling Static Abilities. See rule 409. When a planeswalker spell resolves.” Playing a land simply requires choosing a land card from the hand and putting it into play. then immediately resolving the ability. Plainswalk See Landwalk. See rule 411. the team that goes first skips its first draw step (see rule 606. Jace. “Two-Headed Giant Variant”). or ability involves announcing the action and taking the necessary steps to complete it. “Planeswalkers. is as follows: Ajani. This is referred to as the play/draw rule. Liliana. The other players are nonactive players. Plains “Plains” is one of the five basic land types. See rule 101. land. See rule 200. updated through the Alara Reborn set.3. all are put into their owners’ graveyards.” and rule 412. Any land with the land type Plains has the ability “{T}: Add {W} to your mana pool. Bolas. A pile can contain zero or more objects. “Starting the Game.” Play/Draw (Informal) Whoever plays first in a two-player game skips his or her first draw step. See rule 212. Elspeth. The list of planeswalker types.” Playing a mana ability requires paying any costs. Playing a spell or activated ability requires paying any costs and choosing any required modes and/or targets. See rule 212. See rule 420. “Handling Triggered Abilities. “Lands. it means putting a counter on that permanent while it’s in play.the order of the graveyard must be maintained.6. Placed If a spell or ability refers to a counter being placed on a permanent. Player A player is one of the people in the game. Plainscycling See Typecycling. The active player may play planeswalkers during his or her main phase when the stack is empty. Chandra.

“Timing of Spells and Abilities. The number before the slash printed on the lower right corner of a creature card is its power. Effects that prevent the next damage from a specific source apply the next time that source would deal damage. “Power/Toughness. A noncreature permanent has no power.” Creatures that attack or block assign combat damage equal to their power.69.” Priority The player who has the option to play a spell or ability at any given time has priority.Poison Counter Some cards. These effects expire when the turn ends. “Main Phase.” See rule 502. See rule 310. an ability (other than a mana ability). They were artifacts that had activated abilities that don’t include the tap symbol.” Poly Artifact (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “poly artifact” on the card’s type line. See rule 208.” Prevention Effect Effects that prevent something from happening replace it with “do nothing. Precombat The first main phase in each turn is called the precombat main phase.” Power Power is a characteristic that only creatures have. that player gets N poison counters. See rule 419. “State-Based Effects. including those with the poisonous ability. “Combat Damage Step. See rule 305. The object has a characteristic-defining ability that sets its power according to some stated condition. Cards that were printed with the term “poly artifact” now simply use “artifact. If an effect causes a turn to have an extra combat phase and another main phase. give poison counters to players. The damage doesn’t have to be dealt by a single source or all at once. or combat damage . Effects generated by static abilities that prevent a specific amount of damage prevent only the indicated amount of damage from any applicable source at any given time. regardless of the amount. “Replacement and Prevention Effects.” Poisonous Poisonous is a triggered ability.8. “Poisonous. See rule 408. “Main Phase.”) A prevention effect must be active before the event it’s intended to prevent. Effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability that prevent a specific amount of damage act as “shields” and stay active until that amount of damage has been prevented or the turn ends.” Each time a spell. This ability functions everywhere. even if it’s a card with a power printed on it (such as a Licid that’s become an Aura).” Some creature cards have power represented by * instead of a number. See rule 305. If a player has ten or more poison counters. See rule 420. “Sources of Damage. the additional one is also a postcombat main phase.” Postcombat The second main phase in each turn is called the postcombat main phase.” (See rule 419. “Poisonous N” means “Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player. even outside the game. he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority.

See also Hidden Information.” A permanent or player with protection can’t be targeted by spells with the stated quality and can’t be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality. at the time it dealt that damage. See rule 502. “Prowl. permanents in play.” Prowl Prowl is a static ability that functions on the stack. Each time a player would get priority.” Paying a spell’s prowl cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409. .resolves. See rule 606. Then triggered abilities are added to the stack (see rule 410). the phase or step ends. For example. “Provoke” means “Whenever this creature attacks. “StateBased Effects. ability.76. and at the beginning of most phases and steps. Provoke Provoke is a triggered ability. was under your control and had any of this spell’s creature types. “State-Based Effects. Attacking creatures with protection can’t be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality. “Prowl [cost]” means “You may pay [cost] rather than pay this spell’s mana cost if a player was dealt combat damage this turn by a source that. his or her opponent receives priority.29. In the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant. The number of cards in players’ libraries and hands is also public information. When a player passes in a twoplayer game. all applicable state-based effects resolve first as a single event (see rule 420). written “Protection from [quality]. or takes a special action. but remain in play.” Protection Protection is a static ability. A permanent with protection from everything has protection from each object regardless of that object’s characteristic values. you may choose to have target creature defending player controls block this creature this combat if able.7. if the stack is empty. spells and abilities on the stack. This process repeats until no more applicable state-based effects are generated. Then. teams rather than individual players have priority. or land. (See rule 420. Such Equipment or Fortifications become unattached from that permanent. “Protection. even though contents of those libraries and hands are hidden information. If a player has priority when he or she plays a spell. he or she receives priority afterward. If you do. or combat damage on top of the stack resolves or. untap that creature. (See rule 420. ability. If all players pass in succession. “Provoke. A permanent or player with protection can’t be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality.”) Any damage that would be dealt to a permanent or player with protection from sources having that quality is prevented. These steps repeat in order until no further state-based effects or triggered abilities are generated.” Public Information (Informal) Some information within a Magic game is known by all players.1b and 409. and cards in graveyards are all public information. the active player receives priority.” See rule 502. “Two-Headed Giant Variant. they resolve as a single event.”) A permanent with protection can’t be equipped by Equipment that has the stated quality or fortified by Fortifications that have the stated quality. Such Auras attached to the permanent or player with protection will be put into their owners’ graveyards as a state-based effect. if any new state-based effects have been generated.1f–h. the spell.” See rule 502.

77. that player can use any method of making a random choice (rolling dice. except for those that happen to be face down. return this card from your graveyard to your hand. See rule 419.55. remove it from combat. See also Hidden Zone. If it’s an attacking or blocking creature. In general. See rule 419.” rule 502. it must be active before the attempted destruction event. and phased-out are public zones.6c. “Regenerate [permanent]” means “The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn. in play. stack. removed from the game.12. ante. Reach Reach is a static ability. “Redirect” is still used informally to describe what these replacement effects do.” Random If a spell. Abilities that trigger from damage being dealt still trigger even if the permanent regenerates.” See rule 502. Discard this card: Put N +1/+1 counters on target creature. without changing the source or kind of damage.” and rule 502. “Rampage N” means “When this creature becomes blocked. “Reach. “Flying. ability. See rule 309. you may pay [cost]. and so on). that object is not considered “played.Public Zone Public zones are zones in which all players can see the cards. or effect requires a player to choose something at random.” Rampage Rampage is a triggered ability. “Reinforce N—[cost]” means “[Cost].6b.” Because it’s a replacement effect.” Range of Influence See Limited Range of Influence. “Declare Blockers Step. “Recover [cost]” means “When a creature is put into your graveyard from play.70. ability. “Recover. “Rampage. A creature with reach can block an attacking creature with flying. The outcome must be truly random. cards that were printed with the term “redirect” now create replacement effects that modify where the damage will be dealt. Recover Recover is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with recover is in a player’s graveyard. Regenerate Regeneration is a destruction-replacement effect.4. “Reinforce. Put into Play If an effect instructs a player to put an object into play. or combat-damage assignment.” . flipping a coin. instead remove all damage from it and tap it. Reinforce Reinforce is an activated ability that functions only while the card with reinforce is in a player’s hand. it gets +N/+N until end of turn for each creature blocking it beyond the first. remove this card from the game.” See rule 502. If you do.” Redirect (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the term “redirect” to describe the act of dealing damage to a different player or creature than originally specified by a spell.” See rule 502. Graveyard. Otherwise.

“Replicate. “Replicate [cost]” means “As an additional cost to play this spell. if an effect specifically removes it from combat. if a replicate cost was paid for it.1f–h.” Replacement Effect A replacement effect is a kind of continuous effect that “watches” for a specified event and replaces it with a different one.” Replicate Replicate is a keyword that represents two abilities. See rule 306. Reminder text is text that is italicized and in parentheses in the text box of a card.4 and rule 310.1b and 409. “Replacement and Prevention Effects. A planeswalker that’s removed from combat stops being attacked. it’s dealt as previously assigned to the fullest extent possible. If the spell has any targets. if its controller changes. it will resolve normally. The effect that removed the card may specify a way for it to return. copy it for each time its replicate cost was paid. rather than waiting for the earlier spell or ability to resolve first. This text provides a summary of the game rule or clarifies what the card does.2. See rule 207. “Legal Attacks and Blocks. its controller carries out the instructions printed on the card. See rule 502. A creature that’s removed from combat stops being an attacking. you may choose new targets for any number of the copies. When combat damage resolves. Some objects use the expression “set aside” for situations in which a card removed from the game can return to another zone. “Resolving Spells and Abilities.7. blocked. Response (Informal) A player can choose to play an instant spell or activated ability when something else is already on the stack. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.” Requirement A requirement to attack or block is any effect that forces one or more creatures to attack or block. See rule 413. “Timing of Spells and Abilities.” Paying a spell’s replicate cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. but it isn’t itself considered rules text. in the order written. Removed from the Game A card removed from the game is put into the removed-from-the-game zone. See rule 500.6b) or stops being a creature. you may pay [cost] any number of times” and “When you play this spell. Removed from Combat A permanent is removed from combat if it leaves play.Reminder Text Reminder text appears after a keyword ability printed on a card and on cards that might otherwise be commonly misunderstood. See rule 419. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. or if it’s an attacking or blocking creature that regenerates (see rule 419. See rule 217.” Resolve When a spell or ability on top of the stack resolves. if combat damage assigned to or by that permanent is already on the stack. blocking.” Respond.” . All attacks and blocks must still be legal. and/or unblocked creature.52. if it’s a planeswalker that’s being attacked and stops being a planeswalker. However.4a. “Removed from the Game. See rule 408. The spell or ability is said to be played “in response to” the earlier spell or ability. A permanent that’s removed from combat can’t assign combat damage or have combat damage assigned to it.

if there are fewer than N cards in your library.” Playing a spell using its retrace ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. and put the rest on top of your library in any order.56. Changing an object’s rules text changes the object’s properties. If you reveal cards from your library this way.” Retrace Retrace is a static ability that functions while an instant or sorcery card with retrace is in a player’s graveyard. and some way to clearly track life totals. Each player still needs small items to represent any tokens and counters. put any number of them on the bottom of your library in any order. such as card type or color. “Scry.” See rule 502. you may reveal the top N cards of your library.1f–h. See rule 100. so regeneration or other effects that replace destruction can’t affect it. its controller moves it from the in-play zone directly to its owner’s graveyard. All attacks and blocks must still be legal. If a one-shot effect reveals a card. See rule 501. or. however.1b and 409.Restriction A restriction on attacking or blocking is any effect that could prevent a creature from attacking or blocking. then put all revealed cards not played this way on the bottom of your library in any order.8. Ripple Ripple is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with ripple is on the stack. you may play any of those cards with the same name as this spell without paying their mana costs.” Sealed Deck For sealed deck or draft play. If the cost to play a spell or ability includes revealing a card. you may reveal all the cards in your library. if you do choose to find cards. the card remains revealed from the time the spell or ability is announced until it leaves the stack. you aren’t required to find some or all of those cards even if they’re present. “Ripple N” means “When you play this spell.” Rules Text An object’s rules text defines many of that object’s properties.3. and a player may use as many duplicates of a card as he or she has. Search If you’re required to search a zone not revealed to all players for cards of a given quality. If an effect instructs a player to sacrifice a permanent that he or she doesn’t control. or something that’s a permanent he or she doesn’t control. only forty cards are required in a deck. “Ripple. Sacrificing a permanent doesn’t destroy it. A player can’t sacrifice something that isn’t a permanent. nothing happens. "“Retrace” means “You may play this card from your graveyard by discarding a land card as an additional cost to play it. “Legal Attacks and Blocks. Reveal To reveal an object is to show that object to all players. See rule 500. the card is returned to its former state after all players have seen it. you must . Sacrifice To sacrifice a permanent. Scry To “scry N” means to look at the top N cards of your library.

you are still considered to have searched the zone. Anything scheduled for the “next” occurrence of something waits for the first occurrence that isn’t skipped. Skip To skip an event. step. “Shroud. Set Aside To set aside a card is to remove it from the game. “Skip [something]” is the same as “Instead of doing [something]. Shadow Shadow is an evasion ability. See rule 419. . or turn won’t happen. After a player shuffles a deck. but if an effect causes you to search your library for three cards and it contains at least three.” Shroud Shroud is a static ability. phase. Even if you don’t find any cards.reveal those cards to all players. or turn is to proceed past it as though it didn’t exist. you can’t choose fewer than three. or turn has started. If two effects each cause a player to skip his or her next occurrence. Example: If an effect causes you to search a player’s library for all duplicates of a particular card and remove them from the game. one effect will be satisfied in skipping the first occurrence. Once a step. however. See also Removed from the Game.” See rule 502. each opponent has the option to shuffle or cut that pile. and the team loses if its life total reaches 0.6f. See rule 606. “Two-Headed Giant Variant. Each two-player team’s life total starts at 30. the effect will specify some condition that allows the set-aside card to return to the game. library.” See rule 300. while the other will remain until another occurrence can be skipped. and attacking creatures without shadow can’t be blocked by creatures with shadow.1. The result is applied to the team’s shared life total. or pile is to make the order of that deck. you may choose to leave some of them alone.” you must find that many cards (or as many as possible). Anything scheduled for a skipped step. Damage. “Replacement and Prevention Effects. Attacking creatures with shadow can’t be blocked by creatures without shadow. or pile random. Skipping an event. loss of life.6e.” Shared Life Total The Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant uses a shared life total. See rule 419. that effect uses the team’s life total divided by the number of players on the team (rounded up) instead.” Shield Replacement and prevention effects act like “shields” around whatever they’re affecting. or turn is a replacement effect. If an effect needs to know the value of any individual player’s life total. phase. or pile he or she owns. and gaining life happens to each player individually. that player must skip the next two. If you’re simply searching for a quantity of cards. do nothing.36. “Shroud” means “This permanent or player can’t be the target of spells or abilities. library. library. See rule 502. These cards often aren’t revealed. step. such as “a card” or “three cards. See rule 101. “Shadow.9 and rule 419.8. phase. it can no longer be skipped—any skip effects will wait until the next occurrence.” Shuffle To shuffle a deck. phase.

Slivercycling See Typecycling. Some older cards were printed with the term “snow-covered” in their rules text. Effects that reduce the amount of generic mana you pay don’t affect {S} costs. A sorcery spell is put into its owner’s graveyard as part of its resolution. you may return target Spirit card with converted mana cost N or less from your graveyard to your hand. Snow-Covered (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the term “snow-covered” in their rules text. Sorcery subtypes are called spell types (see Spell Types).4e. A creature with snow landwalk is unblockable as long as the defending player controls at least one snow land of the specified subtype. ending continuous effects or stopping delayed triggered abilities. The special actions are playing a land.” Soulshift Soulshift is a triggered ability. “Sorceries.” See rule 205.6. Except for card names. See rule 402. all instances of “snow-covered” are now “snow. “Abilities. ignoring continuous effects. See rule 419. The active player may play sorceries during his or her main phase when the stack is empty.7.” Source of an Ability The source of an ability is the object that generated it.” and rule 200. See rule 502.” . See rule 408. and removing a card with suspend in your hand from the game.” it means a Forest with the snow supertype. “Actions That Don’t Use the Stack.4e.7. a spell on the stack (including one that creates a permanent). A source doesn’t need to be capable of dealing damage to be a legal choice. he or she may choose a permanent. even if the creature is no longer in play or is no longer a creature).” Sorcery Sorcery is a card type. If an effect requires a player to choose a source of damage. mana. Source of Damage The source of damage is the object that dealt it.” and rule 205. Snow Landwalk Snow landwalk is a special form of landwalk. “Sources of Damage.” it means a permanent with the snow supertype. Snow Snow is a supertype. all instances of “snow-covered” are now “snow. turning a face-down creature face up.” Special Action Special actions don’t use the stack. When a card refers to a “snow Forest.8. or any object referred to by an object on the stack (including a creature that assigned combat damage on the stack. When a card refers to a “snow permanent.1i and rule 408.2. Except for card names. and so on. See rule 212. “Landwalk. or colorless. This is a generic mana cost that can be paid with any color or. Snow Mana The snow mana symbol {S} represents a cost that can be paid with one mana produced by a snow permanent. “Soulshift N” means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play.

subtypes. except when they’re spells on the stack. A copy of a spell is also a spell. etc. The spell has the characteristics of the main spell. not the card from which the text was copied.1b and 409. you must name all of a split card’s names. it’s removed from the game. See rule 213. supertypes. The instructions on the main spell have to be followed first. even if it has no card associated with it. An effect that performs a positive comparison or a relative comparison involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack gets only one answer. reveal them all at once and choose the order in which their instructions will be followed.” Paying a card’s splice cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.Spell A nonland card becomes a spell when it’s put on the stack and remains a spell until it’s countered. full-size Magic card back. The spell doesn’t gain any other characteristics (name. the other side is ignored completely. See rule 505. Splice Splice is a static ability that functions while a card is in your hand. is as follows: Arcane.1f–h. This answer is “yes” if performing the comparable positive comparison would return a “no” answer.) for that card’s instructions. They always have both sets. An effect that performs a negative comparison involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack also gets only one answer. or it otherwise leaves the stack. and so on) and two converted mana costs. updated through the Alara Reborn set. or it resolves). A split card is a multicolored card on the stack only if the half that’s been played is multicolored. color. two mana costs. you announce which side you’re playing. Choose targets for the added text normally (see rule 409. If an effect tells you to name a card. Split cards have two sets of characteristics (two names. “Spells. You can’t splice any one card onto the same spell more than once. . If you’re splicing more than one card onto a spell. The back of a split card is the normal. The spell loses any splice changes once it leaves the stack (for example. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Instant — Arcane.” If a split card’s two mana costs have different colors of mana in them.” These subtypes are also called spell types. etc. An effect that asks for a split card’s characteristic while it’s in a zone other than the stack gets both answers. This answer is “yes” if either side of those split cards would return a “yes” answer if compared individually. Split Cards Split cards have two card faces on a single card.1d).” and rule 401. plus the text boxes of each of the spliced cards.) of the spliced cards. “Spells on the Stack. You can’t choose to use a splice ability if you can’t make the required choices (targets. Text copied onto the spell that refers to a card by name refers to the spell on the stack. “Split Cards. If you do. mana cost. “Splice onto [subtype] [cost]” means “You may reveal this card from your hand as you play a [subtype] spell. When you play a split card. it resolves. While it’s on the stack. copy this card’s text box onto that spell and pay [cost] as an additional cost to play that spell. Note that a spell with one or more targets will be countered if all of its targets are illegal on resolution. when it’s countered. An object has the chosen name if it has at least one of the two names chosen this way. The list of spell types. it’s a multicolored card while it’s not on the stack.” Spell Type Instants and sorceries share the same set of subtypes. card types.

or combat damage on top of the stack resolves and the active player receives priority again.58. See rule 217. put a copy of it onto the stack for each other spell that was played before it this turn.6. “State-Based Effects.” State Triggers State triggers are triggered abilities that watch for a game state rather than an event and trigger as soon as the game state matches the condition. See rule 420. or has otherwise left the stack. Whenever a player would receive priority.” and rule 408. “Split Second. Static Ability Static abilities do something all the time rather than being played at specific times. ability. Permanents come into play untapped. See section 3. “Timing. and face up unless a spell or ability says otherwise. Each permanent always has one of these values for each of these categories. has been countered. “Stack. Status is not a characteristic.30. Static abilities create continuous effects. “Split second” means “As long as this spell is on the stack.” See rule 502. “Subgames. See rule 410. though it may affect a permanent’s characteristics. Whenever all players pass in succession. “Storm.” Storm Storm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. See rule 412.” Status A permanent’s status is its physical state. “Turn Structure. Priority. Once a state trigger has triggered.Split Second Split second is a static ability that functions only while the spell with split second is on the stack. “Handling Static Abilities. There are three status categories.” Stack A spell or ability goes on top of the stack when it’s played or put onto the stack. each of which has two possible values: tapped/untapped. See rule 506. or as long as the object with the ability remains in the appropriate zone.” Subgame Some cards allow players to play a Magic subgame. players can’t play other spells or abilities that aren’t mana abilities. you may choose new targets for any of the copies. Step Some phases of the turn are further subdivided into steps. Certain older cards have received errata . flipped/unflipped. A “subgame” is the game created by the card’s effect. unflipped. If the spell has any targets. the spell.” See rule 502. Combat-damage assignments also go on top of the stack as though they were a single object.” State-Based Effects State-based effects continually “watch” the game for a particular state.1. “Storm” means “When you play this spell. and face up/face down. and the Stack.11.” Substance Substance is a static ability with no effect. which are active as long as the permanent with the ability remains in play and has the ability. it won’t trigger again until the ability it created has resolved. state-based effects are checked and applied.

Subtype A card can have one or more subtypes printed on its type line. Sunburst Sunburst is a static ability that functions as an object is coming into play from the stack. each subtype is correlated to its appropriate type. “Subtypes. All “Summon [creature type]” cards should be read as “Creature — [creature type]. “Card Type. these subtypes are called spell types. “Supertypes. lands. Supertype. snow. any ability that’s written as triggering when a spell is “successfully cast” should be read as triggering when the spell is played. If a card with multiple types has one or more subtypes.” Successfully Cast (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the term “successfully cast. Changing an object’s supertype won’t change its card type or subtype.” In general. and world. Summon (Obsolete) Older creature cards were printed with “Summon [creature type]” on their type lines. Suspend Suspend is a keyword that represents three abilities.” and rule 212. Changing an object’s card type or subtype won’t change its supertype. it comes into play with a charge counter on it for each color of mana spent to play it. legendary. these subtypes are called creature types. Subtypes are always single words and are listed after a long dash. See rule 212. “Sunburst. “Card Type. it comes into play with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to play it.” Supertype A card can have one or more “supertypes. and Subtype.that give them substance for a brief period of time.” The list of supertypes.4. any supertypes it has are kept. use the Oracle card reference to determine their current creature types. is as follows: basic. The first is a static ability that . and Subtype. See also Haste. and planeswalkers each have their own unique set of possible subtypes.” See rule 502. Instants and sorceries share their lists of subtypes. If an object’s card types or subtypes change.3f. When an object gains or loses a supertype. Summoning Sickness (Informal) The term “summoning sickness” is an informal term which describes a creature’s inability to attack or to use activated abilities that include the tap symbol or the untap symbol when it has come under a player’s control since the beginning of that player’s most recent turn. If this object is coming into play from the stack and isn’t coming into play as a creature. Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Supertype. enchantments. See rule 205. “Sunburst” means “If this object is coming into play from the stack as a creature. updated through the Alara Reborn set.37.” An object’s supertype is independent of its card type and subtype. although they may not be relevant to the new card type. See rule 205. Objects may have multiple subtypes.3.” Many of these cards’ creature types have also been updated. it retains any other supertypes it had. See rule 212. Creatures and tribals also share their lists of subtypes.” These are printed directly before its card types. Artifacts.

3. Permanents untap during their controllers’ untap steps. Aura spells are targeted. or zone. See also Status. player. (If an activated or triggered ability of an instant or sorcery uses the word target.” and “When the last time counter is removed from this card. and Untapped. Tap. or zone. Untap. play it without paying its mana cost if able.4. . it remains removed from the game. has suspend. if it’s removed from the game.” where the “something” is a phrase that describes an object. They target the object or player they will enchant. This action doesn’t use the stack. The tap symbol ({T} in these rules) in an activation cost means “Tap this permanent”—a permanent that’s already tapped can’t be tapped again to pay the cost. Creatures that haven’t been under a player’s control continuously since the beginning of his or her most recent turn can’t use any ability of theirs with the tap symbol in the cost. that ability is targeted. The second and third are triggered abilities that function in the removed-from-the-game zone.” An instant or sorcery is targeted if the text that will be followed when it resolves uses the phrase “target [something]. Tapping permanents shows that they’ve been used. appears in a spell or ability. and their target is specified by their “enchant” abilities. “Suspend N— [cost]” means “If you could play this card from your hand. See rule 104. If you play a creature spell this way. Swampcycling See Typecycling.” and “At the beginning of your upkeep.” Suspended A card is “suspended” if it’s in the removed-from-the-game zone.6h. If you can’t. Tapped A permanent that’s turned sideways is tapped. The choice of a spell or ability’s targets is made when the spell or ability is played. the controller of the spell or ability chooses something that matches whatever follows that word.) An activated or triggered ability is targeted if it uses the phrase “target [something]. Swampwalk See Landwalk. you may pay [cost] and remove it from the game with N time counters on it. player. Any land with the land type Swamp has the ability “{T}: Add {B} to your mana pool. and has a time counter on it. player. Tap To tap a permanent is to turn it sideways.) An Aura permanent doesn’t target anything. but the spell is not. it gains haste until you lose control of the spell or the permanent it becomes.1b and 409. See rule 415.1f–h. “Targeted Spells and Abilities.59. or zone. See rule 502.” Playing a spell as an effect of its suspend ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409. remove a time counter from it. Swamp “Swamp” is one of the five basic land types. (See rule 415.” where [something] is a phrase that describes an object. “Suspend.” where the “something” is a phrase that describes an object.functions while the card with suspend is in a player’s hand. if this card is suspended. Target Whenever the phrase “target [something].” See rule 212.

The deploy creatures option isn’t normally used in the Teams variant. a Magic color word being used as a color word. “Teams Variant.” Text Box The text box is printed below the illustration on a Magic card and contains rules text that defines the card’s abilities. such as a card name. or Fortification becomes attached to an object or player. The Teams variant uses the following default options: (a) The recommended range of influence is 2 (see rule 601) and (b) exactly one of the attack left. It is now an ability word and has no rules meaning. basic land type. Tie If an effect could result in a tie. or zone more than once isn’t a “spell with a single target. “Text-Changing Effects.3. Updated wordings are available in the Oracle card reference. and the player’s opponents are all players not on his or her team. See rule 609. See . A player can’t attack opponents who aren’t seated next to him or her. Teammate In a multiplayer game between teams. Equipment. See rule 418. the active player determines their timestamp order at the time they enter that zone. players win or lose as a group rather than as individuals. All cards printed with the threshold keyword have received errata. even if that proper noun contains a word or a series of letters that is the same as a Magic color word. The Two-Headed Giant (see rule 606). (3) Permanents that phase in keep the same timestamps they had when they phased out. Timestamp Order An object’s timestamp is the time it entered the zone it’s currently in. The same is true for Fortification spells and Fortification permanents. reminder text. and attack multiple players options must be used (see rules 604 and 602). See rule 418. and Teams multiplayer variants (see rule 609) all use teams. a player’s teammates are the other players on his or her team.) An Equipment or a Fortification may have abilities which are targeted. and flavor text.” Text-Changing Effect An effect that changes the text of an object changes only words that are used in the correct way (for example. The effect can’t change a proper noun. Players are seated so that no one is next to a teammate and each team is equally spaced out. Emperor (see rule 607). See rule 207.” Threshold Threshold used to be a keyword ability. the text of the spell or ability that created the effect will specify what to do in the event of a tie. with three exceptions: (1) If two or more objects enter a zone simultaneously. Teams The Teams multiplayer variant involves two or more teams of equal size. Equipment. The Magic game has no default for ties. attack right. a land type word used as a land type.6. (2) Whenever an Aura. or creature type. A spell that targets the same object.” Team In a multiplayer game between teams. or Fortification receives a new timestamp. A spell or ability on the stack can’t target itself. or a creature type word used as a creature type). player. “Text Box.5e. (See rule 415. the Aura.Neither Equipment spells nor Equipment permanents are targeted.

The number after the slash printed on the lower right corner of a creature card is its toughness.com to find tournaments in your area. though an alternative to rotation might be needed to distinguish their status. Tournament A tournament is an organized event where players compete against other players to win prizes. The object has a characteristic-defining ability that sets its toughness according to some stated condition. In general. See rule 409. Total Casting Cost (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the term “total casting cost” to describe the converted mana cost of a spell. Sacrifice this permanent: Search your library for a creature card with the same converted mana cost as this permanent and put it into play. See rule 208. “Transfigure. even outside the game.wizards. Continuous effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability receive a timestamp at the time they’re created.1f. “Trample. Then shuffle your library. Trample Trample is a static ability modifying the combat damage step of the combat phase.also Depend On. Token A token is a marker used to represent any permanent that isn’t represented by a card.9. “Transfigure [cost]” means “[Cost].” A creature that’s been dealt damage greater than or equal to its toughness (and greater than 0) has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed. even if it’s a card with a toughness printed on it (such as a Licid that’s become an Aura). This icon has no effect on game play. cards that were printed with the term “total casting cost” now use the term “converted mana cost.6. It lets an attacking creature “trample over” blocking creatures and assign part of its combat damage to the player or planeswalker it’s attacking. just select “Events” and type in the name of your city. “Tokens. The purpose of the icon is to make those cards stand out when they’re in a graveyard. Continuous effects generated by static abilities have the same timestamp as the object that generated them. Use the Magic Locator at http://locator. plus all cost increases and minus all cost reductions. Some creature cards have toughness represented by * instead of a number. Tokens are created by effects. A noncreature permanent has no toughness. Tokens can be tapped and untapped just like cards.” Transfigure Transfigure is an activated ability. see rule 420. See rule 104. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery” See rule 502. Toughness Toughness is a characteristic that only creatures have. See rule 502.71. This ability functions everywhere. “Power/Toughness. This is a state-based effect. activation cost.” Tombstone Icon A tombstone icon appears to the left of the name of many Odyssey block cards with abilities that are relevant in a player’s graveyard.” .” Total Cost The total cost of a spell or activated ability is the mana cost. See rule 216. or alternative cost.

“Transmute [cost]” means “[Cost]. See rule 404. Abilities don’t have types.” The phrase containing one of these words is the trigger condition. Playing and resolving a tribal card follows the rules for playing and resolving a card of the other card type. “Card Type.” Type-Changing Effect A type-changing effect is an effect that changes the card type.” 2.” “whenever.” Trigger. Each team’s creatures also attack the other team rather than individual players.” Two-Headed Giant The Two-Headed Giant variant has two unique features. “Grand Melee Variant. tokens.48. See rule 404.” or “at. “Type Line. and spells all have types. which defines the trigger event. “Two-Headed Giant Variant. and/or supertype of an object. if applicable) of a card is printed directly below the illustration. permanents. the ability goes on top of the stack the next time a player would receive priority and stays there until it’s countered. See rule 205. See rule 608. subtype. Supertype. The additional rules for the Two-Headed Giant variant explain how the timing of team turns works. and each team has takes turns rather than each player. The “type” of mana is its color.” Trigger Condition A triggered ability begins with the word “when. Each two-player team has a shared life total.” Tribal Tribal is a card type. which starts at 30 life.” Turn Marker The Grand Melee multiplayer variant allows multiple players to take turns at the same time.” See rule 502.” “whenever. See also Mana. “Card Type. reveal that card. See rule 205. Supertype. See rule 606. and/or supertype. Type Line The card type (and subtype and supertype. and Subtype.” or “at. “Tribals. Discard this card: Search your library for a card with the same converted mana cost as the discarded card. more broadly.” and rule 212. and Subtype. Each tribal card has another card type.” and rule 212. Then shuffle your library. these subtypes are called creature types. it resolves. “Triggered Abilities. It’s generated by a type-changing ability.” Type The word “type” has two meanings: 1. Moving turn markers keep track of which players are currently taking turns.” Whenever the trigger event occurs. . or lack thereof (for colorless mana). “Triggered Abilities. Cards. “Type Line. See rule 418. its card type. The set of tribal subtypes is the same as the set of creature subtypes. “Transmute. The “type” of an object is its card type or. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery.8.5a. subtype. Each turn marker represents both an active player’s turn and an individual stack. or it otherwise leaves the stack.Transmute Transmute is an activated ability that functions only while the card with transmute is in a player’s hand. See Creature Types and rule 212. Triggered Ability A triggered ability begins with the word “when. and put it into your hand.

Unblocked creatures don’t exist outside of the combat phase or before the declare blockers step. reveal it. “[Type]cycling [cost]” means “[Cost].” This type is usually a subtype (as in “mountaincycling”) but can be any card type. Equipment. or Fortification becomes unattached if it was attached to an object or player and then is not. If a permanent leaves play (unless it phases out) while an Aura. remove it from the game instead of putting it anywhere else. Spells or abilities may still cause it to become blocked.” no creature can legally block it. Equipment. including the Magic game. See rule 302. “Cycling. its controller changes. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery. or combination thereof (as in “basic landcycling”). “Declare Blockers Step.” . Untap Step The untap step is the first step of the beginning phase. Unblockable If an attacking creature “is unblockable.” Untap To untap a permanent is to rotate it back to the upright position. It remains an unblocked creature until an effect causes it to become blocked. subtype. “Unearth [cost]” means “[Cost]: Return this card from your graveyard to play. [do something].wizards.” Universal Tournament Rules The DCI Universal Tournament Rules (http://www. supertype.” Unearth Unearth is an activated ability that functions while the card is in a graveyard. Then shuffle your library. “Untap Step. it becomes unattached. All permanents controlled by the active player normally untap at this time. Creatures that haven’t been under a player’s control continuously since the beginning of his or her most recent turn can’t use any ability of theirs with the untap symbol in the cost.18. It gains haste.” See rule 502. If it would leave play. it’s removed from combat.” Unattach An Aura.5. Remove it from the game at end of turn. If an Aura. See rule 309. See rule 502. Unblocked A creature is unblocked if it’s attacking and no creature blocked it during the declare blockers step of the current combat phase. If you don’t. it stops being a creature. and put it into your hand. or Fortification becomes unattached. Equipment. The untap symbol ({Q} in these rules) in an activation cost means “Untap this permanent”—a permanent that’s already untapped can’t be untapped again to pay the cost. See rule 104. or Fortification is attached to it. or the combat phase ends. “Unearth. the Aura.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home) cover tournament play for all DCI-sanctioned games. Discard this card: Search your library for a [type] card.com/Magic/TCG/Events.84.Typecycling Typecycling is a variant of the cycling ability. Equipment.” This means the same thing as “You may [do something else]. Unless Some cards use the phrase “[Do something] unless you [do something else]. or Fortification leaves play while attached to an object.

” Wall Wall is a creature type with no particular rules meaning.” and “When the last time counter is removed from this permanent. If you don’t. “Wither. sacrifice it. remove a time counter from it. In the event of a tie for the shortest amount of time.60. World World is a supertype that normally applies to enchantments. “Upkeep Step. adjusting a player’s starting and maximum hand size and starting life total.Untapped A permanent that’s upright is untapped. Permanents untap during their controllers’ untap steps. Many older cards that referred to the Wall creature type also have errata.3g). See also Tap. See rule 303.” Vanguard and Avatars The Vanguard™ supplements consist of oversized placards and Magic Online® avatars that modify the game. and it can’t be affected by spells or abilities. Some cards have abilities that trigger at the beginning of the upkeep step. Upkeep Step The upkeep step is the second step of the beginning phase. Rather. A Vanguard placard or avatar is selected before the game begins. Many older cards with the Wall creature type have received errata so that they also have the defender ability. Win the Game A game immediately ends when a player wins. If two or more permanents have the supertype world.” These are normal triggered abilities—there are no special rules for them. “Vanishing.” An upkeep cost is usually written in the form “At the beginning of your upkeep. Vanishing Vanishing is a keyword that represents three abilities.80. you may [pay cost].14. Attacking doesn’t cause creatures with vigilance to tap. Tapping permanents shows that they’ve been used. See rule 102.” Vigilance Vigilance is a static ability that modifies the rules for the declare attackers step. such an ability is informally called an “upkeep cost” or an “upkeep effect. all except the one that has been a permanent with the world supertype for the shortest amount of time are put into their owners’ graveyards. sacrifice [this card]. A Vanguard placard or avatar has no color or types. See rule 502. all are put into their owners’ graveyards. This “world rule” is a state-based effect.” See rule 502. See .” Wizardcycling See Typecycling. if this permanent has a time counter on it. “Winning and Losing. and Untap.” Wither Damage dealt to a creature by a source with wither doesn’t stay on that creature (see rule 212. Tapped. See rule 502. “Vanishing N” means “This permanent comes into play with N time counters on it. it causes that many -1/-1 counters to be put on that creature. Updated wordings for all cards are available in the Oracle card reference.” “At the beginning of your upkeep. “Vigilance.

For a delayed triggered ability. The controller of that spell or ability doesn’t get to choose the value. If the object is unable to be found in the zone it went to. The most common types of zone-change triggers are comes-into-play triggers and leaves-play . unless it’s a delayed triggered ability. the value of X isn’t defined by the text of that spell. even if the value of X is defined somewhere within its text. If the value of X is defined by the text of that spell or ability. and an effect lets you play that spell without paying any cost that includes X. Zone A zone is any place that Magic cards can be during a game. For an activated ability. and the value of X isn’t defined by the text of that spell or ability. the {X} in its mana cost equals the announced value. then the only legal choice for X is 0. (See rule 409. then that’s the value of X while that spell or ability is on the stack. “Zones. this is the current controller of the object it’s on. This doesn’t apply to effects that only reduce a cost. such as a suspend cost or a morph cost. its would-be controller (if a player is attempting to play it). the value of {X} is treated as 0.”) While the spell or ability is on the stack. the part of the ability attempting to do something to the object will fail to do anything. this is the player who played the ability.” Zone-Change Triggers Trigger events that involve objects changing zones are called “zone-change triggers. the value of X is chosen by the player taking the special action as he or she pays that cost. Owner. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. If a cost associated with a special action. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. The permanent will still be a world permanent. If a card in any zone other than the stack has {X} in its mana cost. this doesn’t change its supertypes. See also Controller. X Many cards use the letter X as a placeholder for a number that needs to be determined.” Many abilities with zone-change triggers attempt to do something to that object after it changes zones. Y See X. these abilities look for the object in the zone that it moved to. the controller of the spell or ability chooses the value of X. and the value of X is defined by the text of that spell or ability.rule 420. All instances of X on an object have the same value. You. If the value of X isn’t defined. See rule 217. During resolution. If you’re playing a spell that has {X} in its mana cost.” If a spell or activated ability has a cost with an “{X}” in it. See rule 409. even if they reduce it to zero. this is the controller of the spell or ability that created it. If a world permanent’s card types or subtypes change. Note that the value of X may change while that spell or ability is on the stack. For a static ability. In other cases. If a spell or activated ability has a cost with an “{X}” in it. the controller of that spell or ability chooses and announces the value of X as part of playing the spell or ability. X appears in the text of a spell or ability but not in a mana cost or activation cost. then that’s the value of X while that spell or ability is on the stack. has an “{X}” in it. this is the controller of the object when the ability triggered. or its owner (if it has no controller). Your The words “you” and “your” on an object refer to the object’s controller. For a triggered ability. The controller of that spell or ability doesn’t get to choose the value.5.

See rule 410. .10.triggers.

Laurie Cheers. Skaff Elias. No. Donald X. Jeff Jordan. Pat. Wizards of the Coast. Magic: The Gathering. Skaff Elias. Vaccarino. Sheldon Menery.O. Beth Moursund. Mike Donais. Mark Rosewater. Michael Phoenix. These rules are current as of May 1. Elaine Chase. . Jim Lin. Thanks to all our project team members and the many others too numerous to mention who have contributed to this product. The mana symbols were designed by Christopher Rush. Stephen D’Angelo. Barry “Bit” Reich. and Elliott Segal. Robert Gutschera. P. Yonemura Kaoru. Mike Elliott.A. Ingo Warnke. Future Sight. Joel Mick. Mark L. U. Gottlieb The Magic: The Gathering game was designed by Richard Garfield. Oracle. Box 707. Portal Three Kingdoms. Vanguard. with contributions from Charlie Catiyes. ©1993–2009 Wizards.S. RE 37. Time Spiral. Collin Jackson. and other countries. Magic Online. Russell Linnemann. Don Felice.S. Lee Sharpe. DCI. Jim Lin. Thijs van Ommen. Steve Lord. John Carter.S. Bill Rose. Dave Pettey. and Bryan Zembruski Editing: Del Laugel Magic Rules Manager: Mark L.957. and Bill Rose. Magic. Tom Fontaine. Richard Garfield. Tom Wylie. Eli Shiffrin. 2009. Ravnica. William Jockusch. with contributions from Charlie Catiyes. and Alara Reborn are trademarks of Wizards of the Coast LLC in the U. David Sachs.Credits Magic: The Gathering Original Game Design: Richard Garfield Comprehensive Rules Design and Development: Paul Barclay. Brady Dommermuth. Published by Wizards of the Coast LLC. Henry Stern. Renton WA 98057-0707. Exodus. U. Dan Gray. Odyssey. Chris Page.A. Gottlieb. Dave DeLaney.

com/customerservice Wizards of the Coast LLC P.) 1-425-204-8069 (outside the U.uk All Other European Countries Wizards of the Coast p/a Hasbro Belgium NV/SA Industrialaan 1 1702 Groot-Bijgaarden BELGIUM Tel: +32.) U. Eire & South Africa Hasbro UK Ltd. Canada.277 Email: custserv@hasbro.be Visit our website: magicthegathering. U. Box 707 Renton WA 98057-0707 U.Questions? Contact the office nearest you.S. Tel: 1-800-324-6496 (within the U.S. NP19 4YD UK Tel: + 800 22 427276 Email: wizards@hasbro.co..O.wizards.70.K. Asia Pacific & Latin America www.O. Box 43 Newport.S. P.S.com .233..A.

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