Magic: The Gathering Comprehensive Rules

These rules are current as of May 1, 2009. Introduction This document is designed for people who’ve moved beyond the basics of the Magic: The Gathering® game. If you’re a beginning Magic™ player, you’ll probably find these rules intimidating. They’re intended to be the ultimate authority for the game, and you won’t usually need to refer to them except in specific cases or during competitive games. For casual play and most ordinary situations, you’ll find what you need in the Magic: The Gathering basic rulebook. You can download a copy of that rulebook from the Wizards of the Coast® Magic rules website at www.wizards.com/Magic/rules. If you’re sure this is where you want to be, keep reading. This document includes a series of numbered rules followed by a glossary. Many of the numbered rules are divided into subrules, and each separate rule and subrule of the game has its own number. The glossary defines many of the words and phrases used in these rules, along with a few concepts that don’t really fit anywhere among the numbered rules. So if you can’t find what you’re looking for, check the glossary. We at Wizards of the Coast recognize that no matter how detailed the rules, situations will arise in which the interaction of specific cards requires a precise answer. If you have questions, you can get the answers from us at www.wizards.com/customerservice. Additional contact information is on the last page of these rules.

In response to play issues and to keep these rules as current as possible, changes may have been made to this document since its publication. See the Wizards of the Coast website for the current version of the official rules. www.wizards.com/Magic/rules

Contents
1. The Game 100. General 101. Starting the Game 102. Winning and Losing 103. The Magic Golden Rules 104. Numbers and Symbols 2. Parts of the Game 200. General 201. Characteristics 202. Name 203. Mana Cost and Color 204. Illustration 205. Type Line 206. Expansion Symbol 207. Text Box 208. Power/Toughness 209. Loyalty 210. Information Below the Text Box 212. Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype 213. Spells 214. Permanents 215. Life 216. Tokens 217. Zones 3. Turn Structure 300. General 301. Beginning Phase 302. Untap Step 303. Upkeep Step 304. Draw Step 305. Main Phase 306. Combat Phase 307. Beginning of Combat Step 308. Declare Attackers Step 309. Declare Blockers Step 310. Combat Damage Step 311. End of Combat Step 312. End Phase 313. End of Turn Step 314. Cleanup Step 4. Spells, Abilities, and Effects 400. General 401. Spells on the Stack 402. Abilities 403. Activated Abilities 404. Triggered Abilities 405. Static Abilities 406. Mana Abilities 407. Linked Abilities 408. Timing of Spells and Abilities

409. 410. 411. 412. 413. 414. 415. 416. 417. 418. 419. 420. 421. 422. 423. 424.

Playing Spells and Activated Abilities Handling Triggered Abilities Playing Mana Abilities Handling Static Abilities Resolving Spells and Abilities Countering Spells and Abilities Targeted Spells and Abilities Effects One-Shot Effects Continuous Effects Replacement and Prevention Effects State-Based Effects Handling “Infinite” Loops Handling Illegal Actions Drawing a Card Costs

5. Additional Rules 500. Legal Attacks and Blocks 501. Keyword Actions 502. Keyword Abilities 503. Copying Objects 504. Face-Down Spells and Permanents 505. Split Cards 506. Subgames 507. Controlling Another Player’s Turn 508. Flip Cards 509. Ending the Turn 510. Status 511. Flipping a Coin 6. Multiplayer Rules 600. General 601. Limited Range of Influence Option 602. Attack Multiple Players Option 603. Deploy Creatures Option 604. Attack Left and Attack Right Options 605. Free-for-All Variant 606. Two-Headed Giant Variant 607. Emperor Variant 608. Grand Melee Variant 609. Teams Variant Glossary Credits Questions?

See section 6. They can be found at http://www. only forty cards are required in a deck.4. each player needs his or her own deck of at least sixty cards.1a A two-player game is a game that begins with only two players.2. each player shuffles his or her deck so that the cards are in a random order.3. In a match of several games.). 101. First. rolling dice.1b A multiplayer game is a game that begins with more than two players.1. 100. each player sets his or her life total to 20 and draws a hand of seven cards. and a player may use as many duplicates of a card as he or she has.aspx? x=dci/doccenter/home. 101. The Game 100. 100. and some way to clearly track life totals. A player who is dissatisfied with his or her initial hand may mulligan. Each player still needs small items to represent any tokens and counters. 101. He or she may repeat this process as many times as desired.wizards.3. that player shuffles his or her hand back into the deck and then draws a new hand of six cards. the loser of the previous game decides who will take the first turn. “Multiplayer Rules. 100. These Magic rules apply to any Magic game with two or more players. For sealed deck or draft play. If the previous game was a draw.1.5. A constructed deck can have any number of basic land cards and no more than four of any card with a particular English name other than basic land cards. There is no maximum deck size. the person who determined who would take the first turn in the previous game decides. See the most current Magic: The Gathering DCI® Floor Rules for more information.1. 100. small items to represent any tokens and counters. 101. Most Magic tournaments have special rules (not included here) and may limit the use of some cards. General 100. 100. each team starts with a shared life total of 30 instead. In constructed play. 101. including barring all cards from some older sets. the starting player takes any mulligans.” 100. including two-player games and multiplayer games. Once the starting player has been determined. the players determine who chooses which player goes first using any mutually agreeable method (flipping a coin. To take a mulligan. At the start of a game.2.4. Starting the Game 101. etc.3a In a Two-Headed Giant game. After the decks have been shuffled. drawing one fewer . and some way to clearly track life totals.com/Magic/TCG/Events. The players’ decks become their libraries. Each player may then shuffle his or her opponents’ decks.

and Clare shuffles her hand into her deck and draws six cards. A player can’t take any mulligans once he or she has decided to keep an opening hand. until the hand size reaches zero cards. then all players who chose to do so take their mulligans at the same time. the other team decides whether to take mulligans. if any cards in the starting player’s hand allow that player to begin the game with those cards in play. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal. each player on that team decides whether or not to take a mulligan. Bob’s hand becomes his opening hand. “Draw Step”) of his or her first turn. .4a In a multiplayer game. with some modifications. Clare decides to take another mulligan. in turn order. That player can’t take any more mulligans. Once each player on the starting team decides to keep an opening hand. Then each other player (in turn order) may take any number of mulligans. There are several ways to win the game.2a A player still in the game wins the game if all of that player’s opponents have lost the game. They each draw seven cards. A game ends immediately when either a player wins or the game is a draw. After reviewing each other’s hands. 101. 101. She decides to keep her hand of six cards and that becomes her opening hand. 102. may do the same. 101. Example: Bob and Clare are the starting team in a Two-Headed Giant game. 101. the player who plays first skips the draw step (see rule 304. 101. he or she may put any or all of them into play.2. The first time a player takes a mulligan. 101. 102. he or she draws a new hand of seven cards rather than six cards. For a team to take a mulligan. no player skips the draw step of his or her first turn.1. Then each other player.5.6a In a two-player game. the other team may take mulligans. After each player on that team who took a mulligan looks at his or her new hand. both Bob and Clare decide to mulligan. In all other multiplayer games. First. Once all players have kept their opening hands. 102.6. The starting player takes his or her first turn. but his or her teammate may.4b The Two-Headed Giant variant uses the multiplayer mulligan rule. but he decides to keep it. Each shuffles his or her hand into his or her deck and draws seven cards.) Once a player has decided to keep a hand. he or she draws a new hand of seven cards. the first time a player takes a mulligan. the team who plays first skips the draw step of their first turn. Winning and Losing 102. those cards become his or her opening hand. Once the starting player has decided to keep a hand. Then only Clare has the option to mulligan. After that.card each time. those cards become his or her opening hand. (Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal. the team repeats the process. the starting team takes any mulligans.6b In a Two-Headed Giant game. Clare isn’t sure about Bob’s new hand.

The Magic Golden Rules 103.) 102. Likewise. 103. the card takes precedence. 102.3c When a player is required to draw more cards than are left in his or her library.102. and then loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. There are several ways to draw the game.2c In a multiplayer game between teams. he or she draws the remaining cards. He or she loses the game. (In certain multiplayer games. 102.3g.” repeating a sequence of events with no way to stop. he or she loses the game. 102.3d If a player has ten or more poison counters.2b An effect may state that a player wins the game.3a A player can concede the game at any time.3e If a player would both win and lose simultaneously. (This is a state-based effect. a team with at least one player still in the game wins the game if all other teams have lost the game. Whenever a card’s text directly contradicts these rules. this may not cause the game to end. The card overrides only the rule that applies to that specific situation.4a If all the players remaining in a game lose simultaneously.3f In a multiplayer game between teams. 102. he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. 102. the game is a draw if all remaining teams lose at once. 102. 102.1. 102. The only exception is that a player can concede the game at any time . Loops that contain an optional action don’t result in a draw.3b If a player’s life total is 0 or less. even if one or more of those players had previously lost that game.) 102. 102.5.) 102. See rule 420. an effect that states that a player wins the game instead causes all of that player’s opponents within his or her range of influence to lose the game. he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. the game is a draw. a team loses the game if all players on that team have lost. See rule 420.4c In a multiplayer game between teams. he or she loses. see rule 600.) 102. 102. see rule 102.4. he or she leaves the game. (This is a state-based effect.3g In a multiplayer game using the limited range of influence option. There are several ways to lose the game. The multiplayer rules handle what happens when a player leaves the game.4b If the game somehow enters a “loop.3. See rule 420. If a player loses the game. the game is a draw. if a player leaves the game. Each player on the winning team wins the game.4. A player who concedes leaves the game immediately. (This is a state-based effect.

(see rule 102.3a). 103.2. When a rule or effect says something can happen and another effect says it can’t, the “can’t” effect wins. For example, if one effect reads “You may play an additional land this turn” and another reads “You can’t play land cards this turn,” the effect that keeps you from playing lands wins out. Note that adding abilities to objects and removing abilities from objects don’t fall under this rule; see rule 402.9. 103.3. If an instruction requires taking an impossible action, it’s ignored. (In many cases the card will specify consequences for this; if it doesn’t, there’s no effect.) 103.4. If multiple players would make choices and/or take actions at the same time, the active player (the player whose turn it is) makes any choices required, then the next player in turn order (usually the player seated to the active player’s left) makes any choices required, followed by the remaining nonactive players in turn order. Then the actions happen simultaneously. This rule is often referred to as the “Active Player, Nonactive Player (APNAP) order” rule. Example: A card reads “Each player sacrifices a creature.” First, the active player chooses a creature he or she controls. Then each of the nonactive players chooses a creature he or she controls. Then all creatures are sacrificed simultaneously. 103.4a If an effect has each player choose a card in a hidden zone, such as his or her hand or library, those cards may remain face down as they’re chosen. However, each player must clearly indicate which face-down card he or she is choosing. 103.4b A player knows the choices made by the previous players when he or she makes his or her choice, except as specified in 103.4a. 103.4c If a player would make more than one choice at the same time, the player makes the choices in the order written, or in the order he or she chooses if the choices aren’t ordered. 104. Numbers and Symbols 104.1. The Magic game uses only integers. 104.1a You can’t choose a fractional number, deal fractional damage, gain fractional life, and so on. If a spell or ability could generate a fractional number, the spell or ability will tell you whether to round up or down. 104.1b Most of the time, the Magic game uses only positive numbers. You can’t choose a negative number, deal negative damage, gain negative life, and so on. However, it’s possible for a game value, such as a creature’s power, to be less than zero. If a calculation or comparison that would determine the result of an effect needs to use a negative value, it does so. If such a calculation yields a negative number, zero is used instead, unless that effect sets a player’s life total to a specific value, sets a creature’s power or toughness to a specific value, or otherwise modifies a creature’s power or toughness. Example: If a 3/4 creature gets -5/-0, it’s a -2/4 creature. It assigns 0

damage in combat. Its total power and toughness is 2. You’d have to give it +3/+0 to raise its power to 1. Example: Viridian Joiner is a 1/2 creature that says “{T}: Add an amount of {G} to your mana pool equal to Viridian Joiner’s power.” An effect gives it -2/-0, then its ability is activated. The ability adds no mana to your mana pool. 104.2. If anything needs to use a number that can’t be determined, either as a result or in a calculation, it uses 0 instead. 104.3. The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, and {X}; the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on; the hybrid symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}; the monocolored hybrid symbols {2/W}, {2/U}, {2/B}, {2/R}, and {2/G}; and the snow symbol {S}. 104.3a Each of the colored mana symbols represents one colored mana: {W} is white, {U} blue, {B} black, {R} red, and {G} green. 104.3b Numeral symbols (such as {1}) are generic mana costs and represent an amount of mana that can be paid with any color of, or colorless, mana. 104.3c The symbol {X} represents an unspecified amount of mana. When playing a spell or activated ability with {X} in its cost, its controller decides the value of that variable. 104.3d Numeral symbols (such as {1}) and variable symbols (such as {X}) can also represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or ability that reads “add [mana symbol] to your mana pool” or something similar. 104.3e The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder when a spell or activated ability costs nothing to play. A spell or ability whose cost is {0} must still be played the same way as one with a cost greater than zero; it won’t play itself automatically. 104.3f Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid in one of two ways, as represented by the two halves of the hybrid mana symbol. A hybrid symbol such as {W/U} be paid with either white or blue mana, and a monocolored hybrid symbol such as {2/B} can be paid with either one black mana or two mana of any color of, or colorless, mana. A hybrid mana symbol is all of its component colors. Example: {G/W}{G/W} can be paid by spending {G}{G}, {G}{W}, or {W}{W}. 104.3g If an effect would add mana represented by a hybrid mana symbol to a player’s mana pool, that player chooses one half of that symbol. If a colored half is chosen, one mana of that color is added to that player’s mana pool. If a colorless half is chosen, an amount of colorless mana represented by that half’s number is added to that player’s mana pool. 104.3h If a cost would be reduced by an amount of mana represented by a hybrid mana symbol, the player paying that cost chooses one half of that symbol at the time the cost reduction is applied (see rule 409.1f). If a colored half is chosen, the cost is reduced by one mana of that color (or, if the cost can’t be reduced by one mana of that color, the cost is reduced by

one generic mana). If a colorless half is chosen, the cost is reduced by an amount of generic mana equal to that half’s number. 104.3i The snow mana symbol {S} represents a cost that can be paid with one mana produced by a snow permanent. This is a generic mana cost that can be paid with any color of, or colorless, mana. Effects that reduce the amount of generic mana you pay don’t affect {S} costs. 104.4. The tap symbol is {T}. The tap symbol in an activation cost means “Tap this permanent.” A permanent that’s already tapped can’t be tapped again to pay the cost. Creatures that haven’t been under a player’s control continuously since the beginning of his or her most recent turn can’t use any ability with the tap symbol in the cost. See rule 212.3f. 104.5. The untap symbol is {Q}. The untap symbol in an activation cost means “Untap this permanent.” A permanent that’s already untapped can’t be untapped again to pay the cost. Creatures that haven’t been under a player’s control continuously since the beginning of his or her most recent turn can’t use any ability with the untap symbol in the cost. See rule 212.3f. 104.6. A tombstone icon appears to the left of the name of many Odyssey™ block cards with abilities that are relevant in a player’s graveyard. The purpose of the icon is to make those cards stand out when they’re in a graveyard. This icon has no effect on game play. 104.7. A type icon appears in the upper left corner of each card from the Future Sight® set printed with an alternate “timeshifted” frame. If the card has a single card type, this icon indicates what it is: claw marks for creature, a flame for sorcery, a lightning bolt for instant, a sunrise for enchantment, a chalice for artifact, and a pair of mountain peaks for land. If the card has multiple card types, that’s indicated by a black and white cross. This icon has no effect on game play. 104.8. Each activated ability of a planeswalker has an arrow-shaped loyalty symbol in its cost. Positive loyalty symbols point upward and feature a plus sign followed by a number or an X. Negative loyalty symbols point downward and feature a minus sign followed by a number or an X. [+N] means “Put N loyalty counters on this permanent,” and [-N] means “Remove N loyalty counters from this permanent.”

and Effects.3. A card’s Oracle text can be found using the Gatherer card database at http://gatherer.6. or copy of a spell or card. The controller of a triggered ability is the player who controlled the ability’s source when it triggered. 200. A token is a marker used to represent any permanent that isn’t represented by a card. (See rule 402.1.com. or a permanent. 200. it can be an activated or triggered ability on the stack.6a A nontoken permanent’s owner is the same as the owner of the card that represents it.7.”) 200.5. Second.wizards. unless it’s a delayed triggered ability. 200.” it means a Magic card with a Magic card front and the Magic card back. a spell. The owner of a copy of a spell is the controller of the effect that created it. A token’s controller is the player who put it into play. 200. The term “object” is used in these rules when a rule . Parts of the Game 200. When a rule or text on a card refers to a “card.1a A card’s owner is the player who started the game with it in his or her deck or. for cards that didn’t start the game in a player’s deck. Use the Oracle™ card reference when determining a card’s wording. The other players are nonactive players. a copy of a card.8. Abilities. A permanent’s controller is the player who put it into play. A spell’s controller is the player who played it. 200. (See rule 214.”) 200. the player who brought the card into the game. Tokens aren’t considered cards—even a card that represents a token isn’t considered a card for rules purposes. A spell is a card. An object is an ability on the stack.7a The controller of an activated ability is the player who played the ability. “Spells. An ability can be one of two things. 200. “Spells. First. that’s on the stack. (See rule 213.2.” and section 4.”) 200.”) 200. “Abilities. a card.4a A token’s owner is the player who controlled the spell or ability that put it into play. A permanent is a card or token that’s in play. “Permanents. a token. and the player’s opponents are all players not on his or her team.4. 200. “Tokens. it can be text on an object that explains what the object does.5a A spell’s owner is the same as the owner of the card that represents it. General 200. 200. (See rule 216. 200. a player’s teammates are the other players on his or her team.2. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it.3a In a multiplayer game between teams. The active player is the player whose turn it is. A player is one of the people in the game.

where X and Y are numbers. it means putting a counter on that permanent while it’s in play. what an Aura enchants. either modifying its characteristics or interacting with an ability. subtype. Any other information about an object isn’t a characteristic. characteristics don’t include whether a permanent is tapped. and so on. spells. An object’s characteristics are name.applies to abilities on the stack. loyalty. and a token is not a counter.” it means a source matching that description—either a source of an ability or a source of damage—in any zone.” or “source. tokens. -X/-Y counters subtract from power and toughness. Counters with the same name or description are interchangeable. A counter is a marker placed on an object or player.8 “Sources of Damage. supertype. Name 202.10.1. expansion symbol. or that permanent coming into play with a counter. power and toughness. 202. 202.10c If a spell or ability refers to a counter being “placed” on a permanent.” it means a spell matching that description on the stack. 200. 200. color. A counter is not a token. legal text. illustration. The parts of a card are name. it means a card matching that description in the stated zone.1. adds X to that permanent’s power and Y to that permanent’s toughness. text box. although many uses of the term “object” in these rules don’t apply to it. expansion symbol. The name of a card is printed on its upper left corner.9. and loyalty. and collector number.9b If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes the word “spell.” “spell. 200.9c If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes the word “source. See rule 419.” 200. Some cards may have more than one of any or all of these parts. 201. type line. toughness. 200. card type. If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes a card type or subtype. rules text.11. mana cost. 200. and permanents. Combat damage on the stack is also an object. 200. an object’s owner or controller. Text that refers to the object it’s on by name means just that particular . but doesn’t include the word “card.10b The number of loyalty counters on a planeswalker in play indicates how much loyalty it has.” it means a permanent of that card type or subtype in play. illustration credit. Characteristics 201. mana cost. Objects can have some or all of these characteristics. power. Similarly. 200. cards.9a If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes the word “card” and the name of a zone. For example. a spell’s target. 200.10a A +X/+Y counter on a permanent.2. abilities.

202.3. the cost is still unpayable. even if that object isn’t a creature anymore. even if it isn’t the appropriate characteristic at the time.2.” The ability will destroy the object it gave +2/+2 at the end of the turn. “Copying Objects. Paying an object’s mana cost requires matching the color of any colored mana symbols as well as paying the generic mana indicated in the cost. 203. the alternative cost may be paid.1b Some cards have no mana symbols where their mana cost would appear. not at any other Saproling Burst in play.” 203. If an unpayable cost is increased by an effect or an additional cost is imposed. Some cards from the Future Sight set have alternate frames in which the mana symbols appear to the left of the art. Destroy that creature at end of turn.’” The ability granted to the token only looks at the Saproling Burst that created the token.object and not any other duplicates of it. This represents an unpayable cost. 203. Lands are played without paying any costs. it is referring to that particular object. Example: An ability reads “Target creature gets +2/+2 until end of turn. regardless of anything else printed on the cards.1d Tokens have no mana cost unless the effect that creates them specifies otherwise. these symbols are printed in the upper right corner.2a If an ability of an object uses a phrase such as “this [something]” to identify an object. 202. If an alternative cost is applied to an unpayable cost. See rule 503. An object is the color or colors of the mana symbols in its mana cost. The mana cost of a card is indicated by mana symbols near the top of the card. including an effect that allows you to play a spell without paying its mana cost. It has ‘This creature’s power and toughness are each equal to the number of fade counters on Saproling Burst.1. 203. Two cards have the same name if the English versions of their names are identical.1c Lands normally have no mana cost. However. 202. Mana Cost and Color 203. .1a A copy of an object copies that object’s mana cost. not to any other object with the same name. Example: Saproling Burst has an ability that reads “Remove a fade counter from Saproling Burst: Put a green Saproling creature token into play. where [something] is a characteristic. An ability can also have an unpayable cost if its cost is based on the mana cost of a spell with no mana cost. On most cards. regardless of any name changes caused by game effects. attempting to pay an unpayable cost is an illegal action. 203. 203. Attempting to play a spell or ability that has an unpayable cost is a legal action.2b If an ability of an object grants to an object an ability that refers to the first object by name. the name refers only to the object whose ability grants that ability.

regardless of the color of its frame. 203.2a Objects with no colored mana symbols in their mana costs are colorless. 203.2b An object with two or more different colored mana symbols in its mana cost is each of the colors of those mana symbols. Most multicolored cards are printed with a gold frame, but this is not a requirement for a card to be multicolored. 203.2c The five colors are white, blue, black, red, and green. The white mana symbol is represented by {W}, blue by {U}, black by {B}, red by {R}, and green by {G}. Example: An object with a mana cost of {2}{W} is white, an object with a mana cost of {2} is colorless, and one with a mana cost of {2}{W}{B} is both white and black. 203.2d If a player is asked to choose a color, he or she must choose one of the five colors. “Multicolored” is not a color. 203.2e An object with one or more hybrid mana symbols in its mana cost is all of the colors of those mana symbols, in addition to any other colors the object might be. Most cards with hybrid mana symbols in their mana costs are printed in a two-tone frame. See rule 104.3f. 203.3. The converted mana cost of an object is a number equal to the total amount of mana in its mana cost, regardless of color. Some effects ask a player to pay mana equal to an object’s converted mana cost; this cost may be paid with any combination of colored and/or colorless mana, regardless of the colors in the object’s mana cost. Example: A mana cost of {3}{U}{U} translates to a converted mana cost of 5. 203.3a The converted mana cost of an object with no mana cost is 0. 203.3b When calculating the converted mana cost of an object with an {X} in its mana cost, X is treated as 0 while the object is not on the stack, and X is treated as the number chosen for it while the object is on the stack. 203.3c When calculating the converted mana cost of an object with a hybrid mana symbol in its mana cost, use the largest component of each hybrid symbol. Example: The converted mana cost of a card with mana cost {1} {W/U}{W/U} is 3. Example: The converted mana cost of a card with mana cost {2/B} {2/B}{2/B} is 6. 203.4. Any additional cost listed in an object’s rules text or imposed by an effect isn’t part of the mana cost. (See rule 409, “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.”) Such costs are paid at the same time as the spell’s other costs. 204. Illustration 204.1. The illustration is printed on the upper half of a card and has no game significance. For example, a creature doesn’t have the flying ability unless stated in its rules text, even if it’s depicted as flying.

205. Type Line 205.1. The card type (and subtype and supertype, if applicable) of a card is printed directly below the illustration. (See rule 212, “Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype.”) 205.2. Card Types 205.2a The card types are artifact, creature, enchantment, instant, land, planeswalker, sorcery, and tribal. 205.2b Some objects have more than one card type (for example, an artifact creature). Such objects satisfy the criteria for any effect that applies to any of their card types. 205.3. Subtypes 205.3a A card can have one or more subtypes printed on its type line. 205.3b Subtypes are always single words and are listed after a long dash. Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. 205.3c Subtypes of a [card type] object are also called [card type] types. For example, creature subtypes are also called creature types. Objects may have multiple subtypes. Example: “Basic Land — Mountain” means the card is a land with the Mountain subtype. “Creature — Goblin Wizard” means the card is a creature with the subtypes Goblin and Wizard. “Artifact — Equipment” means the card is an artifact with the subtype Equipment. 205.3d Artifact, enchantment, land, and planeswalker each have their own unique set of possible subtypes. Instant and sorcery share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. Creature and tribal also share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. (You can find complete lists of subtypes in the glossary at the end of this document under “Creature Types,” “Land Types,” and so on.) 205.3e If a card with multiple card types has one or more subtypes, each subtype is correlated to its appropriate card type. Example: Dryad Arbor’s type line says “Land Creature — Forest Dryad.” Forest is a land type, and Dryad is a creature type. 205.4. Supertypes 205.4a A card can also have one or more supertypes. These are printed directly before its card types. If an object’s card types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new card type. 205.4b Any land with the supertype “basic” is a basic land. Any land that doesn’t have this supertype is a nonbasic land. Example: Note that cards printed in sets prior to the Eighth Edition core set didn’t use the word “basic” to indicate a basic land. Cards from those sets with the following names are basic lands: Forest,

Island, Mountain, Plains, Swamp, Snow-Covered Forest, Snow-Covered Island, Snow-Covered Mountain, Snow-Covered Plains, and SnowCovered Swamp. 205.4c Any permanent with the supertype “legendary” is subject to the statebased effect for legendary permanents, also called the “legend rule” (see rule 420.5e). 205.4d Any permanent with the supertype “world” is subject to the state-based effect for world permanents, also called the “world rule” (see rule 420.5i). 205.4e Any permanent with the supertype “snow” is a snow permanent. Any permanent that doesn’t have this supertype is a nonsnow permanent, regardless of its name. 206. Expansion Symbol 206.1. The expansion symbol indicates which Magic set a card is from. It’s normally printed below the right edge of the illustration. 206.2. The color of the expansion symbol indicates the rarity of the card within its set. A red-orange symbol indicates the card is mythic rare. A gold symbol indicates the card is rare. A silver symbol indicates the card is uncommon. A black or white symbol indicates the card is common or is a basic land. A purple symbol signifies a special rarity; to date, only the Time Spiral® “timeshifted” cards, which were rarer than that set’s rare cards, have had purple expansion symbols. (Prior to the Exodus™ set, all expansion symbols were black, regardless of rarity. Also, prior to the Sixth Edition core set, Magic core sets didn’t have expansion symbols at all.) 206.3. A spell or ability that affects cards from a particular set “looks” only for that set’s expansion symbol. A card reprinted in the core set receives the core set’s expansion symbol. Any reprinted version of the card no longer counts as part of its original set unless it was reprinted with that set’s expansion symbol. The first five editions of the core set had no expansion symbol. 207. Text Box 207.1. The text box is printed on the lower half of the card. It usually contains rules text defining the card’s abilities. 207.2. The text box may also contain italicized reminder text (in parentheses), which summarizes a rule that applies to that card, and italicized flavor text, which has no game function, but like the illustration, adds artistic appeal to the game. 207.3. A guild icon appears in the text box of many Ravnica® block cards. These cards either have the specified guild’s exclusive mechanic or somehow relate to the two colors associated with that guild. Guild icons have no effect on game play. 208. Power/Toughness 208.1. A creature card has two numbers separated by a slash printed in its lower right corner. The first number is its power (the amount of damage it deals in

in more recent years. 210. 208. It says “As Lost Order of Jarkeld comes into play.1c Some card sets feature collector numbers. there are various categories of abilities. a paintbrush icon. Information Below the Text Box 210. and it also indicates that the planeswalker comes into play with that many loyalty counters on it. even if it’s a card with a power and toughness printed on it (such as a Licid that’s become an Aura). Card Type. Abilities don’t have card types. and Subtype 212. use 0 instead of that number.1a Cards. and subtypes. the new card type(s) replaces any . 209. This information is printed in the form [card number]/[total cards in the set].combat). For example.1. [This section has been intentionally left blank to preserve the ordering of other rules. 210. Instead. When an object’s card type changes. (See rule 402. or subtypes. The object has a characteristic-defining ability that sets its power and/or toughness according to some stated condition. the second is its toughness (the amount of damage needed to destroy it).” or.3. 208. 210.”) 212.1b Legal text (the fine print at the bottom of the card) lists the trademark and copyright information. General 212. 211. This indicates its loyalty while it’s not in play. there won’t be a chosen opponent. Its power and toughness will each be equal to 1 plus 0. Loyalty 209.” While Lost Order of Jarkeld isn’t in play.1. This ability functions everywhere.1a The illustration credit for a card is printed on the first line below the text box. Power and toughness can be modified or set to particular values by effects. choose an opponent” and “Lost Order of Jarkeld’s power and toughness are each equal to 1 plus the number of creatures that opponent controls. 210. supertypes. Each card features text printed below the text box that has no effect on game play. tokens. Example: Lost Order of Jarkeld has power and toughness each equal to 1+*. Each planeswalker card has a loyalty number printed in its lower right corner. Some creature cards have power and/or toughness represented by a * instead of a number. Supertype. 2/3 means the object has power 2 and toughness 3. even outside the game.] 212.1. supertypes.1b. It follows the abbreviation “Illus. permanents. and spells can all have card types.2. If the ability needs to use a number that can’t be determined. so it’s a 1/1. “Abilities. immediately following the legal text. A noncreature permanent has no power or toughness.

“All lands are 1/1 creatures that are still lands. otherwise. Changing an object’s card type or subtype won’t change its supertype. Example: An ability reads.” not just “creatures. even if they are meaningless to the new card type. land types. those lands would become “artifact land creatures. it will become an “artifact enchantment creature. Words like “artifact. but “Merfolk Wizard” is not. artifact types. 212. all the object’s prior card types. This rule applies to effects that use the phrase “in addition to its types” or that state that something is “still a [card type].2. For example. enchantment types. 212. and damage affecting the object remain with it. Artifacts 212. “All artifacts are 1/1 artifact creatures. If there were any lands that were also artifacts before the ability’s effect applied to them.1d An object’s supertype is independent of its card type and subtype. and subtypes are retained. 212. or subtype.” “opponent. Counters.2a A player who has priority may play an artifact card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. You can also find complete lists of subtypes in the glossary at the end of this document under “Creature Types. supertype. supertype. see rule 200. or spell types).existing card types. you must choose one. the new subtype(s) replaces any existing subtypes from the appropriate set (creature types. (Use the Oracle card reference to determine whether a creature type exists. Example: An ability reads. Changing an object’s supertype won’t change its card type or subtype. the subtypes correlated with that card type will remain if they are also the subtypes of a card type the object currently has. (See rule 409. when one or more of an object’s subtypes changes. and the subtype you choose must be for the appropriate card type.” The affected lands now have two card types: creature and land. existing subtype.” etc. effects. If an object’s card type is removed.” If any of the affected lands were legendary.” The effect allows them to retain both the card type “artifact” and the card type “land.2.” If a permanent is both an artifact and an enchantment. “All lands are 1/1 creatures that are still lands.” “Land Types. Similarly. planeswalker types.” or “land creatures. it retains any other supertypes it had.” “Swamp. Playing an artifact as a spell uses the stack. or subtype but specify that the object retains a prior card type. they are also removed for the entire time the object’s card type is removed. they are still legendary. supertypes. you can’t choose a land type if an instruction requires choosing a creature type. “Playing Spells and .1e If an instruction requires choosing a subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype.” or “truck” can’t be chosen because they aren’t creature types.” 212.” Example: An ability reads.1c Some effects change an object’s card type. Removing an object’s subtype doesn’t affect its card types at all. and only one.” Some effects state that an object becomes an “artifact creature”. these effects also allow the object to retain all of its prior card types and subtypes.) Example: When choosing a creature type. “Merfolk” or “Wizard” is acceptable. In such cases.

Equipment that loses the subtype “Equipment” can’t equip a creature.2h An Equipment is played and comes into play just like any other artifact. and vice versa. 212. It can’t legally be attached to an object that isn’t a land.” The Equipment is attached to. its controller puts it into play under his or her control. and are therefore colorless. An Equipment can’t equip itself.33. the equipped creature’s controller is the only one who can play that ability. Artifact lands can only be played as lands. the Equipment doesn’t move. 212. “Equip”). If it can’t.2m Some artifacts have the subtype “Fortification.”) 212. or “equips. Artifacts may have multiple subtypes. 212.2j The creature an Equipment is attached to is called the “equipped creature. Control of the creature matters only when the equip ability is played and when it resolves.) 212.2g Some artifacts have the subtype “Equipment. An Equipment that equips an illegal or nonexistent permanent becomes unattached from that permanent but remains in play. An Equipment doesn’t come into play attached to a creature. and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both card types.” An Equipment can be attached to a creature. However. The creature to which the Equipment is to be moved must be able to be equipped by it. 212. if the Equipment adds an ability to the equipped creature (with “gains” or “has”). 212. there is no correlation between being colorless and being an artifact: artifacts may be colored.” that creature.2c Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Artifact — Equipment.Activated Abilities. and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both card types. Most artifacts have no colored mana symbols in their mana costs. the two need not be the same.2f Artifact lands combine the characteristics of both lands and artifacts. Only the Equipment’s controller can play its abilities.2b When an artifact spell resolves.2k An Equipment’s controller is separate from the equipped creature’s controller.2i An Equipment that’s also a creature can’t equip a creature.) 212.” A Fortification can be attached to a land.2d Artifacts have no characteristics specific to their card type. See rule 420. Changing control of the creature doesn’t change control of the Equipment. 212. . 212. The equip keyword ability moves the Equipment onto a creature you control (see rule 502. 212. It can’t legally be attached to an object that isn’t a creature. They can’t be played as spells. (You can find the complete list of artifact subtypes under “Artifact Types” in the glossary at the end of this document.” Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. (This is a state-based effect.2e Artifact creatures combine the characteristics of both creatures and artifacts. However. and colorless objects may be card types other than artifact.

Rules 212.2h–k apply to Fortifications in relation to lands just as they apply to Equipment in relation to creatures. Fortification’s analog to the equip keyword ability is the fortify keyword ability. (See rule 502.65, “Fortify.”) 212.3. Creatures 212.3a A player who has priority may play a creature card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Playing a creature as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 409, “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.”) 212.3b When a creature spell resolves, its controller puts it into play under his or her control. 212.3c Creature subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Creature — Human Soldier,” “Artifact Creature — Golem,” and so on. Creature subtypes are also called creature types. Creatures may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of creature subtypes under “Creature Types” in the glossary at the end of this document.) Example: “Creature — Goblin Wizard” means the card is a creature with the subtypes Goblin and Wizard. 212.3d Power and toughness are characteristics only creatures have. A creature’s power is the amount of damage it deals in combat, and its toughness is the amount of damage needed to destroy it. To determine a creature’s power and toughness, start with the numbers printed in its lower right corner, then apply any applicable continuous effects. (See rule 418.5, “Interaction of Continuous Effects.”) 212.3e Creatures can attack and block. (See rule 308, “Declare Attackers Step,” and rule 309, “Declare Blockers Step.”) 212.3f A creature’s activated ability with the tap symbol or the untap symbol in its activation cost can’t be played unless the creature has been under its controller’s control since the start of his or her most recent turn. A creature can’t attack unless it has been under its controller’s control since the start of his or her most recent turn. This rule is informally called the “summoning sickness” rule. Ignore this rule for creatures with haste (see rule 502.5). 212.3g Damage dealt to a creature stays on that creature. If the total accumulated damage on that creature is equal to or greater than its toughness, that creature has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed as a state-based effect (see rule 420.5c). All damage on a creature is removed when it regenerates (see rule 501.5, "Regenerate") and during the cleanup step (see rule 314.2). 212.3h Creature lands combine the characteristics of both lands and creatures, and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both card types. Creature lands can only be played as lands. They can’t be played as spells. 212.4. Enchantments 212.4a A player who has priority may play an enchantment card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Playing an enchantment as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 409, “Playing

Spells and Activated Abilities.”) 212.4b When an enchantment spell resolves, its controller puts it into play under his or her control. 212.4c Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Enchantment — Shrine.” Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. Enchantments may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of enchantment subtypes under “Enchantment Types” in the glossary at the end of this document.) 212.4d Some enchantments have the subtype “Aura.” An Aura comes into play attached to an object or player. What an Aura can be attached to is restricted by its enchant keyword ability (see rule 502.45, “Enchant”). Other effects can limit what a permanent can be enchanted by. 212.4e An Aura spell requires a target, which is restricted by its enchant ability. 212.4f If an Aura is enchanting an illegal object or player, the object it was attached to no longer exists, or the player it was attached to has left the game, the Aura is put into its owner’s graveyard. (This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.) 212.4g An Aura can’t enchant itself, and an Aura that’s also a creature can’t enchant anything. If this occurs somehow, the Aura is put into its owner’s graveyard. (This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.) 212.4h The object or player an Aura is attached to is called enchanted. The Aura is attached to, or “enchants,” that object or player. 212.4i An Aura’s controller is separate from the enchanted object’s controller; the two need not be the same. Changing control of the object doesn’t change control of the Aura, and vice versa. Only the Aura’s controller can play its abilities. However, if the Aura adds an ability to the enchanted object (with “gains” or “has”), the enchanted object’s controller is the only one who can play that ability. 212.4j If an Aura is coming into play under a player’s control by any means other than by being played, and the effect putting it into play doesn’t specify the object or player the Aura will enchant, that player chooses what it will enchant as the Aura comes into play. The player must choose a legal object or player according to the Aura’s enchant ability and any other applicable effects. If no legal choice can be made, see rule 212.4k. 212.4k If an Aura is coming into play and there is no legal object or player for it to enchant, the Aura remains in its current zone, unless that zone is the stack. In that case, the Aura is put into its owner’s graveyard instead of coming into play. 212.4m If an effect attempts to attach an Aura in play to an object or player, that object or player must be able to be enchanted by it. If the object or player can’t be, the Aura doesn’t move. 212.5. Instants

212.5a A player who has priority may play an instant card from his or her hand. Playing an instant as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 409, “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.”) 212.5b When an instant spell resolves, the actions stated in its rules text are followed. Then it’s put into its owner’s graveyard. 212.5c Instant subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Instant — Arcane.” Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. The set of instant subtypes is the same as the set of sorcery subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. Instants may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of instant subtypes under “Spell Types” in the glossary at the end of this document.) 212.5d Instants can’t come into play. If an instant would come into play, it remains in its previous zone instead. 212.5e If text states that a player may do something “any time he or she could play an instant,” it means only that the player must have priority. The player doesn’t need to have an instant he or she could actually play. 212.6. Lands 212.6a Playing a land card is a special action (see 408.2d). To play a land card, the player simply puts it into play. The land card doesn’t go on the stack, and is never a spell, so players can’t respond to it with instants or activated abilities. 212.6b A player who has priority may choose to play a land card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn, when the stack is empty. Continuous effects may allow the player to play land cards from other zones this way, or to play land cards at other times. 212.6c A player may normally play only one land card during his or her turn; however, continuous effects may increase this number. If any such effects exist, the player announces which effect, or this rule, applies to each land play as it happens. 212.6d A player can’t play a land, for any reason, if it isn’t his or her turn. Ignore any part of an effect that instructs a player to do so. Similarly, a player can’t play a land, for any reason, if that player has used all of his or her land plays for that turn. Ignore any part of an effect that instructs a player to do so. 212.6e Effects may also allow players to “put” lands into play. This isn’t the same as “playing a land” and doesn’t count as a player’s one land played during his or her turn. 212.6f Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash. Land subtypes are also called land types. Lands may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of land subtypes under “Land Types” in the glossary at the end of this document.) Example: “Basic Land — Mountain” means the card is a land with the Mountain subtype.

212. and it gains the appropriate mana ability for each new basic land type. or effect states that a player can do something only “any time he or she could play a sorcery. Any land that doesn’t have this supertype is a nonbasic land. the actions stated in its rules text are followed. Playing a sorcery as a spell uses the stack. 212. 212. it keeps its land types and rules text. and Forest. If a land gains one or more land types in addition to its own. and the stack must be empty. black. Then it’s put into its owner’s graveyard. Swamps. Note that this doesn’t remove any abilities that were granted to the land by other effects. (See rule 406. (See rule 409. “Mana Abilities. and it gains the new land types and mana abilities. Tribals 212.7b When a sorcery spell resolves.8a Each tribal card has another card type.6j If an object is both a land and another card type. it can be played only as a land. ability.” it means only that the player must have priority. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. green.”) An object with a basic land type is treated as if its text box included “{T}: Add [mana symbol] to your mana pool. If an object uses the words “basic land type. Sorceries may have multiple subtypes.6i Any land with the supertype “basic” is a basic land. blue.”) 212.7. 212.” Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. the land no longer has its old land type. legendary. 212.) 212. Mountain.7e If a spell. It loses all abilities generated from its rules text and its old land types. It can’t be played as a spell. and snow) the land may have. If a sorcery would come into play. it remains in its previous zone instead. The set of sorcery subtypes is the same as the set of instant subtypes. it must be during the main phase of his or her turn. 212. and Forests. Swamp. these subtypes are called spell types. Mountains. The player doesn’t need to have a sorcery he or she could actually play. Changing a land’s subtype doesn’t add or remove any card types (such as creature) or supertypes (such as basic.7d Sorceries can’t come into play. Plains produce white mana.7c Sorcery subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Sorcery — Arcane. (You can find the complete list of sorcery subtypes under “Spell Types” in the glossary at the end of this document.” even if the text box doesn’t actually contain text or the object has no text box.212. red. 212.7a A player who has priority may play a sorcery card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Island.” it’s referring to one of these subtypes. Sorceries 212. A basic land type implies an intrinsic ability to produce colored mana. Playing and resolving a tribal .8.6g The basic land types are Plains. Islands.6h If an effect changes a land’s subtype to one or more of the basic land types.

Planeswalkers may have multiple subtypes. The loyalty of a planeswalker not in play is equal to the number printed in its lower right corner.9b When a planeswalker spell resolves. loyalty counters are put on it or removed from it. 212.9e Planeswalkers can be attacked. it’s put into its owner’s graveyard as a statebased effect. as shown by the loyalty symbol in the ability’s cost. Planeswalkers 212. this ability creates a replacement effect (see rule 419. its controller puts it into play under his or her control.” Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. The loyalty of a planeswalker in play is equal to the number of loyalty counters on it.card follows the rules for playing and resolving a card of the other card type. (You can find the complete list of planeswalker subtypes under “Planeswalker Types” in the glossary at the end of this document. See rule 420. (See rule 308.5. “This permanent comes into play with a number of loyalty counters on it equal to its printed loyalty number”.) If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are in play. Damage dealt to a planeswalker results in that many loyalty counters being removed from it. (You can find the complete list of tribal subtypes under “Creature Types” in the glossary at the end of this document.9c Planeswalker subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Planeswalker — Jace. As a planeswalker gains or loses loyalty. 212. This is a redirection effect . “Declare Attackers Step. 212. that opponent may have that source deal that damage to a planeswalker the first player controls instead.”) 212. all are put into their owners’ graveyards as a state-based effect. The cost to play an activated ability of a planeswalker is to put on or remove from that planeswalker a certain number of loyalty counters.9f Each planeswalker has a number of activated abilities.5. A planeswalker is treated as if its text box included.9g If noncombat damage would be dealt to a player by a source controlled by an opponent. If a planeswalker’s loyalty is 0. when he or she has priority and the stack is empty. 212. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. An ability with a negative loyalty cost can’t be played unless the planeswalker has at least that many loyalty counters on it. (See rule 409. these subtypes are called creature types. See rule 420.1). respectively.) 212. Tribals may have multiple subtypes. 212. Planeswalker subtypes are also called planeswalker types.”) 212. Playing a planeswalker as a spell uses the stack.9a A player who has priority may play a planeswalker card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. A player may play an activated ability of a planeswalker only during a main phase of his or her turn.” The set of tribal subtypes is the same as the set of creature subtypes.9. and only if none of its activated abilities have been played that turn.8b Tribal subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Tribal Enchantment — Merfolk.9d Loyalty is a characteristic only planeswalkers have.

There are five permanent types: artifact. creature. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities”) and while it’s on the stack. the creature is white when it comes into play and remains white for the duration of the effect changing its color. Once it’s played. Every permanent has a controller. it’s used to refer to a card that’s not in play or on the stack. land. 213. Permanents come into play untapped. Every spell has a controller. 214. supertypes. such as a creature card in a player’s hand. and subtypes are the same as those printed on its card. a spell’s controller is the player who played it. “Zones. Every nonland card is a spell while it’s being played (see rule 409. the effect continues to apply to the permanent when the spell resolves. while it’s on the stack. For more information. is countered. A nontoken permanent’s card types.9). Some tribal cards can come into play and some can’t. supertype. Spells 213. “Spells on the Stack. . A permanent is a card or token in play. 214.1. The term “card” isn’t used to refer to a card that’s in play as a permanent. rather.5. Permanents 214. 213. or a copy of a spell or card. it remains in play. depending on their other card types. or otherwise leaves the stack.2.4. The term “permanent” is used to refer to a card or token while it’s in play.3.1a The term “permanent card” is used to refer to a card that could be put into play.2. a card remains a spell until it resolves. The term “spell” is used to refer to a card. 214. enchantment.” 213. and subtypes are set by the spell or ability that created it.1. land.4. creature. Permanents stay in play unless moved to another zone by an effect or rule. It’s still a permanent. Specifically. 214.3. 213.(see rule 419. A card or token becomes a permanent when it comes into play and it stops being a permanent when it leaves play. If an effect changes any characteristics of a spell that becomes a permanent. For more information. 213.6c) and is subject to the normal rules for ordering replacement effects (see rule 419. and subtype are the same as those of its card. enchantment. and planeswalker. supertypes. By default. A spell’s card type. A token’s card types. The opponent chooses whether to redirect the damage as the redirection effect is applied. 214. Instant and sorcery cards can’t come into play. see rule 401.” 214. a permanent’s controller is the player who put it into play. Example: If an effect changes a black creature spell to white.1b If a permanent somehow loses all its permanent types. By default. or planeswalker card. it means an artifact. see rule 217.

215. 215. a permanent comes into play untapped.) The spell or ability may define any number of characteristics for the token. Life 215. This becomes the token’s “text.6. the payment is subtracted from his or her team’s life total.5. By default. See rule 420. and face up. Every permanent has a value in each of three status categories: tapped/untapped. for example. In addition. and a replacement effect that would replace a life gain event affecting that player won’t do anything.2.214. For more information.” 215. the player may do so only if his or her team’s life total is equal to or greater than the amount of the payment. If an effect sets a player’s life total to a specific number. each team begins the game with a shared life total of 30 instead. unflipped.) 215. If an effect says that a player can’t gain life. the payment is subtracted from his or her life total.4. 216.1a A spell or ability that creates a creature token sets both its name and its creature type. see rule 606.1. they define the token’s copiable values. see rule 510. flipped/unflipped. a cost that involves having that player gain life can’t be paid. 215. 215. Damage dealt to a player causes that player to lose that much life. (Players can always pay 0 life.4a If a cost or effect allows a player to pay an amount of life greater than 0 in a Two-Headed Giant game. If a cost or effect allows a player to pay an amount of life greater than 0.1.7. 216. its name is the same as its creature type(s).” for example. A token doesn’t have any characteristics not defined by the spell or ability that created it. that player can’t exchange life totals with a player who has a higher life total. is named “Goblin Scout” and has the creature subtypes . the player may do so only if his or her life total is equal to or greater than the amount of the payment. If a player has 0 or less life.5. A “Goblin Scout creature token. Some effects put tokens into play. If an effect causes a player to gain life or lose life. If the spell or ability doesn’t specify the name of the creature token.) 215. the token is owned by whoever put it into play.” The characteristics defined this way are functionally equivalent to the characteristics that are printed on a card. If a player pays life. in that case. A token is controlled by whoever put it into play and owned by the controller of the spell or ability that created it.3. (Players can always pay 0 life. the player gains or loses the necessary amount of life to end up with the new total. and face up/face down. that player loses the game as a state-based effect. “Two-Headed Giant Variant. In a Two-Headed Giant game. the exchange won’t happen. that player’s life total is adjusted accordingly.5. Each player begins the game with a life total of 20. “Status.” 215. Tokens 216. If a player pays life. (If no player controlled the effect that created it.

and removed from the game. (7) Permanents that phase out or in “remember” their earlier states. changing its name doesn’t change its creature type. its previous existence.) 216. 216. activated abilities.1c An object that moves from one zone to another becomes a new object with no memory of. If an instant or sorcery card would come into play. or hand other than its owner’s. Some older cards also use the ante and phased-out zones. and graveyard. Each player has his or her own library. graveyard. 217. whether they’re tapped or flipped. If such a token would return to play. A token isn’t a card (even if represented by a card that has a Magic back or that came from a Magic booster pack). (4) Abilities that trigger when an object moves from one zone to another (for example. The other zones are shared by all players. and vice versa. (Note that a token changing zones sets off triggered abilities before the token ceases to exist. 217.1b The order of objects in a library.1. “When Rancor is put into a graveyard from play”) can find the new object that it became in the zone it moved to when the ability triggered. enchantment.4 A token that has left play can’t come back into play. creature. hand.Goblin and Scout. it goes to its owner’s corresponding zone. There are normally six zones: library. it remains in its current zone instead. or planeswalker spell on the stack continue to apply to the permanent that spell becomes. 217. A zone is a place where objects can be during a game. creature. 216. Zones 217. It ceases to exist the next time state-based effects are checked. .2. graveyard. although who controls those objects. enchantment. (5) Abilities of Auras that trigger when the enchanted permanent leaves play can find the new object that permanent became in the zone it moved to. or relation to. This is a state-based effect. A token is subject to anything that affects permanents in general or that affects the token’s card type or subtype. (2) Prevention effects that apply to damage from an artifact. or on the stack can’t be changed except when effects or rules allow it. hand.1a If an object would go to any library. in play. stack. they can also find the new object the Aura became in its owner’s graveyard after state-based effects have been checked. or planeswalker spell on the stack will continue to apply to damage from the permanent that spell becomes. that ability will continue to apply to the new object that card became after it moved to the stack as a result of being played this way.3. Objects in other zones can be arranged however their owners wish. it remains in its previous zone. A token in a zone other than the in-play zone ceases to exist. 217. (6) If an effect grants a nonland card an ability that allows it to be played. There are seven exceptions to this rule: (1) Effects from spells. and triggered abilities that change the characteristics of an artifact. and what other objects are attached to them must remain clear to all players. in a graveyard. (3) Abilities of a permanent that require information about choices made when that permanent was played use information about the spell that became that permanent. Once a token is in play.

217. 217. or if it isn’t in any of the game’s zones. removed from the game. its owner looks at it to see if it has any abilities that would affect the move.2e If a spell or ability causes a card to be drawn while another spell or ability is being played. If the object is moving to a public zone. that object’s controller—or its owner if it has no controller—chooses which effect to apply. except for those cards that some rule or effect specifically allow to be face down.See rule 217.2b Each library must be kept in a single face-down pile. Outside the game is not a zone.2. in play. 217.) Then the event moves the object. Graveyard. 217. 217. Library and hand are hidden zones. it doesn’t change zones. 217. it becomes a new object.2f Some effects tell a player to play with the top card of his or her library revealed. two simultaneous “destroy” effects. the drawn card is kept face down until that spell or ability becomes played (see rule 409. the new top card won’t be revealed until the spell or ability becomes played (see rule 409.1e An object is outside the game if it’s in the removed-from-the-game zone. stack.2a When a game begins. and what that effect does. Hidden zones are zones in which not all players can be expected to see the cards. Players can’t look at or change the order of cards in a library.2g If an effect causes a player to play with the top card of his or her library revealed. (Note that multiple instances of the same thing may be mutually exclusive. and phased-out are public zones. Then any appropriate replacement effects. 217.8c. are applied to that event. and that particular card stops being revealed for any length of time before being revealed again. but it becomes a new object that has just been removed from the game. All other objects are inside the game.1g Public zones are zones in which all players can see the cards. even if all the cards in one such zone happen to be revealed. each player’s deck becomes his or her library. for example. If any effects or rules try to do two or more contradictory or mutually exclusive things to a particular object. determine what event is moving the object. 217. Library 217. If the top card of the player’s library changes while a spell or ability is being played. 217. 217.1i).2c Any player may count the number of cards remaining in any player’s library at any time.1d If an object would move from one zone to another. the owner of those cards may arrange them in any order. That library’s owner doesn’t reveal the order in which the cards go into his or her library.1i). .1f If an object in the removed-from-the-game zone is removed from the game. ante. 217.2d If an effect puts two or more cards on the top or bottom of a library at the same time. whether they come from that object or from elsewhere.

5a Most of the area between the players represents the in-play zone. In Play 217.1a).6. The in-play zone starts out empty. the physical card is put on the stack.3c A player may arrange his or her hand in any convenient fashion and look at it as much as he or she wishes.5b A spell or ability affects and checks only the in-play zone unless it specifically mentions a player or another zone. discarded. or sacrificed is put on top of its owner’s graveyard. A player can examine the cards in any graveyard at any time but can’t change their order. it goes on top of the stack without any card associated with it (see rule 409. though there are some cases (such as an Aura attached to another player’s permanent) when a permanent one player controls is kept closer to a different player. each player draws a hand of seven cards. 217.1c). 217.3b Each player has a maximum hand size. the player must discard excess cards down to the maximum hand size.3. At the beginning of the game. This is also true for any objects entering any zone (see rule 217.3a The hand is where a player holds cards that have been drawn but not yet played. . Permanents exist only in the in-play zone. 217. Stack 217. “Starting the Game. it’s considered a brandnew permanent and has no relationship to any previous permanent represented by the same object.217.6a When a spell is played. Graveyard 217. Permanents a player controls are normally kept in front of him or her in the in-play zone. the owner of those cards may arrange them in any order.”) 217. A player may have any number of cards in his or her hand. 217. When an ability is played. A player can’t look at the cards in another player’s hand but may count those cards at any time. as is any instant or sorcery spell that’s finished resolving.5c Whenever a permanent enters the in-play zone.4b Each graveyard is kept in a single face-up pile.5d An object not in the in-play zone isn’t “in play” and isn’t considered tapped or untapped.4c If an effect or rule puts two or more cards into the same graveyard at the same time. 217. Each player’s graveyard starts out empty.5. Any object that’s countered. (See rule 101. 217. Objects that aren’t either in play or on the stack aren’t controlled by any player. 217. 217. Hand 217. but as part of his or her cleanup step. 217. which is normally seven cards. destroyed.4a A graveyard is a discard pile.4.

7a Objects can be removed from the game. and another ability that refers either to “the removed cards” or to cards “removed from the game with [this object]. 217. the current step or phase ends and the next begins. in the same way as other objects that use the stack.8. Each time an object is put on the stack. it’s put on top of all objects already there.4).7c Cards that might return to play should be kept in separate piles to keep track of their respective ways of returning.7b Cards in the removed-from-the-game zone are kept face up and may be examined by any player at any time. Removed from the Game 217. 217. unless it’s a delayed triggered ability. The controller of a triggered ability is the player who controlled the ability’s source when it triggered.6b The stack keeps track of the order that spells and/or abilities were added to it.6d Each spell has all the characteristics of the card associated with it. 217.6e When all players pass in succession. but it becomes a new object that has just been removed from the game. 217. followed by each other player’s objects in APNAP order (see rule 103. Cards “removed from the game face down” can’t be examined by any player except when instructions allow it.6c If an effect puts two or more objects on the stack at the same time. Objects that aren’t cards that would return to a zone remain removed from the game instead. those controlled by the active player are put on lowest. Phased Out .” 217.” These abilities are linked: the second refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone removed due to the first. 217. If the stack is empty when all players pass. 217. See rule 407. 217. it doesn’t change zones. the top (last-added) spell or ability on the stack resolves. The controller of an activated ability is the player who played the ability.7e If an object in the removed-from-the-game zone is removed from the game.7d An object may have one ability printed on it that somehow causes one or more cards to be removed from the game. If a player controls more than one of these objects. “Linked Abilities. Some effects may provide a way for a card to return to a zone and use the term “set aside. that player chooses their relative order on the stack.” Cards that are set aside this way are still removed from the game. even though that removal may be temporary.”) 217.7. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. Each activated or triggered ability that’s on the stack has the text of the ability that created it and no other characteristics.6f Combat damage also uses the stack. “Timing of Spells and Abilities. (See rule 408. 217. The controller of a spell is the person who played the spell.217.

Playing for ante is strictly forbidden under the DCI Universal Tournament Rules (http://www.9b When playing for ante. 217. 217.8a Permanents that phase out are placed in the phased-out zone.26. (See rule 502.9c A few cards have the text “Remove [this card] from your deck before playing if you’re not playing for ante. Cards in the ante zone may be examined by any player at any time.” Playing Magic games for ante is now considered an optional variation on the game. .8b Face-up objects in the phased-out zone may be examined by any player at any time. 217.com/Magic/TCG/Events. At the end of the game. However.” These are the only cards that can add or remove cards from the ante zone or change a card’s owner. “Phasing.8c Phased-out objects are not in play. Equipment. and it’s allowed only where it’s not forbidden by law or by other rules. 217. (See rule 502.9d To ante an object is to put that object into the ante zone from whichever zone it’s currently in. This is a state-based effect (see rule 420.”) 217. “State-Based Effects”).15. or Fortifications that were attached to those tokens remain phased out for the rest of the game.9.15. “Phasing. (See rule 502. Ante 217.” and rule 504.217. nor are they controlled by anyone. an object in this zone “remembers” the state of the permanent as it phased out and returns to play in the same state as when it left. “Morph. Face-down objects in the phased-out zone are covered by the rules for face-down permanents.”) 217.9a Earlier versions of the Magic rules included an ante rule as a way of playing “for keeps. so they do not count as tapped or untapped. Any phased-out Auras. “Face-Down Spells and Permanents.aspx? x=dci/doccenter/home).”) 217.wizards. the winner becomes the owner of all the cards in the ante zone. The owner of an object is the only person who can ante that object. each player puts one random card from his or her deck into the ante zone at the beginning of the game.8d Tokens in the phased-out zone cease to exist.

and end phases are further broken down into steps. each player gets a chance to add new things to the stack before that phase or step ends. A turn consists of five phases. This game action doesn’t use the stack.1.2. phases. When a phase or step begins. A step in which no players receive priority ends when all specified actions that take place during that step are completed. The beginning. the most recently created step will occur first. (See rule 406. Beginning Phase .3. or steps.3. phase.7. the most recently created phase will occur first. If multiple extra steps are created after the same step.2. 300. 300. combat.6e and rule 419. That player loses 1 life for each one mana lost this way. Because of this. They do this by adding the turns directly after the current turn. See rule 419. When a phase or step ends. When a phase or step begins. precombat main.”) 300. The most recently created turn will be taken first. Turn Structure 300. not damage. Some effects can give a player extra turns. phase. Some effects can add phases to a turn.8. all players have to pass with the stack empty.6. 300. and end. If a player gets multiple extra turns or if multiple players get extra turns during a single turn. 300.4. 300. They do this by adding the steps directly after a specified step (or directly before a specified step). Some effects can cause a step. so it can’t be prevented or altered by effects that affect damage.6f. 301. see rule 314. The only such steps are the untap step (see rule 302) and certain cleanup steps (see rule 314). 300. combat. Some effects can add steps to a phase. 300. When a phase ends (but not a step). any abilities that trigger “at the beginning of” that phase or step are added to the stack. postcombat main. any unused mana left in a player’s mana pool is lost. This is called mana burn. No game events can occur between turns. Mana burn is loss of life. not at the beginning of the end of combat step. Each of these phases takes place every turn. General 300. They do this by adding the phases directly after the specified phase. or turn to be skipped. any effects scheduled to last “until end of” that phase or step expire. the extra turns are added one at a time.9. If multiple extra phases are created after the same phase. Effects that last “until end of turn” are subject to special rules. in this order: beginning. “Mana Abilities. Effects that last “until end of combat” expire at the end of the combat phase. which proceed in order. any effects scheduled to last “until” that phase or step expire. To skip a step. or turn is to proceed past it as though it didn’t exist. Simply having the stack become empty doesn’t cause such a phase or step to end. even if nothing happens during the phase.5. A phase or step in which players receive priority ends when the stack is empty and all players pass in succession.

4. and sorcery spells. As the upkeep step begins. “Upkeep Step.1. “Lands. but effects can keep one or more of a player’s permanents from untapping. known as the postcombat main phase.301. “Phased Out.1. 305.” 302. upkeep.1. so no spells or abilities can be played or resolved. all of a player’s permanents untap.” and rule 502. As the main phase begins. “Phasing.8.3.15. No player receives priority during the untap step.3. known as the precombat main phase. which is usually during the upkeep step. The main phase has no steps. so a main phase ends when all players pass in succession while the stack is empty. and only the active player may play these spells. all permanents with phasing that the active player controls phase out. the active player may play one land card from his or her hand if the stack is empty. Then he or she untaps them all simultaneously (this game action doesn’t use the stack). enchantment. The beginning phase consists of three steps.2. Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. and the second main phase.) 305. 302. First. planeswalker. Main Phase 305. the active player draws a card. “Handling Triggered Abilities.1. are separated by the combat phase (see rule 306. any abilities that trigger at the beginning of that upkeep step and any abilities that triggered during the turn’s untap step go on the stack. See rule 217. (See rule 410. in this order: untap.”) 303. Next the active player determines which permanents he or she controls will untap. (See rule 300. Normally.2. any abilities that trigger at the beginning of that main phase go on the stack. 305.6. the first main phase. (See rule 410. There are two main phases in a turn. Upkeep Step 303. Untap Step 302. First. Then any abilities that trigger at the beginning of the draw step and any other abilities that have triggered go on the stack.) 305. (See rule 212. Draw Step 304.1. and all phased-out objects that the active player controlled when they phased out simultaneously phase in (this game action doesn’t use the stack). The precombat and postcombat main phases are individually and collectively known as the main phase. 302. “Combat Phase”).”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. creature. and if he or she hasn’t yet taken this special action this turn. (This is the only phase in which a player can normally play artifact. During either main phase. (See rule 303. 304. and draw.”) This . Any ability that triggers during this step will be held until the next time a player would receive priority. In each turn. “Handling Triggered Abilities. if the player has priority. This game action doesn’t use the stack.”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities.2.

the active player is the attacking player. 306. declare blockers. Only a player or a planeswalker can be attacked.3c If an effect would put a creature into play blocking but the creature it would block isn’t attacking either the first creature’s controller or a planeswalker that player controls. “Attack Multiple Players Option. blocking. 306. The declare blockers and combat damage steps are skipped if no creatures are declared as attackers or put into play attacking (see rule 308. that creature does come into play. the permanent does come into play but it’s never considered to be an attacking or blocking permanent. A planeswalker that’s removed from combat stops being attacked.1. Combat Phase 306. spells or abilities that would have kept that creature from attacking or blocking don’t remove the creature from combat.” and rule 606. the active player chooses one of his or her opponents.4c If a creature is attacking a planeswalker. and end of combat. removing that planeswalker from combat doesn’t remove that creature from combat. combat damage. 306. Some multiplayer games allow the active player to attack multiple other players. 306. and/or unblocked creature. if it’s a planeswalker that’s being attacked and stops being a planeswalker.3a If an effect would put a noncreature permanent into play attacking or blocking. which proceed in order: beginning of combat.4a Once a creature has been declared as an attacking or blocking creature.3.2. It continues to be an attacking creature.” 306. It can’t be countered. or if it’s an attacking or blocking creature that regenerates (see rule 419. although it is attacking neither a player nor a . that creature does come into play.5). if its controller changes. and players can’t respond to it with instants or activated abilities. 306. Only a creature can attack or block. There are two combat damage steps if any attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 502. but it’s never considered to be an attacking creature. creatures that player controls may attack. 306.3b If an effect would put a creature into play attacking under the control of any player except an attacking player. The chosen opponent is the defending player.4b Tapping or untapping a creature that’s already been declared as an attacker or blocker doesn’t remove it from combat and doesn’t prevent its combat damage. 306. that player and planeswalkers he or she controls may be attacked. if an effect specifically removes it from combat. A creature that’s removed from combat stops being an attacking. declare attackers. 306. A permanent is removed from combat if it leaves play. “Two-Headed Giant Variant. 306. As the combat phase starts.6b) or stops being a creature. See rule 602.4.2) or double strike (see rule 502. but it’s never considered to be a blocking creature. During the combat phase. The combat phase has five steps.action doesn’t use the stack and it isn’t a spell or ability of any kind.28). blocked.

If the defending player controls any planeswalkers. This game action doesn’t use the stack. 308. the declaration was illegal.2. 308. (See rule 410. For each of the chosen creatures.”) 308. Effects from a creature that refer to a defending player refer only to the defending player it’s attacking (if it’s attacking a player) or the controller of the planeswalker it’s attacking (if it’s attacking a planeswalker). the active player declares attackers. 308. 306. the active player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below. Tapping a creature when it’s declared as an attacker isn’t a cost. If it is unblocked. A creature is blocking alone if it’s blocking but no other creatures are. in order. (See rule 410. 307. Then he or she determines whether this set of attackers is legal. 306. (See rule 500. the active player follows the steps below. “Banding. Then any abilities that triggered on attackers being declared go on the stack. and each one must either have haste or have been controlled by the active player continuously since the beginning of the turn. A creature attacks alone if it’s the only creature declared as an attacker during the declare attackers step.planeswalker. (See rule 502.”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities.2a The active player chooses which creatures that he or she controls.1. As the beginning of combat step begins. the active player announces which creatures. if any. the active player chooses an opponent or a planeswalker controlled by an opponent for that creature to attack. “Handling Triggered Abilities.10.5. he or she declares which player or planeswalker each creature is attacking. A creature blocks alone if it’s the only creature declared as a blocker during the declare blockers step. To declare attackers. Beginning of Combat Step 307. attacking simply causes creatures to . “Legal Attacks and Blocks”). if any. will attack. “Handling Triggered Abilities. The chosen creatures must be untapped.2c The active player taps the chosen creatures. It may be blocked. A creature is attacking alone if it’s attacking but no other creatures are.4d A permanent that’s both a blocking creature and a planeswalker that’s being attacked is partially removed from combat if it stops being either a creature or a planeswalker (but not both).”) 308. It’s not removed from the portion of combat that’s relevant to the card type it still is.” and rule 500. “Handling Illegal Actions. Declare Attackers Step 308. any abilities that trigger at the beginning of combat go on the stack. If at any point during the declaration of attackers. it will deal no combat damage. “Legal Attacks and Blocks.2b If any of the chosen creatures have banding or a bands with other ability.1.”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. As the declare attackers step begins. are banded with which. the game returns to the moment before the declaration (see rule 422. or the game allows the active player to attack multiple other players.

They will not trigger if a creature attacks and then that creature’s characteristics change to match the ability’s trigger condition. (See rule 410. It remains an attacking creature until it’s removed from combat or the combat phase ends. To declare blockers. destroy that creature at end of combat. the defending player chooses one creature for it to block that’s attacking him. 309. skip the declare blockers and combat damage steps. or a planeswalker he or she controls. sacrificing permanents. and so on. Example: A permanent has the ability “Whenever a green creature attacks. it becomes “locked in. the game returns to the moment before the declaration (see rule 422. the active player determines the total cost to attack. if any. its controller chooses which defending player or which planeswalker a defending player controls it’s attacking as it comes into play (unless the effect that put it into play specifies what it’s attacking). the defending player declares blockers (this game action doesn’t use the stack). 308. her.”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. 308.1. 308.2d If any of the creatures require paying costs to attack.2. will block. Costs may include paying mana. for the purposes of trigger events and effects.” 308.2g Each chosen creature becomes an attacking creature if all costs have been paid. 308. Declare Blockers Step 309. The chosen creatures must be untapped. in order. See rule 306. If at any point during the declaration of blockers. “Playing Mana Abilities”).2f Once the player has enough mana in his or her mana pool.2a The defending player chooses which creatures that he or she controls. whichever comes first. (See rule 500.5.3.” and rule 500. For each of the chosen creatures. he or she pays all costs in any order. Once the total cost is determined. Then any abilities that triggered on blockers being declared go on the stack. Then he or she determines whether this set of blocks is legal. 309. As the declare blockers step begins. tapping permanents. “Legal . Abilities that trigger on a creature attacking trigger only at the point the creature is declared as an attacker.” If effects would change the total cost after this time. If no creatures are declared as attackers or put into play attacking.2e If any of the costs require mana. “Handling Triggered Abilities. they never “attacked.4. the defending player follows the steps below.4. “Legal Attacks and Blocks”). If a creature is put into play attacking. the active player then has a chance to play mana abilities (see rule 411. 308. the declaration was illegal. but only if it’s still controlled by the active player. Partial payments are not allowed. 309.” If a blue creature attacks and is later turned green. the ability will not trigger.become tapped. discarding cards. 308. ignore this change. Such creatures are “attacking” but. “Handling Illegal Actions. the defending player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below.

309. If a creature is put into play blocking.2f An attacking creature with one or more creatures declared as blockers for it becomes a blocked creature. It remains a blocking creature until it’s removed from combat or the combat phase ends. the ability will not trigger. Combat Damage Step 310. All assignments of combat damage go on the stack as a single object.Attacks and Blocks. tapping permanents. They will not trigger if a creature blocks. “Playing Mana Abilities”). its controller chooses which attacking creature it’s blocking as it comes into play (unless the effect that put it into play specifies what it’s blocking).2e Each chosen creature becomes a blocking creature. See rule 306. and so on. 309. This remains unchanged until the creature is removed from combat or the combat phase ends. they never “blocked. the active player announces how each attacking creature will assign its combat damage. They will not trigger if a creature becomes blocked.3.2c If any of the costs require mana. Then the defending player announces how each blocking creature will assign its combat damage.2d Once the player has enough mana in his or her mana pool. Example: A creature has the ability “Whenever this creature becomes blocked by a white creature.” If effects would change the total cost after this time. destroy that creature at end of combat. Abilities that trigger on a creature becoming blocked trigger only at the first point the creature becomes blocked that combat. whichever comes first. 309. or by an effect. and then the blocking creature’s characteristics change to match the ability’s trigger condition. the defending player then has a chance to play mana abilities (see rule 411. sacrificing permanents.2b If any of the creatures require paying costs to block. 309. the defending player determines the total cost to block. but only if it’s controlled by the defending player.” If that creature is blocked by a black creature that is later turned white. Costs may include paying mana. Partial payments are not allowed. They will trigger if a creature becomes blocked by a creature declared as a blocker. whichever comes first. As the combat damage step begins.) 309. “Handling Triggered Abilities. 309.”) 309. Once the total cost is determined.5. Each one is blocking the attacking creature chosen for it. Such creatures are “blocking” but. for the purposes of trigger events and effects.4. Abilities that trigger on a creature blocking trigger only at the point the creature is declared as a blocker. ignore this change. he or she pays all costs in any order. and then that creature’s characteristics change to match the ability’s trigger condition. by a creature that’s put into play as a blocker. discarding cards.1. (See rule 410.” 310.”) Then the active player gets priority and . it becomes “locked in. 309. Then any abilities that triggered on damage being assigned go on the stack. one with no blockers becomes an unblocked creature. but only if the attacking creature hadn’t yet been blocked that combat. (Some effects can change whether a creature is blocked or unblocked.4.

its last known information is used.4a Combat damage is dealt as it was originally assigned even if the creature dealing damage is no longer in play.28). it will assign no combat damage. 310. the damage assigned to it isn’t dealt. any attackers and blockers that didn’t assign combat damage in the first step. If the creature isn’t currently attacking anything (if. 310. 310. the phase gets a second combat damage step (see rule 310. An unblocked attacking creature that’s attacking a planeswalker will assign all its combat damage to the planeswalker it’s attacking. for example. if it’s still in play. If it’s no longer in play. Dividing combat damage is subject to the following restrictions: 310. At the start of the combat damage step. or is neither a creature nor planeswalker. to the creatures blocking it. for example.2. When it resolves. If no creatures are currently blocking it (if. they were destroyed or removed from combat). In the second combat damage step. Creatures with power less than 0 assign 0 combat damage. 310.2d A blocking creature will assign combat damage. Instead of proceeding to end of combat. or the creature or planeswalker receiving damage has left combat.2b An unblocked attacking creature that’s attacking a player will assign all its combat damage to the defending player. divided as its controller chooses.1) to handle the remaining creatures. it was attacking a planeswalker that has left play). as originally assigned. A player may divide a creature’s combat damage as he or she chooses among the legal recipients. 310.2a Each attacking creature and each blocking creature will assign combat damage equal to its power. Although combat-damage assignments go on the stack as an object. it will assign no combat damage. it’s all dealt at once.4. 310. the active player gets priority.2) or double strike (see rule 502. . If it isn’t currently blocking any creatures (if. they aren’t spells or abilities. 310. creatures without first strike or double strike don’t assign combat damage. After combat damage finishes resolving. 310. 310.players may play spells and abilities. for example. its power has changed. it will assign no combat damage. The combat damage object is then removed from the stack and ceases to exist. 310. to the attacking creatures it’s blocking. if at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 502. Combat damage resolves as an object on the stack. divided as its controller chooses.4b The source of the combat damage is the creature as it currently exists.4c If a creature or planeswalker that was assigned combat damage is no longer in play.5. so they can’t be countered. assign their combat damage.3. they were destroyed or removed from combat).2c A blocked creature will assign combat damage. plus any creatures with double strike.

he or she discards enough cards to reduce the hand size to that number (this game action doesn’t use the stack).”) 314.”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities.311.1.3.” (See rule 314. Otherwise.2. all “at end of combat” abilities trigger and go on the stack. As the end of turn step begins.1. the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. 314. This only applies to triggered abilities that say “at end of turn. After discarding. .”) Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. After the end of combat step ends. If the conditions for any state-based effects exist or if any triggered abilities are waiting to be put onto the stack. End of Combat Step 311. “Cleanup Step. “Handling Triggered Abilities. If “at end of turn”-triggered abilities are created or if cards with “at end of turn”-triggered abilities come into play after preexisting ones have already gone on the stack at the beginning of the end of turn step. the combat phase is over and the postcombat main phase begins. the step doesn’t “back up” so new “at end of turn”-triggered abilities can go on the stack. (See rule 410. another cleanup step begins. those abilities won’t go on the stack until the next turn’s end phase. End of Turn Step 313.” It doesn’t apply to continuous effects whose durations say “until end of turn” or “this turn.1. As the end of combat step begins. all creatures and planeswalkers are removed from combat. 311. (See rule 410. 313. 312. In other words.1. 313. The end phase consists of two steps: end of turn and cleanup. If the active player’s hand contains more cards than his or her maximum hand size (normally seven). 314. Cleanup Step 314. As soon as the end of combat step ends. no player receives priority and the step ends.2. all abilities that trigger “at end of turn” go on the stack. Once the stack is empty and all players pass. the following actions happen simultaneously: all damage is removed from permanents and all “until end of turn” and “this turn” effects end (this game action doesn’t use the stack). End Phase 312.2. “Handling Triggered Abilities.

3. is countered (see rule 414. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. 401. or otherwise leaves the stack. or any abilities that apply while the spell is on the stack (see rule 401. Any spell can have static abilities that apply while the spell is on the stack. the card becomes a permanent and is put into the in-play zone under the control of the spell’s controller. Abilities.2. Example: A played creature card is a creature spell until it resolves. These abilities are active while the object is in that zone. 401. Text itself is never an effect. 401. the card is put into its owner’s graveyard. and triggered abilities generate effects when they resolve.1a A copy of a spell is also a spell.6. and Effects 400. These include restrictions on playing the object and abilities that allow the object to be played at a time that it otherwise could not or in a manner that it otherwise could not.1.5). activated abilities. Reminder text and flavor text always appear in italics. (See rule 217.7. A card on the stack is a spell. Spells on the Stack 401. Any object can have static abilities that allow it to be played from a zone other than a player’s hand. Any object can have static abilities that apply while the object is in a zone from which it can be played.4. the card becomes a spell and goes on the stack from the zone it was played from (usually the player’s hand).6. General 400.4). Spells. Reminder text and flavor text are not abilities. As the final part of an artifact. (See rule 413. but are not limited to. Static abilities generate continuous effects. is countered. As the first step of being played. A spell stops being a spell when it resolves (see rule 413. As the final part of an instant or sorcery spell’s resolution. any abilities that define the zone from which it can be played (see rule 401.2. and cost reductions. even if it has no card associated with it.1. alternative costs. 401. just like any other objects.6). “Countering Spells and Abilities”).” 401. any abilities that apply while the spell is in a zone from which it can be played (see rule 401. These include.5. enchantment. “Resolving Spells and Activated Abilities. Abilities can also be granted to objects by effects or rules.”) If any spell . or leaves the stack. 401. Example: Some abilities that are not followed when the spell resolves are activated abilities or triggered abilities. An object’s abilities are defined in the object’s text box (if it has one) or by the effect that created the object. See rule 409. Instant and sorcery spells have abilities.4. creature. or planeswalker spell’s resolution. unless the instructions can only be applied at some other time. “Stack. Abilities generate effects. An ability is something an object does or can do. additional costs. These abilities are instructions that are followed when the spells resolve. 400. “Resolving Spells and Abilities”). 401.”) 401. Spells.

8.” “have.” or “gain” are used. Abilities can generate one-shot effects or continuous effects. and static. Activated and triggered abilities aren’t spells. Each instance functions independently. The result of following such an instruction is an effect. Static abilities don’t use the stack and thus can’t be countered at all. triggered. as well as by the rules (for example. they can also affect other objects and/or players. 402. 402.2. Note that some abilities cause a source to do something (for example. 402. Otherwise. refer to the specific ability for more information. Some effects are replacement effects or prevention effects.3). Abilities can grant abilities to other objects or to the objects they’re on. An additional cost or alternative cost to play a card is an ability of the card. 402. Abilities of all other objects usually function only while that object is in play. any activated or triggered ability that references information about the source because the effect needs to be divided checks that information when the ability is put onto the stack. 402. The exceptions are as follows: 402. An ability is text on an object that’s not reminder text or flavor text (see rule 400. Aside from the abilities that are followed as instructions while an instant or sorcery spell is resolving (see rule 401. Abilities can be countered by effects that specifically counter abilities.” “gains.8a Characteristic-defining abilities function everywhere. and therefore can’t be countered by anything that counters only spells. an ability with one or more targets is countered if all its targets become illegal). 402. Abilities can be beneficial or detrimental. Activated and triggered abilities can also be mana abilities. if the source is no longer in play.1. Aside from certain defined abilities that may be strung together on a single line (see rule 502. Example: “[This creature] can’t block” is an ability. In these cases.7. In both instances.2. (See rule 416.6. each paragraph break in a card’s text marks a separate ability. even outside the game.8b An ability that states which zones it functions in functions only from . its last known information is used. Destruction or removal of the source after that time won’t affect the ability. “Prodigal Sorcerer deals 1 damage to target creature or player”) rather than the ability doing anything directly. “Keyword Abilities”). it will check that information when it resolves.4. “Effects. 402. An object may have multiple abilities.is countered.”) Abilities can affect the objects they’re on.1).) 402. an ability exists independently of its source as an ability on the stack. 402. An object may also have multiple instances of the same ability. Abilities of an instant or sorcery usually function only while the object is on the stack. Abilities 402. This may or may not produce more effects than a single instance. they do so when the words “has. there are three general categories of abilities: activated. Once activated or triggered.3. (See rule 405. the card is put into its owner’s graveyard as part of the resolution of the countering spell or ability.5.

such an ability can’t affect the format legality of a card. Other trigger conditions of the same triggered ability may function in different zones.aspx? x=dci/doccenter/home.” A player may play this ability only if Necrosavant is in his or her graveyard.2. or simply states a quality of that object. Such an ability modifies not just the Comprehensive Rules. 402. An effect that removes an ability will state that the object “loses” that ability. that ability can be removed by another effect. However. or a previous part of that ability’s cost or effect. An effect that sets an object’s characteristic. “Enchanted creature has ‘This creature is an . 402. destroy target enchantment.8d An object’s ability that restricts or modifies how that object can be played functions in any zone from which it could be played. is different from an ability granted by an effect.wizards. “Haunt. 402.com/Magic/TCG/Events. unless that ability’s trigger condition.5. Effects that remove an ability remove all instances of it. 402. “Interaction of Continuous Effects.8i An ability that modifies the rules for deck construction functions before the game begins. but also the Magic: The Gathering DCI Floor Rules and any other documents that set the deck construction rules for a specific Constructed format.those zones. (See rule 418. When an object “gains” or “has” an ability.8h An ability whose cost or effect specifies that it moves the object it’s on out of a particular zone functions only in that zone. including whether it’s banned or restricted. The current Magic: The Gathering DCI Floor Rules can be found at http://www. 402.”) 402. in general the most recent one prevails. Effects can add or remove abilities of objects.) Example: An effect reads. Sacrifice a creature: Return Necrosavant from your graveyard to play. If two or more effects add and remove the same ability. 402. An effect that adds an ability will state that the object “gains” or “has” that ability.8c An ability of an object that modifies what it costs to play functions on the stack.8e An object’s ability that modifies how it comes into play functions as that object is coming into play. See rule 419.6i.9. Play this ability only during your upkeep. Example: Necrosavant says “{3}{B}{B}. Example: Absolver Thrull has the ability “When Absolver Thrull comes into play or the creature it haunts is put into a graveyard.8g A trigger condition that can trigger only in a zone other than the in-play zone triggers from that zone.8f An object’s activated ability that has a cost that can’t be paid while the object is in play functions from any zone in which its cost can be paid.” The first trigger condition triggers from the inplay zone and the second trigger condition functions from the removed-from-the-game zone. (See rule 502. specifies that the object is put into that zone. If an effect defines a characteristic of the object (“[permanent] is [characteristic value]”). (See rule 405.51.10.”) 402. 402. it’s not granting an ability.

It doesn’t grant an ability. Activated abilities that read “Play this ability only any time you could play an instant” mean the player must follow the timing rules for playing an instant spell. It doesn’t apply to other. Another effect reads.” and rule 410. so effects that would cause the creature to lose its abilities wouldn’t cause the enchanted creature to stop being an artifact. Instead. 403. if [condition]. . “Play this ability only once each turn”). though the ability isn’t actually an instant.artifact creature. On resolution.” or “at.1.1. A triggered ability may read “When/Whenever/At . the restriction continues to apply to that object even if its controller changes. A creature’s activated ability with the tap symbol ({T}) or the untap symbol ({Q}) in its activation cost can’t be played unless the creature has been under its controller’s control since the start of his or her most recent turn. This rule is referred to as the “intervening ‘if’ clause” rule. “Handling Triggered Abilities. 403. . Triggered Abilities 404. a triggered ability automatically “triggers” each time its trigger event occurs. Priority.2. Activated abilities that read “Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery” mean the player must follow the timing rules for playing a sorcery spell. 403.5. and the Stack. the ability triggers. the ability rechecks the condition. 404.” The phrase containing one of these words is the trigger condition.5). which defines the trigger event. See rule 408. Triggered abilities aren’t played. though the ability isn’t actually a sorcery. it goes on the stack the next time a player would receive priority. Only an object’s controller (or its owner. the ability does nothing.4.] [Play restriction (if any).2.’” This effect grants an ability to the creature that can be removed by other effects.” The ability checks for the stated condition to be true when the trigger event occurs. this rule only applies to an “if” that immediately follows a trigger condition. 403. An ability’s activation cost must be paid by the player who is playing it.]” The activation cost is everything before the colon (:). An activated ability is written as “[Cost]: [Effect. identically worded abilities. if it doesn’t have a controller) can play its activated ability unless the object specifically says otherwise. Note that the word “if” has only its normal English meaning anywhere else in the text of a card. If the condition isn’t true at either of those times. 403. Activated Abilities 403. If it is. “Timing.1. . that restriction applies only to that ability as acquired from that object.4a If an object acquires an activated ability with a restriction on its use from another object. “Enchanted creature is an artifact creature.3.” “whenever. Ignore this rule for creatures with haste (see rule 502. A triggered ability begins with the word “when. If an activated ability has a restriction on its use (for example. Once an ability has triggered.” This effect simply defines a characteristic of the creature. [effect]. .3. 403. 404.” 404.

(See rule 407. 404.404. rather than at the beginning. the delayed ability never triggers.4a Delayed triggered abilities come from spells or other abilities that create them on resolution. “Linked Abilities. Example: An ability that reads “Remove this creature from the game at end of turn” won’t do anything if the creature leaves play before the end of turn step.4c A delayed triggered ability that refers to a particular object still affects it even if the object changes characteristics. 404. A static ability does something all the time rather than being activated or triggered.4. Example: An ability that reads “Destroy that creature at end of turn” will destroy the permanent even if it’s no longer a creature during the end of turn step.4d A delayed triggered ability that refers to a particular permanent will fail if the permanent leaves play (even if it returns again before the specified time). unless the ability is covered by rule .5. 404.” “whenever. Example: Part of an effect reads “When this creature leaves play. That means a delayed triggered ability won’t trigger until it has actually been created.” although that word won’t usually begin the ability. A delayed triggered ability will contain “when.1. Whenever you reveal a basic land card this way. 405.” Such abilities apply only while the ability is on a permanent in play. draw a card” is a static ability linked to a triggered ability.4b A delayed triggered ability will trigger only once—the next time its trigger event occurs—unless it has a stated duration. Other events that happen earlier may make the trigger event impossible.” or “at. such as “this turn. Static Abilities 405. A very few objects have triggered abilities which are written with the trigger condition in the middle of the ability. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the same as the controller of the spell or ability that created it. In this case. 404. even if that player no longer controls its source. the ability waits for the next time that creature untaps. Similarly. abilities that create a one-shot effect that applies to an object in a particular zone will fail if the object leaves that zone.4e The source of a delayed triggered ability created by a spell is that spell. An effect may create a delayed triggered ability that can do something at a later time.” 404.” but the creature in question leaves play before the spell or ability creating the effect resolves. even if its trigger event occurred just beforehand. The source of a delayed triggered ability created by another ability is the same as the source of that other ability. Example: An ability that reads “Reveal the first card you draw each turn.”) These objects combine both abilities into one paragraph. Some objects have a static ability that’s linked to a triggered ability. Example: If an effect reads “When this creature becomes untapped” and the named creature becomes untapped before the effect resolves. The ability isn’t played—it just “exists. 404. followed by the triggered ability. with the static ability first.

2a A static ability is a characteristic-defining ability if it meets the following criteria: 1) It defines an object’s colors. but they don’t go on the stack. 406. 406. 406. Example: Meteor Crater has the ability “{T}: Choose a color of a permanent you control. or toughness. Ignore .402. taking into account any applicable replacement effects in any possible order. It conveys information about an object’s characteristics that would normally be found elsewhere on that object (such as in its mana cost.2. 2) It is printed on the card it affects. They also function outside the game. 3) It does not directly affect the characteristics of any other objects. or it was acquired by the object it affects as the result of a copy effect. it produces no mana instead. Example: A permanent has an ability that reads “{T}: Add {G} to your mana pool for each creature you control. Some abilities produce mana based on the type of mana another permanent or permanents could produce. “Playing Mana Abilities. so they can’t be countered or responded to.2.2.” and rule 408. Abilities that produce mana but trigger from events other than playing mana abilities do use the stack. “Actions That Don’t Use the Stack. Characteristic-defining abilities function in all zones. 405. A characteristic-defining ability is a kind of static ability. They’re played and resolved exactly like any other spells. If a mana ability would produce one or more mana of an undefined type. Spells that put mana into a player’s mana pool aren’t mana abilities. 405. Mana Abilities 406. type line. 406.4. The type of mana a permanent “could produce” at any time includes any type of mana that an ability of that permanent would generate if the ability were to resolve at that time.6.3.7.” If you control no colored permanents. 406.” This is still a mana ability even if you control no creatures or if the permanent is already tapped. So do abilities that don’t produce mana but trigger on playing mana abilities. A mana ability is either (a) an activated ability without a target that could put mana into a player’s mana pool when it resolves or (b) a triggered ability without a target that triggers from a mana ability and could produce additional mana. or power/toughness box). See rule 411. A mana ability remains a mana ability even if the game state doesn’t allow it to produce mana.5. playing Meteor Crater’s mana ability produces no mana. power.1. it was granted to the token it affects by the effect that created the token. A mana ability can generate other effects at the same time it produces mana. A mana ability can be activated or triggered. 406. and 5) It does not set the values of such characteristics only if certain conditions are met.8. 4) It is not an ability that an object grants to itself.” 406. Add one mana of that color to your mana pool. subtypes. Mana abilities are played and resolved like other abilities.

2b If an object has an ability printed on it that generates a replacement effect which causes one or more cards to be removed from the game. if you control a Forest and an Exotic Orchard. “Replacement Effects. There are different kinds of linked abilities. The second can refer only to objects put into play as a result of the first. The second ability refers only to a choice made as a result of the first ability. then each Exotic Orchard could produce {G}.2e If an object has both a static ability and a triggered ability printed on it in the same paragraph.2a If an object has an activated or triggered ability printed on it that removes one or more cards from the game. An object may have two abilities printed on it such that one of them causes actions to be taken or objects to be affected and the other one directly refers to those actions or objects. 407.5. and not by any other ability. 407.2c If an object has an activated or triggered ability printed on it that puts one or more objects into play. those abilities are linked. See rule 404. If that permanent wouldn’t produce any mana under these conditions. 407. Example: Exotic Orchard has the ability “{T}: Add to your mana pool one mana of any color that a land an opponent controls could produce. 407.1. and another ability printed on it that refers to whether the kicker cost was paid. or no type of mana can be defined this way. The triggered ability refers only to actions taken as a result of the static ability. and your opponent controls an Exotic Orchard. 407.” and another ability printed on it that refers to “the chosen [value]. Linked Abilities 407.” those abilities are linked.” 407. 407. However. there’s no type of mana it could produce. The same is true if you and your opponent each control no lands other than Exotic Orchards.” these abilities are linked. and another ability printed on it that refers either to “the removed cards” or to cards “removed from the game with [this object]. 407.” these abilities are linked.2. and another ability printed on it that refers either to “the removed cards” or to cards “removed from the game with [this object]. See rule 419. The second ability refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone that were moved there as a direct result of a replacement event caused by the first ability. If a kicker ability lists . those abilities are linked.whether any costs of the ability couldn’t be paid. these two abilities are linked: the second refers only to actions that were taken or objects that were affected by the first. If so.” “the last chosen [value]. The second ability refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone that were moved there as a result of the first ability.2d If an object has an ability printed on it that causes a player to “choose a [value]” or “name a card.” If your opponent controls no lands.” or “the named card. playing Exotic Orchard’s mana ability will produce no mana.” these abilities are linked.6.2f If an object has a kicker ability printed on it. and another ability printed on it that refers to objects “put into play with [this object]. The second refers only to whether the kicker cost listed in the first was paid when the object was played as a spell.

” 407. Priority. 408. If all players pass in succession (that . “Champion.multiple costs. Then the player who would have received priority does so and may play a spell or ability. regardless of what other abilities the object may currently have or may have had in the past. “State-Based Effects”). plays it. only the creature card Quicksilver Elemental removed from the game with Sisters of Stone Death’s ability can be returned to play. “Handling Triggered Abilities”). 408. “Kicker.1. or pass. This process repeats until no more applicable state-based effects are generated. Example: Arc-Slogger has the ability “{R}: Remove the top ten cards of your library from the game: Arc-Slogger deals 2 damage to target creature or player. or pass. and the Stack 408. No player gets priority during the untap step and players usually don’t get priority during the cleanup step (see rule 314.” Quicksilver Elemental has the ability “{U}: Quicksilver Elemental gains all activated abilities of target creature until end of turn. Timing of Spells and Abilities 408. See rule 502. it will have multiple abilities linked to it. while other kinds of abilities and effects are automatically generated by the game rules. Timing.1b Spells and activated abilities are played by players (if they choose) using a system of priority. take a special action (such as playing a land).3.2g The two abilities represented by the champion keyword are linked abilities. Each of those abilities will specify which kicker cost it refers to. Then. The player with priority may play a spell or ability. the player again receives priority. They can’t be linked to any other ability. if any new state-based effects have been generated. These steps repeat in order until no further state-based effects or triggered abilities are generated.” If a player has Quicksilver Elemental gain Arc-Slogger’s ability. Creature cards Quicksilver Elemental removed from the game with Arc-Slogger’s ability can’t be returned. If he or she plays a spell or ability. 408. Then triggered abilities are added to the stack (see rule 410. all applicable state-based effects resolve first as a single event (see rule 420. the next player in turn order receives priority. and then plays the return-to-play ability.” 407. or takes a special action.” Sisters of Stone Death has the ability “{B}{G}: Remove from the game target creature blocking or blocked by Sisters of Stone Death” and the ability “{2}{B}: Put a creature card removed from the game with Sisters of Stone Death into play under your control. plays the remove-from-game ability. See rule 502. they resolve as a single event. the abilities will be similarly linked to one another on that object even though they weren’t printed on that object. after any game actions are dealt with and abilities that trigger at the beginning of that phase or step go on the stack. If an object acquires a pair of linked abilities as part of the same effect.3).21. take a special action. otherwise.1c The active player gets priority at the beginning of most phases and steps. then has Quicksilver Elemental gain Sisters of Stone Death’s abilities.72.1a Spells and activated abilities can be played only at certain times and follow a set of rules for doing so. as governed by the rules for that phase or step. Each time a player would get priority.

”) . including during the playing or resolution of a spell or another ability. they’re the result of spells and abilities resolving. “Mana Abilities.1h Static abilities aren’t played—they continuously affect the game. “Handling Triggered Abilities.2. 408.”) A player can choose to perform this special action only during a main phase of his or her turn. If a player had priority before a mana ability was played.2a Effects don’t go on the stack.2d Playing a land is a special action consisting of putting that land into play. Priority doesn’t apply to them.1d A player may play an instant spell or an activated ability any time he or she has priority. “Static Abilities. then the active player receives priority. 408.1f Triggered abilities can trigger at any time. “Continuous Effects.2h). “Combat Damage Step.2c State-based effects (see rule 420) resolve whenever a player would receive priority as long as the required game condition is true.2b Static abilities continuously generate effects and don’t go on the stack.” rule 418.2e Mana abilities resolve immediately. “Lands.1e When a spell is played. Each time a player would receive priority. However.1g Combat damage goes on the stack once it’s been assigned. 408.1i Special actions don’t use the stack. If a player had priority before playing a land. that player gets priority after it resolves. when he or she has priority and the stack is empty. (See rule 406.6.” and rule 419. 408. Actions That Don’t Use the Stack 408. however. if all players pass without taking any actions in between passing). see rule 310. nothing actually happens at the time the abilities trigger.4). The special actions are playing a land (see rule 408.2k). (See rule 410.”) 408. Effects may create delayed triggered abilities. it goes on top of the stack.”) 408. 408. Then the player gets priority and may play spells or abilities.” 408. ignoring continuous effects (see rule 408. If the stack is empty when all players pass in succession. stopping delayed triggered abilities from triggering or ending continuous effects (see rule 408. When an activated ability is played.is. both the mana and the other effect happen immediately. it goes on top of the stack. (See rule 212. the phase or step ends and the next one begins. 408. For more information. each ability that has triggered is put on the stack (if it hasn’t already been put on the stack).2d).2j). 408. when that player has priority and the stack is empty. “Replacement and Prevention Effects. 408.2i). and removing a card with suspend in your hand from the game (see rule 408. If a mana ability produces both mana and another effect. Spells other than instants may be played during a player’s main phase. the top object on the stack resolves. turning a face-down creature face up (see rule 408. and these may go on the stack when they trigger (see rule 404. (See rule 405. that player gets priority after this special action.

This is a special action. On the stack.”) A player can turn a face-down permanent face up only when he or she has priority. 409. the game returns to the moment before that spell or ability was played (see rule 422. untapping at the start of the untap step (see rule 302. the card that has that ability is revealed. at any point during the playing of a spell or ability. Announcements and payments can’t be altered after they’ve been made. A player can stop a delayed triggered ability from triggering or end a continuous effect only if the ability or effect allows it and only when he or she has priority. A player can take an action to ignore an effect only when he or she has priority. removing damage from permanents and ending “until end of turn” effects during the cleanup step (see rule 314. that card (or that copy of a card) physically moves from the zone it’s in to the stack. a player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below. The game actions are phasing in and out at the start of the untap step (see rule 302. usually to end a continuous effect or to stop a delayed triggered ability. and mana burn as each phase ends (see rule 300. declaring blockers at the start of the declare blockers step (see rule 309. “Face-Down Spells and Permanents. Playing Spells and Activated Abilities 409.” are simply read and followed as applicable. That player gets priority after this special action. the ability has the text of the ability that created it.2.”) A player can remove a card with suspend in his or her hand from the game only when he or she has priority. (See rule 504. such as “[This object] is red. drawing a card at the start of the draw step (see rule 304.2h The controller of a face-down permanent may turn it face up. 408.2). 408. The player who took the action gets priority after this special action. 409. The player who took the action gets priority after this special action.2i Some effects allow a player to take an action at a later time. and its controller is the player who played it. declaring attackers at the start of the declare attackers step (see rule 308. This is a special action. If. It has all the characteristics of the card (or the copy of a card) associated with it. and no other characteristics.) 408. “Suspend. This is a special action.2).1).1. the active player discarding down to his or her maximum hand size at the start of the cleanup step (see rule 314.408. (See also rule 405. it’s created on the stack as an object that’s not a card. This is a special action.1). Playing a spell or activated ability follows the steps listed below. in order. “Handling Illegal Actions”). the spell was played illegally. If a spell is being played. If an activated ability is being played from a hidden zone.1).2j Some effects from static abilities allow a player to take an action to ignore the effect from that ability for a duration. If an activated ability is being played. 408.2f Characteristic-defining abilities.2g Game actions don’t use the stack. 408. The spell or ability remains .1a The player announces that he or she is playing the spell or activated ability.1).59. Its controller is the player who played the ability.3).2k A player who has a card with suspend in his or her hand may remove that card from the game. (See rule 502.1). That player gets priority after this special action.

object. otherwise. the same object. A spell or ability can’t be played unless the required number of legal targets are chosen for it. the ability requires two different legal targets.” then the same target can’t be chosen twice. the player announces the nonhybrid equivalent cost he or she intends to pay.1c The player checks whether the spell or ability targets one or more targets only if an alternative. kicker.1d If the spell or ability requires any targets. Each of these targets must receive at least one of whatever is being divided.1f). Some effects may increase or reduce the cost to pay. An ability that reads “Destroy target artifact and target land.on the stack until it’s countered or resolves. or zone can be chosen once for each instance of the word “target” (as long as it fits the targeting criteria). additional. If the player wishes to splice any cards onto the spell (see rule 502. All of a spell or ability’s targets are chosen at the same time. 409. additional. tapping permanents.” “Choose one or both —. If the spell or ability has alternative. Costs may include paying mana. or special cost (such as a buyback or kicker cost) is paid for it.” however. The chosen players. Usually this is just the mana cost (for spells) or activation cost (for abilities).40). can target the same artifact land twice because it uses the word “target” in multiple places. the spell or ability is played as though it did not have those targets. he or she reveals those cards in his or her hand. or zone for each of those targets. .” or “[specified player] chooses one —”).1f The player determines the total cost of the spell or ability. and/or zones each become a target of that spell or ability. sacrificing permanents. the player announces the division. 409. If a cost that will be paid as the spell or ability is being played includes hybrid mana symbols. Its controller will need to choose those targets only if he or she announced the intention to pay that cost or chose that mode. then announces his or her choice of an appropriate player. or convoke costs). player.1b If the spell or ability is modal (uses the phrase “Choose one —. the player announces the value of that variable at this time. or may provide other alternative costs. or other special costs that will be paid as it’s being played (such as buyback. 409. Example: If an ability reads “Tap two target creatures. The same target can’t be chosen multiple times for any one instance of the word “target” on the spell or ability. If the spell or ability uses the word “target” in multiple places. 409.1e If the spell or ability requires the player to divide or distribute an effect (such as damage or counters) among one or more targets. Some cards list additional or alternative costs in their text. or if a particular mode is chosen for it. You can’t apply two alternative methods of playing or two alternative costs to a single spell or ability. the player announces the mode choice. the player announces his or her intentions to pay any or all of those costs (see rule 409. If the spell or ability has a variable cost that will be paid as it’s being played (such as an {X} in its mana cost). 409.” “Choose two —. objects. Previously made choices (such as choosing to play a spell with flashback from his or her graveyard or choosing to play a creature with morph face down) may restrict the player’s options when making these choices. the player first announces how many targets he or she will choose (if the spell or ability has a variable number of targets).

See rule 504. Because they aren’t played.4. and so on. that spell can be played face down. 409.1g If the total cost includes a mana payment. they have no effect. If the spell or ability’s controller had priority before playing it. not {3}{B}. Because a spell’s total cost is “locked in” before payments are actually made. “Face-Down Spells and Permanents. the player then has a chance to play mana abilities (see rule 411.discarding cards.2b If the spell or ability instructs its controller and another player to do something at the same time as the spell or ability is being played. It can’t be reduced to less than {0}. and the face-down spell would not be prohibited.1a–h are completed.1h The player pays the total cost in any order. 409. even though you’re sacrificing the Familiar.1i Once the steps described in 409. whose effect makes your black spells cost {1} less to play. 409. Once the total cost is determined. which costs {3}{B} and has an additional cost of sacrificing a creature. Playing a spell or ability that alters costs won’t do anything to spells and abilities that are already on the stack.4a If an effect allows a card that’s prohibited from being played to be played face down. such as choose a mode or choose targets. plus all additional costs and cost increases. he or she gets priority. 409. you pay {2}{B}. This is an exception to rule 103. Some spells and abilities specify that one of their controller’s opponents does something the controller would normally do while it’s being played. Example: You play Death Bomb. the opponent does so when the spell or ability’s controller normally would do so. then the other player. Handling Triggered Abilities 410. Unpayable costs can’t be paid. “Playing Mana Abilities”). and minus all cost reductions.4.3. 409. or alternative cost (as determined in rule 409. Mana abilities must be played before costs are paid.” 410. You sacrifice Thunderscape Familiar.” If effects would change the total cost after this time.2a If there is more than one opponent who could make such a choice. Any abilities that trigger on a spell or ability being played or put onto the stack trigger at this time.2. In these cases. it is considered to be {0}. it becomes “locked in. activation cost.1. A player can’t begin to play a spell or activated ability that’s prohibited from being played by an effect. The total cost is the mana cost. the spell or ability becomes played. the spell’s controller goes first. and effects that prevent abilities from . 409. Partial payments are not allowed. the spell or ability’s controller decides which of those opponents will make the choice. triggered abilities can trigger even when it isn’t legal to play spells and abilities. 409.1b). 409. 409. If the mana component of the total cost is reduced to nothing by cost reduction effects.

you may draw a card”). Example: A permanent has an ability whose trigger condition reads. .being played don’t affect them. the ability is simply removed from the stack. See also rule 410. but it’s automatically put on the stack by its controller as soon as a player would receive priority. 410.5. Whenever a game event or game state matches a triggered ability’s trigger event.2a If a triggered ability’s trigger condition is met. An ability triggers only once each time its trigger event occurs. each player. These abilities go on the stack when they trigger. If no mode can be chosen.” If someone plays a spell that destroys all lands. in APNAP order. 410. puts triggered abilities he or she controls on the stack in any order he or she chooses.” as in “At the beginning of your upkeep. The ability doesn’t do anything when it triggers. 410. 410. Each triggered ability on the stack has the text of the ability that created it. it uses the phrase “Choose one —” or “[specified player] chooses one —”). for example). all abilities that trigger “at the beginning of” that phase or step trigger. .) Then players once again check for and resolve state-based effects until none are generated. the controller of the ability makes any choices that would be required while playing an activated ability. or if a rule or a continuous effect otherwise makes the ability illegal. . triggered abilities that have an effect “unless” something is true or a player chooses to do something will go on the stack normally. its controller announces the mode choice when he or she puts the ability on the stack. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. and no other characteristics. If multiple abilities have triggered since the last time a player received priority. Some triggered abilities’ effects are optional (they contain “may. it can trigger repeatedly if one event contains multiple occurrences. Then the appropriate player gets priority. then abilities that triggered during this process go on the stack. This process repeats until no new state-based effects are generated and no abilities trigger. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities”). 410. Likewise. When a phase or step begins.2.7. but the object with that triggered ability is at no time visible to all players. However. The choice is made when the ability resolves. If a choice is required when the triggered ability goes on the stack but no legal choices can be made for it. regardless of whether their controller intends to exercise the ability’s option or not. If one of the modes would be illegal to play (due to an inability to choose legal targets.6. that ability triggers.4.4. The ability is controlled by the player who controlled its source at the time it triggered. the ability does not trigger. the ability will trigger once for each land put into the graveyard during the spell’s resolution. An event that’s . the “unless” part of the ability is dealt with when the ability resolves. “Whenever a land is put into a graveyard from play. . 410. 410. An ability triggers only if its trigger event actually occurs. following the same procedure (see rule 409.4a If a triggered ability is modal (that is. the ability is removed from the stack. that mode can’t be chosen. unless it’s a delayed triggered ability. When a triggered ability goes on the stack.9. 410.3. (See rule 103.

9d An ability that reads “Whenever a creature blocks [this creature].” triggers only once each combat for that creature. This applies to abilities that trigger on a creature blocking or being blocked by at least a certain number of creatures as well. but only if it hadn’t already been blocked that combat. The ability checks the condition again on resolution.” triggers once for each creature that blocks the named creature. [effect]”). .” triggers once for each attacking creature the creature with the ability blocks. .9b An ability that reads “Whenever [this creature] blocks a creature. It will trigger if the creature becomes blocked by an effect rather than a creature.9e If an ability triggers when a creature blocks or becomes blocked by a particular number of creatures.”) They may trigger once or repeatedly. because it left the zone before the ability resolved. Effects that add or remove blockers can also cause such abilities to trigger.8. It triggers only if the creature is declared as a blocker. depending on the wording of the ability. . If it’s not satisfied. It will also trigger if an effect causes a creature to block the attacking creature. 410. the ability doesn’t trigger. Note that this mirrors the check for legal targets.9c An ability that reads “Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked.9a An ability that reads “Whenever [this creature] blocks. Note that this rule doesn’t apply to any triggered ability with an “if” condition elsewhere within its text. It won’t trigger if the creature becomes blocked by an effect rather than a creature.9. or because it is in a zone that is hidden from a player. even if it’s blocked by multiple creatures. . . check for the condition to be true as part of the trigger event. . if [condition]. the part of the ability attempting to do something to the object will fail to do anything. It triggers only if the creature is declared as a blocker. Example: An ability that triggers on damage being dealt won’t trigger if all the damage is prevented.prevented or replaced won’t trigger anything. 410. 410. . . such as a library or an opponent’s hand. Trigger events that involve objects changing zones are called “zonechange triggers. If the object is unable to be found in the zone it went to. During resolution. the ability triggers if the creature blocks or is blocked by that many creatures when blockers are declared. (This rule applies even if the object leaves the zone and returns again before the ability resolves. if it isn’t. even if it had already been blocked that combat. 410.” triggers only once each combat for that creature.” Many abilities with zone-change triggers attempt to do something to that object after it changes zones. Triggered abilities with a condition directly following the trigger event (for example. The ability could be unable to find the object because the object never entered the specified zone.10. (See rules 306–311 and rule 500. “Legal Attacks and Blocks. This rule is referred to as the “intervening ‘if’ clause” rule. 410. 410. even if it blocks multiple creatures. . Some abilities trigger when creatures block or are blocked in combat. .) The . 410. the ability does nothing. “When/Whenever/At [trigger]. . It will also trigger if an effect causes a creature to block the attacking creature. these abilities look for the object in the zone that it moved to. . 410.

. abilities that trigger specifically when an object becomes unattached.” “[This permanent] comes into play as . . The artifact’s ability triggers twice. .” “As [this permanent] comes into play .” Such text is a static ability—not a triggered ability—whose effect occurs as part of the event that puts the permanent into play. Example: Two creatures are in play along with an artifact that has the ability “Whenever a creature is put into a graveyard from play. that effect will cause it to lose its abilities the moment it enters play. 410. These are written. objects that exist immediately after an event are checked to see if the event matched any trigger conditions. The game has to “look back in time” to determine if these abilities trigger.” Each time an event puts one or more permanents into play. “ or “Whenever a [type] comes into play. the effect makes the land card into a creature the moment it enters play. .10b Continuous effects that modify characteristics of a permanent do so the moment the permanent is in play (and not before then). These are written as. . . and abilities that trigger when a player loses control of an object will trigger based on their existence. some triggered abilities must be treated specially because the object with the ability may no longer be in play. . all permanents in play (including the newcomers) are checked for any comes-into-play triggers that match the event. .10c Leaves-play abilities trigger when a permanent leaves the in-play zone. . “When [this object] leaves play. . you gain 1 life. even if an object is put into that zone from play. 410. .most common zone-change triggers are comes-into-play triggers and leavesplay triggers. abilities that trigger when an object that all players can see is put into a hand or library. “When [this object] comes into play. prior to the event rather than afterward. Continuous effects that exist at that time are used to determine what the trigger conditions are and what the objects involved in the event look like. The permanent is never in play with its unmodified characteristics. and enchantments. may have moved to a hand or library. 410. Conversely. . so it would trigger abilities that trigger when a creature comes into play. However.10a Comes-into-play abilities trigger when a permanent enters the in-play zone. 410. . . An ability that triggers when a card is put into a certain zone “from anywhere” is never treated as a leaves-play ability. or may no longer be controlled by the appropriate player.” An ability that attempts to do something to the card that left play checks for it only in the first zone that it went to. . creatures. so the comes-into-play ability won’t trigger.10e).” or “[This permanent] comes into play tapped. . even though the artifact goes to its owner’s graveyard at the same time as the creatures. . . 410. . however (see rule 410. and the appearance of objects. Continuous effects don’t apply before the permanent is in play.10e Some permanents have text that reads “[This permanent] comes into play with . Example: If an effect reads “All lands are creatures” and a land card is played. .” or “Whenever [something] is put into a graveyard from play.” Someone plays a spell that destroys all artifacts. . . .10d Normally. Leaves–play abilities. but aren’t limited to. if an effect reads “All creatures lose all abilities” and a creature card with a comes-into-play triggered ability enters play.

or a Game Loss awarded by a judge in a tournament. has been countered.410. See rule 217. or whenever he or she is playing a spell or activated ability that requires a mana payment.11. (Note that state triggers aren’t the same as state-based effects.2. It resolves immediately after it is played and doesn’t go on the stack. Triggered mana abilities trigger when an activated mana ability is played. These triggered abilities can find the new object that permanent card became in the zone it moved to.) A state-triggered ability doesn’t trigger again until the ability has resolved.2e. 411. even in the middle of playing or resolving a spell or ability. A player may play an activated mana ability whenever he or she has priority. If an activated or triggered ability produces both mana and another effect. a concession.3. regardless of the reason: Due to a state-based effect. These abilities resolve immediately after the mana ability that triggered them.1. To play a mana ability. A static ability may generate a continuous effect or a prevention or replacement effect. following the steps in rules 409. a spell or ability. “Whenever a player taps a land for mana. See rule 102. or has otherwise left the stack.1. both the mana and the other effect resolve immediately. A player may also play one whenever a rule or effect asks for a mana payment. the ability will trigger again. Then. they can also find the new object the Aura card became in its owner’s graveyard after state-based effects have been checked. that player adds one mana of that type to his or her mana pool.) 411. without waiting for priority.3. (See rule 408. These are called state triggers. Handling Static Abilities 412. 412. rather than triggering when an event occurs. 410. 410. the additional mana is added to the player’s mana pool immediately and can be used to pay for the spell.1c. the player announces that he or she is playing it and pays the activation cost. They’ll go onto the stack at the next available opportunity. “Whenever you have no cards in hand. Playing Mana Abilities 411. 411. These effects last as long as the object with the static . Example: An enchantment reads. If its controller plays a spell that reads “Discard your hand. These abilities trigger as soon as the game state matches the condition. if the object with the ability is still in the same zone and the game state still matches its trigger condition.” the ability will trigger during the spell’s resolution because the player’s hand was momentarily empty. Some triggered abilities trigger specifically when a player loses the game. Example: A permanent’s ability reads. the ability will trigger once and won’t trigger again until it has resolved. draw a card. such as a player controlling no permanents of a particular card type. These abilities trigger when a player loses or leaves the game.10f Some Auras have triggered abilities that trigger on the enchanted permanent leaving play. then draw that many cards.” If a player taps lands for mana while playing a spell.” If its controller plays the last card from his or her hand.1b–i. Some triggered abilities trigger on a game state.12.

412. “You may play [this card] . for example. Unlike spells and other kinds of abilities. The spell or ability is countered if all its targets. A target that’s moved out of the zone it was in when it was targeted is illegal. it will resolve normally.” If the enchantment isn’t a legal target during Aura Blast’s resolution (say. Resolving Spells and Abilities 413.” and “You may play [this object] without paying its mana cost” work while a spell is on the stack. “Destroy target nonblack creature and target land.” Suppose the same animated land is chosen both as the nonblack creature and as the land.1.” “You may pay [cost] rather than pay [this object]’s mana cost.4. . but those abilities don’t target that object. Draw a card. static abilities can’t use an object’s last known information for purposes of determining how their effects are applied.” 412. They can’t be regenerated. the spell or ability can’t perform any actions on it or make the target perform any actions. If the spell or ability is not countered. it checks whether the targets are still legal. 413. Example: Aura Blast is a white instant that reads.ability remains in the appropriate zone. .” are now illegal. Also.3. and the color of the creature land is changed to black before Plague Spores resolves.2a If the spell or ability specifies targets. Its controller doesn’t draw a card. then Aura Blast is countered. Equipment.5. its characteristics may have changed or an effect may have changed the text of the spell.2b The controller of the spell or ability follows its instructions in the order . If a target is illegal. or Fortification is moved to a different object. . or combat damage) on top of the stack resolves. Each time all players pass in succession.” and “Play [this card] only . affecting only the targets that are still legal. If the source of an ability has left the zone it was in. Some static abilities apply while a card is in any zone that you could play it from (usually your hand). the object (a spell. if it has gained protection from white or left play). Equipment. These are limited to those that read. Other changes to the game state may cause a target to no longer be legal.2. . the ability stops applying to the original object and starts modifying the new one.2. an ability. These steps are followed in the order listed below. abilities that say “As an additional cost to play . Some static abilities apply while a spell is on the stack. . “Destroy target enchantment. its last known information is used during this process. These are often abilities that refer to countering the spell. for every instance of the word “target. (See rule 416. . and Fortifications have static abilities that modify the object they’re attached to. 413. 412. Plagues Spores isn’t countered because the black creature land is still a legal target for the “target land” part of the spell. . Example: Plague Spores reads. . Many Auras. Resolution of a spell or ability may involve several steps. . 412.”) 413. 413.” “You can’t play [this card] . . “Effects. If an Aura. . .

Example: An effect that reads “Destroy all black creatures” destroys a white-and-black creature. However.5). except no player receives priority after it’s played. with the exception that having an empty library doesn’t make drawing a card an impossible action (see rule 423.2d Some spells and abilities have multiple steps or actions. If that spell is countered this way. later text on the card may modify the meaning of earlier text (for example. “Destroy target creature. the amount and division were determined as the spell or ability was put into the stack (see rule 402. and then that action is processed simultaneously. In some cases. put it on top of its owner’s library instead of into its owner’s graveyard. If an effect specifically instructs or allows a player to play a spell during resolution. In these cases.”) Don’t just apply effects step by step without thinking in these cases—read the whole text and apply the rules of English to the text.2c If an effect offers any choices other than choices already made as part of playing the spell or ability. denoted by separate sentences or clauses. 413. 413. 413. including the source of the ability itself. There are two exceptions: (1) if an effect deals damage divided among some number of creatures or players. the effect uses the current information of that object if it hasn’t changed zones. that involve multiple players. he or she may play mana abilities before taking that action. Then the choices for the second action are made in APNAP order. and then the first action is processed simultaneously. Example: A spell’s instruction reads. otherwise. “You may sacrifice a creature. It can’t be regenerated” or “Counter target spell.6). it checks only for the value of the specified characteristics. See rule 103. No other spells or abilities can normally be played during resolution. If the effect requires information from a specific object. replacement effects may modify these actions. the choices for the first action are made in APNAP order.4. when the effect is applied. the answer is determined only once. The currently resolving spell or ability then continues to resolve.written. not the ability. If you don’t. 413. it’s the object as it exists—or as it most recently existed—that does it.2f If an effect requires information from the game (such as the number of creatures in play). then continuing to play it by following the steps in rules 409. he or she does so by putting that spell on top of the stack. which may include playing other spells this way. the effect uses the last known information the object had before leaving the zone it was expected to be in. 413. and (2) static abilities can’t use last known information (see rule 412.2g If an effect refers to certain characteristics.2e If an effect gives a player the option to pay mana. the player announces these while applying the effect. 413.” A player who controls no creatures can’t choose the sacrifice option. regardless of any related ones an object may also have.2h If an ability’s effect refers to a specific untargeted object that has been previously referred to by that ability’s cost or trigger condition.3). and so on.1a–i. but one that reads “Destroy all nonblack creatures” doesn’t. it still affects . The player can’t choose an option that’s illegal or impossible. If the ability text states that an object does something. you lose 4 life.

An Aura permanent doesn’t target anything. The player who played the countered spell or ability doesn’t get a “refund” of any costs that were paid. then that creature ceases to be a creature before the triggered ability resolves. that player puts it into its owner’s graveyard.” This triggered ability is targeted.” where the “something” is a phrase that describes an object.” Clone says “As Clone comes into play.) Example: A sorcery card has the ability “When you cycle this card. 413. An ability is removed from the stack and ceases to exist as the final step of its resolution. Targeted Spells and Abilities 415. instead it doesn’t. An activated or triggered ability is targeted if it uses the phrase “target [something]. If a permanent spell resolves but its controller can’t put it into play. Countering Spells and Abilities 414. Aura spells are always targeted. If you do. The Magic game has no default for ties. but the spell is not.33. To counter a spell is to move the spell from the stack to its owner’s graveyard. 415.2i A spell is put into play from the stack under the control of the spell’s controller (for permanents) or is put into its owner’s graveyard from the stack (for instants and sorceries) as the final step of the spell’s resolution. 413. (If an activated or triggered ability of an instant or sorcery uses the word target. Clone comes into play as a copy of that creature. but that doesn’t make the card it’s on targeted. 414. or zone.” If Wall of Tears blocks a creature. “Enchant”). player. Example: Wall of Tears says “Whenever Wall of Tears blocks a creature.3.1. 415. Countering an ability removes it from the stack. “Equip.2. An activated or triggered ability of an Aura permanent can be targeted. the text of the spell or ability that created the effect will specify what to do in the event of a tie. or zone. An instant or sorcery spell is targeted if the text that will be followed when it resolves uses the phrase “target [something]. that ability is targeted.that object even if the object has changed characteristics.45. player. 415. Example: Worms of the Earth says “If a land would come into play. Neither Equipment spells nor Equipment permanents target anything. It’s put into its owner’s graveyard. .” An activated or triggered ability of an Equipment permanent can be targeted.1. the permanent will still be returned to its owner’s hand.2. Spells and abilities that are countered don’t resolve and none of their effects occur. see rule 502. 414.” If a player plays Clone and chooses to copy Dryad Arbor (a land creature) while Worms of the Earth is in play.” where the “something” is a phrase that describes an object. The equip ability is targeted. return that creature to its owner’s hand at end of combat. An Aura’s target is specified by its enchant keyword ability (see rule 502. only the spell is targeted. Clone can’t come into play from the stack.2j If an effect could result in a tie. target creature gets -1/-1 until end of turn. you may choose a creature in play.

Changing a spell or ability’s target can’t change its mode. 415. it does only as much as possible.1. One-Shot Effects 417.” An activated or triggered ability of a Fortification permanent can be targeted.7. Changing Targets 415.7a The target of a spell or ability can change only to another legal target.Neither Fortification spells nor Fortification permanents target anything. 417. it moves as many as possible. they are generated by specific rules of the game (see rule 420). see rule 502. Examples include damage dealing. 415. 415. Spells and abilities that can have zero or more targets are targeted only if one or more targets have been chosen for them. 417. Some effects are replacement effects or prevention effects.6. If the target can’t be changed to another legal target. State-based effects are not created by spells or abilities.2. Effects apply only to permanents unless the instruction’s text states otherwise or they clearly can apply only to objects in one or more other zones.5. unless a spell or ability (a) specifies that it can target an object in another zone or a player or (b) targets an object that can’t exist in the in-play zone. such as a spell or ability. But an effect that says spells cost more to play will apply only to spells on the stack.4. The fortify ability is targeted.2. Only permanents are legal targets for spells and abilities. Some one-shot effects instruct a player to do something later in the game (usually at a specific time) rather than when they resolve. and moving objects between zones. 416. 416. the original target is unchanged. 415. destruction of permanents. If an effect attempts to do something impossible. When a spell or ability resolves. it may create one or more one-shot or continuous effects. If an effect moves cards out of the library (as opposed to drawing). 415. This kind of effect . Example: If a player is holding only one card. Effects 416. an effect that reads “Discard two cards” causes him or her to discard only that card. Example: An effect that changes all lands into creatures won’t alter land cards in players’ graveyards.7b Modal spells and abilities may have different targeting requirements for each mode. since a spell is always on the stack while you are playing it. 415.65.3. “Fortify. A one-shot effect does something just once and doesn’t have a duration. 416.8.1. Static abilities may create one or more continuous effects. The word “you” in an object’s text doesn’t indicate a target. A spell or ability on the stack is an illegal target for itself.

418. (See rule 404.” If you play this ability and then Endoskeleton becomes untapped before the ability resolves.3. because its duration—remaining tapped—was over before the effect began.3c If a resolving spell or ability that creates a continuous effect contains a variable such as X. the effect does nothing. so it’s modifying the rules of the game.3a A continuous effect generated by the resolution of a spell or ability lasts as long as stated by the spell or ability creating it (such as “until end of turn”). Example: An effect that reads “All white creatures get +1/+1 until end of turn” gives the bonus to all permanents that are white creatures when the spell or ability resolves—even if they change color later—and doesn’t affect those that come into play or turn white afterward. apply them before determining whether the permanent will cause an ability to trigger when it comes into play. activated abilities. the value of that variable is determined only once. on resolution.2. They don’t wait until the permanent is in play and then change it. Because such effects apply as the permanent comes into play. and it doesn’t last forever. After that point. Example: Endoskeleton is an artifact with an activated ability that reads “{2}.4. or affects players or the rules of the game. Note that these work differently than continuous effects from static abilities. 418. Continuous Effects from Spells or Abilities 418. If no duration is stated. A continuous effect may be generated by the resolution of a spell or ability or by a static ability of an object.” If the “as long as” duration ends before the moment the effect would first be applied. Continuous effects that modify characteristics of permanents do so simultaneously with the permanent coming into play. Continuous effects that don’t modify characteristics or change the controller of objects modify the rules of the game. It also affects damage from permanents that become creatures later in the turn. Example: An effect that reads “Prevent all damage creatures would deal this turn” doesn’t modify any object’s characteristics.1. Continuous Effects 418. so they can affect objects that weren’t affected when the continuous effect began. .3d Some effects from activated or triggered abilities have durations worded “as long as . {T}: Target creature gets +0/+3 as long as Endoskeleton remains tapped. modifies control of objects.2f. See rule 413. A continuous effect modifies characteristics of objects. It doesn’t start and immediately stop again. That means the effect will apply even to damage from creatures that weren’t in play when the continuous effect began. 418. and triggered abilities that modify the characteristics or change the controller of those objects is determined when that continuous effect begins. for a fixed or indefinite period.) 418. .3b The set of objects that are affected by continuous effects from spells. it does nothing. . it lasts until the end of the game. 418. .actually creates a new ability that waits to be triggered. 418. the set won’t change.

4. An effect that says “Target creature gets +4/+4 until end of turn” is applied to it (layer 6b). Example: Gray Ogre. (6b) all other effects not specifically applied in 6c. and (6e) effects that switch a creature’s power and toughness. Interaction of Continuous Effects 418. apply effects in timestamp order.418. plus +1/+1 from the counter. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418. Example: A permanent with the static ability “All white creatures get +1/+1” generates an effect that continuously gives +1/+1 to each white creature in play. If the creature’s color is later changed to red (layer 5).5. (3) text-changing effects. the parts of the effect each apply in their appropriate layers. If a creature becomes white.and/or toughness-changing effects. even if the ability generating the effect is removed during . becoming 3/3. except those that change power and/or toughness. a creature that stops being white loses it. making it a 1/4 (0/1. it applies at any given moment to whatever its text indicates. (6d) effects from static abilities that modify power and/or toughness but don’t set power and/or toughness to a specific number or value. (4) type-changing effects (which includes effects that change an object’s card type. 418. making it a 7/9. it gets +1/+1 from Crusade (layer 6d). 6d. “Copying Objects”). 418.5b–418. Crusade’s effect stops applying to it. (2) control-changing effects.5a The values of an object’s characteristics are determined by starting with the actual object. is in play.4a A continuous effect generated by a static ability isn’t “locked in”. (5) all other continuous effects. Example: Crusade is an enchantment that reads “White creatures get +1/+1. making it 7/7. plus +0/+2 from the enchantment). apply effects from characteristicdefining abilities first. 418. Inside each layer from 1 through 5. making it 3/3. An enchantment that says “Creatures you control get +0/+2” enters play (layer 6d). and it will return to being a 2/2. or 6e. The creature doesn’t come into play as 1/1 and then change to 2/2. subtype. (6c) changes from counters. An effect puts a +1/+1 counter on it (layer 6c).5b If an effect should be applied in different layers.5g). and/or supertype). apply effects in a series of sublayers in the following order: (6a) effects from characteristic-defining abilities. and (6) power. A creature spell that would normally create a 1/1 white creature instead creates a 2/2 white creature. An effect that says “Target creature becomes 0/1 until end of turn” is applied to it (layer 6b). If an effect then turns the creature white (layer 5). Inside layer 6. Continuous Effects from Static Abilities 418. it gets this bonus. If an effect starts to apply in one layer. then applying continuous effects in a series of layers in the following order: (1) copy effects (see rule 503. it will continue to be applied to the same set of objects in each other applicable layer. then all other effects in timestamp order. Within each sublayer.4b The effect applies at all times that the permanent generating it is in play or the object generating it is in the appropriate zone. a 2/2 creature.” Crusade and a 2/2 black creature are in play. Note that dependency may alter the order in which effects are applied within a layer or sublayer.

and (c) neither effect is from a characteristic-defining ability.’ It’s still a land. what it applies to. then this rule is ignored and the effects in the dependency loop are applied in timestamp order. Example: Grab the Reins has an effect that reads “Until end of turn. is in play.5e An object’s timestamp is the time it entered the zone it’s currently in. (b) applying the other would change the text or the existence of the first effect.”) while you have ten creature cards in your graveyard (layers 4. even though those permanents aren’t noncreature artifacts by then. with three exceptions: (a) Whenever an Aura. or Fortification becomes attached to an object or player. If multiple dependent effects would apply simultaneously in this way. Otherwise.” This is both a control-changing effect and an “other” effect.and toughness-setting effect is applied to those same permanents in layer 6. An effect that says “Target creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn” is applied to it (layer 6b). or what it does to any of the things it applies to. (c) Permanents that phase in keep the same timestamps they had when they phased out. target land becomes a 3/3 creature that’s still a land” is applied to it (layers 4 and 6b). . Equipment. 418. making it a 4/4 land creature. 418. the Aura. Svogthos. 5.5a). Example: Svogthos.and toughness-setting effect. Then you activate Svogthos’s ability (“Until end of turn. (b) If two or more objects would receive a timestamp simultaneously. the Restless Tomb becomes a black and green Plant Zombie creature with ‘This creature’s power and toughness are each equal to the number of creature cards in your graveyard. Example: An effect that reads “All noncreature artifacts become 2/2 artifact creatures until end of turn” is both a type-changing effect and a power. 418.this process. you gain control of target creature and it gains haste. the effect is considered to be independent of the other effect. and 6b). Example: An effect that reads “Wild Mongrel gets +1/+1 and becomes the color of your choice until end of turn” is both a powerand toughness-changing effect and an “other” kind of effect. The “becomes the color of your choice” part is applied in layer 5. the Restless Tomb. An effect that says “Until end of turn. If the first effect is applied to it again. if applicable. and then the “gets +1/+1” part is applied in layer 6. or Fortification receives a new timestamp. the active player determines their timestamp order at that time. If a creature card enters or leaves your graveyard. and then the “it gains haste” part is applied in layer 5. The type-changing effect is applied to all noncreature artifacts in layer 4 and the power. such as by entering a zone simultaneously or becoming attached simultaneously.5c An effect is said to “depend on” another if (a) it’s applied in the same layer (and. it will become a 3/3 land creature again. Svogthos’s power and toughness will be modified accordingly. sublayer) as the other effect (see rule 418. The “you gain control” part is applied in layer 2. Equipment.5d An effect dependent on one or more other effects waits to apply until just after all of those effects have been applied. It becomes a 10/10 land creature. If several dependent effects form a dependency loop. they’re applied in “timestamp order” relative to each other.

an effect might give a player protection from red.5h One continuous effect can override another. Its new power and toughness is 4/1. effects may modify a player’s maximum hand size. Sometimes the results of one effect determine whether another effect applies or what another effect does. Then another effect switches the creature’s power and toughness. regardless of its previous color. “Enchanted creature is white. A new effect gives the creature +5/+0. 418.5b–418. 418.5j Some continuous effects affect players rather than objects.6a An effect that changes the text of an object changes only those words that are used in the correct way (for example. since nothing changes what they affect or what they’re doing to it. or a creature . Example: Two Auras are played on the same creature: “Enchanted creature gains flying” and “Enchanted creature loses flying. a land type word used as a land type.” It’s irrelevant whether an effect is temporary (such as “Target creature loses flying until end of turn”) or global (such as “All creatures lose flying”). 418. If the +0/+1 effect ends before the switch effect ends.418. the creature becomes a 3/1. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418. so its actual power and toughness is 4/6. All other such effects are applied in timestamp order. (See rule 418. Its “unswitched” power and toughness would be 6/4. a Magic color word being used as a color word.) Example: A 1/3 creature is given +0/+1 by an effect.” and another. and take the object’s toughness and apply it to the object’s power.1f. 418. All such effects are applied in timestamp order after the determination of objects’ characteristics.” The enchanted creature gets +1/+1 from the first effect. Applying them in timestamp order means the one that was generated last “wins.5g A continuous effect generated by the resolution of a spell or ability receives a timestamp at the time it’s created. 418.5a.6. Its new power and toughness is 4/1. Continuous effects that affect the costs of spells or abilities are applied according to the order specified in rule 409. When they’re applied. For example.5f A continuous effect generated by a static ability has the same timestamp as the object the static ability is on. For example. These effects are applied after all other continuous effects have been applied.” Neither of these depends on the other.5b–g). Then another effect switches the creature’s power and toughness. “White creatures get +1/+1.5g). or the timestamp of the effect that created the ability. Text-Changing Effects 418. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418. These effects are applied after all other effects that affect power and toughness.5i Some effects switch a creature’s power and toughness. Example: One effect reads. 418. Example: A 1/3 creature is given +0/+1 by an effect. they take the value of power and apply it to the object’s toughness. whichever is later.5k Some continuous effects affect game rules rather than objects.

1. Example: A player can play a regeneration ability in response to a spell . 419.1b Effects that read “[This permanent] comes into play with .” or “[This permanent] comes into play as . Replacement and prevention effects apply continuously as events happen —they aren’t locked in ahead of time. 419.6b Effects that add or remove abilities don’t change the text of the objects they affect. . ” are replacement effects. There are no special restrictions on playing a spell or ability that generates a replacement or prevention effect. so any abilities that are granted to an object can’t be changed by effects that change the text of that object. Most replacement effects use the word “instead” to indicate what events will be replaced with other events and use the word “skip” to indicate what events. Replacement or prevention effects must exist before the appropriate event occurs—they can’t “go back in time” and change something that’s already happened. .” or “[Objects] come into play .type word used as a creature type). 418. basic land type. The effect can’t change a proper noun. . 419. Such effects last until they’re used up or their duration has expired. or creature type. . Replacement and prevention effects are continuous effects that watch for a particular event to happen and then completely or partially replace that event. even if that proper noun contains a word or a series of letters that is the same as a Magic color word. Usually spells and abilities that generate these effects are played in response to whatever would produce the event and thus resolve before that event would occur. . . . . 419. 419.1e Effects that read “As [this permanent] is turned face up . or turns will be replaced with nothing. Replacement and Prevention Effects 419.6c Most spells and abilities that create creature tokens use creature types to define both the creature types and the names of the tokens. Prevention effects use “prevent” to indicate what events will not occur. .1d Effects that use the word “prevent” are prevention effects. These effects act like “shields” around whatever they’re affecting. . such as a card name. . 419. . because they are being used as creature types. 419.6d A creature token’s creature type and rules text are defined by the spell or ability that created the token.1c Continuous effects that read “[This permanent] comes into play . 419. . 419.” are replacement effects.4.1a Effects that use the word “instead” are replacement effects.” are replacement effects.2. . . These words can be changed. 418. even though they’re also being used as names.3.” “As [this permanent] comes into play . 418. phases. These characteristics can be changed by text-changing effects. steps.

6b Regeneration is a destruction-replacement effect. instead remove all damage from it and tap it. do nothing. apply self-replacement effects first. in which case the impossible instruction is simply ignored. phase.6g Some effects cause a player to skip a step. 419. step. phase. “Skip [something]” is the same as “Instead of doing [something]. or turn has started. 419.6d Some spells and abilities replace part or all of their own effect(s) when they resolve. then another action.” A creature that normally deals 2 damage will deal 8 damage —not just 4. or turn is a replacement effect. while the other will remain until another occurrence can be skipped.that would destroy a creature he or she controls.5. it can no longer be skipped—any skip effects will wait until the next occurrence. which may in turn trigger abilities. If two effects each cause a player to skip his or her next occurrence. so they have no effect. that player must skip the next two. remove it from combat.6e Skipping an event.6. each with an ability that reads “If a creature you control would deal damage to a creature or player. or player with the same damage dealt to another creature. Such effects are called self-replacement effects. planeswalker. 419. If either creature or planeswalker is no longer in play when the damage would be redirected. “Regenerate [permanent]” means “The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn. 419. The word “instead” doesn’t appear on the card but is implicit in the definition of regeneration.6a A replacement effect doesn’t invoke itself repeatedly and gets only one opportunity for each event.6f Anything scheduled for a skipped step. it does not deal damage at all.5a If a source would deal 0 damage. Replacement Effects 419.” Once a step. Example: A player controls two permanents. one effect will be satisfied in skipping the first occurrence. it deals double that damage to that creature or player instead. If it’s an attacking or blocking creature. or player. When applying replacement effects to an event. Note that the modified event may contain instructions that can’t be carried out. 419. That action is considered to be the first thing that happens during . 419. the effect does nothing. phase. then apply other replacement effects. A modified event occurs instead. and not an infinite amount. Anything scheduled for the “next” occurrence of something waits for the first occurrence that isn’t skipped. 419. or is no longer a creature or planeswalker when the damage would be redirected. planeswalker.6c Some effects replace damage dealt to one creature. 419. phase. or turn. it never happens. or turn won’t happen. That means abilities that trigger on damage being dealt won’t trigger. 419. If an event is prevented or replaced.” Abilities that trigger from damage being dealt still trigger even if the permanent regenerates. It also means that replacement effects that increase damage dealt have no event to replace. such effects are called “redirection” effects.

If another object gains a pair of linked abilities. Each 1 damage that would be dealt to the “shielded” creature or player is prevented.6h Some effects replace card draws. so Orb of Dreams is put into play untapped.” These abilities are linked: the second refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone that were moved there as a direct result of the replacement event caused by the first. “Prevent the next 3 damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn. and the draw is replaced.1c). They can’t be linked to any other ability. Prevention Effects 419.” An effect creates a token that’s a copy of Voice of All. Example: Yixlid Jailer says “Cards in graveyards have no abilities. choose a color” and “Voice of All has protection from the chosen color. and another ability that refers either to “the removed cards” or to cards “removed from the game with [this object]. or turn to actually occur. and continuous effects from the permanent’s own static abilities.” Scarwood Treefolk says “Scarwood Treefolk is put into play tapped.” A Scarwood Treefolk that’s put into play from a graveyard is put into play tapped. the abilities will be similarly linked on that object.6j An object may have one ability printed on it that generates a replacement effect which causes one or more cards to be removed from the game. To determine how and whether these replacement effects apply. its controller chooses a color for it. phase. if possible.” It will not affect itself. check the characteristics of the permanent as it would exist in play. (See rules 419. 419. Example: Voice of All says “As Voice of All comes into play. Preventing 1 damage reduces the remaining shield by 1.7b Some prevention effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability refer to a specific amount of damage—for example.) Such effects may come from the permanent itself if they affect only that permanent (as opposed to a general subset of permanents that includes it). They may also come from other sources. the additional action is not performed on any cards that are drawn as a result of that replacement effect. before resuming the sequence. Example: Orb of Dreams is an artifact that says “Permanents come into play tapped. These effects are applied even if no cards could be drawn because there are no cards in the affected player’s library. 419. but ignoring continuous effects from any other source that would affect it. continuous effects generated by the resolution of spells or abilities that changed the permanent’s characteristics on the stack (see rule 217. If an effect would have a player both draw a card and perform an additional action on that card.6i Some replacement effects modify how a permanent comes into play.7a Prevention effects usually apply to damage that would be dealt.” 419. See rule 407.1b-c. If an effect replaces a draw within a sequence of card draws. 419. taking into account replacement effects that have already modified how it comes into play. regardless of what other abilities the object may currently have or may have had in the past. “Linked Abilities.” These work like shields. If damage would be dealt to the shielded creature or player by .7.the next step. all actions required by the replacement are completed. As that token is put into play. 419.

“The next time a red source of your choice would deal damage to you this turn. 419. 419. the player or the controller of the creature chooses which damage the shield prevents. regardless of whether it’s from one of that permanent’s abilities or combat damage dealt by it.8. the rest of the effect takes place immediately afterward. the number of events or sources dealing it doesn’t matter.7d Some prevention effects prevent the next N damage that would be dealt to each of a number of untargeted creatures.7e Some prevention effects also include an additional effect. the shield isn’t used up. or to damage that would be dealt by the same source at a different time. which may refer to the amount of damage that was prevented.two or more applicable sources at the same time. If the player chooses a permanent. Example: Wojek Apothecary has an ability that says “{T}: Prevent the next 1 damage that would be dealt to target creature and each other creature that shares a color with it this turn. The prevention takes place at the time the original event would have happened. prevent 1 of that damage. the damage isn’t prevented or replaced. prevent that damage. Such effects count only the amount of damage.8b Some effects from spells and abilities prevent or replace damage from sources with certain properties. Changing creatures’ colors after the ability resolves doesn’t add or remove shields.” If an effect requires a player to choose a source. It will apply separately to damage from other applicable sources. If the properties no longer match. If for any reason the shield prevents no damage or replaces no damage. creature. a spell on the stack (including an artifact. creature. When the source would deal damage. enchantment. If the player chooses an artifact.7c Some prevention effects generated by static abilities refer to a specific amount of damage—for example. or planeswalker spell. The source is chosen when the effect is created. or a creature that assigned combat damage on the stack. 419. it gives the target creature and each other creature in play that shares a color with it at that time a shield preventing the next 1 damage that would be dealt to it. Such an effect creates a prevention shield for each applicable creature when the spell or ability that generates that effect resolves. the effect will apply to the next damage from that permanent.” When the ability resolves. and creatures that come into play later in the turn don’t get the shield.8a Some effects apply to damage from a source—for example. even if the creature is no longer in play or is no longer a creature.8c Some effects from static abilities prevent or replace damage from . 419. 419. “If a source would deal damage to you. he or she may choose a permanent. any card or permanent referred to by an object on the stack. any remaining damage is dealt normally. Sources of Damage 419. or planeswalker spell). enchantment.” Such an effect prevents only the indicated amount of damage from any applicable source at any given time. such as a creature or a source of a particular color. Once the shield has been reduced to 0. the “shield” rechecks the source’s properties. the effect will apply to any damage from that spell and from the permanent that it becomes when it resolves. 419.

” The controller of the creature that would be destroyed decides which replacement to apply first. one of them must be chosen. 420. Once no more state-based effects have been generated.sources with certain properties.9b A replacement effect can become applicable to an event as the result of another replacement effect that modifies the event. Otherwise. instead draw a card. State-Based Effects 420.”) 420. return a card from your graveyard to your hand instead. not state-based effects. 419. instead remove it from the game. 420. Once the chosen effect has been applied. this process is repeated (taking into account only replacement or prevention effects that would now be applicable) until there are no more left to apply. For these effects.” Both effects combine (regardless of the order they came into existence): Instead of gaining 1 life. the affected object’s controller (or its owner if it has no controller) or the affected player chooses one to apply.3. any of the applicable effects may be chosen. Whenever a player would get priority (see rule 408.9a If two or more replacement or prevention effects are attempting to modify the way an event affects an object or player. If any of those effects are self-replacement effects (see rule 419.1. one of them must be chosen. If two or more players have to make these choices at the same time. choices are made in APNAP order (see rule 103. If not. (See rule 404. This check is also made during the cleanup step (see rule 314).4). “Triggered Abilities. Example: One effect reads “For each 1 life you would gain.2.6d). Example: A player controls a creature with the ability “This creature’s power and toughness are each equal to the number of cards in your . the prevention or replacement applies to sources that are permanents with that property and to any sources that aren’t in play that have that property. Unlike triggered abilities. State-based effects are always active and are not controlled by any player. then the check is repeated. but any of those effects would modify under whose control an object would come into play. State-based effects are a special category that apply only to those conditions listed below. instead shuffle it into its owner’s library.” and another reads “If you would draw a card. the player puts a card from his or her graveyard into his or her hand.” and the other is a creature that reads “If [this creature] would be put into a graveyard from play. Abilities that watch for a specified game state are triggered abilities. Interaction of Replacement or Prevention Effects 419. Example: Two permanents are in play. All applicable effects resolve simultaneously as a single event. and then the appropriate player gets priority. 419. One is an enchantment that reads “If a card would be put into a graveyard. “Timing of Spells and Abilities”).9. if any of the listed conditions apply. state-based effects pay no attention to what happens during the resolution of a spell or ability. the game checks for any of the listed conditions for state-based effects. triggered abilities go on the stack. the active player receives priority.4. 420. the other does nothing.

Lethal damage is an amount of damage greater than or equal to a creature’s toughness.” The creature will temporarily have toughness 0 in the middle of the spell’s resolution but will be back up to toughness 7 when the spell finishes resolving.5n If a permanent has both a +1/+1 counter and a -1/-1 counter on it. . where N is the smaller of the number of +1/+1 and -1/-1 counters on it. The state-based effects are as follows: 420.5c A creature with lethal damage. Thus the creature will survive when statebased effects are checked. it ceases to exist. but is attached to another permanent.5b A creature with toughness 0 or less is put into its owner’s graveyard.5f A token in a zone other than the in-play zone ceases to exist. Regeneration can’t replace this event.5j If a copy of a spell is in a zone other than the stack. 420. 420. 420. In contrast. 420. all except the one that has been a permanent with the world supertype in play for the shortest amount of time are put into their owners’ graveyards. 420. is put into its owner’s graveyard. 420. it ceases to exist. or not attached to an object or player.5i If two or more permanents have the supertype world.5k An Equipment or Fortification attached to an illegal permanent becomes unattached from that permanent. This is called the “world rule. If a copy of a card is in any zone other than the stack or the in-play zone. N +1/+1 and N -1/-1 counters are removed from it. 420.5m A permanent that’s neither an Aura.5.5h A player with ten or more poison counters loses the game. nor a Fortification. because its trigger event happened during resolution.5d An Aura attached to an illegal object or player. this rule doesn’t apply. 420. It remains in play. In the event of a tie for the shortest amount of time. It remains in play.hand” and plays a spell whose effect is “Discard your hand. is destroyed.” If only one of those permanents is legendary. an ability that triggers when the player has no cards in hand goes on the stack after the spell resolves. This is called the “legend rule.5e If two or more legendary permanents with the same name are in play. becomes unattached from that permanent.5a A player with 0 or less life loses the game. 420. all are put into their owners’ graveyards. Regeneration can replace this event. 420. all are put into their owners’ graveyards.” 420. but greater than 0 toughness. 420. then draw seven cards. an Equipment.5p A planeswalker with loyalty 0 is put into its owner’s graveyard. 420.5g A player who attempted to draw a card from an empty library since the last time state-based effects were checked loses the game. 420.

” Or he or she can agree to the number the first player chose.) This sequence of choices is extended to all applicable players if there are more than two players involved.2. instead shuffle your hand. It can be higher.5g. Instead. the game ends in a draw. whichever comes first. or the same. in which case the loop continues that number of times plus whatever fraction is necessary for the first player to “have the last word.” (Note that either fraction may be zero. if the active player is not involved.) 421. each choose a number for his or her sets of actions. Lich’s Mirror replaces that game loss and you keep playing. 421. all are put into their owners’ graveyards.1. the nonactive player will always have the final choice and therefore be able to determine whether the creature has flying. independent actions. (See rule 102. a single replacement effect will replace all of them. If a loop contains optional actions controlled by two players and actions by both of those players are required to continue the loop.3.5. This is called the “planeswalker uniqueness rule. the first involved player after the active player in turn order) chooses a number.” 420. These rules (sometimes called the “infinity rules”) govern how to break such loops. Handling “Infinite” Loops 421.6. the first involved player after the active player in turn order) chooses a number for his or her set of actions. If the loop contains more than one set of optional. The loop is treated as repeating that many times or until another player intervenes. one player controls a creature with the ability “{0}: [This creature] gains flying. Example: You control Lich’s Mirror. If the loop contains one or more optional actions and one player controls them all. and all permanents you own into your library. lower.” The “infinity rule” ensures that regardless of which player initiated the gain/lose flying ability. you’d lose the game due to rule 420. in which case the loop continues that number of times plus whatever fraction is necessary for the second player to “have the last word.5q If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are in play. the active player (or. then draw seven cards and your life total becomes 20.” and another player controls a permanent with the ability “{0}: Target creature loses flying. each controlled by different players. in turn order. 421. If the loop contains only mandatory actions. the remaining players. Occasionally the game can get into a state in which a set of actions could be repeated forever. which says “If you would lose the game.5a and rule 420. The next time state-based effects are checked.4b. The other player then has two choices. Example: In a two-player game. your graveyard.” There’s one card in your library and your life total is 1. (Note that this assumes that the first player attempted to give the creature flying at least once. He or she can choose a lower number. Then each set of actions occurs . A spell causes you to draw two cards and lose 2 life. 421. then the active player (or.420. that player chooses a number. If multiple state-based effects would have the same result at the same time. Knowing that number.) 421. if the active player is not involved.4.

Players may not reverse actions that moved cards to a library or from a library to any zone other than the stack. 423. If a player realizes that he or she can’t legally take an action after starting to do so.5g. first the primary player (seated on the right) on the active team performs all of his or her draws. Handling Illegal Actions 422. that player can’t choose to do so.2a If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards. then the secondary player on that team performs all of his or her draws. the spell returns to the zone it came from. If a player is instructed to draw multiple cards. If no player chooses to perform [Y].4. A player who attempts to draw a card from an empty library loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. If the loop contains an effect that says “[X] unless [Y].5. It may also be done as part of a cost or effect of a spell or ability. unless mana from them or from any triggered mana abilities they triggered was spent on another mana ability that wasn’t reversed. See rule 420. 421.” where [X] and [Y] are each actions. This makes a difference for abilities that trigger on drawing cards or that replace card draws. the loop will continue as though [X] were mandatory.) 423. that player performs that many individual card draws. 423. that player can choose to do so. the entire action is reversed and any payments already made are canceled. . then each other player in turn order does the same. the player who had priority retains it and may take another action or pass. (This is a state-based effect.3. However. 422. then the nonactive team does the same. no player can be forced to perform [Y] to break the loop.the appropriate number of times.1. The player may redo the reversed action in a legal way or take any other action allowed by the rules. if an effect says that a player can’t draw cards and another effect offers that player the choice to draw a card. When reversing illegal spells and abilities.2. If there are no cards in a player’s library and an effect offers that player the choice to draw a card. 423.” the player has not drawn those cards. the active player performs all of his or her draws first. Drawing a Card 423. 422. 423. No abilities trigger and no effects apply as a result of an undone action. If the action was playing a spell.6. This is done as a game action during each player’s draw step.1. The player may also reverse any legal mana abilities played while making the illegal play. If an effect moves cards from a player’s library to that player’s hand without using the word “draw. Cards may only be drawn one at a time. A player draws a card by putting the top card of his or her library into his or her hand. as well as if the player’s library is empty. 423. 423.2.2b If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a TwoHeaded Giant game.

and triggered abilities read. If [that player] [does or doesn’t]. “Activated Abilities. The spell is not countered.6. causing Hesitation’s ability to trigger. 424. any parts of the original event that haven’t been replaced by the effect occur first. What a player actually needs to do to pay a cost may be changed or reduced by effects.423.1f–h.2. If the mana component of a cost is reduced to nothing by cost reduction effects. Some replacement effects result in multiple card draws. A cost is an action or payment necessary to take another action or to stop another action from taking place.) 424.6a An effect that replaces a card draw is applied even if no cards could be drawn because there are no cards in the affected player’s library. Example: You play a spell with mana cost {W} that has kicker {1}. If [a player] [does or doesn’t].6c Some effects perform additional actions on a card after it’s drawn. regardless of what events actually occurred. [effect]. 423. 424.” 424. [effect]. you’re unable to pay the “sacrifice Hesitation” cost. 424. If a cost includes a mana payment. Then an ability is played that removes Hesitation from the game. For example.” or “[a player] may [X]. and a permanent that’s already tapped can’t be tapped to pay a cost. “Mana Cost and Color. Unpayable costs can’t be paid. 423. an enchantment that says “When a spell is played. A player can’t pay a cost unless he or she has the necessary resources to pay it fully. When Hesitation’s ability resolves. the replacement effect is completed before resuming the sequence.” The action [X] is a cost. Costs 424. In such a case. paid when the spell or ability resolves. then the card draws happen one at a time.” and rule 403.” A spell is played.6b If an effect replaces a draw within a sequence of card draws. Some effects replace card draws.1.3. (See rule 203. The “If [a player] [does or doesn’t]” clause checks whether the player chose to pay an optional cost or started to pay a mandatory cost. Example: You control Hesitation. The spell’s “if the kicker cost was paid” effect will be applied.5. . 423. it is considered to be {0}. If you do. Some spells. See rule 203. a player with only 1 life can’t pay a cost of 2 life. the additional action is not performed on any cards that are drawn as a result of that replacement effect or any subsequent replacement effects.6. Paying a cost changed or reduced by an effect counts as paying the original cost. 424. “[X]. activated abilities. If the draw is replaced.1b. sacrifice Hesitation. the player paying the cost has a chance to play mana abilities. counter that spell. You choose to pay the kicker. Paying the cost to play a spell or activated ability follows the steps in rules 409. but a cost reduction effect means you spend only {W} when paying for the spell. 423.4.7.

However. return Dermoplasm to its owner’s hand. and you choose to put a creature card with morph from your hand into play. it comes into play under your opponent’s control instead of yours. If you do.” You turn Dermoplasm face up.Example: Your opponent has played Gather Specimens. a creature with morph that says “When Dermoplasm is turned face up. since you chose to pay the cost.” You control a face-down Dermoplasm. . you may put a creature card with morph from your hand into play face up. Dermoplasm is still returned to its owner’s hand. Due to Gather Specimens. it comes into play under your control instead. a spell that says “If a creature would come into play under an opponent’s control this turn.

each with a restriction that states “[This creature] can’t attack alone. Additional Rules 500. it doesn’t affect that block.) 500. If a creature gains or loses an evasion ability after a legal block has been declared.” The only legal attack is for just the creature that “attacks if able” to attack.4. Evasion abilities are static abilities that modify the declare blockers step of the combat phase. Evasion abilities are cumulative. 500.3a An evasion ability is an ability an attacking creature has that restricts what can block it. An effect states. 500. 500. and the active player must then propose another set of attacking creatures. If such a restriction or requirement conflicts with the proposed attack. can’t attack. Example: A player controls two creatures: one that “attacks if able” and one with no abilities. Example: A creature with flying and shadow can’t be blocked by a creature with flying but without shadow. Legal Attacks and Blocks 500.3.) Example: A player controls two creatures. then any of those scenarios are legal. “Declare Blockers Step. Example: A player controls one creature that “blocks if able” and another creature with no abilities. As part of declaring blockers. the active player checks each creature he or she controls to see whether it must attack. attack with both. can’t block. “Declare Attackers Step. or attack with neither.1. (Tapped creatures and creatures with unpaid costs to block are exempt from effects that would require them to block. If such a restriction or requirement conflicts with the proposed set of blocking creatures. and the defending player must then propose another set of blocking creatures.2. Some effects restrict declaring attackers or blockers in combat or require certain creatures to be declared as attackers or blockers. the defending player checks each creature he or she controls to see whether it must block. (See rule 308. “No more than one creature can attack each turn. A restriction conflicts with a proposed set of attackers or blockers if it isn’t being followed.” It’s legal to declare both as attackers.5. It’s illegal to attack with the other creature. the block is illegal. “Creatures can’t be blocked except by two or more creatures. (Tapped creatures and creatures with unpaid costs to attack are exempt from effects that would require them to attack. the attack is illegal. As part of declaring attackers. or is affected by some other attacking restriction or requirement.” Having only the first creature . A requirement is an effect that says a creature must block (or attack) or it must block (or attack) if some condition is met.”) A restriction is an effect that says a creature can’t block (or attack) or it can’t block (or attack) unless some condition is met. or is affected by some other blocking restriction or requirement. An effect states. If there are multiple scenarios in which all restrictions are being followed and the maximum possible number of requirements are being followed (even if not all of them are). A requirement conflicts with a proposed set of attackers or blockers if it isn’t being followed and (1) the requirement could be obeyed without violating a restriction and (2) doing so will allow the total number of requirements that the set obeys to increase.” and rule 309.

or Fortification to receive a new timestamp. In this case. 501. Most actions described in a card’s rules text use the standard English definitions of the verbs within. Equipment. Equipment. Attach 501. or Fortification that was attached to something ceases to be attached to it.3a To counter a spell or ability means to cancel it.3. If something is attached to a permanent in play. remove it from combat. the effect does nothing. 501. See rule 414. instead remove all damage from it and tap it.” 501. or Fortification in play to a different object causes the Aura. or Fortification can’t be attached to an object it couldn’t enchant.2a To attach an Aura. “Countering Spells and Abilities. It doesn’t resolve and none of its effects occur.” . it creates a replacement effect that protects the permanent the next time it would be destroyed this turn. sometimes reminder text summarizes their meanings. Equipment. 501. Equipment.1. Counter 501. or fortify.” 501. Regenerate 501. move it from the in-play zone to its owner’s graveyard. it’s customary to place it so that it’s physically touching the permanent.2b If an effect tries to attach an Aura. so that’s the only option.block violates the restriction.4.2c Attaching an Aura. 501.2. Destroy 501. Equipment. These “keywords” are game terms.5a If the effect of a resolving spell or ability regenerates a permanent. equip. If an Aura. An Aura. Equipment. or Fortification to an object means to take it from where it currently is and put it onto that object.5.4a To destroy a permanent. but some specialized verbs are used whose meanings may not be clear. 501. removing it from the stack. If it’s an attacking or blocking creature. “Regenerate [permanent]” means “The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn. Keyword Actions 501. or Fortification to the object it’s already attached to.2d To “unattach” an Equipment from a creature means to move it away from that creature so the Equipment is in play but is not equipping anything. 501. Having neither creature block fulfills the restriction but not the requirement. respectively. that counts as “becoming unattached. A countered spell is put into its owner’s graveyard. Having both creatures block the same attacking creature fulfills both the restriction and the requirement. It should no longer be physically touching any creature.

That player may then put that card on the bottom of his or her library. Keyword Abilities 502. rotate it back to the upright position from a sideways position.1. 501. In this case. so regeneration or other effects that replace destruction can’t affect this action.7b To untap a permanent. and put the rest on top of your library in any order. a player reveals the top card of his or her library. Tap 501. In these cases.7a To tap a permanent. A player can’t sacrifice something that isn’t a permanent. Sacrifice 501. the object lists only the name of the ability as a “keyword”. Sacrificing a permanent doesn’t destroy it. its controller moves it from the in-play zone directly to its owner’s graveyard.6a To sacrifice a permanent. “Regenerate [permanent]” means “Instead remove all damage from [permanent] and tap it.8. 501. 501. Some. (See rule 310.501. Fateseal 501. You and that opponent each clash.” 501. put any number of them on the bottom of your library in any order. Most abilities describe exactly what they do in the card’s rules text.8a To “scry N” means to look at the top N cards of your library. 501.9.6. it replaces destruction with an alternate effect each time that permanent would be destroyed. turn it sideways from an upright position.2. 501.5b If the effect of a static ability regenerates a permanent. sometimes reminder text summarizes the game rule. “Combat Damage Step.” 501. or something that’s a permanent he or she doesn’t control. remove it from combat. Clash 501. 502. though. put any number of them on the bottom of that library in any order. 502.2a First strike is a static ability that modifies the rules for the combat damage step. 501. If it’s an attacking or blocking creature.10b “Clash with an opponent” means “Choose an opponent.10c A player wins a clash if that player revealed a card with a higher converted mana cost than all other cards revealed in that clash.”) .7. Scry 501.9a To “fateseal N” means to look at the top N cards of an opponent’s library. First Strike 502.10a To clash. and put the rest on top of that library in any order. are very common or would require too much space to define on the card.10.

”) 502.” and rule 502.3a Flanking is a triggered ability that triggers during the declare blockers step. the phase gets a second combat damage step to handle the remaining creatures.” or “legendary landwalk”). Flanking 502.502. (See rule 309.) 502.3b If a creature has multiple instances of flanking. (See rule 309. 502.3.4c Multiple instances of flying on the same creature are redundant.28). plus any creatures with double strike. if at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike or double strike (see rule 502. 502. each triggers separately.6b Landwalk and snow landwalk are evasion abilities.2b At the start of the combat damage step.4a Flying is an evasion ability.5. 502. 502. A creature with landwalk is unblockable as long as the defending player controls at least one . Instead of proceeding to end of combat. 502.2d Multiple instances of first strike on the same creature are redundant. surviving attackers and blockers that didn’t assign combat damage in the first step. Haste 502.5a Haste is a static ability. 502.2c Adding or removing first strike any time after combat damage has been put on the stack in the first combat damage step won’t prevent a creature from dealing combat damage or allow it to deal combat damage twice.5b A creature with haste can attack or use activated abilities whose cost includes the tap symbol or the untap symbol even if it hasn’t been controlled by its controller continuously since the start of his or her most recent turn. “Declare Blockers Step.4b A creature with flying can’t be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. assign their combat damage. In the second combat damage step. 502. 502. 502.70. a card’s rules text will give a specific subtype or supertype (such as in “islandwalk. “Reach.4. Flying 502.5c Multiple instances of haste on the same creature are redundant. Landwalk 502.” 502.6a Landwalk and snow landwalk are generic terms.” “snow swampwalk. the blocking creature gets -1/-1 until end of turn. creatures without first strike or double strike don’t assign combat damage.3f.6. “Declare Blockers Step.”) “Flanking” means “Whenever this creature becomes blocked by a creature without flanking. A creature with flying can block a creature with or without flying. (See rule 212.

This is an exception to rule 200. or supertype and to any sources not in play that are of that card type. but remain in play. “State-Based Effects. Example: If a player controls a snow Forest.”) 502.”) 502. Such Auras attached to the permanent or player with protection will be put into their owners’ graveyards as a state-based effect. 502. Protection 502.” “protection from [quality B]. it behaves as two separate protection abilities. 502.6d Landwalk or snow landwalk abilities don’t “cancel” one another. that player may choose a snow landwalk ability. 502. (See rule 309.7b A permanent or player with protection can’t be targeted by spells with the stated quality and can’t be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality. “State-Based Effects. If an effect causes a permanent to lose all landwalk abilities. subtype.7e Any damage that would be dealt by sources that have the stated quality to a permanent or player that has protection is prevented. If the quality is a card type. 502. or supertype. that object would still have protection from [quality B]. subtype. 502. that player can’t block an attacking creature with snow forestwalk even if he or she also controls a creature with snow forestwalk.7. (See rule 420.” and so on for each possible . or supertype.6e Multiple instances of the same kind of landwalk or snow landwalk on the same creature are redundant.7d A permanent with protection can’t be equipped by Equipment that have the stated quality or fortified by Fortifications that have the stated quality.7a Protection is a static ability. the protection applies to sources that are permanents with that card type. 502. 502.”) 502.land with the specified subtype and/or supertype.9. If a player is allowed to choose any landwalk ability.7g “Protection from [quality A] and from [quality B]” is shorthand for “protection from [quality A]” and “protection from [quality B]”. subtype. If an effect causes an object with such an ability to lose protection from [quality A]. for example. written “Protection from [quality].7c A permanent or player with protection can’t be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality.6c Snow landwalk is a special kind of landwalk.” This quality is usually a color (as in “protection from black”) but can be any characteristic value. Such Equipment or Fortifications become unattached from that permanent.7f Attacking creatures with protection can’t be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality.7h “Protection from all [characteristic]” is shorthand for “protection from [quality A]. snow landwalk abilities are removed as well. A creature with snow landwalk is unblockable as long as the defending player controls at least one snow land with the specified subtype. 502. (See rule 420. “Declare Blockers Step.

9a Trample is a static ability that modifies the rules for assigning an attacking creature’s combat damage. any remaining damage is assigned as its controller chooses among those blocking creatures and the player or planeswalker the creature is attacking. and so on.9c If an attacking creature with trample is blocked. fortified by Fortifications. all its damage is assigned to the player or planeswalker it’s attacking. (See rule 310. for example.9b The controller of an attacking creature with trample first assigns damage to the creature(s) blocking it. 502.8b A creature with shadow can’t be blocked by creatures without shadow. Example: A 6/6 green creature with trample is blocked by a 2/2 creature with protection from green. 502. The attacking creature’s controller can then choose to assign the rest of the damage to the defending player.quality the listed characteristic could have. (See rule 309. 502. “Combat Damage Step. not any abilities or effects that might change the final amount of damage dealt. 502. and a creature without shadow can’t be blocked by creatures with shadow. take into account damage already on the creature and damage from other creatures that will be assigned at the same time (see rule 502. and all damage that would be dealt to it is prevented. If an effect causes an object with such an ability to lose protection from [quality A].8. equipped by Equipment. If all those blocking creatures are assigned lethal damage. When checking for assigned lethal damage. but there are no creatures blocking it when damage is assigned. .”) 502. The attacking creature’s controller must assign at least 2 damage to the blocker.7i “Protection from everything” is a variant of the protection ability. Shadow 502. The controller need not assign lethal damage to all those blocking creatures but in that case can’t assign any damage to the player or planeswalker it’s attacking. [quality C]. or blocked by creatures. enchanted by Auras. it behaves as multiple separate protection abilities.8c Multiple instances of shadow on the same creature are redundant. Trample 502. 502.”) 502.9e).8a Shadow is an evasion ability. that object would still have protection from [quality B]. even though that damage will be prevented by the blocker’s protection ability. A creature with trample has no special abilities when blocking or dealing noncombat damage.9.7j Multiple instances of protection from the same quality on the same permanent or player are redundant. A permanent with protection from everything has protection from each object regardless of that object’s characteristic values. “Declare Blockers Step. Such a permanent can’t be targeted by spells or abilities. 502.9d Assigning damage from a creature with trample considers only the actual toughness of a blocking creature. 502.

502.10a Banding is a static ability that modifies the rules for declaring attackers and assigning combat damage. the entire band becomes blocked.9e When there are several attacking creatures.10g If one member of a band would become blocked due to an effect. creatures in a band that are removed from combat are also removed from the band. even if something later removes the banding ability from one or more creatures. damage is assigned normally. Example: A player attacks with a band consisting of a creature with flying and a creature with swampwalk. The defending player. 502. then the creature with swampwalk will also become blocked by the blocking creature(s). The attacking player could assign 1 damage from the first attacker and 1 damage from the second to the blocking creature.10b As a player declares attackers.10f Banding doesn’t cause attacking creatures to share abilities.10d Once an attacking band has been announced. A player who controls a blocking creature with banding chooses how combat damage is assigned by creatures it blocks.10. Example: A 2/2 creature with an ability that enables it to block multiple attackers blocks two attackers: a 1/1 with no special abilities a 3/3 with trample. who controls a Swamp.502. see rule 502. but each creature may be a member of only one of them.10e If an attacking creature becomes blocked by a creature.) 502. 502.10h A player who controls an attacking creature with banding chooses how combat damage is assigned by creatures blocking that creature.9f Multiple instances of trample on the same creature are redundant. can block the flying creature if able. 502. Banding 502. are all in a “band. However. 502. he or she may declare that any number of those creatures with banding. it lasts for the rest of combat. If he or she does. each other creature in the same band as the attacking creature becomes blocked by that same blocking creature. 502. and 2 damage to the defending player from the creature with trample. (Defending players can’t declare bands but may use banding in a different way. If the creature had banding when it attacked or blocked but the ability was removed before the combat damage step.10h. and up to one of those creatures without banding. nor does it remove any abilities. 502. . it’s legal to assign damage from those without trample so as to maximize the damage of those with trample.” All of those creatures must attack the same player or planeswalker. 502.10c A player may declare as many attacking bands as he or she wants. The attacking creatures in a band are separate permanents.

”) 502. Blocking this band follows the same general rules as for banding.12b The rampage bonus is calculated only once per combat. 502. but creatures without banding can’t. each triggers separately. Then you may pay [cost] for each age counter on it. “Rampage N” means “Whenever this creature becomes blocked. 502.11. its controller can’t choose the same creature to sacrifice twice. When its ability next triggers and resolves. If you don’t. it gets +N/+N until end of turn for each creature blocking it beyond the first. if a blocking creature blocks at least two attacking creatures with the same “bands with other [quality]” ability. Partial payments aren’t allowed. When its ability next triggers and resolves. put an age counter on this permanent.10i Multiple instances of banding on the same creature are redundant.13. Cumulative Upkeep 502. the creature’s controller puts an age counter on it and then may pay {W} {W}{W}. the attacking player chooses how the blocking creature’s damage is assigned. Example: A creature has “Cumulative upkeep {W} or {U}” and two age counters on it. 502. Adding or removing blockers later in combat won’t change the bonus. the defending player chooses how the attacking creature’s damage is assigned. then either the entire set of costs is paid. Creatures with banding can also join this band. each choice is made separately for each age counter. If an effect causes a permanent to lose banding. when the triggered ability resolves. sacrifice it. 502. 502. Bands with Other 502.12c If a creature has multiple instances of rampage. or none of them is paid.502. the permanent loses all bands with other abilities as well. {W}{W}{U}.12. Similarly. or {U}{U}{U} to keep the creature in play.11c If an attacking creature is blocked by at least two creatures with the same “bands with other [quality]” ability. “Cumulative upkeep [cost]” means “At the beginning of your upkeep. “Declare Blockers Step.13a Cumulative upkeep is a triggered ability that imposes an increasing cost on a permanent.11a Bands with other is a special form of banding.” (See rule 309. Example: A creature has “Cumulative upkeep—Sacrifice a creature” and one age counter on it.” If [cost] has choices associated with it. Either . 502.11d Multiple instances of bands with other of the same kind on the same creature are redundant. 502.12a Rampage is a triggered ability.11b An attacking creature with “bands with other [quality]” can form an attacking band with other creatures that have the same “bands with other [quality]” ability. {W}{U}{U}. Rampage 502. The creatures in this band don’t have to have the creature type specified in the “bands with other [quality]” ability.

1c.15g Effects with limited duration and delayed triggered abilities that specifically reference a permanent will be unable to further affect that permanent if it phases out. 502.15f A card that returns to play from the phased-out zone is considered the same permanent it was when it left. 502. all permanents with phasing the player controls phase out. 502. before the active player untaps his or her permanents. Vigilance 502. all objects that had phased out under that player’s control phase in.15a Phasing is a static ability that modifies the rules of the untap step. the phasing event simply doesn’t occur that turn. When the first ability resolves. and effects that modify how a permanent comes into play are ignored. however. 502.14. 502.” and rule 302. (See rule 217.”) 502. 502. When the second ability resolves. 502. which stipulates that a permanent “forgets” its previous existence when it changes zones. Example: A creature has two instances of “Cumulative upkeep—Pay 1 life.14b Attacking doesn’t cause creatures with vigilance to tap. Abilities and effects that specifically mention phasing can modify or trigger on these events.two different creatures must be sacrificed. (See rule 308. .15b During each player’s untap step. “Phased Out.1.15d Permanents phasing in or out don’t trigger any comes-into-play or leaves-play abilities.15c If an effect causes a player to skip his or her untap step.” The creature currently has no counters but both cumulative upkeep abilities trigger. the controller adds another counter and then chooses to pay an additional 2 life.14a Vigilance is a static ability that modifies the rules for the declare attackers step. This is an exception to rule 217. any abilities triggering off of the phasing event won’t go onto the stack until the upkeep step begins. However. each triggers separately. 502. other effects that reference the permanent (including effects with unlimited duration) can affect the permanent when it returns to play. all damage dealt to it is removed. “Declare Attackers Step.13b If a permanent has multiple instances of cumulative upkeep.) 502.8. the controller adds a counter and then chooses to pay 1 life. Phasing 502. Simultaneously.15.14c Multiple instances of vigilance on the same creature are redundant. However. the age counters are not connected to any particular ability. or the creature with cumulative upkeep must be sacrificed. (Because no player receives priority during the untap step.15e When a permanent phases out.) 502. each cumulative upkeep ability will count the total number of age counters on the permanent at the time that ability resolves.

it “remembers” how many counters it has and also which opponents it has previously damaged. This doesn’t change the fact that the permanents phase in simultaneously. or Fortifications attached to that permanent phase out at the same time. any Auras. but instead phases in along with the card it’s attached to. however. If an Equipment or Fortification phases in but it’s no longer legal for it to be attached to the permanent it was attached to. 502. Diseased Vermin deals X damage to target opponent previously dealt damage by it. the Equipment or Fortification returns to play and then stays in play.15p Multiple instances of phasing on the same permanent are redundant.15m A permanent that phases in can attack or use activated abilities whose cost includes the tap symbol ({T}) or the untap symbol ({Q}) as though that permanent had haste. The permanent remains able to do so until it changes controllers or leaves play. Equipment. or Fortification phased out directly (rather than phasing out along with the permanent it’s attached to). This applies even if that permanent phased out and phased back in the turn it came into play. 502. see rule 420. Equipment. not attached to anything. “At the beginning of your upkeep. it won’t get the +3/+3 bonus from the Giant Growth because its effect has a limited duration. 502.5d and 418.5e) they had when they phased out. 502. They also “remember” who controlled them when they phased out. 502. If the creature phases back in somehow before the turn is over. They “remember” any counters they had on them.15i When a permanent phases out. 502. Buyback . Example: Diseased Vermin reads. This alternate way of phasing out is known as phasing out “indirectly. Equipment.15j If an Aura.Example: A creature is affected by Giant Growth and then phases out during the same turn. whether they were flipped when they left play. When it phases back in. the Aura returns to play and then is placed in its owner’s graveyard. 502.” An Aura. it will still be able to target those opponents with its upkeep-triggered ability. although they may phase in under the control of a different player if a control effect with limited duration has expired. 502. This is a state-based effect.15n A spell or ability that targets a permanent will resolve normally with respect to that permanent if the permanent phases out and back in before the spell or ability resolves. see rule 420. and whether they were tapped or untapped when they left play. in part. then it “remembers” the permanent it was attached to and returns to play attached to that permanent. This is a state-based effect.” If Diseased Vermin phases out. or Fortification that phased out indirectly won’t phase in by itself. If an Aura phases in but it’s no longer legal for it to be attached to the object or player it was attached to.16.15h Phased-out cards “remember” their past histories and will return to play in the same state. where X is the number of infection counters on it.15k Permanents that phase in keep the same timestamps (see rules 418. any choices made when they first came into play.

(See rule 309. or combination thereof (as in “basic landcycling”).18e Any cards that trigger when a player cycles a card will trigger when a card is discarded to pay a typecycling cost. “Buyback [cost]” means “You may pay an additional [cost] as you play this spell” and “If the buyback cost was paid. reveal it. it continues to exist while the object is in play and in all other zones. 502.” 502.18d Typecycling is a variant of the cycling ability. “Fading N” means “This permanent comes into play with N fade counters on it” and “At the .17c Multiple instances of horsemanship on the same creature are redundant. 502. “Declare Blockers Step.16a Buyback appears on some instants and sorceries. and put it into your hand.” Paying a spell’s buyback cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.” These abilities trigger from whatever zone the card winds up in after it’s cycled. Echo 502.17a Horsemanship is an evasion ability that appeared in the Portal Three Kingdoms™ set. Discard this card: Draw a card. sacrifice it unless you pay [cost].18a Cycling is an activated ability that functions only while the card with cycling is in a player’s hand.17. Fading 502. 502.19.502.20. subtype.17b A creature with horsemanship can’t be blocked by creatures without horsemanship.18.19a Echo is a triggered ability.18c Some cards with cycling have abilities that trigger when they’re cycled.” This type is usually a subtype (as in “mountaincycling”) but can be any card type.”) 502. 502. if this permanent came under your control since the beginning of your last upkeep. A creature with horsemanship can block a creature with or without horsemanship. 502. 502. Therefore objects with cycling will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities.18b Although the cycling ability is playable only if the card is in a player’s hand. “When you cycle [this card]” means “When you discard [this card] to pay a cycling cost. 502.1b and 409. “Cycling [cost]” means “[Cost]. “[Type]cycling [cost]” means “[Cost]. Horsemanship 502. Cycling 502. “Echo [cost]” means “At the beginning of your upkeep.1f–h.20a Fading is a keyword that represents two abilities. Then shuffle your library. Any effect that stops players from cycling cards will stop players from playing cards’ typecycling abilities. put this spell into its owner’s hand instead of into that player’s graveyard as it resolves.” 502. Discard this card: Search your library for a [type] card. supertype. It represents two static abilities that function while the spell is on the stack.

1b and 409.1c.” Playing a spell using its flashback ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.1b and 409. Otherwise. 502.beginning of your upkeep.23a Threshold used to be a keyword ability. the spell is played as if it did not have those targets. It represents two static abilities: one functions while the card is in a player’s graveyard and the other functions while the card is on the stack. 502.1f–h.22. “Flashback [cost]” means “You may play this card from your graveyard by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost” and “If the flashback cost was paid. This text just refers to one kicker cost or the other. Threshold 502.” where A and B are the first and second kicker costs listed on the card. remove this card from the game instead of putting it anywhere else any time it would leave the stack. All cards printed with the threshold keyword have received errata. the spell’s controller chooses those targets only if he or she declared the intention to pay that kicker cost.1f–h. Kicker 502.21. 502. See rule 407. These abilities refer to whether the player who played the object as a spell chose to pay the kicker costs. “Linked Abilities. See rule 409. read “if the [A] kicker cost was paid” as “if the first listed kicker cost was paid. remove a fade counter from this permanent.22a Flashback appears on some instants and sorceries.21a Kicker is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.” 502. Madness . 502. respectively.23. They can’t refer to any other kicker costs that may have been paid when the object was played. “Kicker [cost]” means “You may pay an additional [cost] as you play this spell. It is now an ability word and has no rules meaning. Updated wordings are available in the Oracle card reference.21b Objects with kicker have additional abilities that specify what happens if the kicker cost is paid.” and read “if the [B] kicker cost was paid” as “if the second listed kicker cost was paid. sacrifice the permanent. kicker [cost 2].” Paying a spell’s kicker cost(s) follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. they don’t check what that player actually spent to do so. Flashback 502.” Each of those abilities is linked to the kicker ability. regardless of what the spell’s controller actually spent when paying the cost.21d If part of a spell’s ability has its effect only if a kicker cost was paid.” 502. and that part of the ability includes any targets. 502. These abilities are linked to the kicker abilities printed on that object: they can refer only to those specific kicker abilities. In other words.” The phrase “Kicker [cost 1] and/or [cost 2]” means the same thing as “Kicker [cost 1]. If you can’t.21c Objects with more than one kicker cost have abilities that each correspond to a specific kicker cost. They contain the phrases “if the [A] kicker cost was paid” and “if the [B] kicker cost was paid.24.

” Any time you could play an instant. This follows the rules for paying alternative costs. and the morph effect works any time the card is face down.26d Any time you could play an instant. 502. and pay {3} rather than pay its mana cost. pay that cost.26b To play a card using its morph ability.25b A creature with fear can’t be blocked except by artifact creatures and/or black creatures.1f–h.26a Morph is a static ability that functions in any zone from which you could play the card it’s on. no subtypes.”) 502.”) 502.26c You can’t play a card face down if it doesn’t have morph. It becomes a 2/2 face-down creature card. show all players what the permanent’s morph cost will be when the effect ends. This action does not use the stack. no expansion symbol. “Declare Blockers Step. Any abilities relating to the permanent coming into play don’t trigger when it’s turned face up and don’t have any effect.25a Fear is an evasion ability.5. “Face-Down Spells and Permanents. turn it face down. 502. These values are the copiable values of that object’s characteristics. with no text. and it regains its normal characteristics. that player discards it. he or she puts this card into his or her graveyard.” and rule 503. “Interaction of Continuous Effects. 502. no name.1b and 409.25. you may show all players the morph cost for any facedown permanent you control. “Madness [cost]” means “If a player would discard this card. but may remove it from the game instead of putting it into his or her graveyard” and “When this card is removed from the game this way. “Morph [cost]” means “You may play this card as a 2/2 facedown creature. then turn the permanent face up.”) Put it onto the stack (as a face-down spell with the same characteristics). no expansion symbol. it comes into play with the same characteristics the spell had.24b Playing a spell using its madness ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.502. no subtypes. and no mana cost. “Copying Objects. (See rule 504. You can use morph to play a card from any zone from which you could normally play it.” 502. Fear 502. 502. and no mana cost by paying {3} rather than its mana cost. and it ends when the permanent is turned face up.25c Multiple instances of fear on the same creature are redundant.24a Madness is a keyword that represents two abilities. . If that player doesn’t. Morph 502. 502. then turn the permanent face up. The morph effect applies to the face-down object wherever it is. (See rule 418. its owner may play it by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost. (See rule 309. To do this. The morph effect on it ends. no name. The second is a triggered ability that functions when the first ability is applied. you may turn a face-down permanent you control face up. Any effects or prohibitions that would apply to playing a card with these characteristics (and not the face-up card’s characteristics) are applied to playing this card.26. When the spell resolves. pay that cost. with no text. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with madness is in a player’s hand.

with no text. 502.28a Double strike is a static ability that modifies the rules for the combat damage step. plus any creatures with double strike. 502. 502. no name.”) 502. In the second combat damage step. if at least one attacking or blocking creature has double strike or first strike.”) The rules for morph and facedown permanents apply to it normally. 502.28e Multiple instances of double strike on the same creature are redundant.” 502.27b If a creature has multiple instances of amplify. you may choose to have target creature defending player controls block this creature this combat if able. no expansion symbol. Double Strike 502.28c Removing double strike from a creature during the first combat damage step will stop it from assigning combat damage in the second combat damage step. “Face-Down Spells and Permanents.29a Provoke is a triggered ability.28b At the start of the combat damage step. the phase gets a second combat damage step to handle the remaining creatures. (See rule 310.” and rule 503. Amplify 502. creatures without double strike or first strike (see rule 502. You can’t reveal this card or any other cards that are coming into play at the same time as this card. “Copying Objects. surviving attackers and blockers that didn’t assign combat damage in the first step. “Amplify N” means “As this object comes into play. 502. and no mana cost. Provoke 502. These values are the copiable values of that object’s characteristics.5.28d Giving double strike to a creature with first strike after it has already put first strike combat damage onto the stack in the first combat damage step will allow the creature to assign combat damage in the second combat damage step. This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it for each card revealed this way. 502. If you do. 502. “Provoke” means “Whenever this creature attacks. 502.27. each one works separately. “Combat Damage Step.2. it becomes a 2/2 face-down creature.26f See rule 504. untap that creature. Instead of proceeding to end of combat.” for more information on how to play cards with morph.28.26e If a face-up permanent is turned face down by a spell or ability.27a Amplify is a static ability. reveal any number of cards from your hand that share a creature type with it.because the permanent has already come into play. “First Strike”) don’t assign combat damage. “Interaction of Continuous Effects.” . no subtypes. assign their combat damage.29. (See rule 418.

put a copy of it onto the stack for each other spell that was played before it this turn. you may choose new targets for any of the copies. see rule 212.33b For more information about Equipment.” 502.29b If a creature has multiple instances of provoke. you pay an additional [cost]. follow the text of each of the modes in the order written on the card when the spell resolves. 502. Storm 502. each of them applies. Equip 502.32b If the entwine cost was paid. “Entwine [cost]” means “You may choose to use all modes of this spell instead of just one. If the spell has any targets.34a Imprint is an activated or triggered ability. Affinity 502.502.” 502. 502. “Artifacts.33a Equip is an activated ability of Equipment cards. it doesn’t reduce how much colored mana you have to pay for a spell. “Equip [cost]” means “[Cost]: Attach this Equipment to target creature you control. any of its equip abilities may be used.” 502.2. 502. each triggers separately. If you do. “Affinity for [text]” means “This spell costs you {1} less to play for each [text] you control.33. written “Imprint — [text]. 502.34. Cards that are in the removed-from-the-game zone because they were removed from the game by an imprint ability are imprinted on the source of that ability. “Storm” means “When you play this spell. 502.1f–h.” 502.33c If an Equipment has multiple instances of equip.31c If a spell has multiple instances of affinity.1b and 409. each triggers separately.30.30b If a spell has multiple instances of storm.32a Entwine is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.32.” Using the entwine ability follows the rules for choosing modes and paying additional costs in rules 409.31a Affinity is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. If a permanent has more than one card . 502.30a Storm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. Entwine 502.34b The phrase “imprinted [quality] card” means the card with that quality that’s imprinted on the permanent. Imprint 502.” where “[text]” is a triggered or activated ability. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery. 502. 502.31.31b The affinity ability reduces only generic mana costs.

you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent. each triggers separately.with that quality imprinted on it. “Bushido N” means “Whenever this creature blocks or becomes blocked.37.36b Multiple instances of shroud on the same permanent or player are redundant. it comes into play with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to play it. “Shroud” means "This permanent or player can’t be the target of spells or abilities.” 502. .35.” 502.”) 502." 502.” 502. each of those cards is an “imprinted [quality] card.37d If an object has multiple instances of sunburst.38b If a creature has multiple instances of bushido. Modular 502. Shroud 502. Mana paid for additional or alternative costs applies. 502.35a Modular represents both a static ability and a triggered ability.37c Sunburst can also be used to set a variable number for another ability. Bushido 502.36a Shroud is a static ability.” 502.37a Sunburst is a static ability that functions as an object is coming into play from the stack. each one works separately. you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent. Example: The ability “Modular—Sunburst” means “This permanent comes into play with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to play it” and “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play. it doesn’t matter whether the ability is on a creature spell or on a noncreature spell.36. 502. “Declare Blockers Step. each one works separately.37b Sunburst applies only as the spell is resolving and only if one or more colored mana was spent on its costs. 502. it comes into play with a charge counter on it for each color of mana spent to play it. it gets +N/+N until end of turn.38. “Sunburst” means “If this object is coming into play from the stack as a creature. If the keyword is used in this way. If this object is coming into play from the stack and isn’t coming into play as a creature. 502.35b If a creature has multiple instances of modular. “Modular N” means “This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it” and “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play. Sunburst 502.38a Bushido is a triggered ability.” (See rule 309.

Example: Since the card with splice remains in the player’s hand.) for that card’s instructions. “Splice onto [subtype] [cost]” means “You may reveal this card from your hand as you play a [subtype] spell. . not the card from which the text was copied. supertypes. etc. The spell is still blue. subtypes. color. 502. it can later be played normally or spliced onto another spell. plus the text boxes of each of the spliced cards.40d Choose targets for the added text normally (see rule 409. and Reach Through Mists deals the damage.) of the spliced cards. If you do.” Suppose Glacial Ray is spliced onto Reach Through Mists. each triggers separately. it’s removed from the game.40a Splice is a static ability that functions while a card is in your hand. 502. It can even be discarded to pay a “discard a card” cost of the spell it’s spliced onto. you may return target Spirit card with converted mana cost N or less from your graveyard to your hand.1f–h. reveal them all at once and choose the order in which their instructions will be followed. copy this card’s text box onto that spell and pay [cost] as an additional cost to play that spell. mana cost. 502.40e The spell loses any splice changes once it leaves the stack (for example.” 502.40b You can’t choose to use a splice ability if you can’t make the required choices (targets. Soulshift 502.41a Defender is a static ability. Note that a spell with one or more targets will be countered if all of its targets are illegal on resolution.” Paying a card’s splice cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. “Soulshift N” means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play. Splice 502.1b and 409. 502.39a Soulshift is a triggered ability. Defender 502. etc. The instructions on the main spell have to be followed first. This means that the ability can target a creature with protection from red and deal 2 damage to that creature.40.41.39.39b If a permanent has multiple instances of soulshift. 502. card types.40c The spell has the characteristics of the main spell. 502. Text copied onto the spell that refers to a card by name refers to the spell on the stack. or it resolves).502. “Glacial Ray deals 2 damage to target creature or player. You can’t splice any one card onto the same spell more than once. when it’s countered. 502. a blue spell. If you’re splicing more than one card onto a spell. Example: Glacial Ray is a red card with splice onto Arcane that reads. The spell doesn’t gain any other characteristics (name.41b A creature with defender can’t attack.1d).

42c Generic mana in the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost reduces generic mana in the total cost to play the card with offering.42b The permanent is sacrificed at the same time the spell is announced (see rule 409. . “[Text] offering” means “You may play this card any time you could play an instant by sacrificing a [text] permanent.43a Ninjutsu is an activated ability that functions only while the card with ninjutsu is in a player’s hand. 502. you can’t play spells.502. The creature with ninjutsu is put into play unblocked.44b A player can’t play spells once a spell with epic he or she controls resolves.10. “For the rest of the game. The total cost of the spell is reduced by the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost (see rule 409.” and “At the beginning of each of your upkeeps. Ninjutsu 502.43c A ninjutsu ability may be played only while a creature in play is unblocked (see rule 309.” 502. “Ninjutsu [cost]” means “[Cost].44. 502.45. 502.” See rule 503. 502. 502. 502. reduces that much generic mana in the total cost.” 502.45a Enchant is a static ability. Colored mana in the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost reduces mana of the same color in the total cost to play the card with offering.42. or is in excess of the card’s colored mana cost.41c Multiple instances of defender on the same creature are redundant. copy this spell except for its epic ability.2f). Reveal this card from your hand.43b The card with ninjutsu remains revealed from the time the ability is announced until the ability leaves the stack. Return an unblocked creature you control to its owner’s hand: Put this card into play from your hand tapped and attacking.” The enchant ability restricts what an Aura spell can target and what an Aura can enchant. Enchant 502. but effects (such as the epic ability itself) can still put copies of spells onto the stack.44a Epic represents both a static ability and a delayed triggered ability. the total cost to play this card is reduced by the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost.1a). If you do. It will be attacking the same player or planeswalker as the creature that was returned to its owner’s hand.42a Offering is a static ability of a card that functions in any zone from which the card can be played. If the spell has any targets.1f).43. Colored mana in the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost that doesn’t match colored mana in the colored mana cost of the card with offering. 502. you may choose new targets for the copy. written “Enchant [object or player]. Offering 502. Epic 502. “Epic” means.

4. or {W}. and a green-and-white creature to help pay for it. a red creature. a spell with convoke that costs {6}{G}{W}.” 502. and put it into your hand.49.45b For more information on Auras.48a Transmute is an activated ability that functions only while the card with transmute is in a player’s hand. it continues to exist while the object is in play and in all other zones. all of them apply.” 502. 502. Each creature tapped this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1} or by one mana of any of that creature’s colors. Then the creatures become tapped as you pay Guardian of Vitu-Ghazi’s cost. Example: You play Guardian of Vitu-Ghazi.” 502. “Convoke” means “As an additional cost to play this spell. Then shuffle your library.1f–h.47. You choose whether the green-white creature reduces the spell’s cost by {1}.45c If an Aura has multiple instances of enchant. 502. 502.1b and 409.48b Although the transmute ability is playable only if the card is in a player’s hand.46b Multiple instances of convoke on the same spell are redundant. The colorless creature and the red creature each reduce the spell’s cost by {1}. The Aura’s target must follow the restrictions from all the instances of enchant.47b A player with fewer cards in his or her library than the number required by a dredge ability can’t put any of them into his or her graveyard this way. you may instead put N cards from the top of your library into your graveyard and return this card from your graveyard to your hand. Transmute 502. “Enchantments. if you would draw a card. You announce that you’re going to tap a colorless creature. 502.46a Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.45d Auras that can enchant a player can target and be attached to players. Dredge 502. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery.47a Dredge is a static ability that functions only while the card with dredge is in a player’s graveyard. The Aura can enchant only objects or players that match all of its enchant abilities. Convoke 502. see rule 212. Discard this card: Search your library for a card with the same converted mana cost as the discarded card. Therefore objects with transmute will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities. {G}.48. “Transmute [cost]” means “[Cost]. you may tap any number of untapped creatures you control.502. Such Auras can’t target permanents and can’t be attached to permanents. reveal that card. Substance . 502.46. “Dredge N” means “As long as you have at least N cards in your library. 502.” Using the convoke ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.

Haunt 502. 502.52b If a spell has multiple instances of replicate. “Replicate [cost]” means “As an additional cost to play this spell.” Paying a spell’s replicate cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.” “Haunt” on an instant or sorcery spell means “When this spell is put into a graveyard during its resolution. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.49a Substance is a static ability with no effect. you may pay [cost] any number of times” and “When you play this spell. this permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it.50c If an object has multiple instances of bloodthirst. Bloodthirst 502. where X is the total damage your opponents have been dealt this turn. each applies separately.50b “Bloodthirst X” is a special form of bloodthirst.52. 502.53b A forecast ability may be played only during the upkeep step of the .50a Bloodthirst is a static ability.” 502.53a A forecast ability is a special kind of activated ability that can be played only from a player’s hand.53.50.51. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. you may choose new targets for any number of the copies. 502.” 502. if a replicate cost was paid for it. If the spell has any targets.1b and 409. “Bloodthirst X” means “This permanent comes into play with X +1/+1 counters on it. regardless of whether or not that object is still a creature.52a Replicate is a keyword that represents two abilities.” 502. It’s written “Forecast — [Activated ability].502. each is paid separately and triggers based on the payments made for it.51b Cards that are in the removed-from-the-game zone as the result of a haunt ability “haunt” the creature targeted by that ability. Replicate 502. Forecast 502. 502. 502.1f–h. remove it from the game haunting target creature.” 502. copy it for each time its replicate cost was paid. 502. not any other instance of replicate. remove it from the game haunting target creature. “Haunt” on a permanent means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play. The phrase “creature it haunts” refers to the object targeted by the haunt ability. “Bloodthirst N” means “If an opponent was dealt damage this turn.51c Triggered abilities of cards with haunt that refer to the haunted creature can trigger in the removed-from-the-game zone.51a Haunt is a triggered ability.

502.56b If a spell has multiple instances of ripple.54b If a creature has multiple instances of graft. Suspend . each triggers separately. 502. Graft 502. 502.57b Multiple instances of flash on the same object are redundant. “Ripple N” means “When you play this spell. or.56.54.” 502. if there are fewer than N cards in your library. If you reveal cards from your library this way.card’s owner and only once each turn. players can’t play other spells or abilities that aren’t mana abilities. Otherwise.54a Graft represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. Flash 502.55a Recover is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with recover is in a player’s graveyard. you may reveal all the cards in your library. return this card from your graveyard to your hand. That player plays with that card revealed in his or her hand until it leaves the player’s hand or until a step or phase that isn’t an upkeep step begins. if this permanent has a +1/+1 counter on it.58.56a Ripple is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with ripple is on the stack.55. “Graft N” means “This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it” and “Whenever another creature comes into play.” 502. “Recover [cost]” means “When a creature is put into your graveyard from play. whichever comes first. you may move a +1/+1 counter from this permanent onto that creature. Recover 502. The controller of the forecast ability reveals the card with that ability from his or her hand as the ability is played. remove this card from the game.” 502.57a Flash is a static ability that functions in any zone from which you could play the card it’s on.58b Multiple instances of split second on the same spell are redundant. you may reveal the top N cards of your library. then put all revealed cards not played this way on the bottom of your library in any order. you may pay [cost]. 502. you may play any of those cards with the same name as this spell without paying their mana costs. each one works separately. Ripple 502. “Flash” means “You may play this card any time you could play an instant. If you do.” 502.57. 502. Split Second 502. “Split second” means “As long as this spell is on the stack.59.58a Split second is a static ability that functions only while the spell with split second is on the stack.” 502.

“Absorb N” means “If a source would deal damage to this creature. 502.60b Vanishing without a number means “At the beginning of your upkeep.” 502. it remains removed from the game. 502.61a Absorb is a static ability.60. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with suspend is in a player’s hand. play it without paying its mana cost if able. if this permanent has a time counter on it.62b If either half of the exchange can’t be completed. each applies separately.62.59b A card is “suspended” if it’s in the removed-from-the-game zone. “Aura swap [cost]” means “[Cost]: You may exchange this permanent with an Aura card in your hand.59c Playing a spell as an effect of its suspend ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409. the ability has no effect. If you can’t. 502. if this permanent has a time counter on it. it gains haste until you lose control of the spell or the permanent it becomes.” 502. and has a time counter on it. It will apply separately to damage from other sources. each works separately. sacrifice it.” 502. .” and “When the last time counter is removed from this card.” 502. has suspend. 502. if this card is suspended. The second and third are triggered abilities that function in the removedfrom-the-game zone.502.60c If a permanent has multiple instances of vanishing. you may pay [cost] and remove it from the game with N time counters on it. Absorb 502.62a Aura swap is an activated ability of some Aura cards. if it’s removed from the game. Vanishing 502. “Suspend N—[cost]” means “If you could play this card from your hand.61. If you play a creature spell this way.59a Suspend is a keyword that represents three abilities.1f–h.60a Vanishing is a keyword that represents three abilities. or to damage dealt by the same source at a different time. “Vanishing N” means “This permanent comes into play with N time counters on it.” and “At the beginning of your upkeep. Aura Swap 502.” 502. remove a time counter from it” and “When the last time counter is removed from this permanent.” “At the beginning of your upkeep.1b and 409. remove a time counter from it. This action doesn’t use the stack. sacrifice it. 502.61c If an object has multiple instances of absorb.” and “When the last time counter is removed from this permanent. prevent N of that damage. remove a time counter from it.61b Each absorb ability can prevent only N damage from any one source at any one time.

64. see rule 212.67b If a spell has multiple instances of gravestorm. Delve 502.66a Frenzy is a triggered ability.1b and 409. you may remove any number of cards in your graveyard from the game. 502. 502.2. Each card removed this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1}. “Delve” means “As an additional cost to play this spell. put a copy of it onto the stack for each permanent that was put into a graveyard from play this turn.64b Multiple instances of delve on the same spell are redundant. Deathtouch 502. The ability has no effect. Fortify 502.65a Fortify is an activated ability of Fortification cards. “Deathtouch” means “Whenever this permanent deals damage to a creature.1f–h.” 502.65b For more information about Fortifications. you may choose new targets for any of the copies.67a Gravestorm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack.” 502. Example: You play the aura swap ability of an Aura that you control but you don’t own. “Gravestorm” means “When you play this spell.65. it gets +N/+0 until end of turn. Frenzy 502.67.Example: You play the aura swap ability of an Aura. Gravestorm 502.66.65c If a Fortification has multiple instances of fortify.” 502. “Frenzy N” means “Whenever this creature attacks and isn’t blocked. 502. “Artifacts. each triggers separately.” 502. Lifelink . The only Aura card in your hand can’t enchant the permanent that’s enchanted by the Aura with aura swap. destroy that creature. If the spell has any targets.” 502.64a Delve is a static ability that functions while the spell that has it is on the stack.68. each triggers separately. 502. each triggers separately.” Using the delve ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.63a Deathtouch is a triggered ability. “Fortify [cost]” means “[Cost]: Attach this Fortification to target land you control. The ability has no effect. 502. any of its fortify abilities may be used.66b If a creature has multiple instances of frenzy.63.63b If a permanent has multiple instances of deathtouch. 502. 502. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery.

Transfigure 502.” This ability works everywhere.502.69a Poisonous is a triggered ability. “Flying. “Transfigure [cost]” means “[Cost]. 502.71.71a Transfigure is an activated ability. even outside the game.68b If a permanent has multiple instances of lifelink.70c Multiple instances of reach on the same creature are redundant.) 502. See rule 407.69.2.72b The two abilities represented by champion are linked. 502. 502.”) 502. (See rule 309. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery.70b A creature with flying can’t be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. “Champion an [object]” means “When this permanent comes into play. 502.” (For information about poison counters.73a Changeling is a characteristic-defining ability. Changeling 502. “Poisonous N” means “Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player. “Linked Abilities.70. “Declare Blockers Step” and rule 502.73b Multiple instances of changeling on the same object are redundant. Poisonous 502. each triggers separately.” 502.72a Champion represents two triggered abilities. See rule 405. see rule 102.3d. each triggers separately.68a Lifelink is a triggered ability. Champion 502. . “Lifelink” means “Whenever this permanent deals damage.4. return the removed card to play under its owner’s control. 502. you gain that much life. sacrifice it unless you remove another [object] you control from the game” and “When this permanent leaves play.” 502.72c A permanent is “championed” by another permanent if the latter removes the former from the game as the direct result of a champion ability.” 502.72.73. Sacrifice this permanent: Search your library for a creature card with the same converted mana cost as this permanent and put it into play.” 502. Reach 502. 502..70a Reach is a static ability.69b If a creature has multiple instances of poisonous. “Changeling” means “This object is every creature type. that player gets N poison counters. Then shuffle your library.

“Prowl [cost]” means “You may pay [cost] rather than pay this spell’s mana cost if a player was dealt combat damage this turn by a source that.76a Prowl is a static ability that functions on the stack. Conspire 502. 502. look at the top four cards of your library.1f–h.” 502. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.77.76b If a source that assigned combat damage left play before combat damage resolved.75. it continues to exist while the object is in play and in all other zones. 502.1f–h. Prowl 502. you may choose new targets for the copy.77a Reinforce is an activated ability that functions only while the card with reinforce is in a player’s hand. Reinforce 502.1b and 409. its last known information is used to determine its controller and its creature types. 502.1f–h. If the spell has any targets.75a Hideaway represents a static ability and a triggered ability. Hideaway 502. was under your control and had any of this spell’s creature types. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.1b and 409. “Evoke [cost]” means “You may play this card by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost” and “When this permanent comes into play. at the time it dealt that damage.” Paying a spell’s prowl cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409. if its evoke cost was paid.” Paying a spell’s conspire cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.78.78a Conspire is a keyword that represents two abilities. “Reinforce N—[cost]” means “[Cost]. if its conspire cost was paid. copy it.502.77b Although the reinforce ability is playable only if the card is in a player’s hand.74a Evoke represents two abilities: a static ability that functions in any zone from which the card can be played and a triggered ability that functions in play. . Evoke 502.76.’” 502. Therefore objects with reinforce will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities. “Hideaway” means “This permanent comes into play tapped” and “When this permanent comes into play. 502. Discard this card: Put N +1/+1 counters on target creature.1b and 409. you may tap two untapped creatures you control that each share a color with it” and “When you play this spell. its controller sacrifices it. The removed card gains ‘Any player who has controlled the permanent that removed this card from the game may look at this card in the removed-from-the-game zone.” Paying a card’s evoke cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.74. “Conspire” means “As an additional cost to play this spell. Remove one of them from the game face down and put the rest on the bottom of your library in any order.

“Exalted” means “Whenever a creature you control attacks alone.81a Retrace appears on some instants and sorceries.78b If a spell has multiple instances of conspire.81.82a Devour is a static ability. It gains haste. 502.80a Damage dealt to a creature by a source with wither doesn’t stay on that creature (see rule 212. Wither 502.79a Persist is a triggered ability. Rather.85. not any other instance of conspire. you may sacrifice any number of creatures.83b A creature “attacks alone” if it’s the only creature declared as an attacker in a given combat phase.83. “Devour N” means “As this object comes into play. See rule 306. “Persist” means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play.82. Exalted 502. Unearth 502.79.” 502. return it to play under its owner’s control with a -1/-1 counter on it.” 502. remove it from the game instead of putting it anywhere else. it causes that many -1/-1 counters to be put on that creature. Devour 502. 502. “Retrace” means “You may play this card from your graveyard by discarding a land card as an additional cost to play it.1f–h.” 502.83a Exalted is a triggered ability. 502. It represents a static ability that functions while the card is in a player’s graveyard.82b Some objects have abilities that refer to the number of creatures the permanent devoured.80. 502. each is paid separately and triggers based on its own payment. “It devoured” means “sacrificed as a result of its devour ability as it came into play. Cascade 502. If it would leave play.502. 502. Persist 502.3g).” 502.80b Multiple instances of wither on the same object are redundant. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery.” 502. Remove it from the game at end of turn.5.1b and 409.85a Cascade is a triggered ability that functions only while the spell with .84a Unearth is an activated ability that functions while the card is in a graveyard. that creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn. Retrace 502. if it had no -1/-1 counters on it. This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it for each creature sacrificed this way. “Unearth [cost]” means “[Cost]: Return this card from your graveyard to play.” Playing a spell using its retrace ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.84.

Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of that creature except for its color and gains ‘At the beginning of your upkeep. (Certain older cards were printed with the phrase “search for a copy. (The copy has the Staff’s ability. loyalty) and. Objects that copy the object will use the new copiable values. mana cost.” After a Staff has become a 5/5 artifact creature. no types. this creature gains this ability. and will become a creature if that ability is activated. Some effects put a token into play as a copy of another object. targets. “As Clone comes into play. status. as modified by other copy effects. Its controller can’t pay {2}{B}{B} to turn it face up. Then a Clone comes into play as a copy of the Doppelganger. you may have this creature become a copy of target creature except for its color. you may choose a creature in play.cascade is on the stack. for an object on the stack. The Clone is a colorless 2/2 creature with no name.85b If a spell has multiple instances of cascade. Some objects become or turn another object into a “copy” of a spell. and so on). no abilities. “Cascade” means “When you play this spell. or card. . If you do. subtype.) 503. Then put all cards removed from the game this way that weren’t played on the bottom of your library in a random order. If you do. 503. Copying Objects 503. and by abilities that caused the object to be face down. power. comes into play” and “as .3. permanent. “As Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play. and no mana cost.” Clone is a creature that reads. the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object’s characteristics (name. a Clone comes into play as a copy of it. is turned face up” abilities that set characteristics. The “copiable values” are the values that are printed on the object. whether a kicker cost was paid. each triggers separately. however. The Clone is a 2/2 blue Bear named Grizzly Bears that has the Doppelganger’s upkeep-triggered ability. The copy’s copiable values become the copied information. The Clone is an artifact. remove cards from the top of your library from the game until you remove a nonland card whose converted mana cost is less than this spell’s converted mana cost. You may play that card without paying its mana cost. you may choose a creature in play. 503.1. and counters are not copied.” 502. Example: Tomoya the Revealer (a flipped flip card) becomes a copy of Nezumi Shortfang (an unflipped flip card). . by “as . If you do. how it will affect multiple targets. choices made when playing it (mode.2. . Clone comes into play as a copy of that creature. not a 5/5 artifact creature. Tomoya’s characteristics . toughness. Example: Vesuvan Doppelganger reads.) Example: Clone comes into play as a copy of a face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph {2}{B}{B}).’” A Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of Grizzly Bears (a 2/2 green creature with no abilities).” This section doesn’t cover those cards. It will still be face up. Other effects (including type-changing and textchanging effects). as modified by the copy’s status (see rule 510). expansion symbol. supertype. When copying an object. Example: Chimeric Staff is an artifact that reads “{X}: Chimeric Staff becomes an X/X artifact creature until end of turn. color. . which have received new text in the Oracle card reference. the value of X. rules text. card type.

Unstable Shapeshifter will become a copy of that creature. It remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name. types.6. When copying a permanent. remove a fade counter from it.” The Clone won’t copy the color choice of the Spirit. since the creature is face down. If an effect turns it face up. and no mana cost. The change doesn’t trigger comes-intoplay or leaves-play abilities. If the text that’s being copied includes any abilities that replace the comes-into-play event (such as “comes into play with” or “as [this] comes into play” abilities).become the characteristics of Stabwhisker the Odious.” If a creature comes into play later this turn. Chameleon Spirit reads. If it’s turned face up.)” and “Skyshroud Behemoth comes into play tapped. Example: A Clone comes into play as a copy of Chameleon Spirit. “Whenever a creature comes into play. and no mana cost. Some effects cause a permanent that’s copying a permanent to copy a different object while remaining in play. Also. it remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name. which reads “Target creature gets +3/+3 until end of turn. Example: Striped Bears reads. It will be a face-down Wandering Ones. 503. rather. but it will still get +3/+3 from the Giant Growth. Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of Wandering Ones (a 1/1 blue Spirit creature that doesn’t have morph). “Fading 2 (This creature comes into play with two fade counters on it. choose a color. An object that comes into play “as a copy” of another object becomes a copy as it comes into play.5. Instead. “When Striped Bears comes into play. Because any choices that have been made for a permanent aren’t copied. Unstable Shapeshifter becomes a copy of that creature and gains this ability. 503. Example: Skyshroud Behemoth reads.” It’s affected by Giant Growth. any choices that have been made for that permanent aren’t copied. At the beginning of your upkeep. It doesn’t come into play.4. This also doesn’t change any noncopy effects presently affecting the permanent. which is the flipped version of Nezumi Shortfang. Its controller can’t turn it face up as a special action. It can be turned face up for {G}. if an object comes into play as a copy of another permanent. any comes-intoplay triggered abilities of the copy will have a chance to trigger. the controller of the Clone will get to make a new choice. “As Chameleon Spirit comes into play.” A Clone comes into play as a copy of Striped Bears. If you can’t.” A Clone that comes into play as a copy of a Skyshroud Behemoth will also come into play tapped with two fade counters on it. The Clone has the Bears’ comes-into-play triggered ability. it will have the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian. Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of a face-up Branchsnap Lorian (a 4/1 green creature with trample and morph {G}). in part. 503. or abilities. those abilities will take effect. sacrifice it. Example: Unstable Shapeshifter reads. and then become a copy of that permanent. However. types. sometimes a copy card will gain an ability that refers to a choice that was . or abilities.7. 503. it will have the characteristics of Wandering Ones. so the Clone’s controller draws a card. draw a card. the object’s controller will get to make any “as comes into play” choices for it. The Demon’s characteristics become the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian.

One ability refers only to actions that were taken or objects that were affected by the other. the second ability is the only ability that can refer to that choice. except that the Shapeshifter also has the ability “Whenever a creature comes into play. then the choice is considered to be “undefined. linked ability refers to that choice. “As Voice of All comes into play. A copy of a spell or ability is controlled by the . “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. the Doppelganger copies Quirion Elves.” and “Voice of All has protection from the chosen color. The Elves has the ability. Example: A Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of Chameleon Spirit. some copy effects specifically state that they don’t copy certain characteristics. “Linked Abilities. 503. including the ability that the Shapeshifter gave itself when it copied the Elves. Also. a copy of a spell or ability isn’t “played. Some copy effects give an ability to the copy as part of the copying process. The Clone copies the new copiable values of the Shapeshifter. the value of X. so the protection ability doesn’t protect it from anything at all.” Then a Clone comes into play as a copy of the Unstable Shapeshifter. This ability becomes part of the copiable values for the copy.never made. If a pair of linked abilities are copied. it was chosen for a different linked ability. the choice is considered to be “undefined. An object doesn’t “remember” that choice and use it for other abilities it may copy later. and the Doppelganger’s controller chooses blue. Example: Quirion Elves comes into play and an Unstable Shapeshifter copies it. targets.” 503. Example: Voice of All comes into play and Unstable Shapeshifter copies it. because it didn’t come into play as a Voice of All card.9.8a If an ability causes a player to “choose a [value]” or “name a card. in part. and additional or alternative costs.”) Choices that are normally made on resolution are not copied. (See rule 409. In that case. Unstable Shapeshifter becomes a copy of that creature and gains this ability. Later. The copiable values of the Shapeshifter now match those of the Elves. A copy of a spell is owned by the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. along with any other abilities that were copied. those abilities will be similarly linked to one another on the object that copied them. regardless of what other abilities the copy may currently have or may have had in the past. including modes. If that mana ability of the Doppelganger is played. but either (a) doesn’t copy that ability’s linked ability or (b) does copy the linked ability but no choice is made.) If an object copies an ability that refers to a choice.10. See rule 407. they retain their original values instead. choose a color. “{T}: Add one mana of the chosen color to your mana pool.8.” A copy of a spell or ability copies both the characteristics of the spell or ability and all decisions made for it.” Unstable Shapeshifter never had a chance for a color to be chosen for it. (This is a change from previous rules. it uses the objects used to pay the costs of the original spell or ability. 503. that part of the ability won’t do anything. Voice of All reads. They can’t be linked to any other ability. it will not produce mana. that part of the ability has no effect. If an effect of the copy refers to objects used to pay its costs.” If an ability refers to an undefined choice. 503. To copy a spell or activated ability means to put a copy of it onto the stack.” If an ability refers to an undefined choice.” and a second.” Even though a color was chosen for the Doppelganger.

“Choose one — Untap target permanent. it ceases to exist. even if those targets would be illegal.” and “Fling deals damage equal to the sacrificed creature’s power to target creature or player. 503. Playing a copy of a nonland object follows steps 409. sacrifice a creature. If a copy of a card is in any zone other than the stack or the in-play zone. it ceases to exist. Example: A player plays Fork. the copy refers to that same object and not to any other object with the same name. it puts a copy of the Emerald Charm on the stack. If the player chooses to change some or all of the targets.10b A copy of an ability has the same source as the original ability.” When the Fork resolves.1. or destroy target non-Aura enchantment.player who put it on the stack. and just like any other spell it can resolve or be countered. even if it’s no longer a copy of Crazed Armodon at that time.” When determining how much damage a copy of Fling deals. except that it copies Fork’s color and you may choose new targets for the copy. it checks the power of the creature sacrificed to pay for the original Fling. Example: Fling is an instant that reads. Two cards (Illusionary Mask and Ixidron) and the morph ability (see rule 502. the Shapeshifter will be destroyed at end of turn. The copy is considered to be the same ability by effects that count how many times that ability has resolved during the turn.10a If a copy of a spell is in a zone other than the stack.1a–h of rule 409. “{G}: Crazed Armodon gets +3/+0 and gains trample until end of turn.26) allow spells and permanents to be face down. or target creature loses flying until end of turn.11. The player may leave any number of the targets unchanged. . Crazed Armodon reads. 503. the new targets must be legal. A copy of a spell is itself a spell. “As an additional cost to play Fling. 503. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. the effect still tracks that permanent even if it changes names or becomes a copy of something else. The copy has the same mode that was chosen for the original Emerald Charm. Example: An Unstable Shapeshifter copies a Crazed Armodon.12. the copy is put onto the stack with those targets. Play this ability only once each turn. If an effect refers to a permanent by name.” then the copy becomes played. Fork reads. “Put a copy of target instant or sorcery spell onto the stack. 503. but only because Fork allows choosing of new targets. even though it has no spell card associated with it. The played copy is a spell on the stack. Destroy Crazed Armodon at end of turn. 503.” Emerald Charm reads.10c Some effects copy a spell or ability and state that its controller may choose new targets for the copy. targeting an Emerald Charm. An effect that instructs a player to “play a copy” of an object follows the rules for playing spells and abilities. It does not necessarily have the same target. 504. except that the copy is played while another spell or ability is resolving. See rule 420. If the ability refers to its source by name. Face-Down Spells and Permanents 504. A copy of an ability is itself an ability. Once the player has decided what the copy’s targets will be. These are state-based effects.” If this activated ability of the Shapeshifter is played.

As a face-down permanent is turned face up. or permanent to be turned face down. so the permanent’s comes-intoplay abilities won’t trigger (if triggered) or have any effect (if static).5. If a face-down spell moves from the stack to any zone other than the in-play zone. Spells normally can’t be turned face up.2.6. (See rule 418. Any abilities relating to the permanent coming into play don’t trigger and don’t have any effect. At the end of each game. its copiable values become the values it copied from the other permanent. because the permanent has already come into play. if it is turned face up. At any time. you must ensure at all times that your face-down spells and permanents can be easily differentiated from each other. its owner must reveal it to all players as he or she moves it. Objects that are played face down are turned face down before they are put onto the stack. “Copying Objects. 504. 504. Any listed characteristics are the copiable values of that object’s characteristics. as modified by its face-down status. face-down permanents in play. the order that facedown permanents came into play. Any effects or prohibitions that would apply to playing an object with these characteristics (and not the face-up object’s characteristics) are applied to playing this object. you may look at a face-down spell you control on the stack.504. . However. or on the stack must be revealed to all players. its owner must reveal it as he or she moves it. 504. so effects that care about the characteristics of a spell will see only the face-down spell’s characteristics. spell. or face-down cards in the phased-out zone last controlled by another player. 504. Its characteristics therefore remain the same: the characteristics listed by the ability or rules that allowed it to be turned face down. or a face-down card in the phased-out zone you controlled when it phased out. face-down spells or permanents controlled by another player. all facedown objects in play. 504. in the phased-out zone. and any other differences between face-down spells or permanents. The ability or rules that allow a permanent to be face down may also allow the permanent’s controller to turn it face up.3. If a face-down permanent becomes a copy of another permanent. its copiable values revert to its normal copiable values. a face-down permanent you control. and facedown cards in the phased-out zone have no characteristics other than those listed by the ability or rules that allowed the card. If a phased-out face-down object moves to any zone other than the in-play zone.7. knowing the order spells were played. its copiable values become the copiable values of that permanent. This includes.5. Face-down spells on the stack. which creature attacked last turn. its owner must reveal it to all players as he or she moves it. or clearly placing those objects in order on the table.” and rule 503. You can’t look at face-down cards in any other zone.”) Objects that are put into play face down are turned face down before they come into play. but is not limited to. If a face-down permanent moves from the in-play zone to any zone other than the phased-out zone. If you control multiple face-down spells on the stack or face-down permanents in play. “Interaction of Continuous Effects. Common methods for distinguishing between face-down objects include using counters or dice to mark the different objects.4. Any effects that have been applied to the face-down permanent still apply to the face-up permanent.

As long as a split card is a spell on the stack.5. 505. 505. . This answer is “yes” if performing the analogous positive comparison would return a “no” answer. If an effect performs a comparison involving multiple characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack. each characteristic is compared separately. and 4. 505.” If the top card of your library is Assault/Battery when this ability resolves. each split card is only one card. the game sees its converted mana cost as “1. not two. it’s only the color or colors of the half being played.8.4. 505. He or she then puts X 1/1 black Minion creature tokens into play.” The same is true if the player chooses 4. The back of a split card is the normal Magic: The Gathering card back. Split cards have two card faces on a single card. “Choose a number.1. not afterward. Although split cards have two playable halves. “At the beginning of each player’s upkeep. If each of the individual comparisons would return a “yes” answer. An effect that asks for a particular characteristic of a split card while it’s in a zone other than the stack gets two answers (one for each of the split card’s two halves). This answer is “yes” if either side of each split card in the comparison would return a “yes” answer if compared individually. that ability is applied while that permanent is being turned face up. If a face-down permanent would have an “As [this permanent] is turned face up . Destroy all artifacts and creatures with converted mana cost equal to that number. however. where X is that card’s converted mana cost. 505. Then target player reveals his or her hand and discards all nonland cards with converted mana cost equal to the number. Example: Infernal Genesis has an ability that reads. a player who has drawn or discarded a split card has drawn or discarded one card. Example: Void reads. An effect that performs a positive comparison (such as asking if a card is red) or a relative comparison (such as asking if a card’s converted mana cost is less than 2) involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack gets only one answer. only the characteristics of the half being played exist. For example. Each split card that consists of two halves with different colored mana symbols in their mana costs is a multicolored card while it’s not a spell on the stack. his or her opponent would discard Assault/Battery because the game sees its converted mana cost as “1.2.3. If the player chooses 5. .” If a player plays Void and chooses 1. 505.6. and 4. An effect that performs a negative comparison (such as asking if cards have different names) involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack also gets only one answer. split cards have two sets of characteristics and two converted mana costs. Split Cards 505. The other half’s characteristics are treated as though they didn’t exist. Assault/Battery . While it’s a spell on the stack.504.” ability after it’s turned face up. In every zone except the stack.” You get five creature tokens. that player puts the top card from his or her library into his or her graveyard. the whole comparison returns a “yes” answer.

an entirely new set of game zones is created. following all other rules in section 101. the spell or ability that created the subgame finishes resolving. However. No other cards in a main-game zone are moved to their corresponding subgame zone.1. 505. 506. moves them to his or her subgame library. The “main game” is the game in which the spell or ability that created the subgame was played. each player puts all cards he or she owns that are in the subgame into his or her library in the main game. as do the zones created for the subgame. if any main-game abilities triggered while the subgame was in progress due to cards being removed from the main game.3. The subgame proceeds like a normal game. The main game is temporarily discontinued while the subgame is in progress.4a Some effects can bring cards into a game from outside of it. For example. “Starting the Game.” 506. At the end of a subgame. even if it was created by a spell card that’s no longer on the stack. and shuffles them. the effect may say that something happens in the main game to the winner or loser of the subgame. (See rule 420.1b No effects or definitions created in either the main game or the subgame have any meaning in the other. This includes cards in the subgame’s removed-from-the-game zone. Any rules regarding the size of a player’s deck are ignored for the subgame. regardless of any mulligans that player takes. As the subgame starts.5.would be unaffected. because each player draws seven cards when a game begins. Then.7. Each player takes all the cards in his or her main-game library. “StateBased Effects. The main game continues from the point at which it was discontinued: First. All objects in the main game and all cards outside the main game are considered outside the subgame (except those specifically brought into the subgame). Randomly determine which player goes first. those abilities are put onto the stack. 506.”) 506. but they won’t be put onto the stack until the main game resumes. 506. It resumes when the subgame ends. All other objects in the subgame cease to exist. Subgames 506. then shuffles them. any player with fewer than seven cards in his or her deck will lose the subgame when state-based effects are checked during the upkeep step of the first turn. An object has the chosen name if it has at least one of the two names chosen this way. Some cards allow players to play a Magic subgame.1a A “subgame” is a completely separate Magic game created by a card’s effect. 506. 506.4. If a card is brought into a subgame from a main game. If an effect instructs a player to name a card and the player wants to name a split card. 506. the player must name both halves of the split card. .2. abilities in the main game that trigger on objects leaving a main-game zone will trigger. All players not currently in the subgame are considered outside the subgame. except as defined by the effect that created the subgame.

it’s visible to both that player and the controller of the turn. the cards are discarded from the player’s hand. The controller of another player’s turn makes all choices and decisions that player is allowed to make or is told to make during that turn by the rules or by any objects. trades a card to someone else. A subgame can be created within a subgame. 507. The controller also can’t make any choices or decisions for the player that would be called for by the tournament rules. The existing subgame becomes the main game in relation to the new subgame. This effect applies to the next turn that the affected player actually takes.6. 507. Example: The controller of the turn decides which of the player’s creatures attack. Example: The controller of the turn decides which spells to play and what those spells target.1. 507.3b The controller of another player’s turn can’t make that player concede.1a Multiple turn-controlling effects that affect the same player overwrite each other. The entire turn is controlled.3a. This includes choices and decisions about what to play. 507. 507. the effect doesn’t end until the beginning of the next turn.1c Only the control of the turn changes. 507. A player may concede the game at any time. even if his or her turn is controlled by another player. mana. The last one to be created is the one that works. or calls a judge about an error or infraction. Example: The controller of a player’s turn can see that player’s hand and the identity of any face-down creatures he or she controls. 506.Example: If a card was brought into the subgame either from the main game or from outside the main game. and so on) to pay costs for that player.3c The controller of another player’s turn can’t make choices or decisions for that player that aren’t called for by the rules or by any objects. any pending turn-controlling effects wait until the player who would be affected actually takes a turn.3a The controller of another player’s turn can use only that player’s resources (cards. One card (Mindslaver) allows a player’s turn to be controlled by another player. 507.1b If a turn is skipped. Example: If the controller of the turn decides that the player will play a spell with an additional cost of discarding cards.3. Example: The player whose turn it is still chooses whether he or she leaves to visit the restroom. All objects are controlled by their normal controllers. and how those creatures assign their combat damage. that card will be put into its owner’s main-game library when the subgame ends. 507. If information about an object would be visible to the player whose turn is controlled. . takes an intentional draw. Controlling Another Player’s Turn 507. 507.2. See rule 102. and makes any required decisions when those spells resolve. and choices and decisions called for by spells and abilities.

507. mana cost. as they differ from the normal process for resolving spells and abilities (see rule 413. 508. if a flipped permanent leaves play. . any changes to it by external effects will still apply.4. Also. Ending the Turn 509. An effect that says “legendary creatures get +2/+2” doesn’t affect Akki Lavarunner. text box. power.3d A player who controls another player’s turn also continues to make his or her own choices and decisions. “Status. 508. However. The back of a flip card is the normal Magic: The Gathering card back. type line.) 508. power. One card (Time Stop) ends the turn when it resolves. type line.1. expansion symbol. Once a permanent in the in-play zone is flipped. Once a permanent is flipped. the player may do so. 508. text box. and toughness. illustration credit. Flip cards have a two-part card frame on a single card. 509. follow these steps in order. The text box usually contains an ability that causes the permanent to “flip” if certain conditions are met. You must ensure that it’s clear at all times whether a permanent you control is flipped or not. See rule 510. A player doesn’t lose life due to mana burn while another player controls his or her turn.3. it retains no memory of its status. Flipping a permanent is a one-way process. Common methods for distinguishing between flipped and unflipped permanents include using coins or dice to mark flipped objects. In every zone other than the in-play zone. Example: Akki Lavarunner is a nonlegendary creature that flips into a legendary creature named Tok-Tok. and toughness don’t apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead. power.” 508. and legal text don’t change if the permanent is flipped. and toughness. but it does affect Tok-Tok. When an effect ends the turn.2.1. (Unused mana in players’ mana pools is still lost when a phase ends.1b The bottom half of a flip card contains an alternative name.5. These characteristics are used only if the permanent is in play and only if the permanent is flipped.1c A flip card’s color. Volcano Born.1a The top half of a flip card contains the card’s normal name. The text that appears right side up on the card defines the card’s normal characteristics. both when it’s untapped and when it’s tapped.4. a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the card. its normal name. type line. If an effect instructs a player to name a card and the player wants to name a flip card’s alternative name. Flip Cards 508. 508. 508.3. 508. See rule 300. “Resolving Spells and Abilities”). An effect that says “search your library for a legendary card” can’t find this flip card. Additional alternative characteristics appear upside down on the card. text box. 507. and also in the in-play zone before the permanent flips. it’s impossible for it to become unflipped.

No player gets priority. unflipped. Remove all planeswalkers from combat.5. this time targeting a Nezumi Shortfang card (another flip card).1.2. Remove all attacking and blocking creatures.3). Cards not in play do not. and face up/face down.4. If its copy ability is activated again. Then there will be another cleanup step before the turn finally ends (see rule 314. . this has no correlation to the face-down status of a permanent. 509. flipped/unflipped. this creature flips. ability. Each permanent always has one of these values for each of these categories. 510. If this permanent then becomes a copy of Grizzly Bears. A permanent’s status is its physical state. each of which has two possible values: tapped/untapped. Skip any phases or steps between this phase or step and the cleanup step. and face up unless a spell or ability says otherwise. The game skips straight to the cleanup step.3. Through use of Jushi Apprentice’s ability. Only permanents have status. and no triggered abilities are put onto the stack. it will retain its flipped status even though that has no relevance to Grizzly Bears. 509. “at end of turn” triggered abilities don’t trigger because the end of turn step is skipped. Status is not a characteristic. or game action changes it. If any triggered abilities have triggered between the spell or ability resolving and the cleanup step ending. this permanent’s flipped status means it will have the characteristics of Stabwhisker the Odious (the flipped version of Nezumi Shortfang) with the Dimir Doppelganger ability.” It becomes a copy of Jushi Apprentice.1b Check state-based effects. from combat.3.509. Example: Dimir Doppelganger says “{1}{U}{B}: Remove target creature card in a graveyard from the game. Although a card in the removed-from-the-game zone may be face down. Even though the turn ends. Status 510. 509. No player gets priority during this process. so triggered abilities are not put onto the stack. Dimir Doppelganger becomes a copy of that card and gains this ability.1a Remove every object on the stack from the game. 510. even if that status is not relevant to it.1c The current phase and/or step ends. making it a copy of Tomoya the Revealer with the Dimir Doppelganger ability. there’s a chance to play spells and abilities in the cleanup step. “State-Based Effects). though it may affect a permanent’s characteristics. 510. 510. 509. a flip card. All objects not in play or on the stack that aren’t represented by cards will cease to exist the next time state-based effects are checked (see rule 420. if any.2. A permanent retains its status until a spell. 510. There are three status categories. Permanents come into play untapped.

To flip a coin for an object that cares whether a player wins or loses the flip. 511. that player wins the flip. the player loses the flip.510.” .2. It will phase in with the same status it had when it phased out. the player may roll an even-sided die and call “odds” or “evens. A permanent that phases out remembers its status. Flipping a Coin 511. no other players are involved. as well as other information about the permanent (such as who controls it or whether it has any counters on it).1. For example.” and the other side to be “tails.” designate one side to be “heads. it will stay face down in the phased-out zone. If the coin that’s being flipped doesn’t have an obvious “heads” or “tails. No player wins or loses this kind of flip. the affected player flips the coin and calls “heads” or “tails.6. To flip a coin for an object that cares whether the coin comes up heads or tails. If it was face down when it phased out.” If the call matches the result. each affected player flips a coin without making a call. Otherwise. 511.” or roll an evensided die and designate that “odds” means “heads” and “evens” means “tails. Only the player who flips the coin wins or loses the flip. A coin used in a flip must be a two-sided object with easily distinguished sides and equal likelihood that either side lands face up.” Other methods of randomization may be substituted for flipping a coin as long as there are two possible outcomes of equal likelihood and all players agree to the substitution. 511.3.

General 600.” on Bianca’s Wall of Wood.” If Alex leaves the game. so does Wall of Wood. Bianca leaves the game. If an object would change to the control of a player who has left the game. If Alex leaves the game. Wall of Wood still leaves the game. which reads.” targeting Bianca. See the most current Magic: The Gathering DCI Floor Rules for more information. so does Control Magic. These rules consist of a series of options that can be added to a multiplayer game and a number of variant styles of multiplayer play. If.3. an Aura that reads. If Alex leaves the game. those objects leave the game. Example: Alex plays Bribery.4b. multiplayer games can continue after one or more players have left the game. that creature’s controller puts a 1/1 Myr artifact creature token into play. 600.” targeting Bianca’s Wall of Wood. If.4. If the player who left the game had priority at the time he or she left. “Whenever a nontoken creature comes into play. This section contains additional optional rules that can be used for multiplayer play.aspx? x=dci/doccenter/home. including rules for deck construction. Multiplayer Rules 600. If Alex leaves the game.wizards. Example: Alex plays Control Magic. It happens as soon as the player leaves the game. and Wall of Wood reverts to Bianca’s control. When a player leaves the game.6. if there are any objects still controlled by that player. all spells and abilities controlled by that player on the stack cease to exist. Wall of Wood leaves the game. Example: Alex plays Threaten. A multiplayer game is a game that begins with more than two players. (Any objects leaving the game this way that aren’t owned by the player leaving the game are placed in the removed-from-the-game zone.1.4a. and Control Magic is put into Alex’s graveyard. which reads. all objects (see rule 200.2. Example: Alex controls Genesis Chamber. “Untap target creature and gain control of it until end of turn.8) owned by that player leave the game. Then that player shuffles his or her library.com/Magic/TCG/Events. “You control enchanted creature. They can be found at http://www. A player leaving the game doesn’t affect combat damage on the stack. Alex puts Wall of Wood into play from Bianca’s library. 600. it doesn’t. If a token would be put into play under the control of a . 600. 600. which reads. priority passes to the next player in turn order who’s still in the game. Many multiplayer Magic tournaments have additional rules not included here. Bianca leaves the game. and any change-of-control effects which give that player control of any objects end. Then. A single game may use multiple options but only one variant. if Genesis Chamber is untapped. in part. instead. Unlike two-player games. all Myr tokens created by Genesis Chamber while it was under Alex’s control leave the game as well because Alex owns the tokens. 600. “Search target opponent’s library for a creature card and put that card into play under your control.) This is not a state-based effect. instead. Threaten’s change-of-control effect ends and Wall of Wood reverts to Bianca’s control.

If you do. otherwise. and it’s often used for games involving five or more players. it isn’t created. 600. 601. Limited Range of Influence Option 601. If the active player would receive priority. Hypnotic Specter never returns to play. no token is created.4c If an object that would be owned by a player who has left the game would be created in any zone. making choices. If a triggered ability that would be controlled by a player who has left the game would be put onto the stack. Bianca leaves the game.4d If an object requires a player who has left the game to make a choice.6a.2a The most commonly chosen limited ranges of influence are 1 seat and 2 . the first time a player takes a mulligan. A player’s range of influence is the maximum distance from that player. he or she draws a new hand of seven cards rather than six cards. damage dealing. Objects controlled by players within a player’s range of influence are also within that player’s range of influence. Bianca uses Astral Slide’s ability to remove Alex’s Hypnotic Specter from the game. attacking. return that creature to play under its owner’s control at end of turn. or the phase or step ends.4f If a player leaves the game during his or her turn. see rule 606. 601. 600. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal. Players within that many seats of the player are within that player’s range of influence.4e If an effect requires information about a specific player. it isn’t put on the stack.” During Alex’s turn. the effect uses the current information about that player if he or she is still in the game. This is an exception to rule 600. Limited range of influence is an option that can be applied to most multiplayer games. 600. but it isn’t put on the stack. 600. Example: Astral Slide is an enchantment that reads. whichever is appropriate. Range of influence covers spells. If the original choice was to be made by an opponent of the controller of the object. instead the next player in turn order receives priority. “Ante.5 In a multiplayer game. and winning the game. The Two-Headed Giant variant employs more extensive changes to the mulligan rule. the controller of the object chooses another player to make that choice. that turn continues to its completion without an active player. “Whenever a player cycles a card.4a. effects.4g When a player leaves the game. that the player can affect. It’s always used in the Emperor variant (see rule 607). 600. that player chooses another opponent if possible. or the top object on the stack resolves. you may remove target creature from the game. Before the end of that turn. 601.” 600. the effect uses the last known information about that player before he or she left the game. abilities.9. objects that player owns in the ante zone do not leave the game.2.1. See rule 217. the delayed triggered ability generated by Astral Slide that would return Hypnotic Specter to play triggers. At end of turn. measured in player seats.player who has left the game.

seats. Different players may have different ranges of influence. Example: A range of influence of 1 means that only you and the players seated directly next to you are within your range of influence. Example: A range of influence of 2 means that you and the two players to your left and the two players to your right are within your range of influence. 601.2b A player is always within his or her own range of influence. 601.2c The particular players within each player’s range of influence are determined as each turn begins. Example: In a game with a range of influence of 1, Alex is seated to the left of Rob, and Carissa is seated to the right of Rob. Carissa is not in Alex’s range of influence. If Rob leaves the game, Carissa will enter Alex’s range of influence at the start of the next turn. 601.2d An object is within a player’s range of influence if it’s controlled by that player or by another player within that many seats of that player. 601.3. Creatures can attack only opponents within their controller’s range of influence. If no opponents are within a player’s range of influence, creatures that player controls can’t attack. 601.4. Objects and players outside a player’s range of influence can’t be the targets of spells or abilities that player controls. 601.5. Some cards require players to make choices. These cards work differently when the limited range of influence option is used. 601.5a If a player is asked to choose an object or player, he or she must choose one within his or her range of influence. Example: In a game with a range of influence of 1, Alex is seated to the left of Rob. Alex activates the ability of Cuombajj Witches, which reads, “Cuombajj Witches deals 1 damage to target creature or player and 1 damage to target creature or player of an opponent’s choice,” targeting Rob and choosing Rob as the opponent who picks the other target. Rob must choose a target that’s in both his range of influence and in the range of influence of the controller of Cuombajj Witches. He must therefore choose himself, Alex, or a creature controlled by either himself or Alex. 601.5b If a player is asked to choose between one or more options (and not between one or more objects or players), he or she can choose between those options even if those options refer to objects or players outside the player’s range of influence. Example: Alex, who has a range of influence of 2, is seated to the left of Rob, and Carissa, who has range of influence of 1, is seated to the right of Rob. Alex plays a card that reads, “An opponent chooses one — You draw 2 cards; or each creature you control gets +2/+2 until end of turn,” and chooses Carissa to make that choice. Carissa can choose the mode even though Alex is out of her range. 601.5c If an effect requires a choice and there’s no player who can make that choice within its controller’s range of influence, the closest appropriate player to its controller’s left makes that choice.

Example: In an Emperor game in which all players have range of influence 1, an emperor plays Fact or Fiction, which reads, “Reveal the top five cards of your library. An opponent separates those cards into two piles. Put one pile into your hand and the other into your graveyard.” Since no opponent is within the emperor’s range of influence, the nearest opponent to the emperor’s left separates the cards into piles. 601.6. A player can’t play the activated abilities of an object outside of his or her range of influence. 601.7. A triggered ability doesn’t trigger unless its trigger event happens entirely within the range of influence of its source’s controller. Example: In a game with range of influence limited to 1, Alex is seated to the left of Rob. Rob controls two Auras attached to Alex’s Grizzly Bears: One with the trigger condition “Whenever enchanted creature becomes blocked,” and one with the trigger condition “Whenever enchanted creature becomes blocked by a creature.” Alex’s Grizzly Bears attacks the player to Alex’s left and becomes blocked. The ability of Rob’s first Aura triggers because the entire event (Grizzly Bears becomes blocked) happens within Rob’s range of influence. The ability of Rob’s second Aura doesn’t trigger, however, because that event includes the blocking creature, which is out of Rob’s range. 601.7a If a trigger event includes an object moving out of or into a player’s range of influence, use the game state before or after the event as appropriate to determine whether the triggered ability will trigger. See rule 410.10. Example: Carissa and Alex are outside each other’s range of influence. Carissa controls a creature owned by Alex and they each control a Soul Net, an artifact which reads, “Whenever a creature is put into a graveyard from play, you may pay {1}. If you do, you gain 1 life.” The creature is destroyed and is put into Alex’s graveyard. Alex’s Soul Net doesn’t trigger because the destruction event was outside Alex’s range of influence. Carissa’s Soul Net does trigger, even though the creature is going to a graveyard outside her range, because the destruction event was within her range. 601.8. An Aura can’t enchant an object or player outside its controller’s range of influence. If an Aura is attached to an illegal object or player, the Aura is put into its owner’s graveyard as a state-based effect. See rule 420. 601.9. An Equipment can’t equip an object outside its controller’s range of influence, and a Fortification can’t fortify an object outside its controller’s range of influence. If an Equipment or Fortification is attached to an illegal permanent, it becomes unattached from that permanent but remains in play. This is a state-based effect. See rule 420. 601.10. Spells and abilities can’t affect objects or players outside their controller’s range of influence. The parts of the effect that attempt to affect an out-ofrange object or player will do nothing. The rest of the effect will work normally. Example: In a six-player game where each player has range of influence 1, Alex plays Pyroclasm, which reads, “Pyroclasm deals 2 damage to each creature.” Pyroclasm deals 2 damage to each creature controlled by Alex, the player to Alex’s left, and the player to Alex’s right. No other

creatures are dealt damage. 601.11. If a spell or ability requires information from the game, it gets only information from within its controller’s range of influence. It doesn’t see objects or events outside its controller’s range of influence. Example: In a six-player game where each player has range of influence 1, Alex controls Coat of Arms, which reads, “Each creature gets +1/+1 for each other creature in play that shares a creature type with it.” Coat of Arms will boost Alex’s creatures based only on what creatures are controlled by Alex, the player to Alex’s left, and the player to Alex’s right. It won’t take other creatures into account. Example: In the same game, Rob is sitting to the right of Alex. Coat of Arms will boost Rob’s creatures based only on what creatures are controlled by Rob and Alex. They are the only two players within range of both Rob and the controller of Coat of Arms. 601.12. The “legend rule” (see rule 420.5e) applies to a permanent only if other legendary permanents with the same name are within its controller’s range of influence. Example: Alex has range of influence 1, and Carissa has range of influence 2. Rob sits between them. If Alex controls a legendary permanent and Carissa puts a legendary permanent with the same name into play, only the one controlled by Carissa will be put into a graveyard. 601.13. The “world rule” (see rule 420.5i) applies to a permanent only if other world permanents are within its controller’s range of influence. 601.14. The “planeswalker uniqueness rule” (see rule 420.5q) applies to a planeswalker only if other planeswalkers with the same planeswalker type are within its controller’s range of influence. 601.15. Replacement and prevention effects watch for a particular event to happen and then completely or partially replace that event. The limited range of influence option can cause the modified event to contain instructions that can’t be carried out, in which case the player simply ignores the impossible instructions. See rule 419, “Replacement and Prevention Effects.” 601.15a If a replacement effect tries to cause a spell or ability to affect an object or player outside its controller’s range of influence, that portion of the event does nothing. Example: Alex plays Lava Axe (“Lava Axe deals 5 damage to target player”) targeting Rob. In response, Rob plays Captain’s Maneuver (“The next X damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn is dealt to another target creature or player instead.”) with X = 3, targeting Carissa. Carissa isn’t in Alex’s range of influence. When Lava Axe resolves, it deals only 2 damage to Rob and no damage to Carissa. 601.15b If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt by a source, it can affect only sources within the spell or ability’s controller’s range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt to a creature or player, it can affect only creatures and players within the spell or ability’s controller’s range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage, but neither the source nor the would-be recipient of the damage is specified, it

Carissa plays Lightning Blast (“Lightning Blast deals 4 damage to target creature or player”) targeting Rob. the controller of the ability chooses one. not to all of the defending players. but Carissa is not. See rule 500. 602. if there are multiple defending players that could be chosen. In response. “Banding. If an effect states that a player wins the game. Alex controls an enchantment that says. See rule 502. a player can also choose to attack only one player during a particular combat. but Carissa is not.10. all the attacking player’s opponents are defending players during the combat phase. or effect that refers to a “defending player” refers to one specific defending player. Whether the creature with mountainwalk is unblockable depends only on whether Carissa controls a Mountain.”) targeting Rob. “Legal Attacks and Blocks.prevents damage only if both the source and recipient of that damage are within the spell or ability’s controller’s range of influence. This will usually be the defending player that the creature with the ability is attacking. he or she chooses a defending player for it to attack. Some multiplayer games allow the active player to attack multiple other players. “Declare Attackers Step. As the combat phase starts. 602. Example: Rob is within Alex’s range of influence.16. but Carissa is not. 601. (See rule . The entire group of attacking creatures must still be legal. 602. Restrictions and requirements that apply to attacking a specific player apply only to creatures attacking that player.3.2a Any rule.” 602. Example: Rob is within Alex’s range of influence. 602.4.” Carissa attacks Rob with a creature.” Example: Rob attacks Alex with Grizzly Bears and attacks Carissa with a creature with mountainwalk.3b Creatures in a band can’t attack different players. Alex plays Holy Day (“Prevent all combat damage that would be dealt this turn. Example: Rob is within Alex’s range of influence. Alex plays Mending Hands (“Prevent the next 4 damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn. The creature deals combat damage to Rob.”) Carissa and Rob’s creatures deal combat damage to each other. As the attacking player declares each attacking creature.2. “Prevent all damage that would be dealt by creatures. each defending player declares blockers in APNAP order as the declare blockers step begins.3a Restrictions and requirements that don’t apply to attacking a specific player are evaluated based on the entire group of attacking creatures. Carissa attacks Rob with a creature. the attacking player doesn’t choose an opponent to become the defending player. If creatures are attacking more than one player. and Rob blocks with a creature.1. all of that player’s opponents within his or her range of influence lose the game instead. If this option is used. object. 602. See rule 308. Attack Multiple Players Option 602.” 602. Instead. The damage to Rob is prevented.

”) The first defending player declares all his or her blocks. 602.2c The deploy creatures option isn’t used in the Free-for-All variant. 604. The Freefor-All variant uses the following default options. “Declare Blockers Step.4a A defending player can block only with creatures he or she controls.1a If the attack left option is used. “Attack Multiple Players Option.4 and rule 309. “Limited Range of Influence Option. See rule 601. 605. the player can’t attack.” 604. 603. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery. 605. a group of players compete as individuals against each other.5. Free-for-All Variant 605.4b When determining whether a defending player’s blocks are legal. a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately to his or her right. the player can’t attack. which is determined before play begins. If it is. they can’t block creatures attacking other players.” 605. Each creature has the ability “{T}: Target teammate gains control of this creature.2a The limited range of influence option usually isn’t used in Free-for-All games.103. . then the second defending player. and it can be used in other variants that allow players to compete in teams. the combat damage step proceeds just as in a two-player game. Deploy Creatures Option 603.2b Exactly one of the attack left. Combat damage is assigned in APNAP order. Any multiplayer options used are determined before play begins. “Attack Left and Attack Right Options. The Emperor variant always uses the deploy creatures option.1. and attack multiple players options must be used.1b If the attack right option is used.1. If a player’s nearest opponent to the left is more than one seat away. Those creatures can block only creatures attacking that player. Other than that. “Combat Damage Step. ignore any creatures attacking other players and any blocking creatures controlled by other players. a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately to his or her left. See rule 310. If a player’s nearest opponent to the right is more than one seat away.” and rule 602.” 605. Attack Left and Attack Right Options 604. See rule 604. In Free-for-All multiplayer games. Some multiplayer games use the optional attack left or attack right rules.2. 605. Multiplayer formats in which players compete as individuals usually don’t use this option. 602. and so on.2.” 603. attack right.1. 604. 602. each player has the same range of influence.

606.4a).3. For a team to take a mulligan. Teammates may consult during this process. The Two-Headed Giant variant has two unique features. 606. each player on that team decides whether to shuffle his or her hand back into the deck and then draw a new hand of seven cards (see rule 101. first the active team makes any choices required. All players on that team who chose to do so take their mulligans at the same time. Teammates may review each other’s hands and discuss strategies at any time.4.6e A player may play a spell or activated ability. 606. and so on) are not shared in the Two-Headed Giant variant. Free-for-All games use the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102). not individual players. resulting in a hand of one fewer card each time. then the nonactive team makes any choices required. If both teams would make choices and/or take actions at the same time. Each team decides the order in which its players sit. Each team sits together on one side of the table. 606. After each player on that team who took a mulligan looks at his or her new hand. 606. a team’s resources (cards in hand. Timing of Team Turns 606. The team whose turn it is is the active team. mana. or take a special action. 606. 606. and the player seated on the left is the secondary player. Nonactive Player order rule (see rule 103.1.6d The Active Player. those cards become his or her opening hand. With the exception of life total.6b.16. 606. The players are randomly seated around the table.4) is modified for Two-Headed Giant play.6a A player who is dissatisfied with his or her initial hand may mulligan. 606.6. That player can’t take any more mulligans. the team repeats the process. as modified by rule 601. No other multiplayer options are used in Two-Headed Giant games. Then the actions happen simultaneously. 606. the other team may take mulligans. . 606. The other team is the nonactive team. Two-Headed Giant games are played with two teams of two players each.4a Each team has a shared life total. The team who plays first skips the draw step of their first turn.4. Each team takes turns rather than each player.5. but a player can’t see the result of his or her teammate’s mulligan before deciding whether to take a mulligan at the same time. the starting team takes any mulligans. Teammates can’t manipulate each other’s cards or permanents. Once each player on the starting team decides to keep an opening hand. Two-Headed Giant Variant 606.6c Teams have priority. Once a player has decided to keep a hand. which starts at 30 life. First.3.4b. 606. The player seated on the right within each team is the primary player.2. 605. until the hand size reaches zero cards. but his or her teammate may.605.

7a Each team’s creatures attack the other team as a group. phase. that team passes.” All other cases in which the “defending player” is referred to actually refer to both defending players. Each player on a team draws a card during that team’s draw step. If the stack is empty when both teams pass in succession.6f If multiple triggered abilities have triggered since the last time a team received priority. that player’s team takes the extra turn. or turn. the active team is the attacking team and each player on the active team is an attacking player. phase. 606. not to both of the defending players. that player’s team does so. the nonactive team is the defending team and each player on the nonactive team is a defending player. During the combat phase. or turn. the top object on the stack resolves. This answer is “yes” if either defending player in the comparison would return a “yes” answer if compared individually.only when his or her team has priority. This answer is “yes” if performing the analogous positive comparison would return a “no” answer. Each player on a team may play a land during each of that team’s turns. the members of the active team put all triggered abilities either of them controls on the stack in any order they choose. 606.6i If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a TwoHeaded Giant game. The controller of the effect or of the object with the characteristic-defining ability chooses which one the spell or ability refers to. it also gets only one answer.7. then the nonactive team does the same. If an effect causes a player to skip a step. 606. The same is true for all other cases that refer to the “attacking player. If both teams pass in succession (that is. 606. the controller of that effect controls the affected player’s team’s turn. or turn. phase. If a single effect causes both players on the same team to add or skip the same step. The same is true for any one-shot effect that refers to the “attacking player. then the secondary player on that team performs all of his or her draws. the phase or step ends and the next one begins. first the primary player on the active team performs all of his or her draws.6h If an effect gives a player an extra turn or adds a phase or step to that player’s turn. If the reference involves a positive comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls an Island) or a relative comparison (such as asking whether you control more creatures than the defending player). Likewise. phase. or step. If an effect causes a player to control another player’s turn. 606. it gets only one answer. then the members of the nonactive team do the same. Any one-shot effect or characteristic-defining ability that refers to the “defending player” refers to one specific defending player. 606. If the reference involves a negative comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls no black permanents). then the active team receives priority. the primary player decides who takes the action.6g If a team has priority and neither player on that team wishes to do anything. if both teams pass without any player taking any actions in between passing).” . that team adds or skips only that step. The Two-Headed Giant variant uses different combat rules than other multiplayer variants. If both players on a team want to take an action at the same time.

Creatures controlled by the defending players can block any attacking creatures. in part. a player controls Transcendence. If an attacking creature would assign combat damage to the defending team. 606. the active team announces how each attacking creature will assign its combat damage. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. a player controls Platinum Angel.” and “Creatures of the chosen color without flying can’t attack you. “You don’t lose the game for having 0 or less life. loss of life. The Two-Headed Giant variant uses the normal rules for winning or losing the game (see rule 102).7d As the combat damage step begins. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game.” Creatures of the chosen color without flying can’t attack that player’s team. the defending team declares blockers. Damage. the creature can’t be blocked. with the following additions. Then the defending team announces how each blocking creature will assign its combat damage. the team loses the game. the active team declares attackers. 606. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. 606. that player’s team can’t lose the game. “You can’t lose the game and your opponents can’t win the game. If an effect would prevent a player from winning the game. . his or her team leaves the game immediately. a player attempts to draw a card while there are no cards in that player’s library.) 606.” Neither that player nor his or her teammate can lose the game while Platinum Angel is in play. the active team chooses only one of the defending players for that creature to assign its combat damage to. That player loses the game. and gaining life happen to each player individually.606. choose a color.7b.7c As the declare blockers step begins.8a If a team’s life total is 0 or less. The defending team has one combined block. so that player’s entire team loses the game. Example: If an attacking creature has forestwalk and either player on the defending team controls a Forest. The active team has one combined attack. That team loses the game. If either player on a team loses the game. which reads. Example: One player in a Two-Headed Giant game controls Teferi’s Moat.8. and that set of attacking creatures must be legal as a whole. the team loses the game the next time a team would receive priority. 606. that player’s team can’t win the game. (This is a state-based effect. the entire team wins the game.9. As the declare attackers step begins. which reads.8b Players win and lose the game only as a team. that team doesn’t lose the game. If either player on a team wins the game. See rule 420. 606. If an effect would prevent a player from losing the game. 606. not as individuals. If an effect of an object controlled by a defending player prohibits a creature from attacking him or her. and that set of blocking creatures must be legal as a whole. and neither player on the opposing team can win the game. that creature can’t attack the defending team. which says “As Teferi’s Moat comes into play.” If that player’s team’s life total is 0 or less.8c If a player concedes.

that player’s individual life total becomes that number. the result is the sum of all the numbers. which reads. even though the team didn’t lose a total of 19 life. (These variants are unofficially called Three-Headed Giant. The team’s life total must be 99 or more for that to happen. which reads. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. rounded up. The team will end up at 9 life.1. “Flame Rift deals 4 damage to each player. Four-Headed Giant. 606. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. for a total of 8 damage. .” For the purposes of this ability. an enchantment that reads. The first player is considered to have lost 10 life (13 – 3). instead. which reads.9b If an effect would set the life total of each player on a team to a number. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. so it becomes 20 and the team’s life total becomes 32 (25 + (20 – 13)). a team is at 17 life when a player activates Heartless Hidetsugu’s ability. The Emperor variant involves two or more teams of three players each.10.9a If an effect needs to know the value of an individual player’s life total.9c If an effect would set a single player’s life total to a number. rounded down.” If the opposing team has 22 life and 1 damage is dealt to a particular opponent. a player plays Biorhythm. that effect uses the team’s life total divided by two. The opposing team’s life total must be 20 or less for that to happen. which reads.” Each team is dealt a total of 8 damage. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. the player’s team wins the game only if his or her share of the team’s life total is 50 or more.The result is applied to the team’s shared life total. 606. 606. “At the beginning of your upkeep. Lurking Jackals won’t become a creature. and the second player is considered to have lost 9 life (13 – 4).” At the beginning of your upkeep. and so on.” That player’s life total is considered to be 13 for the purpose of the spell. 606. The team’s life total is adjusted by the amount of life that player gained or lost. “Your life total becomes 20. Emperor Variant 607. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. “Each player’s life total becomes the number of creatures he or she controls. if you have 50 or more life. if Lurking Jackals is an enchantment. Heartless Hidetsugu deals 4 damage to each of those players.) 607. “Heartless Hidetsugu deals to each player damage equal to half that player’s life total.” If one member of a team that has 25 life controls three creatures and the other member controls four creatures. The Two-Headed Giant variant can also be played with equally sized teams of more than two players. Each team’s starting life total is equal to 15 times the number of players on the team. “When an opponent has 10 life or less. Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game. you win the game. it becomes a 3/2 Hound creature. each player on that team is considered to be at 9 life. a player plays Flame Rift. that team’s life total becomes 7. a player controls Test of Endurance. a player on a team that has 25 life plays a spell that reads. a player controls Lurking Jackals.

2c The attack multiple players and deploy creatures options aren’t used in the Grand Melee variant. The players are seated at random. 607.5a A team loses the game if its emperor loses.1. The Emperor variant can also be played with any number of equally sized teams.3a The range of influence is limited to 2 for emperors and 1 for generals. The remaining players on the team are generals whose job is to protect the emperor. 607. Grand Melee Variant 608. in which a group of players compete against each other as individuals. 608.4. Each team sits together on one side of the table. and so on) are not shared.4.3c A player can attack only an opponent seated immediately next to him or her. 607. In the Emperor variant.3. If the teams have more than two players. neither emperor can attack any opponents. Example: At the start of an emperor game.607. The Emperor variant uses the following default options.2. Any multiplayer options used are decided before play begins.16. Turn order goes to players’ left. as modified by rule 601. The Grand Melee variant is a modification of the Free-for-All variant. a team’s resources (cards in hand. Moving turn markers keep track of which players are currently taking .6. Randomly determine which emperor goes first. 607. 607. Teammates may review each other’s hands and discuss strategies at any time. 608. even though both of the opposing generals are within their spell range. Grand Melee is normally used only in games begun with ten or more players. and with the following addition. Teammates can’t manipulate each other’s cards or permanents. See rule 601. the range of influence of each player should be adjusted.2. 607. 608. 608. who sits in the middle of the team. Each team has one emperor. The Grand Melee variant allows multiple players to take turns at the same time.3b Emperor games use the deploy creatures option (see rule 603).7. The Grand Melee variant uses the following default options.” 607. “Limited Range of Influence Option. 607. 607. 608.2a Each player has a range of influence of 1 (see rule 601).3.2b The attack left option is used (see rule 604). Each team decides the order in which it’s seated. The Emperor variant uses the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102).5. 608. mana. 608.

608. Grand Melee games contain multiple stacks. the player passes the turn marker to his or her left when the turn ends rather than keeping it. that player keeps the turn marker and starts his or her next turn after the current turn ends.5. and the player will take the extra turn immediately before his or her next turn. Example: During Alex’s turn. Turn markers are removed only between turns. Remove the turn marker immediately to the departed player’s right. which causes him to get an extra turn after this one. Example: A Grand Melee game with sixteen players has four turn markers. but that player wouldn’t have a turn marker at the start of that turn. the player to Alex’s left leaves the game.5b If a player has priority for multiple stacks and plays a spell or ability. remove the marker with the lower number. 608.4f If an effect would cause a player to take an extra turn after the current turn. Then all players with turn markers start their turns at the same time. 608. He won’t take the extra turn from Time Walk until just before his normal turn the next time he receives a turn marker.4d If an effect causes a player with a turn marker to take an extra turn after the current one. 608. the player must specify which . A player can’t receive a turn marker if any player in the three seats to his or her left has a turn marker.turns. If this is the case.4c When a player ends his or her turn. 608. The player four seats to that player’s left (the fifth player) takes the second turn marker. 608. a turn marker is removed.5a A player gets priority for a particular turn marker’s stack only if the turn marker is within his or her range of influence or an object on that stack is controlled by a player within his or her range of influence.4a There is one turn marker for each full four players in the game. that player will take the extra turn immediately before his or her next turn instead.4b The starting player in the game gets the first turn marker. which causes the number of turn markers to be reduced. 608. If more than one player has left the game and there are multiple turn markers that could be removed. he plays Time Walk. and so on until all the turn markers have been handed out. During the same turn. A game with fifteen players has three turn markers. If a turn marker is within three seats on the player’s left. If a turn marker is within three seats on the player’s right. Rather than having a single stack. Each turn marker is assigned a number in this way. After Alex’s current turn ends. Each turn marker represents an active player’s turn. that player passes the turn marker to the player on his or her left. his turn marker is removed.4e If a player leaves the game and that player leaving the game would reduce the number of turn markers in the game. unless another turn marker is too close on either side at that time. 608. Each turn marker represents its own stack. wait until the player four seats to his or her left takes the other turn marker. or a triggered ability he or she controls triggers. the extra turn waits to begin until the player four seats to his or her left takes the other turn marker. 608.

A3. If an object on one of those stacks caused the triggered ability to trigger.one of those stacks the spell or ability is put on. B2. 609. 609. The Teams variant involves two or more teams of equal size. A2. mana. the player must put it on that stack. Example: In a Teams game with three teams.2b Exactly one of the attack left. as modified by rule 601.” 609. B3. and C. If a spell or ability targets an object on one of those stacks. “Limited Range of Influence Option. Teammates can’t manipulate each other’s cards or permanents. C1. it must be put on the same stack as its target. and attack multiple players options must be used.2. 608.2c The deploy creatures option isn’t normally used in the Teams variant. “Attack Left and Attack Right Options.6 In the Teams variant. 609. and so on. The Teams variant uses the following default options.” and rule 602.1.3. attack right. Any multiplayer options used are determined before play begins. players are seated so that no one is next to a teammate and each team is equally spaced out.” 609. Teammates can’t review each other’s hands unless they are sitting next to each other. A. the new spell must be put on the same stack. 609.5. At the start of the game. See rule 604. B. The Grand Melee variant uses the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102). . a team’s resources (cards in hand. Team games use the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102). 609. If a resolving spell or ability on one of those stacks causes a player to play a spell or create a copy of a spell.2a The recommended range of influence is 2. 609. “Attack Multiple Players Option.16. it can’t target objects on multiple stacks. C3.6. C2. B1. as modified by rule 601. the seating around the table at the start of the game is A1. 609. and so on) are not shared.4. Teams Variant 609. A player can’t attack opponents who aren’t seated next to him or her. See rule 601. Teammates may discuss strategies at any time.16.

If an effect defines a property of an object (“[card or permanent] is [property]”). See rule 103. it’s simply changing the enchanted creature’s color to red. . Active Player The active player is the player whose turn it is. Ability words are similar to keywords in that they tie together cards that have similar functionality. radiance. For more information. it goes onto the stack and stays there until it’s countered.” Activation Cost The activation cost of an activated ability is everything that appears before the colon in that ability’s text. Ability Word An ability word appears in italics at the beginning of some abilities on cards. “Activated Abilities. Abilities.3). then the nonactive players do so in turn order. a player may play such an ability whenever he or she has priority. chroma. see section 4. “Activated Abilities. domain. grandeur. This is called the “Active Player. or “APNAP order” rule. It must be paid to play the ability. See rule 502. and after combat damage resolves. it’s not granting an ability. “Enchanted creature is red. The active player gets priority at the start of each phase or step (except for the untap and cleanup steps).] [Play restriction (if any).” Example: The activation cost of an ability that reads “{2}. after any spell or ability (except a mana ability) resolves. or it otherwise leaves the stack. “Spells.6d. “Absorb.” Activated Ability An activated ability is written as “[Cost]: [Effect. static abilities (see rule 405).Glossary Ability “Ability” and “effect” are often confused with one another. Nonactive Player order” rule. The result of following such an instruction is an effect. The list of ability words. Nonactive Player Order Whenever multiple players are instructed to make choices at the same time. sweep. and the abilities that are followed as instructions while an instant or sorcery spell is resolving (see rule 401. updated through the Alara Reborn™ set.” The Aura isn’t granting an ability of any kind. See rule 403. and threshold.]” By paying the activation cost.61. {T}: You gain 1 life” is two mana of any color plus tapping the permanent. an Aura might read. Active Player. Absorb Absorb is a static ability that prevents damage. For example. triggered abilities (see rule 404). When an effect states that an object “gains” or “has” an ability. This rule is modified for Two-Headed Giant play. the active player makes all his or her choices first. hellbent. it resolves. An instruction in an object’s text is an ability.4. When an activated ability is played. see rule 606. prevent N of that damage. is as follows: channel.” The general categories of abilities are activated abilities (see rule 403). it’s granting that object an ability.” Each absorb ability can prevent only N damage from any one source at any one time. “Absorb N” means “If a source would deal damage to this creature. kinship. and Effects. but they have no special rules meaning and no individual entries in the Comprehensive Rules. See rule 403.

See rule 212. These are paid at the same time the player pays the spell’s mana cost. after any spell or ability (except a mana ability) resolves. See rule 606. Artifact Artifact is a card type. Only one such alternative cost can be applied to any one spell. At the end of the game. When using the ante rule.2. “Amplify.” . it still applies to the alternative cost. Additional Cost Some spells have additional costs listed in their text.” Artifact Creature An artifact creature is a combination of artifact and creature.” These are alternative costs. It doesn’t reduce how much colored mana you have to pay for a spell. the active team is the team whose turn it is. its controller puts it into play under his or her control. You can’t reveal this card or any other cards that are coming into play at the same time as this card.” See rule 502. each player puts one random card from his or her deck into the ante zone at the beginning of the game. If an effect requires paying additional costs to play a spell.” Ante (Obsolete) Earlier versions of the Magic rules included an ante rule as a way of playing “for keeps.6d. “Affinity. See rule 217. Playing for ante is strictly forbidden under DCI tournament rules. See rule 409.” Affinity Affinity is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. When an artifact spell resolves. This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it for each card revealed this way. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. “Affinity for [text]” means “This spell costs you {1} less to play for each [text] you control. and it is allowed only where it’s not forbidden by law or by other rules. and after combat damage resolves. and it’s subject to the rules for both. “Ante. “Amplify N” means “As this object comes into play. See rule 502. Nonactive Player Order.Active Team In the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant.9. See rule 212. “You may [action] rather than pay [this object’s] mana cost.2. reveal any number of cards from your hand that share a creature type with it. “Artifacts. The active team gets priority at the start of each phase or step (except for the untap and cleanup steps). “you may play [this object] without paying its mana cost.” Alternative Cost The rules text of some spells reads. not what was paid to play the spell.27.” APNAP Order See Active Player. Other spells and abilities that ask for a spell’s mana cost still see the actual mana cost. “Artifacts. The active player may play artifacts during his or her main phase when the stack is empty.31.” Amplify Amplify is a static ability. See rule 409. the winner becomes the owner of all cards in the ante zone.” Playing Magic games for ante is now considered an optional variation on the game.” The affinity ability reduces only generic mana costs. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.” or includes the phrase.

and if an Aura is coming into play from the stack and there is no legal object for it to enchant.Artifact Land An artifact land is a combination of artifact and land. Attack Alone A creature attacks alone if it’s the only creature declared as an attacker during the . For purposes of that action. See rule 310. Fortification. Nothing else about the Aura changes. If an ability of the moved Aura affecting “enchanted [object]” was on the stack when the Aura moved. Artifact Type Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Artifact — Equipment. (See rule 212. Equipment. or fortify. then both effects will apply. Similarly. For all other purposes. the Aura is put into its owner’s graveyard instead of coming into play. (See rule 308. equip. The Aura. or Fortification no longer exists or the object it will move onto is no longer in the correct zone when the effect would attach it. They can’t be played as spells. Attack A creature attacks when it’s declared as an attacker during the combat phase. it phases in and is then put into its owner’s graveyard as a state-based effect. All assignments of combat damage go on the stack as a single entry. or Fortification to the object it’s already attached to. respectively. or Fortification to an object means to take it from where it currently is and put it onto that object. If two cards state that a player may (or a creature can) do the same thing “as though” different conditions were true. an Aura. “Combat Damage Step. both conditions could apply. not the old one. and it’s subject to the rules for both. Assign Combat Damage As the combat damage step begins. Then the defending player(s) announce how each blocking creature will assign its combat damage. it will affect the new enchanted object when it resolves. the active player or team announces how each attacking creature will assign its combat damage. “As Though” Text that states a player may do something “as though” some condition were true or a creature can do something “as though” some condition were true applies only to the stated action. The same is true for moved Equipment and Fortifications. “Artifacts. treat the game normally.”) Playing a spell or ability (even during the combat phase) is never considered to be an attack. Equipment. or Fortification stays where it is. Attaching an Aura in play to a different object causes the Aura to receive a new timestamp. is as follows: Contraption. The list of artifact types. the effect does nothing. with two exceptions: If an Aura would phase in but can no longer enchant the object it was attached to. If the Aura. Equipment. Equipment. Equipment. The Aura never left play. nothing happens. treat the game exactly as if the stated condition were true. updated through the Alara Reborn set. or Fortification can’t be attached to an object it couldn’t enchant. “Declare Attackers Step. Equipment. Attach To attach an Aura.2.”) Artifact lands can only be played as lands.” Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. If one “as though” effect satisfies the requirements for another “as though” effect. so no comes-into-play or leaves-play triggered abilities will trigger. If an effect tries to attach an Aura.

It remains an attacking creature until it’s removed from combat.” If either half of the exchange can’t be completed.2f. Any land .” Attack Multiple Players Option Some multiplayer games allow the active player to attack multiple opponents.” Banding. (This is a statebased effect.” An Aura spell requires a target whose properties are indicated by its enchant keyword ability. If the attack right option is used. the player can’t attack. “Declare Attackers Step. a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately to his or her left. Each defending player can block only the creatures attacking him or her. See rule 602. if any.” and rule 502.45. See rule 309. “Attack Multiple Players Option. Each of the attacked players is a defending player. Attack Left Option Some multiplayer games use the optional “attack left” rules.62. “Banding. “Enchantments. the player can’t attack. See rule 502. A creature is attacking alone if it’s attacking but no other creatures are. is put into its owner’s graveyard.” An Aura can enchant only an object or player whose properties are indicated by its enchant keyword ability. or the combat phase ends. “Aura swap [cost]” means “[Cost]: You may exchange this permanent with an Aura card in your hand. have been paid.” Attack Right Option Some multiplayer games use the optional “attack right” rules. An Aura permanent comes into play attached to the object or player the spell targeted. “Bands with other” is a specialized version of the ability.4. a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately to his or her right. See rule 212. See rule 604.” Attacks and Isn’t Blocked An ability that triggers when a creature “attacks and isn’t blocked” triggers when the creature becomes an unblocked attacking creature. “Bands with Other” Banding is a static ability that modifies the rules for declaring attackers and assigning combat damage. See rule 604.declare attackers step. “Bands with Other. the ability has no effect.” and rule 502. See rule 306. “Enchant. Attacking creatures don’t exist outside of the combat phase. If a player’s nearest opponent to the right is more than one seat away. or not attached to an object or player. its controller changes.5.) Aura Swap Aura swap is an activated ability of some Aura cards. See rule 308. If a player’s nearest opponent to the left is more than one seat away.” Attacking Creature A creature becomes an attacking creature when (a) it’s declared as part of a legal attack during the combat phase and (b) all costs to attack. “Attack Left and Attack Right Options. it stops being a creature. “Attack Left and Attack Right Options.10.” Basic Basic is a supertype. Aura Some enchantments have the subtype “Aura. “Aura Swap. An Aura attached to an illegal object or player. Any land with the supertype basic is a basic land. See rule 502.11. If the attack left option is used. See rule 420. A creature may also be put into play attacking.

” Bloodthirst Bloodthirst is a static ability. or the combat phase ends. It has three steps: untap. “becomes tapped” triggers only when a permanent’s status changes from untapped to tapped. Basic Land Type There are five basic land types: Plains. See rule 205. “Declare Blockers Step. “Beginning of Combat Step.” Becomes Some trigger events use the word “becomes” (for example. “becomes tapped” or “becomes blocked”). For example. if any. See rule 306. A player may play spells and abilities during this step whenever he or she has priority. Beginning of Combat Step The beginning of combat step is the first step of the combat phase. its controller changes. “Declare Blockers Step.50. See rule 212. See rule 309. See rule 309. It remains a blocked creature until it’s removed from combat.” Block A creature blocks when it’s declared as a blocker during the combat phase.without that supertype is a nonbasic land. See rule 301. it stops being a creature. “Beginning Phase. These trigger only at the time the named event happens—they don’t trigger if that state already exists or retrigger if it persists.5. and Forest. “Bloodthirst N” means “If an opponent was dealt damage this turn. have been paid. A blocked creature doesn’t become unblocked if the blocking creature is later removed from combat. “Declare Blockers Step. A creature is blocking alone if it’s blocking but no other creatures are. Blocked Creature An attacking creature becomes a blocked creature when another creature blocks it or an effect causes it to become blocked during the combat phase.” Basic Landcycling See Typecycling.” Beginning Phase The beginning phase is the first phase of the turn. “Supertypes. Every basic land type has a mana ability associated with it. A creature may also be put into play blocking. this permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it. Swamp.” . Blocked creatures don’t exist outside of the combat phase. its controller changes.4. See rule 307. See rule 309. upkeep.” Block Alone A creature blocks alone if it’s the only creature declared as a blocker during the declare blockers step. it stops being a creature.” See rule 502. It remains a blocking creature until it’s removed from combat. “Bloodthirst. Island. and draw. or the combat phase ends.” Blocking Creature A creature becomes a blocking creature when (a) it’s declared as part of a legal block during the combat phase and (b) all costs to block. “Lands. Mountain.6. Blocking creatures don’t exist outside of the combat phase.

” . and Subtype.” See rule 502. In general. Supertype. You may play that card without paying its mana cost. Tokens aren’t considered cards—even a card that represents a token isn’t considered a card for rules purposes.1. sorcery.1c. It represents two static abilities that function while the spell is on the stack. If the effect is adding a card type.Bury (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the term “bury. “Destroy [a permanent]. cards that were printed with the term “cast” now use the term “play.” (See rule 309. “Type Line. creature. “Buyback [cost]” means “You may pay an additional [cost] as you play this spell” and “If the buyback cost was paid. See rule 502. Card When a rule or text on a card refers to a “card.16. “Cascade.” and rule 212. See rule 200. even though they’re not cards. The card types are artifact. “Card Type.1b and 409.” Tokens and copies of spells have card types. put this spell into its owner’s hand instead of into that player’s graveyard as it resolves. It can’t be regenerated. and tribal.” Cast (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “cast” to describe the playing of a spell. enchantment. remove cards from the top of your library from the game until you remove a nonland card whose converted mana cost is less than this spell’s converted mana cost. In general. See rule 212.85. it will say so. the new card type replaces all previous card types. instant. land. or allowing an object to retain its card types. “Bushido N” means “Whenever this creature blocks or becomes blocked. Then put all cards removed from the game this way that weren’t played on the bottom of your library in a random order. planeswalker. In general.” Paying a spell’s buyback cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. Card Type The card type is printed on a card’s type line. “Declare Blockers Step. cards that were printed with the term “bury” now read.” it means a Magic card with a Magic card front and the Magic card back.” Caster (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “caster” to describe the player who played a spell. directly below its illustration. See rule 205. it gets +N/+N until end of turn.” Bushido Bushido is a triggered ability.”) Buyback Buyback appears on some instants and sorceries. cards that were printed with the term “caster” now refer to the object’s “controller. Each card type has its own rules for how to play with one. Use the Oracle card reference to determine a card’s text. Cascade Cascade is a triggered ability that functions only while the spell with cascade is on the stack.” or “Sacrifice [a permanent].” Cantrip (Informal) This is a nickname for any spell that has “Draw a card” as part of its effect.1f–h. “Cascade” means “When you play this spell. When an effect changes an object’s card type. “Buyback.” which meant to put a permanent into its owner’s graveyard.

If the target can’t change to another legal target. even outside the game.” Characteristics An object’s characteristics are name. You can change the target of a spell or ability only if an effect tells you to change its target. or power/toughness box). return the removed card to play under its owner’s control. cards that were printed with the term “casting cost” now use the term “mana cost. “Cleanup Step.2. Change a Target The target of a spell or ability can change only to another legal target.” A player wins a clash if that player revealed a card with a higher converted mana cost than all other cards revealed in that clash. “Champion an [object]” means “When this permanent comes into play.72. “Changing Targets. Clash To “clash. In that case.Casting Cost (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “casting cost” to describe the mana cost of a spell. You and that opponent each clash. abilities. the step repeats.” Champion Champion is a keyword ability that represents two triggered abilities. “Characteristics. color. a spell’s target. card type. See rule 501. rules text. power.” This ability works everywhere. “Champion. They also function outside the game. a spell or permanent’s controller. Changing a spell or ability’s target can’t change its modes. and so on. the original target is unchanged. toughness.” . Spells and abilities may be played during this step only if the conditions for any state-based effects exist or if any abilities have triggered. “Clash with an opponent” means “Choose an opponent. Characteristicdefining abilities function in all zones. In general. “Clash. subtype. mana cost. type line. “Changeling. See rule 405. That player may then put that card on the bottom of his or her library.73. See rule 415.” Cleanup Step Cleanup is the second and final step of the end phase.” Cards that used the term “total casting cost” now use the term “converted mana cost. See rule 314.” Characteristic-Defining Ability A characteristic-defining ability is a kind of static ability that conveys information about an object’s characteristics that would normally be found elsewhere on that object (such as in its mana cost.” a player reveals the top card of his or her library. See rule 201.” Changeling Changeling is a keyword ability that represents a characteristic-defining ability.” See rule 502. expansion symbol.10. supertype.7. “Changeling” means “This object is every creature type. and loyalty. such as whether a permanent is tapped. what an Aura enchants. See rule 502. sacrifice it unless you remove another [object] you control from the game” and “When this permanent leaves play.” A permanent is “championed” by another permanent if the latter removes the former from the game as the direct result of a champion ability. Characteristics don’t include any other information.

Colorless An object with no color is colorless.” “land. immediately following the legal text. A hybrid mana symbol is all of its component colors. black. The combat phase has five steps: beginning of combat. neither are “artifact. An object’s color is determined by the color(s) of the mana symbols in its mana cost.” “gold.” and so on. See rule 210. A player may play spells and abilities during this step whenever he or she has priority.” “brown. When a permanent comes into play. Combat Damage Combat damage is dealt during the combat damage step of the combat phase by attacking creatures and blocking creatures.28).” Color The only colors in the Magic game are white. “Colorless” isn’t a color. then check to determine if the current form of the permanent generates any triggered abilities.2) or double strike (see rule 502. blue. A permanent whose card type or controller changes doesn’t “come into play. “add [mana symbol] to your mana pool.” or something similar. “Combat Damage Step. Comes into Play A permanent comes into play when the card or token representing it is moved into the in-play zone. See rule 203. Combat Phase Combat is the third phase of the turn. Example: If an instruction causes something to come into play tapped. it isn’t put into play untapped and then tapped. . See rules 306–311. red. declare attackers. “Combat Damage Step. Effects may change an object’s color. These numbers have no effect on game play. Attacking and blocking creatures deal damage in the combat damage step.Collector Number Some card sets feature collector numbers. declare blockers. “Information Below the Text Box.” If any attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 502. Face-down creatures are colorless due to the effects that turn them face down. See rule 104. and green. This information is printed in the form [card number]/[total cards in the set].2. first apply any replacement effects. Most artifacts are colorless because they have no colored mana in their mana costs. Lands are colorless because they have no mana cost. there are two combat damage steps. An object can be one or more of those colors or it can be colorless.” Permanents come into play untapped and under the control of whoever put them into play.2.” Combat Damage Step The combat damage step is the fourth step of the combat phase.3d. Colorless mana Numeral symbols (such as {1}) and variable symbols (such as {X}) can represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or ability that reads. the new color replaces all previous colors the object had. See rule 310. and end of combat. combat damage. then apply continuous effects. If an effect gives an object a new color. It doesn’t include damage dealt by spells and abilities during the combat phase. See rule 310. See rule 203. A colorless object can be given a color by an effect.

These last as long as the spell or ability specifies.Concede A player may concede a game at any time.2. A constructed deck can have any number of basic land cards and no more than four of any card with a particular English name other than basic land cards. If the spell has any targets. See rule 100. See rule 502. copy it. They were artifacts without activated abilities.” Conspire Conspire is a keyword that represents two abilities. If no duration is specified. He or she loses the game. Other effects can later change a permanent’s controller. or is told to make. A spell or activated ability on the stack is controlled by whoever played it. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.” .” Continuous Artifact (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “continuous artifact” on the card’s type line. Objects in zones other than in play or the stack have no controller. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. a continuous effect lasts the rest of the game. Cards that were printed with the term “continuous artifact” now simply use “artifact. you may choose new targets for the copy. “Controlling Another Player’s Turn. A player who concedes leaves the game immediately.1f– h. The controller of another player’s turn makes all choices and decisions that player is allowed to make.1b and 409. Continuous Effect Continuous effects are usually active as long as the permanent with the associated static ability remains in play or the object with the associated static ability remains in the appropriate zone. A player doesn’t lose life due to mana burn while another player controls his or her turn.” Control. unless it’s a delayed triggered ability. “Conspire” means “As an additional cost to play this spell. Controlling Another Player’s Turn One card (Mindslaver) allows a player to control another player’s turn. during that turn by rules or by any objects. If anything asks for the controller of an object that doesn’t have a controller. and some way to clearly track life totals. Controller A permanent’s controller is whoever put it into play unless the spell or ability that put the permanent into play states otherwise.78. See rule 507. you may tap two untapped creatures you control that each share a color with it” and “When you play this spell. “Conspire. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. small items to represent any tokens and counters. A triggered ability on the stack is controlled by the player who controlled its source at the time it triggered. if its conspire cost was paid. use its owner instead. A spell or ability can create a continuous effect that doesn’t depend on a permanent. “Winning and Losing. “Continuous Effects. See rule 102. each player needs his or her own deck of at least sixty cards.” Constructed In constructed play.” Paying a spell’s conspire cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. A copy of a spell is controlled by the player who put it on the stack. See rule 418.

See rule 502. To counter a spell or ability is to cancel it. you may tap any number of untapped creatures you control.46. Convoke Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. Counters may also be given to players. removing it from the stack. but costs may also include paying life. See rule 414. “Convoke. plus any values set for face-down spells or permanents and any values set by “comes into play as” abilities. A +X/+Y counter on a permanent.” Cost A cost is an action or payment necessary to take another action or to stop another action from taking place. “Mana Cost and Color. either modifying its characteristics or interacting with an effect.1f–h. Playing spells and activated abilities requires paying a cost. Copy A “copy” of an object is an object whose copiable values have been set to those of the first object.5a. Similarly. the cost can’t be paid. N +1/+1 and N -1/-1 counters are removed from it. use the largest component of each hybrid symbol. “Activated Abilities. a player with only 1 life can’t pay a cost of 2 life. If an object has no mana cost. tapping or sacrificing permanents. See rule 424. See rule 503. and a permanent that’s already tapped can’t be tapped to pay a cost. In such instances. adds X to that permanent’s power and Y to that permanent’s toughness. See rules 503.” rule 203.” 2.” Using the convoke ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409. Other effects (including type-changing effects) and counters are not copied.3. These bonuses are added after permanent-type changing effects and after most other power and toughness changing effects. Counters with the same name or description are interchangeable. “Copying Objects. where X and Y are numbers. 1. When calculating the converted mana cost of an object with a hybrid mana symbol in its mana cost. A countered spell is put into its owner’s graveyard.” Copiable Values An object’s “copiable values” are the values that are printed on the object. See rule 203. discarding cards.3d. A counter is a marker placed on an object. Counter Counter has two meanings in the Magic game. If a permanent has both a +1/+1 counter and a -1/-1 counter on it. “Countering Spells and Abilities.Converted Mana Cost The converted mana cost of an object is the total amount of mana in its mana cost. Each creature tapped this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1} or by one mana of any of that creature’s colors. “Convoke” means “As an additional cost to play this spell. See rule 418. Most costs are paid in mana.” Some spells and abilities have no cost. It doesn’t resolve and none of its effects occur.2 and 503. “Costs. where N is the smaller of the number of +1/+1 . A player can’t pay a cost unless he or she has the necessary resources to pay it fully. as modified by other copy effects. see rule 102.” Example: An Air Elemental has a mana cost of {3}{U}{U} and a converted mana cost of 5. For information about poison counters. and so on. For example. its converted mana cost is 0. -X/-Y counters subtract from power and toughness. “Mana Cost and Color. regardless of color.” and rule 403.

Frog. Satyr. Viashino. Drone. see rule 420. Incarnation. Aurochs. Spider. Oyster. Kor. Anteater. Pincher. Thopter. (Newer Magic cards use “is” instead. Partial payments aren’t allowed. Crocodile.” Creature Type Creatures and tribals share the same set of subtypes. Spike. Imp. Reflection. Coward. Djinn. Ogre. Gnome. Fungus. Minotaur.and -1/-1 counters on it. Shapeshifter. Lhurgoyf. Knight. Fish. Antelope. Dreadnought. Harpy. Elephant. Splinter. Zubera Cumulative Upkeep Cumulative upkeep is a triggered ability that imposes an increasing cost on a permanent. Squirrel. Ape. Sand. Octopus. Shade. Jellyfish.3. Thrull.” “Artifact Creature — Golem. Rhino. Yeti. Nephilim. Kithkin. Atog. Turtle. Vedalken. “Cycling. Nightmare. each choice is made separately for each age counter. As far as the game rules and other cards are concerned. Elemental. Moonfolk. Pentavite. Snake. Efreet. Sponge. Noggle. Dauthi. Hellion. Merfolk.18. Mystic. Egg. Scout. Slug. Ferret. Homarid. When a creature spell resolves. Ox. Beast. Hyena. Serpent. Bear. Monk. Cleric. These subtypes are also called creature types.” If [cost] has choices associated with it. then either the entire set of costs is paid. Dryad. Warrior. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Creature — Human Soldier. Drake. Cephalid. See rule 502. Tetravite. Wraith. Citizen. Assassin. Pirate. Pegasus. Leech. Treefolk. Plant. Bringer. Mongoose. Kraken. Camel. Soldier. Chimera. Carrier. Kobold. Druid. Horse. Horror. Samurai. Graveborn. Squid.” Cycling Cycling is an activated ability that functions only while the card with cycling is in a player’s hand. Wurm. Bird.” and so on. Hippo. Cyclops. Vampire. Zombie. Giant. Elf. Mutant. Basilisk. Ouphe.” . Salamander. Starfish. Whale. This is a state-based effect. Angel. “Cumulative Upkeep. Avatar. Scorpion.5n. Triskelavite. The active player may play creatures during his or her main phase when the stack is empty. See rule 212. Phelddagrif. put an age counter on this permanent. Myr. Scarecrow. Wizard. Rogue. “Cycling [cost]” means “[Cost]. Serf. Hound. Dwarf. its controller puts it into play under his or her control.) Creature Creature is a card type. Orb. Boar. Kavu. Berserker. Then you may pay [cost] for each age counter on it. Centaur. Archer. Deserter. Cat. Demon. Faerie. Fox. Badger. Metathran. Rigger. Brushwagg. Skeleton.” See rule 502. Griffin. or none of them are paid. Orc. Bat. Lizard. Crab. Soltari. Hydra. Licid. Ooze. Hag. Rebel. Flagbearer. “Cumulative upkeep [cost]” means “At the beginning of your upkeep. the card is that thing. Counts As (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with text stating that the card “counts as” something. Thalakos. “Creatures. each creates a separate triggered ability at the beginning of upkeep that counts all the age counters on the permanent from all abilities. The list of creature types. Worm. Masticore. Leviathan. Golem. Manticore. Minion. Wolverine. Barbarian. Juggernaut. Illusion. Gargoyle. Unicorn. Note that if a permanent has more than one instance of cumulative upkeep. Survivor. Sphinx. Volver. Discard this card: Draw a card. Orgg. Saproling. is as follows: Advisor. Rabbit. Lammasu. Wall. Elk. Wolf. Phoenix. Goblin. Kirin. Nightstalker. Assembly-Worker. Slith. If you don’t. Spirit. Cockatrice. Pest. Rat. Dragon. Eye. sacrifice it. Spawn. Archon. Ninja. Human. Goat. Beeble. Artificer. Nomad. Weird. Devil. Gorgon. Insect. Nautilus. Shaman.13. updated through the Alara Reborn set. Prism. Construct. Wombat. Troll. Caribou. Mercenary. Blinkmoth. Spellshaper. Camarid. Monger. Specter. Sliver. Elder. Homunculus. Sheep.

“Declare Blockers Step. and pays any costs required to allow those creatures to attack. “Legal Attacks and Blocks.” If a permanent has multiple instances of deathtouch. “Deathtouch” means “Whenever this permanent deals damage to a creature. Costs and effects that read “lose life” or “pay life” don’t deal damage. During the cleanup step. See rule 309. the active player chooses a set of creatures that will attack. “Starting the Game. all damage is removed from permanents. Damage dealt to a planeswalker causes that planeswalker to lose that much loyalty.63. Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities.” Declare Attackers To declare attackers. “Declare Attackers Step.” Declare Blockers Step The declare blockers step is the third step of the combat phase. See rule 500.” Declare Blockers To declare blockers. See section 100. “StateBased Effects. The active player declares attackers during this step (or chooses not to attack). Creatures with defender can’t attack. “Legal Attacks and Blocks. See rule 502. See rule 308. planeswalkers. When the game begins. but blocking doesn’t cause creatures to tap.Damage Damage can be dealt to creatures. Deathtouch Deathtouch is a triggered ability. each player’s deck becomes his or her library.” Declare Attackers Step The declare attackers step is the second step of the combat phase. and that loss of life can’t be prevented or otherwise altered by effects that prevent or replace damage. and the following creatures can’t attack: tapped creatures (even those that can attack without tapping) and creatures the active player didn’t control continuously since the beginning of the turn (except those with haste). destroy that creature. (See rule 420. A creature with damage greater than or equal to its toughness has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed. Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. Only untapped creatures can block. See rule 500. declares whether each creature is attacking the defending player or a planeswalker that player controls.” Defender Defender is a static ability. Other effects may also affect whether or not a set of creatures could attack. Only creatures can attack. “General. Damage dealt to a creature stays on the permanent until the cleanup step.”) Damage doesn’t alter a creature’s toughness. even if it stops being a creature.” Deck A player’s deck is the collection of cards that player starts the game with. . the defending player chooses a set of creatures that will block and pays any costs they require to block. Damage dealt to a player causes that player to lose that much life. and players.” and section 101. each triggers separately. The defending player declares blockers during this step (or chooses not to block). Other effects may also affect whether or not a set of creatures could block. “Deathtouch.

” Using the delve ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. or what it does to any of the things it applies to.” Discard A player discards a card by putting a card from his or her hand into his or her graveyard. see rule 606. See rule 306. they can’t attack other creatures. If the “attack multiple players” option is used in a multiplayer game. “Delve. “Attack Multiple Players Option.” See rule 603.” The Two-Headed Giant variant uses different combat rules than other multiplayer variants. See rule 418.1f–h. Regeneration or other destruction-replacement effects can replace this action. “Interaction of Continuous Effects. however. Some effects.7. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery. there is no defending player. require a random discard or allow another player to choose which card is discarded.” Depend On An effect is said to “depend on” another if it is applied at the same time as the other effect and applying the other would change the text or the existence of the first effect. During phases other than combat. If the deploy creatures option is used. “Devour N” means “As this object comes into play. there can be more than one defending player. See rule 404.5.64. you may sacrifice any number of creatures. Creatures can attack only the defending player or a planeswalker the defending player controls.” Deploy Creatures Option Some multiplayer games allow players to give creatures to their teammates.4.” Destroy To destroy a permanent is to move it from the in-play zone to its owner’s graveyard. See rule 602. This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it for each creature sacrificed this way. Delve Delve is a static ability that functions while the spell that has it is on the stack. effects that cause a player to discard a card allow the affected player to choose which card to discard.82. “Devour. “Deploy Creatures Option. . “Replacement and Prevention Effects.Defending Player During the combat phase.” Some objects have abilities that refer to the number of creatures the permanent devoured. Delayed Triggered Ability A delayed triggered ability is created by effects generated when some spells or abilities resolve. “It devoured” means “sacrificed as a result of its devour ability as it came into play. See rule 502. the active player chooses one opponent. By default. each creature has the ability “{T}: Target teammate gains control of this creature. “Delve” means “As an additional cost to play this spell.” See rule 502. The chosen opponent is the defending player. the active player is attacking and is the attacking player.” Devour Devour is a static ability. what it applies to. you may remove any number of cards in your graveyard from the game. As the combat phase starts. Each card removed this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1}.1b and 409.2. See rule 419.

Temple Garden has the land types Forest and Plains. This doesn’t apply to dividing combat damage. “Draw Step. then each of these targets.” A player with fewer cards in his or her library than the number required by a dredge ability can’t put any of them into his or her graveyard this way. Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. This is done as a game action during each player’s draw step. A dual land doesn’t count as two lands while in play—it’s just one land with multiple land types. As the draw step begins. .” Dredge Dredge is a static ability that functions only while the card with dredge is in a player’s graveyard. they are not basic lands. See rule 304. “Dredge. Dual land cards have the default abilities of both basic land types and are treated as both by all spells and abilities that specifically refer to those land types.2. “Dredge N” means “As long as you have at least N cards in your library. See rule 102.47. For example. Double Strike Double strike is a static ability that modifies the rules for the combat damage step. If a spell or ability requires a player to divide something (such as damage or counters) as he or she chooses among one or more targets.” 2. See rules 409.1e and 310. then each of these targets. See rule 502. as well as if the player’s library is empty. objects.2. if you would draw a card. See rules 409. objects. This makes a difference for abilities that trigger on drawing cards or that replace card draws. See rule 423. each of these has two basic land types. or any number of untargeted objects or players. However. Divide Divide has its normal English meaning in the Magic game. Draw Step The draw step is the third step of the beginning phase. “Drawing a Card. the active player draws a card (this game action does not use the stack). or among any number of untargeted objects or players. It may also be done as part of a cost or effect of a spell or ability.” Dual Land (Informal) The Ravnica block and early Magic core sets contain “dual lands”.1e and 310. Creatures with double strike deal combat damage in both the first-strike combat damage step and the normal combat damage step. “Double Strike. If an effect moves cards from a player’s library to that player’s hand without using the word “draw. If a spell or ability requires a player to distribute something (such as counters) as he or she chooses among one or more targets. See rule 502. or players must receive at least one of whatever is being distributed.” Draw Draw has two meanings in the Magic game. or players must receive at least one of whatever is being divided.28. A player draws a card by putting the top card of his or her library into his or her hand. A drawn game is a game where the game ends and there is no winner. 1.” the player has not drawn those cards.4. you may instead put N cards from the top of your library into your graveyard and return this card from your graveyard to your hand.Distribute Distribute has its normal English meaning in the Magic game.

Enchantment Type Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Enchantment — Shrine.19. See rule 607. See rule 212.45. Each team has one emperor. “Effects.” Emperor Emperor is a multiplayer variant with its own rules. When a spell or ability resolves. (b) Emperor games use the deploy creatures option (see rule 603). See rule 416. who sits in the middle of the team.” Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. sacrifice it unless you pay its echo cost. and (c) a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately next to him or her. The remaining players on the team are generals whose job is to protect the emperor. The active player may play enchantments during his or her main phase when the stack is empty. Enchant Player Auras with the “enchant opponent” or “enchant player” ability can target and be attached to players.” See also Aura.” The Emperor variant uses the following default multiplayer options: (a) The range of influence is limited to 2 for emperors and 1 for generals (see rule 601). “Echo. it may create one or more one-shot or continuous effects.” These abilities were called “phase abilities. a team loses if its emperor loses the game. Echo Echo is a triggered ability. they are generated by specific states of the game.” and rule 502. “Enchantments.During (Obsolete) Some older cards used the phrase “during [phase]. “Enchant. “During” still appears in current card text. Enchant. Shrine. “Enchantment. The Emperor variant involves two or more teams of three players each. is as follows: Aura. Such Auras can’t target objects and can’t be attached to objects.” The enchant ability restricts what an Aura spell can target and what an Aura can enchant. Static abilities may create one or more continuous effects. updated through the Alara Reborn set. but only in its normal English sense and not as game terminology. these cards have been given errata to have an echo cost equal to their mana cost.4. In addition to the normal rules for winning and losing.” Enchant Opponent. The list of enchantment types.” Effect “Ability” and “effect” are often confused with one another. State-based effects are not created by spells or abilities. [action]. “Echo [cost]” means “At the beginning of your upkeep. if this permanent came under your control since the beginning of your last upkeep. Some effects are replacement effects or prevention effects. written “Enchant [object or player].” In general. cards that were printed with phase abilities now have abilities that trigger at the beginning of a step or phase. Each team sits together on one side of the table. Enchant Enchant is a static ability. Enchantment Enchantment is a card type.” Urza block cards with the echo ability were printed without an echo cost. “Emperor Variant.4. See also Aura. See rule 212. See rule 502. .

44. but remains in play.” that creature.” Epic Epic represents both a static ability and a delayed triggered ability. “End of Turn Step.33. See rule 509. or “equips. “Entwine.2. you can’t play spells. When an effect ends the turn. if the entwine cost was paid. follow the text of each of the modes in the order they’re written on the card.32. “Epic.” Entwine Entwine is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. (This is a state-based effect. A player may play spells and abilities during this step whenever he or she has priority. If the spell has any targets. (See rule 502.End of Combat Step The end of combat step is the fifth step of the combat phase. “Equip. if any. See rule 313.” Using the entwine ability follows the rules for choosing modes and paying additional costs in rules 409. from combat. It has two steps: end of turn and cleanup. copy this spell except for its epic ability.” and rule 212. When the spell resolves. If you do. “Equip [cost]” means “[Cost]: Attach this Equipment to target creature you control. See rule 312. you pay an additional [cost]. “End of Combat Step. “End Phase.) Evasion Ability Evasion abilities restrict what creatures can block an attacking creature. “Entwine [cost]” means “You may choose to use all modes of this spell instead of just one.” See rule 502. See rule 502.” Equip Equip is an activated ability. See rule 420. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery.1f–h.” Equipment Some artifacts have the subtype “Equipment. “Artifacts. “Ending the Turn.”) The creature an Equipment is attached to is called “equipped.33. Equipment doesn’t come into play equipping a creature.” End Phase The end phase is the fifth and final phase of the turn. An Equipment that’s also a creature or an Equipment that loses the subtype “Equipment” can’t equip a creature.1b and 409. Check state-based effects. “Equip. Remove all planeswalkers from combat. follow these steps in order: Remove every object on the stack from the game. An Equipment that equips an illegal or nonexistent permanent becomes unattached from that permanent.” and “At the beginning of each of your upkeeps. The current step and/or phase ends. “Epic” means. The equip keyword ability moves the Equipment onto a creature you control. An Equipment is played and comes into play just like any other artifact.” Ending the Turn One card (Time Stop) ends the turn when its resolves. you may choose new targets for the copy. See rule 311. “For the rest of the game. Remove all attacking and blocking creatures.” End of Turn Step This is the first step of the end phase.” The Equipment is attached to. An Equipment can’t equip itself. The game skips straight to the cleanup step.” These artifacts can be attached to (can “equip”) creatures. They can’t equip objects that aren’t creatures. These are .” See rule 502. A player may play spells and abilities during this step whenever he or she has priority.

When life totals are exchanged. Some spells or abilities may instruct a player to exchange cards in one zone with cards in a different zone (for example.74. If. If a card in one zone is exchanged with a card in a different zone.83.” Evoke Evoke is a keyword ability that represents two abilities: a static ability that functions in any zone from which the card can be played and a triggered ability that functions in play. if those permanents are controlled by different players.” Exchange A spell or ability may instruct players to exchange something (for example. “Evoke [cost]” means “You may play this card by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost” and “When this permanent comes into play. Expansion Symbol The small icon normally printed below the right edge of the illustration on a Magic card is the expansion symbol. each player gains or loses the amount of life necessary to equal the other player’s previous life total. that creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn. These spells and abilities work the same as other “exchange” spells and abilities.1f–h.” Paying a card’s evoke cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409. “Exalted” means “Whenever a creature you control attacks alone. When control of two permanents is exchanged. and its color indicates the rarity of the card. if its evoke cost was paid. The text of triggered abilities and replacement effects defines the event they’re looking for. See rule 500. its controller sacrifices it. Cards reprinted in a core set . One “happening” may be treated as a single event by one ability and as multiple events by another.3a. the spell does nothing to the other creature. and triggered abilities may trigger on them. the cards in the zones are still exchanged. Replacement effects may modify these gains and losses. See rule 502. except they can exchange the cards only if all the cards are owned by the same player. that card stops being attached to that object and the other card becomes attached to that object. those permanents are controlled by the same player. Example: If an attacking creature is blocked by two defending creatures.” Exalted Exalted is a triggered ability. When such a spell or ability resolves. “Evoke. on the other hand. this is one event for a triggered ability that reads “Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked” but two events for a triggered ability that reads “Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked by a creature. the exchange effect does nothing.1b and 409. cards removed from the game and cards in a player’s hand).” See rule 502.static abilities that modify the declare blockers step of the combat phase. If a spell or ability instructs a player to simply exchange two zones. “Exalted. each of those players simultaneously gains control of the permanent that was controlled by the other player. no part of the exchange occurs. if the entire exchange can’t be completed. Multiple events may take place during the resolution of a spell or ability. life totals or control of two permanents) as part of its resolution. Event Anything that happens in a game is an event. The symbol indicates the set in which the card was published. Example: If a spell attempts to exchange control of two target creatures but one of those creatures is destroyed before the spell resolves. and one of the zones is empty. and either of them is attached to an object.

Spells normally can’t be turned face up. Any listed characteristics are the copiable values of that object’s characteristics. you must ensure at all times that your face-down spells and permanents can be easily differentiated from each other. put any number of them on the bottom of that library in any order. The first five editions of the core set had no expansion symbol. “Morph.” See rule 502.” Fear Fear is an evasion ability.9. or a face-down card in the phased-out zone you controlled when it phased out. You can’t look at face-down cards in any other zone (including cards “removed from the game face down”).” Face Down Face-down spells on the stack. See the Magic Floor Rules for the current definitions of the constructed formats (http://www. See rule 206. remove a fade counter from this permanent. Players may include cards from any printing in their constructed decks if those cards appear in sets allowed in that format (or allowed by the Magic Floor Rules). If a player gets multiple extra turns or if multiple players get extra turns during a single turn. The ability or rules that allowed a permanent to be turned face down may also allow the permanent’s controller to turn it face up. See rule 608. Spells and abilities that affect cards from a particular expansion only affect cards with that set’s expansion symbol.magicthegathering. you may look at a face-down spell you control on the stack. If you can’t. spell. “Grand Melee Variant.wizards.aspx? x=mtg/tcg/products/allproducts). Extra Turn Some spells and abilities can give a player extra turns. See rule 300. Cards printed before the Exodus set had black expansion symbols regardless of rarity. See rule 502. They do this by adding the turns directly after the current turn.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home). or face-down cards in the phased-out zone last controlled by another player. a facedown permanent you control. The most recently created turn will be taken first.com/Magic/TCG/Article.wizards. and face-down cards in the phased-out zone have no characteristics other than those listed by the ability or rules that allowed the card. If you control multiple face-down spells on the stack or face-down permanents in play. face-down permanents in play. “Fear.” Fateseal To “fateseal N” means to look at the top N cards of an opponent’s library. sacrifice the permanent. and put the rest on top of that library in any order.” Fading Fading is a keyword ability that represents two abilities. the extra turns are added one at a time. “Expansion Symbol.” .or another expansion receive its expansion symbol. “Fading. “Face-Down Spells and Permanents. “Fading N” means “This permanent comes into play with N fade counters on it” and “At the beginning of your upkeep.26.25.6. or permanent to be turned face down.com/Magic/TCG/Events. At any time. A creature with fear can’t be blocked except by artifact creatures and/or black creatures. “Fateseal.” and rule 502.com for the full list of expansions and expansion symbols (http://www. Visit the products section of www.20. face-down spells or permanents controlled by another player. The Grand Melee multiplayer variant has special rules to handle what happens when extra turns are created. See rule 504. See rule 501.

Flip a Coin To flip a coin for an object that cares whether a player wins or loses the flip.” Playing a spell using its flashback ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.” Flashback Flashback appears on some instants and sorceries. Instead of proceeding to end of combat.1f–h. “Flanking. each affected player flips a coin without making a call. “Flashback. that player wins the flip. No player wins or loses this kind of flip. the affected player flips the coin and calls “heads” or “tails. the blocking creature gets -1/-1 until end of turn. It represents two static abilities: one functions while the card is in a player’s graveyard and the other functions while the card is on the stack.28).” Flash Flash is a static ability that functions in any zone from which you could play the card it’s on.1b and 409. “Flash.3. if at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike or double strike (see rule 502.22.2. Flanking Flanking is a triggered ability that triggers during the declare blockers step of the combat phase. A coin used in a flip must be a two-sided object with easily distinguished sides and equal likelihood that either side lands face up.” See rule 502. the player loses the flip.” designate one side to be “heads.” See rule 502. See rule 502.First Strike First strike is a static ability that modifies the rules for the combat damage step. used for when a spell or ability was countered as a result of all its targets being missing or illegal when it resolved. creatures without first strike or double strike don’t assign combat damage.2a. no other players are involved. “Flanking” means “Whenever this creature becomes blocked by a creature without flanking.57. It provides a mood or gives interesting background detail for the game world but has no effect on play.” If the call matches the result. The text that appears right . “Flash” means “You may play this card any time you could play an instant. See rule 413. Flip Cards Flip cards have a two-part card frame on a single card.” Other methods of randomization may be substituted for flipping a coin as long as there are two possible outcomes of equal likelihood and all players agree to the substitution. If the coin that’s being flipped doesn’t have an obvious “heads” or “tails. “First Strike. To flip a coin for an object that cares whether the coin comes up heads or tails. the phase gets a second combat damage step to handle the remaining creatures. “Flashback [cost]” means “You may play this card from your graveyard by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost” and “If the flashback cost was paid. remove this card from the game instead of putting it anywhere else any time it would leave the stack. See rule 502.2. At the start of the combat damage step. Only the player who flips the coin wins or loses the flip. See rule 207.” Fizzle (Informal) The term “fizzle” is an informal term. Otherwise.” and the other side to be “tails.” Flavor Text This is text in italics (but not in parentheses) in the text box of a card.

the normal name. A creature with flying can’t be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. and toughness. type line. whichever comes first. “Flip Cards. Any land with the land type Forest has the ability “{T}: Add {G} to your mana pool. power. The back of a flip card is the normal Magic: The Gathering card back. That player plays with that card revealed in his or her hand until it leaves the player’s hand or until a step or phase that isn’t an upkeep step begins. “Flying.wizards. it retains no memory of its status. Forest “Forest” is one of the five basic land types. Forestwalk See Landwalk. If an effect tells you to name a card. and also in the in-play zone before the permanent flips.” A forecast ability may be played only during the upkeep step of the card’s owner and only once each turn. A flip card’s color. Flipping a permanent is a one-way process. It’s written “Forecast — [Activated ability].side up on the card defines the card’s normal characteristics. Once a permanent is flipped. illustration credit.” Forecast Forecast is a special kind of activated ability that can be played only from a player’s hand. The bottom half of a flip card contains an alternative name. text box. a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the permanent.” The top half of a flip card contains the card’s normal name. type line. Flying Flying is an evasion ability. both when it’s untapped and when it’s tapped.4. text box. mana cost. text box.” See rule 212. power. A creature with flying can block a creature with or without flying. Also. it’s impossible for it to become unflipped. Once the flip permanent in the in-play zone is flipped. . Additional alternative characteristics appear upside down on the card. power. you must ensure that it’s clear at all times whether the permanent is flipped or not.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home. any changes to it by external effects will still apply. If you control a flip permanent. type line. you may name a flip card’s alternative name.6h. The controller of the forecast ability reveals the card with that ability from his or her hand as the ability is played. and legal text don’t change if the permanent is flipped. See rule 502. These characteristics are used only if the permanent is in play and only if the permanent is flipped. The text box usually contains an ability that causes the permanent to “flip” if certain conditions are met. Common methods for distinguishing between flipped and unflipped permanents include using coins or dice to mark flipped objects. and toughness of the flip permanent don’t apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead. Floor Rules The current DCI Magic: The Gathering Floor Rules can be found at http://www. expansion symbol. and toughness. Forestcycling See Typecycling. In every zone other than the in-play zone. However. See rule 508. if flipped permanent leaves play.com/Magic/TCG/Events.

3b. See rule 607.2). See rule 605.” and rule 212. “Fortify [cost]” means “[Cost]: Attach this Fortification to target land you control. “Fortify.Fortification Some artifacts have the subtype “Fortification. “Free-for-All Variant.2).” These artifacts can be attached to (can “fortify”) lands.” See also Aura and Enchantment. drawing a card at the start of the draw step (see rule 304. The other players are called generals. Any color of mana.” The Fortification is attached to.1). untapping at the start of the untap step (see rule 302. “Emperor Variant.” These cards now say “nonAura enchantment.3). “Frenzy N” means “Whenever this creature attacks and isn’t blocked. They can’t fortify objects that aren’t lands.” Generic Mana Cost A generic mana cost is represented by a number in a gray circle. See rule 104.” If a creature has multiple . Mana burn at the end of a phase is also a game action (see rule 300. Global Enchantment (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “global enchantment.65. may be used to pay a generic mana cost.”) The land a Fortification is attached to is called “fortified. declaring blockers at the start of the declare blockers step (see rule 309. A Fortification can’t fortify itself. declaring attackers at the start of the declare attackers step (see rule 308. “Graft N” means “This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it” and “Whenever another creature comes into play. A Fortification that fortifies an illegal or nonexistent permanent becomes unattached from that permanent.1).” Frenzy Frenzy is a triggered ability. “Frenzy.) Fortify Fortify is an activated ability. the active player discarding down to his or her maximum hand size at the start of the cleanup step (see rule 314. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery.1). “Fortify.65.” that land. (This is a state-based effect.1). A Fortification is played and comes into play just like any other artifact. if this permanent has a +1/+1 counter on it. as well as colorless mana. (See rule 502.2. Graft Graft represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. The game actions are phasing in and out at the start of the untap step (see rule 302.” Game Action Several steps contain actions that don’t use the stack.” See rule 502. it gets +N/+0 until end of turn. These actions are game actions. The fortify keyword ability moves the Fortification onto a land you control.66. A Fortification that’s also a creature or a Fortification that loses the subtype “Fortification” can’t fortify a land. “Artifacts.” Free-for-All Free-for-All is a multiplayer variant in which a group of players complete as individuals against each other. Fortification doesn’t come into play fortifying a land.1).” See rule 502. you may move a +1/+1 counter from this permanent onto that creature. but remains in play. and removing damage from permanents and ending “until end of turn” effects during the cleanup step (see rule 314. See rule 420. General The player seated in the middle of a team in the Emperor multiplayer variant is called the team’s emperor. or “fortifies.

If an effect “reveals” a card that’s normally hidden.” See rule 502. “Haste.” The Grand Melee variant uses the following default options: (a) Each player has a range of influence of 1 (see rule 601).67.” Hand The hand is the zone where a player holds cards that haven’t been played yet.” See rule 502. The Grand Melee variant allows multiple players to take turns at the same time. See rule 502. See also Public Zone. Haste is a static ability that allows a creature to ignore this rule. even if all the cards in one such zone happen to be revealed. facedown cards in any zone and the contents of players’ libraries and hands are hidden information. “Haunt.51. “Haunt” on a permanent means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play.” A card with haunt typically has another ability that triggers “when the creature this card haunts is put into a graveyard. If the spell has any targets. Countered spells. For example. Gravestorm Gravestorm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. “Grand Melee Variant. the card is public information as long as it remains revealed. “Gravestorm” means “When you play this spell. See rule 217.” Graveyard Each player’s discard pile is his or her graveyard. destroyed or sacrificed permanents. Hidden Zone Hidden zones are zones in which not all players can be expected to see the cards.5. put a copy of it onto the stack for each permanent that was put into a graveyard from play this turn. See also Public Information. Each turn marker represents both an active player’s turn and an individual stack. “Zones.” Haste Normally a creature can’t attack or use activated abilities with costs that include the tap symbol ({T}) or the untap symbol ({Q}) unless its controller has controlled it continuously since the start of his or her most recent turn. See rule 608. Instant and sorcery spells are put into their owner’s graveyard as the last step in resolving. remove it from the game haunting target creature. Grand Melee The Grand Melee variant is a modification of the Free-for-All variant. . The attack multiple players and deploy creatures options aren’t used in the Grand Melee variant. “Gravestorm. each one works separately. remove it from the game haunting target creature. Grand Melee is normally used only in games begun with ten or more players. Moving turn markers keep track of which players are currently taking turns. you may choose new targets for any of the copies.instances of graft.” Hidden Information (Informal) Some information within a Magic game isn’t known by all players.” “Haunt” on an instant or sorcery spell means “When this spell is put into a graveyard during its resolution. “Zones. and (b) the attack left option is used (see rule 604). Library and hand are hidden zones.” Haunt Haunt is a triggered ability. See rule 217. and discarded cards are put into their owner’s graveyard.

When calculating the converted mana cost of an object with a hybrid mana symbol in its mana cost. look at the top four cards of your library. use the largest component of each hybrid symbol. See rule 422.” Illegal Target If a spell or ability specifies targets.17. A creature with horsemanship can’t be blocked by creatures without horsemanship. The removed card gains ‘Any player who has controlled the permanent that removed this card from the game may look at this card in the removed-from-thegame zone. or from the zone designated by the spell or ability. A target may also become illegal if its characteristics changed since the spell or ability was played or if an effect changed the text of the spell. The player may redo the reversed action in a legal way or take any other action allowed by the rules. Illegal Action If a player realizes that he or she can’t legally take an action after starting to do so. See rule 502. as represented by the two halves of the hybrid mana symbol. {W/B} white or black. “Handling Illegal Actions. {B/R} black or red. See rule 413. Each of the monocolored hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid with one mana of a specific color or two mana of any type. the player who had priority retains it and may take another action or pass. A target that’s removed from play. If See Intervening “If” Clause. {2/W} can be paid with either one white mana or two mana of any type.” Hybrid Card A hybrid card is a card with one or more hybrid mana symbols in its mana cost. {U/B} blue or black. When reversing illegal spells and abilities. Illustration The illustration is printed on the upper half of a card and has no game significance. {2/U} one blue mana or two mana of any type. is illegal. and {G/U} green or blue. “Hideaway. “Horsemanship.” Horsemanship Horsemanship is an evasion ability.75.Hideaway Hideaway is a keyword ability that represents a static ability and a triggered ability. “Hideaway” means “This permanent comes into play tapped” and “When this permanent comes into play. it checks whether the targets are legal when it resolves. {U/R} blue or red. the entire action is reversed and any payments already made are canceled. Hybrid Mana Symbols Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid in one of two ways. “Illustration. A hybrid mana symbol is all of its component colors. See rule 204. The card is all of the colors of its mana symbols. A creature with horsemanship can block a creature with or without horsemanship. {B/G} black or green. {R/G} red or green. and {2/G} one green mana or two mana of any type.’” See rule 502.2a.” . No abilities trigger and no effects apply as a result of an undone action. {G/W} green or white. {2/R} one red mana or two mana of any type. Most hybrid cards costs are printed in a two-tone frame. {2/B} one black mana or two mana of any type. Remove one of them from the game face down and put the rest on the bottom of your library in any order. {R/W} red or white. {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana.

” In Play In play is the zone in which permanents exist. See rule 419. See rule 502. “Information Below the Text Box. See rule 418. A player may play instants whenever he or she has priority. Occasionally the game can get into a state where a set of actions could be repeated forever. “Zones. Cards that are in the removed-from-the-game zone because they were removed from the game by an imprint ability are imprinted on the source of that ability. what it applies to.” Imprinted [quality] card The phrase “imprinted [quality] card” means the card with that quality that’s imprinted on the permanent.” Indestructible If a permanent is indestructible. or what it does to any of the things it applies to. Rules or effects may cause an indestructible permanent to be sacrificed. The credit has no effect on game play. “Imprint. written “Imprint — [text]. “Handling ‘Infinite’ Loops. and applying the other would change the text or the existence of the first effect. Most replacement effects use the word “instead” to indicate what events will be replaced with other events.” Instead Effects that use the word “instead” are replacement effects. If a permanent has more than one card with that quality imprinted on it. or planeswalker spell resolves. each of those cards is an “imprinted [quality] card. When a land is played. it’s put into the in-play zone as a permanent. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. it’s put into the in-play zone as a permanent.” All interrupt cards are now instant cards. Otherwise. “Instants.” Instant Instant is a card type. and they ignore the lethal-damage state-based effect (see rule 420. the effect is considered to be independent of the first effect.5.” Independent An effect is said to “depend on” another if it is applied at the same time as the other effect.” Imprint Imprint is an activated or triggered ability. An instant spell is put into its owner’s graveyard as the last step of its resolution. put into a graveyard. The “infinity rule” governs how to break such loops.5c).34. See rule 217. See rule 212. Instant subtypes are called spell types (see Spell Types). or removed from the game. Such permanents are not destroyed by lethal damage.” Interrupt (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the card type “interrupt. creature. “Interaction of Continuous Effects. See rule 421. “Replacement and Prevention Effects.Illustration Credit The illustration credit for a card is printed directly below the text box.” See rule 502.34. See rule 210. Tokens also exist in this zone. All abilities that were played as interrupts are now played like .” and rule 409. “Imprint.” where “[text]” is an activated or triggered ability. Infinity Rule (Informal) There’s no such thing as “infinity” in the Magic rules. enchantment. rules and effects can’t destroy it.5. When an artifact.

Note that this rule doesn’t apply to any triggered ability with an “if” condition elsewhere within its text. sacrifice this creature. If an object is both a land and another card type. These “keywords” are game terms. Islandcycling See Typecycling. “Keyword Abilities. the ability doesn’t trigger. The ability checks the condition again on resolution.” Keyword Action Most actions described in a card’s rules text use the standard English definitions of the verbs within.” See rule 212. which means “This creature can’t attack unless the defending player controls an Island” and “When you control no Islands. but some specialized verbs are used whose meanings may not be clear. Paying a spell’s kicker cost causes the spell to have an additional or alternative effect.21. Lands aren’t spells and don’t go on the stack. See rule 502. “When/Whenever/At [trigger]. Paying a kicker cost is always optional. “Kicker. Note that this mirrors the check for legal targets.6h.” “Kicker [cost]” means “You may pay an additional [cost] as you play this spell. See rule 502. Intervening “If” Clause Triggered abilities with a condition directly following the trigger event (for example.1c) for a kicker effect only if he or she declared the intention to pay the kicker cost for that effect. See rule 404. Islandwalk See Landwalk. the ability does nothing.normal activated abilities (and are mana abilities if they produce mana). The active player may play a land once each turn during his or her main phase when he or she has priority and the stack is empty. Keyword Ability Some abilities are very common or would require too much space to define on a card. These abilities list only the name of the ability as a “keyword”. he or she doesn’t choose the targets for the effect associated with that kicker cost. and you actually pay the cost when you pay the rest of the spell’s costs (see rule 409. it can only be played as a land. If the spell’s controller declared that he or she wouldn’t pay a particular kicker cost.3. If it’s not satisfied. A spell’s controller chooses targets (see rule 409. See rule 501.1b). Any land with the land type Island has the ability “{T}: Add {U} to your mana pool. sometimes reminder text summarizes their meanings. Island “Island” is one of the five basic land types. if [condition]. if it isn’t.” Kicker Kicker is a keyword ability with a cost and an effect. Islandhome (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the term islandhome.1f–h). Land Land is a card type. It can’t be played .” You declare whether you intend to pay a spell’s kicker cost at the same time you would choose the spell’s mode (see rule 409. “Keyword Actions. sometimes reminder text summarizes the game rule.” Cards that previously had islandhome now simply have the two parts of islandhome written out without using the keyword. [effect]”) check for the condition to be true as part of the trigger event. they are simply played from the hand.

” Last Known Information The last known information about an object is the information that it had just before it left the zone it was in. Mountain. Layer Continuous effects are applied in order. This is a state-based effect. subtype. “Information Below the Text Box. in six layers: (1) copy effects (see rule 503. “Copying Objects”).6.” All of these cards have been given errata to have the legendary supertype.” etc.” See also Basic Land Type. If an effect requires information about a specific player in a multiplayer game and that player has left the game.” “legendary.6.” Land Type Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Land — Locus. except those that change power and/or toughness. Effects use last known information if a specific object they require information from isn’t in the zone it’s expected to be in (unless the effect divides damage).” Permanents that phase out also don’t trigger any comes-into-play or leaves-play abilities. it becomes an entirely new permanent with no “memory” of anything from its former existence. Lair.15. is as follows: Desert. Power-Plant. Legend is no longer a creature type. Inside layer 6. such as “islandwalk. (5) all other continuous effects. .5. Note that “basic.” Legend (Obsolete) Many creature cards were printed with the creature type “Legend. Plains. Swamp. “Lands. Land subtypes are also called land types. (4) typechanging effects (which includes effects that change an object’s card type. If a token leaves play. See rule 413. effects are applied in a series of sublayers.4e. See rule 600. A creature with landwalk is unblockable as long as the defending player controls at least one land which has the specified subtype or supertype. (2) control-changing effects. Island.2f. Locus. it ceases to exist. Urza’s Landwalk “Landwalk” is a generic term.6. See rule 210. “Interaction of Continuous Effects. and (6) power.” Leaves Play A permanent leaves play when it moves from the in-play zone to any other zone (see rule 410. updated through the Alara Reborn set. a card’s rules text will give a specific property to look for. Tower. Mine.4a). If a permanent leaves play and later returns to play. Land — Urza’s Mine. See rule 420.as a spell. “Lands. It has no effect on game play. and/or supertype). see rule 502. (Phasing is an exception to this. the effect uses the last known information about that player before he or she left the game. The list of land types.” and “nonbasic” aren’t land types. See rule 212. See rule 502. “Landwalk. (3) text-changing effects.and/or toughness-changing effects. See Legendary. Forest. See rule 212.) Legal Text Legal text (the fine print at the bottom of the card) lists the trademark and copyright information.” Landwalk is an evasion ability.5.10c) or when its owner leaves the game (see rule 600. “Phasing. See rule 418.

Grand Melee variant (see rule 608). “Limited Range of Influence Option. those abilities are linked. you gain that much life.5. Players within that many seats of the player are within that player’s range of influence. effects. A player’s range of influence is the maximum distance from that player. and it’s often used for other games involving five or more players.” and so on). Any decrease in a player’s life total is considered to be losing life. Each player starts the game with 20 life.” See rule 502. Range of influence covers spells. is destroyed. Lethal Damage Lethal damage is an amount of damage greater than or equal to a creature’s toughness. See rule 420. The permanent will still be legendary. The second ability can refer only to actions that were taken or objects that were affected by the first ability. “Linked Abilities. “Library. all are put into their owners’ graveyards. See rule 407. and not by any other ability. that the player can affect. “Life. This “legend rule” is a state-based effect.” The limited range of influence option is always used in the Emperor variant (see rule 607). See rule 420.” Life. “Lifelink” means “Whenever this permanent deals damage. A creature with lethal damage.2. abilities.” “Legendary Artifact. See rule 217. attacking. measured in player seats.” LIFO is the order in which spells and abilities resolve after going on the stack. each player’s deck becomes his or her library. The last played is resolved first.” LIFO (Informal) An acronym for “Last In. Library The library is the zone from which a player draws cards. When a game begins. A player whose life total drops to 0 or less loses. See rule 409.” and rule 413. If a legendary permanent’s card types or subtypes change. See rule 601.68. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. this doesn’t change its supertypes.” Local Enchantment (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “local enchantment” for enchantments that are .5. but greater than 0 toughness. and winning the game. making choices.5. Life Total Life total is a sort of score. If two or more legendary permanents with the same name are in play. see rule 420. First Out. damage dealing. Any increase in a player’s life total is considered to be gaining life. Linked Abilities If an object has two abilities printed on it such that one of them causes actions to be taken or objects to be affected and the other one directly refers to those actions or objects. This is a state-based effect. This is a state-based effect. “Lifelink. “Resolving Spells and Abilities.” Lifelink Lifelink is a triggered ability. Objects controlled by players within a player’s range of influence are also within that player’s range of influence.Legendary Legendary is a supertype that may apply to any permanent type (“Legendary Land. See also rule 215.” Limited Range of Influence Limited range of influence is an optional rule used in some multiplayer games.

mana. red.” Main Phase The term “main phase” comprises the first main and second main phases. If a player attempts to draw a card from an empty library. See rule 406. The types of mana are white. and only when the stack is empty. see rule 420. he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority (this is a state-based effect. This indicates its loyalty while it’s not in play. This is a statebased effect.” Main Game Some cards allow players to play a Magic subgame. black. and sorcery spells may be played only by the active player during his or her main phase. A planeswalker with loyalty 0 is put into its owner’s graveyard. “Mana Abilities.” Loyalty Loyalty is a characteristic that only planeswalkers have. (this is a state-based effect. “Subgames. and it also indicates that the planeswalker comes into play with that many loyalty counters on it. red. The “main game” is the game in which the spell or ability that created the subgame was played. its owner may play it by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost. enchantment. see rule 420). a player who concedes loses the game (see rule 102. or with colorless. If a player’s life total is 0 or less.” See rule 502. blue. he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority (this is a state-based effect. “Loyalty.3a). Lose the Game There are several ways to lose the game. A player can concede the game at any time.24. he or she loses. If that player doesn’t. creature. Artifact. see rule 420).3. black. blue. he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. he or she puts this card into his or her graveyard. and colorless. can be paid only with the appropriate color of mana. planeswalker. that player discards it. Mana is created by mana abilities (and sometimes by spells). Generic mana costs can be paid with any color of. In a multiplayer game between teams. also called the “precombat” and “postcombat” main phases. Each planeswalker card has a loyalty number printed in its lower right corner. If a player has ten or more poison counters. represented by colored mana symbols.” The colors of mana are white. “Madness. See rule 506. See rule 209. a team loses the game if all players on that team have lost. See rule 104. These cards now have the Aura subtype. see rule 420). “Madness [cost]” means “If a player would discard this card. but may remove it from the game instead of putting it into his or her graveyard” and “When this card is removed from the game this way. “Winning and Losing. green. and it can be used to pay costs immediately or can stay in the player’s mana pool. and green.” Damage dealt to a planeswalker causes that many loyalty counters to be removed from it. A player may also play one land each turn during his or her main phase. See rule 102. Colored mana costs. Madness Madness is a keyword that represents two abilities. Mana Mana is the resource used to play spells and is usually produced by lands.attached to other permanents while they’re in play. The spell or ability that adds mana to a mana pool may restrict how it can be . If a player would both win and lose simultaneously.

the numerals {0}. {B} black. See rule 104.used. {2/U}. when playing a spell or activated ability with {X} in its cost. that mana goes into a player’s mana pool. To tap a permanent for mana is to play an activated mana ability of that permanent that includes the {T} symbol in its cost and produces mana as part of its effect. A copy of an object copies that object’s mana cost.3a. Land cards and face-down spells and permanents normally have no mana cost. and {G/U}. its controller decides the value of that . {U}. {B/R}. {B/G}. Mana Source (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the card type “mana source. {U/R}. mana. “Mana Abilities. {R/G}. taking into account any applicable replacement effects in any possible order. See rule 411. Ignore whether any costs of the ability couldn’t be paid. The mana can be used immediately to pay a cost. {2/R}.” See rule 300. Each of the colored mana symbols represents one colored mana: {W} white. and {2/G}.” Mana Burn When a phase ends. {R} red. {3}. See also Mana Burn. The type of mana a permanent “could produce” at any time includes any type of mana that an ability of that permanent would generate if it were to resolve at that time. The player loses 1 life for each mana lost this way. Mana Cost The mana cost of a card is indicated by the mana symbols printed on its upper right corner. This is the only kind of ability that can be played in the middle of playing or resolving a spell or ability. {G/W}. {W/B}. Mana Symbol The mana symbols are {W}. Numeral symbols (such as {1}) are generic mana costs and represent an amount of mana that can be paid with any color of. If a card has no mana symbols printed in its upper right corner. and {G} green. A mana ability doesn’t go on the stack —it resolves immediately. {R/W}. From there. {G}.” Mana Pool When an effect creates mana. any unused mana remaining in a player’s mana pool is lost. or colorless. and {X}. Abilities that used to read “Play this ability as a mana source” are now mana abilities. {U} blue. {B}.” All mana source cards are now instant cards. {4}. This is called “mana burn. the monocolored hybrid symbols {2/W}. See rule 406. If that permanent wouldn’t produce any mana under these conditions.” A player may play an activated mana ability whenever he or she has priority and whenever a rule or effect asks for a mana payment. it can be used to pay for spells and abilities. The mana pool is cleared at the end of each phase. there’s no type of mana it could produce. “Mana Cost and Color. Mana Ability A mana ability is either activated or triggered. the hybrid symbols {W/U}. See rule 203. or stored in the mana pool for use later in the phase. and so on.3. or no type of mana can be defined this way. The symbol {X} represents an unspecified amount of mana.3b. See rule 104. it has no mana cost. and the snow symbol {S}. Tokens have no mana cost unless the effect that creates them specifies otherwise. {2}. See rule 104. An ability might produce mana that can be used only to play creature spells or only to pay activation costs. {1}.3. {2/B}. {U/B}. “Playing Mana Abilities. {R}.

Mode A spell or ability is modal if it is written “Choose one —. {B/R} black or red. see rule 409.3i. though effects may modify this. Modular Modular represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. as represented by the two halves of the hybrid mana symbol. They were artifacts that had activated abilities that included the tap symbol. {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana.3f.wizards.3f. {2/U} one blue mana or two mana of any type. For more information. Each of the monocolored hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid with one mana of a specific color or two mana of any type. Cards that were . The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder when a spell or activated ability costs nothing to play. “Modular N” means “This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it” and “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play. {U/R} blue or red. See rule 104. {U/B} blue or black. {R/W} red or white. Numeral symbols and variable symbols can also represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or of a mana ability that reads “add [mana symbol] to your mana pool” or something similar. it won’t play itself automatically. The symbol {S} represents a cost that can be paid with one mana produced by a snow permanent. Match A match is a series of Magic games and is important only for tournament or league play.3c.1b.” See rule 502.3e.” Modal spells and abilities offer a choice of effects. A hybrid mana symbol is all of its component colors.” Mono Artifact (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “mono artifact” on the card’s type line. If a mode has targets. or sometimes the best three of five. As the first part of the active player’s cleanup step. See rule 104. See rule 104. {B/G} black or green.3d. A multiplayer match usually consists of only one game.” or “[a specified player] chooses one —. if he or she has too many cards in his or her hand.com/Magic/TCG/Events. “Cleanup Step. {W/B} white or black. {R/G} red or green. {2/R} one red mana or two mana of any type. “Modular. See rule 104.35. {2/B} one black mana or two mana of any type. consult the DCI Magic Floor Rules (http://www.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home). A modal spell or ability’s controller must choose the mode(s) as part of playing the spell or ability or as part of putting the ability on the stack (in the case of triggered abilities). you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent. {2/W} can be paid with either one white mana or two mana of any type.” Modal. a player can’t choose that mode unless all of its targets can be chosen. and {G/U} green or blue. See rule 104. See rule 314. and {2/G} one green mana or two mana of any type. {G/W} green or white.” “Choose two —. that player chooses and discards as many cards as needed to reduce his or her hand to its maximum size (but no more than that). Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid in one of two ways. See rule 104. Maximum Hand Size Each player’s maximum hand size is normally seven cards. A two-player match usually consists of the best two of three games.” “Choose one or both —.variable. A spell or ability whose cost is {0} must still be played the same way as one with a cost greater than zero.

26. “Morph [cost]” means “You may play this card as a 2/2 face-down creature. If the object the counter would move from has no counters. “Destroy target nonblack creature. Move To move a counter means to take it from where it currently is and put it onto another object. Mountainwalk See Landwalk. Mountaincycling See Typecycling. Any land with the land type Mountain has the ability “{T}: Add {R} to your mana pool. See rule 101. “Destroy all green creatures.” Mountain “Mountain” is one of the five basic land types. no name.2. A colorless card isn’t monocolored. with no text. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal. This action doesn’t use the stack.printed with the term “mono artifact” now simply use “artifact. so that same creature can’t be targeted by a spell or ability that reads. and the morph effect works any time the card is face down. he or she draws a new hand of seven cards rather than six cards.” See rule 212. Morph Morph is a static ability that functions any time you could play the card it’s on. no subtypes. pay that cost.6h. A multicolored object is affected by anything that singles out any of its colors.4. Some older cards used “move” to describe taking an Aura on one object and putting it onto another. These cards now say “attach.” . nothing happens. Multicolored A multicolored card has two or more colors. See rule 203.” Monocolored A monocolored card has exactly one color. a black-and-green creature is destroyed by a spell that reads. See rule 502.6a. For example. the first time a player takes a mulligan. you may show all players the morph cost for any face-down permanent you control. see rule 606. and no mana cost by paying {3} rather than its mana cost.” Any time you could play an instant. Monocolored Hybrid Mana Symbols See Hybrid Mana Symbols. “Morph. drawing one fewer card each time. or either that object or any possible objects the counter would move onto are no longer in the correct zone when the effect would move the counter. Any player dissatisfied with his or her starting hand may mulligan as often as he or she wishes. The Two-Headed Giant variant employs more extensive changes to the mulligan rule. then turn the permanent face up. no expansion symbol.” Something that can’t affect a particular color doesn’t affect a multicolored object with that color. In a multiplayer game. Most multicolored cards are printed with gold frames to reinforce this.” Mulligan A player can “mulligan” by shuffling his or her hand back into his or her library and drawing a new hand with one fewer card before taking the first turn.

or sets a player’s life total. You’d have to give it +3/+0 to raise its power to 1. it’s possible for a game value. a token. Updated wordings for all cards that used these terms are available in the Oracle card reference. Its total power and toughness is 2. and so on.43. a copy of a card. However. Reveal this card from your hand.” Ninjutsu Ninjutsu is an activated ability that functions only while the card with ninjutsu is in a player’s hand.” Name The name of a card is printed on its upper left corner. Use the Oracle card reference to determine whether a land has the supertype “basic. “[Text] offering” means “You may play this card any time you could play an instant by sacrificing a [text] permanent. If a spell or ability could generate a fractional number. Offering Offering is a static ability of a card that functions in any zone from which the card can be played. the total cost to play this card is reduced by the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost. and combat damage on the stack.” Generic mana in the sacrificed permanent’s mana cost reduces only the generic mana in the offering card’s total cost. The term “object” is used in these rules when a rule applies to cards. deal fractional damage. You can’t choose a negative number. See rule 200. “One-Shot . If such a calculation yields a negative number. such as a creature’s power. See rule 202. and so on. to be less than zero. You can’t choose a fractional number. See rule 417. See section 6. “Numbers and Symbols. it does so. a spell. the spell or ability will tell you whether to round up or down. It assigns 0 damage in combat. an ability on the stack. Return an unblocked creature you control to its owner’s hand: Put this card into play from your hand tapped and attacking. If you do. a permanent. “Offering. See rule 104.42. “Ninjutsu [cost]” means “[Cost].Multiplayer A multiplayer game is a game that begins with more than two players.8. or combat damage on the stack.” Nonbasic Land Any land that doesn’t have the supertype “basic” is nonbasic. gain negative life. If a calculation or comparison that would determine the result of an effect needs to use a negative value.” Most of the time.” See rule 502. copies of cards. tokens. Object An “object” is a card. unless that effect sets a creature’s power or toughness. spells. Obsolete Terms marked “(Obsolete)” in this glossary were used only on older cards.” Number The Magic game uses only integers. gain fractional life. zero is used instead. permanents. Games that begin with only two players aren’t multiplayer games. “Name. “Ninjutsu. changes a creature’s power or toughness. “Multiplayer Rules.” One-Shot Effect One-shot effects do something only once and then end. deal negative damage. it’s a -2/4 creature. abilities on the stack. the Magic game uses only positive numbers. See rule 502. Example: If a 3/4 creature gets -5/-0.

See rule 408. “Ante. Opening Hand Before a game begins. See rule 408. “Timing. Owner The owner of a card is the player who started the game with that card in his or her deck or. and the Stack. Priority. In multiplayer games. although who controls those objects. or of a copy of a spell.” Oracle Use the Oracle card reference when determining a card’s wording.Effects. Pass To pass is to decline to take any action (usually playing a spell or ability) when you have priority. Order The order of objects in a library.1a.” These are the only cards that can change a card’s owner. See rule 217.”) A card is always put into its owner’s library. see rule 409. “Declare .” See also Continuous Effects.2.com. and what enchants or equips them must remain clear to all players. or graveyard. in a graveyard. or combat damage on top of the stack resolves. hand. See rule 217.1b. for cards that didn’t start the game in a player’s deck.9.wizards.” Pass in Succession To pass in succession means that all players pass without playing any spells. the hand of cards he or she chooses to keep is that player’s opening hand. but after a player has taken any mulligans. or on the stack can’t be changed except when effects allow it. a player has multiple opponents. Outside the Game An object is “outside the game” if it’s in the removed-from-the-game zone. When a player passes.” Pay Playing most spells and activated abilities requires paying costs. regardless of who controlled the card in its previous zone. Opponent In a two-player game. A player can’t take any mulligans once he or she has decided to keep an opening hand. “Multiplayer Rules. or performing any special actions in between.1. “Timing. the phase or step ends. An effect can change a permanent’s controller but never its owner.” Declaring attackers (see rule 308. (Legal ownership is irrelevant to the game rules. See rule 217. Priority. “Outside the game” is not a zone. All other objects are inside the game. and the Stack.1e. Objects in other zones can be arranged however their owners wish.1a. the spell. the player who brought the card into the game. If the stack is empty. The owner of a token. A card’s Oracle text can be found using the Gatherer card database at http://gatherer. his or her opponent receives priority. except for the rules for ante. See rule 217. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. or if it isn’t in any of the game’s zones. playing any abilities. is the controller of the effect that created it.1. If all players pass in succession. ability. a player’s opponent is the other player.) See rule 200. See rule 200. whether they’re tapped. See section 6. (A few cards have the text “Remove [this card] from your deck before playing if you’re not playing for ante.

” Permanent Card A permanent card is a card that isn’t in play but could be put into play.” See rule 502. it means an artifact. Permanent A permanent is any card or token in the in-play zone. It’s illegal to attempt paying a cost when unable to successfully follow the instructions. “Permanents. . “Turn Structure.” Phasing Phasing is a static ability that causes a permanent to leave play and later return. “Persist” means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play.8. if it had no -1/-1 counters on it. Mana abilities must be played before the costs are paid. enchantment. See rule 217. Zero life or zero mana can always be paid. “Persist.15. This term is no longer used. and end. “Phasing. Also. without losing its “memory. combat. even if the player has less than zero life.” and rule 502.Attackers Step”) and declaring blockers (see rule 309.” Pile If a player is asked to separate a group of objects into two or more piles. Specifically. Paying mana is done by removing the indicated amount of mana from the player’s mana pool. It doesn’t make the permanent immune to other control effects. even if part of its effect is doing the same thing the other cost asks for. or effect. postcombat main. Example: An ability that originally read “Gain control of target creature permanently” would now read as follows: “Gain control of target creature. “Phasing. “Phased Out. a player can’t pay a cost that requires tapping a creature if that creature is already tapped. For example. land. Paying life subtracts the indicated amount of life from the player’s life total. Persist Persist is a triggered ability. Permanently (Obsolete) Certain older cards were printed with the term “permanently” to indicate effects with no expiration.15. “Declare Blockers Step”) can also require paying costs. precombat main. or planeswalker card. ability. A player can’t pay more mana than the amount of mana in his or her mana pool or more life than his or her life total. creature.” Phase Each turn is divided into five phases: beginning. See section 3. the player carries out the instructions specified by the spell.” See rule 502. Any time a player is asked to pay mana. mana abilities may be played.79. If cards in a graveyard are split into piles. Each payment applies to only one spell or ability. a player can’t sacrifice just one creature to play the activated abilities of two permanents that require sacrificing a creature as a cost. See rule 214.” Phased Out The phased-out zone is a special zone for permanents with phasing that are temporarily out of play. return it to play under its owner’s control with a -1/-1 counter on it. the objects do not leave the zone they’re currently in.” This effect grants control of the permanent until something else changes the controller or it leaves play. For example. the resolution of a spell or ability doesn’t pay another spell or ability’s cost. Unpayable costs can’t be paid. To pay any cost.

9. “Handling Triggered Abilities. or that permanent coming into play with a counter. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. Plainscycling See Typecycling. Bolas. Chandra.” Planeswalker Type Planeswalker subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Planeswalker — Jace. is as follows: Ajani. See rule 212. updated through the Alara Reborn set. “Starting the Game.” In a Two-Headed Giant multiplayer game. The list of planeswalker types. Play The act of playing a spell.3. “Handling Static Abilities. .10c. The other players are nonactive players. “Planeswalkers. “Lands.the order of the graveyard must be maintained.” Triggered abilities and static abilities aren’t played—they happen automatically.5. the team that goes first skips its first draw step (see rule 606. Jace. “Playing Mana Abilities. or ability involves announcing the action and taking the necessary steps to complete it. Plainswalk See Landwalk. If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are in play. Planeswalker Planeswalker is a card type. See rule 420. This “planeswalker uniqueness rule” is a statebased effect.6. See rule 212. See rule 410.” Playing a land simply requires choosing a land card from the hand and putting it into play. Other multiplayer variants don’t use the play/draw rule. land. See rule 101.” Playing a mana ability requires paying any costs.” and rule 412. The active player may play planeswalkers during his or her main phase when the stack is empty. See rule 200. See rule 411. Tezzeret. Liliana. This is referred to as the play/draw rule.” Play/Draw (Informal) Whoever plays first in a two-player game skips his or her first draw step. Placed If a spell or ability refers to a counter being placed on a permanent. Player A player is one of the people in the game.” See rule 212. Any land with the land type Plains has the ability “{T}: Add {W} to your mana pool. See rule 409. Elspeth. it means putting a counter on that permanent while it’s in play. then immediately resolving the ability.6h. Playing a spell or activated ability requires paying any costs and choosing any required modes and/or targets. its controller puts it into play under his or her control. all are put into their owners’ graveyards. See rule 200. Garruk. “Two-Headed Giant Variant”). When a planeswalker spell resolves. Plains “Plains” is one of the five basic land types. Sarkhan. The active player is the player whose turn it is.” Planeswalker subtypes are also called planeswalker types. A pile can contain zero or more objects.

They were artifacts that had activated abilities that don’t include the tap symbol. an ability (other than a mana ability). he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. This ability functions everywhere. “Timing of Spells and Abilities. Effects generated by static abilities that prevent a specific amount of damage prevent only the indicated amount of damage from any applicable source at any given time. A noncreature permanent has no power.” Poly Artifact (Obsolete) Some older cards used the term “poly artifact” on the card’s type line.” Priority The player who has the option to play a spell or ability at any given time has priority. The number before the slash printed on the lower right corner of a creature card is its power.” Power Power is a characteristic that only creatures have. including those with the poisonous ability. the additional one is also a postcombat main phase.” Each time a spell. “Power/Toughness.” (See rule 419. If a player has ten or more poison counters. “Combat Damage Step. “Poisonous N” means “Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player.” Postcombat The second main phase in each turn is called the postcombat main phase. that player gets N poison counters. or combat damage . “State-Based Effects.” Some creature cards have power represented by * instead of a number. These effects expire when the turn ends. See rule 408. give poison counters to players. The damage doesn’t have to be dealt by a single source or all at once.” Poisonous Poisonous is a triggered ability. Effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability that prevent a specific amount of damage act as “shields” and stay active until that amount of damage has been prevented or the turn ends. The object has a characteristic-defining ability that sets its power according to some stated condition. “Poisonous. “Sources of Damage. regardless of the amount. See rule 419. “Main Phase. See rule 420.8. even if it’s a card with a power printed on it (such as a Licid that’s become an Aura). See rule 208.69. Precombat The first main phase in each turn is called the precombat main phase.” Creatures that attack or block assign combat damage equal to their power. even outside the game. If an effect causes a turn to have an extra combat phase and another main phase.”) A prevention effect must be active before the event it’s intended to prevent. “Main Phase. See rule 310.” Prevention Effect Effects that prevent something from happening replace it with “do nothing. Cards that were printed with the term “poly artifact” now simply use “artifact.” See rule 502. See rule 305. Effects that prevent the next damage from a specific source apply the next time that source would deal damage. “Replacement and Prevention Effects.Poison Counter Some cards. See rule 305.

If all players pass in succession. This process repeats until no more applicable state-based effects are generated. even though contents of those libraries and hands are hidden information.” See rule 502.1b and 409.” Paying a spell’s prowl cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409. if the stack is empty. “StateBased Effects. “State-Based Effects. his or her opponent receives priority. In the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant. See rule 606. at the time it dealt that damage. A permanent with protection from everything has protection from each object regardless of that object’s characteristic values. The number of cards in players’ libraries and hands is also public information.resolves. ability. you may choose to have target creature defending player controls block this creature this combat if able. Then triggered abilities are added to the stack (see rule 410). teams rather than individual players have priority. “Provoke. If you do.” A permanent or player with protection can’t be targeted by spells with the stated quality and can’t be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality. These steps repeat in order until no further state-based effects or triggered abilities are generated. For example. ability. they resolve as a single event.7. the spell. (See rule 420.”) Any damage that would be dealt to a permanent or player with protection from sources having that quality is prevented. or combat damage on top of the stack resolves or. When a player passes in a twoplayer game.”) A permanent with protection can’t be equipped by Equipment that has the stated quality or fortified by Fortifications that have the stated quality. the phase or step ends. Such Equipment or Fortifications become unattached from that permanent. untap that creature. and at the beginning of most phases and steps. all applicable state-based effects resolve first as a single event (see rule 420). and cards in graveyards are all public information. “Prowl. the active player receives priority. Provoke Provoke is a triggered ability. if any new state-based effects have been generated.1f–h. If a player has priority when he or she plays a spell.” Prowl Prowl is a static ability that functions on the stack. Each time a player would get priority. permanents in play. spells and abilities on the stack.” Protection Protection is a static ability. but remain in play. See rule 502. he or she receives priority afterward. Such Auras attached to the permanent or player with protection will be put into their owners’ graveyards as a state-based effect. was under your control and had any of this spell’s creature types.76. . (See rule 420. “Provoke” means “Whenever this creature attacks. “Two-Headed Giant Variant. Attacking creatures with protection can’t be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality. A permanent or player with protection can’t be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality. or takes a special action. written “Protection from [quality].29. “Prowl [cost]” means “You may pay [cost] rather than pay this spell’s mana cost if a player was dealt combat damage this turn by a source that. “Protection. Then.” Public Information (Informal) Some information within a Magic game is known by all players. See also Hidden Information. or land.” See rule 502.

Regenerate Regeneration is a destruction-replacement effect. “Regenerate [permanent]” means “The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn.” and rule 502. ability. and so on). See rule 309.” . or effect requires a player to choose something at random. If it’s an attacking or blocking creature. In general. without changing the source or kind of damage. “Recover.70. If you do. cards that were printed with the term “redirect” now create replacement effects that modify where the damage will be dealt.” Rampage Rampage is a triggered ability. “Recover [cost]” means “When a creature is put into your graveyard from play.” Range of Influence See Limited Range of Influence.6c.” Random If a spell. except for those that happen to be face down.” See rule 502. it gets +N/+N until end of turn for each creature blocking it beyond the first.Public Zone Public zones are zones in which all players can see the cards. See rule 419. See rule 419.” Redirect (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the term “redirect” to describe the act of dealing damage to a different player or creature than originally specified by a spell. The outcome must be truly random. ante.12. remove this card from the game.” See rule 502. it must be active before the attempted destruction event. “Reinforce N—[cost]” means “[Cost].” Because it’s a replacement effect. Abilities that trigger from damage being dealt still trigger even if the permanent regenerates.55. removed from the game.6b.4. See also Hidden Zone. flipping a coin. Recover Recover is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with recover is in a player’s graveyard.” rule 502. that player can use any method of making a random choice (rolling dice. Put into Play If an effect instructs a player to put an object into play. “Reinforce. that object is not considered “played. Reach Reach is a static ability. in play. “Reach.” See rule 502. stack. “Rampage N” means “When this creature becomes blocked. and phased-out are public zones. A creature with reach can block an attacking creature with flying. or combat-damage assignment. instead remove all damage from it and tap it. Graveyard. “Rampage. Discard this card: Put N +1/+1 counters on target creature. remove it from combat.77. ability. “Redirect” is still used informally to describe what these replacement effects do. return this card from your graveyard to your hand. “Flying. Otherwise. you may pay [cost]. Reinforce Reinforce is an activated ability that functions only while the card with reinforce is in a player’s hand. “Declare Blockers Step.

The first is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. A planeswalker that’s removed from combat stops being attacked. See rule 306.” Replicate Replicate is a keyword that represents two abilities.1b and 409.” Respond. See rule 419. copy it for each time its replicate cost was paid. but it isn’t itself considered rules text. See rule 500.1f–h. Response (Informal) A player can choose to play an instant spell or activated ability when something else is already on the stack.” Replacement Effect A replacement effect is a kind of continuous effect that “watches” for a specified event and replaces it with a different one. it’s dealt as previously assigned to the fullest extent possible. if a replicate cost was paid for it. See rule 413.” .6b) or stops being a creature.” Paying a spell’s replicate cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. rather than waiting for the earlier spell or ability to resolve first. A creature that’s removed from combat stops being an attacking. However.52. See rule 207. “Replicate. Removed from Combat A permanent is removed from combat if it leaves play. you may pay [cost] any number of times” and “When you play this spell. The effect that removed the card may specify a way for it to return.4a. blocking.7. A permanent that’s removed from combat can’t assign combat damage or have combat damage assigned to it. Some objects use the expression “set aside” for situations in which a card removed from the game can return to another zone. if its controller changes. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell is on the stack.” Requirement A requirement to attack or block is any effect that forces one or more creatures to attack or block. This text provides a summary of the game rule or clarifies what the card does. Removed from the Game A card removed from the game is put into the removed-from-the-game zone.Reminder Text Reminder text appears after a keyword ability printed on a card and on cards that might otherwise be commonly misunderstood.” Resolve When a spell or ability on top of the stack resolves. or if it’s an attacking or blocking creature that regenerates (see rule 419. “Resolving Spells and Abilities. See rule 502. “Timing of Spells and Abilities. See rule 408. The spell or ability is said to be played “in response to” the earlier spell or ability. See rule 217. in the order written. if an effect specifically removes it from combat. it will resolve normally. you may choose new targets for any number of the copies. “Replacement and Prevention Effects. All attacks and blocks must still be legal. If the spell has any targets. if it’s a planeswalker that’s being attacked and stops being a planeswalker. Reminder text is text that is italicized and in parentheses in the text box of a card. and/or unblocked creature. if combat damage assigned to or by that permanent is already on the stack. blocked.2. its controller carries out the instructions printed on the card. When combat damage resolves.4 and rule 310. “Replicate [cost]” means “As an additional cost to play this spell. “Removed from the Game. “Legal Attacks and Blocks.

its controller moves it from the in-play zone directly to its owner’s graveyard.” Playing a spell using its retrace ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. See rule 501.1b and 409. you aren’t required to find some or all of those cards even if they’re present. “Ripple N” means “When you play this spell.” Retrace Retrace is a static ability that functions while an instant or sorcery card with retrace is in a player’s graveyard. nothing happens. so regeneration or other effects that replace destruction can’t affect it. Sacrifice To sacrifice a permanent. the card remains revealed from the time the spell or ability is announced until it leaves the stack. “Scry. Each player still needs small items to represent any tokens and counters.1f–h. Changing an object’s rules text changes the object’s properties. If an effect instructs a player to sacrifice a permanent that he or she doesn’t control. and some way to clearly track life totals. however. you may reveal all the cards in your library.56. If you reveal cards from your library this way. and a player may use as many duplicates of a card as he or she has. See rule 500. or.8.” See rule 502. “Ripple. Ripple Ripple is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with ripple is on the stack.” Rules Text An object’s rules text defines many of that object’s properties.Restriction A restriction on attacking or blocking is any effect that could prevent a creature from attacking or blocking. See rule 100. or something that’s a permanent he or she doesn’t control. put any number of them on the bottom of your library in any order. only forty cards are required in a deck. Reveal To reveal an object is to show that object to all players. "“Retrace” means “You may play this card from your graveyard by discarding a land card as an additional cost to play it. and put the rest on top of your library in any order. you may play any of those cards with the same name as this spell without paying their mana costs. “Legal Attacks and Blocks.3. if there are fewer than N cards in your library. the card is returned to its former state after all players have seen it. such as card type or color. you may reveal the top N cards of your library. if you do choose to find cards. then put all revealed cards not played this way on the bottom of your library in any order. If a one-shot effect reveals a card. Scry To “scry N” means to look at the top N cards of your library. Search If you’re required to search a zone not revealed to all players for cards of a given quality. Sacrificing a permanent doesn’t destroy it. If the cost to play a spell or ability includes revealing a card. A player can’t sacrifice something that isn’t a permanent. you must .” Sealed Deck For sealed deck or draft play. All attacks and blocks must still be legal.

Attacking creatures with shadow can’t be blocked by creatures without shadow. After a player shuffles a deck. or turn is a replacement effect. or turn won’t happen.reveal those cards to all players. Skip To skip an event. step.6e. See rule 419. These cards often aren’t revealed. and attacking creatures without shadow can’t be blocked by creatures with shadow. “Shroud” means “This permanent or player can’t be the target of spells or abilities. however. phase. Skipping an event. Once a step. If two effects each cause a player to skip his or her next occurrence. loss of life.1.” Shield Replacement and prevention effects act like “shields” around whatever they’re affecting. library. “Shroud. while the other will remain until another occurrence can be skipped. or pile he or she owns. If you’re simply searching for a quantity of cards. the effect will specify some condition that allows the set-aside card to return to the game.” Shuffle To shuffle a deck.” Shroud Shroud is a static ability. or turn has started. that player must skip the next two. “Skip [something]” is the same as “Instead of doing [something].” See rule 502.36. you are still considered to have searched the zone. or pile is to make the order of that deck. Even if you don’t find any cards. Anything scheduled for the “next” occurrence of something waits for the first occurrence that isn’t skipped. See rule 101. each opponent has the option to shuffle or cut that pile. library. step. it can no longer be skipped—any skip effects will wait until the next occurrence. one effect will be satisfied in skipping the first occurrence. phase. phase. Set Aside To set aside a card is to remove it from the game. such as “a card” or “three cards. “Replacement and Prevention Effects. do nothing. “Shadow. and the team loses if its life total reaches 0. you may choose to leave some of them alone.” See rule 300. Example: If an effect causes you to search a player’s library for all duplicates of a particular card and remove them from the game. but if an effect causes you to search your library for three cards and it contains at least three.8. See rule 419.” Shared Life Total The Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant uses a shared life total. Shadow Shadow is an evasion ability. or pile random. or turn is to proceed past it as though it didn’t exist. library. See rule 606.9 and rule 419. . “Two-Headed Giant Variant. Damage. that effect uses the team’s life total divided by the number of players on the team (rounded up) instead. phase. Anything scheduled for a skipped step.6f. and gaining life happens to each player individually. The result is applied to the team’s shared life total.” you must find that many cards (or as many as possible). See also Removed from the Game. If an effect needs to know the value of any individual player’s life total. See rule 502. Each two-player team’s life total starts at 30. you can’t choose fewer than three.

a spell on the stack (including one that creates a permanent).” it means a Forest with the snow supertype. “Sources of Damage. turning a face-down creature face up. or colorless. If an effect requires a player to choose a source of damage.” it means a permanent with the snow supertype. Snow Mana The snow mana symbol {S} represents a cost that can be paid with one mana produced by a snow permanent. Some older cards were printed with the term “snow-covered” in their rules text. “Actions That Don’t Use the Stack. Sorcery subtypes are called spell types (see Spell Types).1i and rule 408.” and rule 200. Snow Landwalk Snow landwalk is a special form of landwalk.” Source of an Ability The source of an ability is the object that generated it. he or she may choose a permanent. “Landwalk. The active player may play sorceries during his or her main phase when the stack is empty. Except for card names.” Special Action Special actions don’t use the stack. See rule 402. or any object referred to by an object on the stack (including a creature that assigned combat damage on the stack. Except for card names. all instances of “snow-covered” are now “snow. ignoring continuous effects. See rule 502. and so on.” Soulshift Soulshift is a triggered ability.4e.2.7.” . and removing a card with suspend in your hand from the game.6. A sorcery spell is put into its owner’s graveyard as part of its resolution. See rule 419. Source of Damage The source of damage is the object that dealt it. all instances of “snow-covered” are now “snow.” See rule 205. See rule 408. Snow-Covered (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the term “snow-covered” in their rules text. ending continuous effects or stopping delayed triggered abilities. “Soulshift N” means “When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play. “Abilities. “Sorceries. Effects that reduce the amount of generic mana you pay don’t affect {S} costs.8.” Sorcery Sorcery is a card type. The special actions are playing a land.4e. even if the creature is no longer in play or is no longer a creature). you may return target Spirit card with converted mana cost N or less from your graveyard to your hand. A source doesn’t need to be capable of dealing damage to be a legal choice. When a card refers to a “snow permanent. When a card refers to a “snow Forest. This is a generic mana cost that can be paid with any color or.7. A creature with snow landwalk is unblockable as long as the defending player controls at least one snow land of the specified subtype. Snow Snow is a supertype.Slivercycling See Typecycling. mana. See rule 212.” and rule 205.

) of the spliced cards. updated through the Alara Reborn set.Spell A nonland card becomes a spell when it’s put on the stack and remains a spell until it’s countered.1d). An effect that performs a positive comparison or a relative comparison involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack gets only one answer. If an effect tells you to name a card. Split Cards Split cards have two card faces on a single card.” These subtypes are also called spell types.) for that card’s instructions. you must name all of a split card’s names. You can’t splice any one card onto the same spell more than once. subtypes. it’s a multicolored card while it’s not on the stack.” and rule 401. The list of spell types. and so on) and two converted mana costs. you announce which side you’re playing. If you’re splicing more than one card onto a spell. etc. etc. The instructions on the main spell have to be followed first. A split card is a multicolored card on the stack only if the half that’s been played is multicolored. “Spells. “Split Cards. when it’s countered. While it’s on the stack. two mana costs. . except when they’re spells on the stack. card types. copy this card’s text box onto that spell and pay [cost] as an additional cost to play that spell. This answer is “yes” if either side of those split cards would return a “yes” answer if compared individually.” If a split card’s two mana costs have different colors of mana in them. They always have both sets. This answer is “yes” if performing the comparable positive comparison would return a “no” answer. See rule 505. not the card from which the text was copied. An effect that asks for a split card’s characteristic while it’s in a zone other than the stack gets both answers. When you play a split card. The spell loses any splice changes once it leaves the stack (for example.1b and 409. is as follows: Arcane. supertypes. full-size Magic card back. mana cost. Note that a spell with one or more targets will be countered if all of its targets are illegal on resolution. You can’t choose to use a splice ability if you can’t make the required choices (targets. plus the text boxes of each of the spliced cards. Split cards have two sets of characteristics (two names. even if it has no card associated with it. or it otherwise leaves the stack. The back of a split card is the normal. An object has the chosen name if it has at least one of the two names chosen this way. “Splice onto [subtype] [cost]” means “You may reveal this card from your hand as you play a [subtype] spell. Text copied onto the spell that refers to a card by name refers to the spell on the stack.” Paying a card’s splice cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409. it resolves. The spell doesn’t gain any other characteristics (name. The spell has the characteristics of the main spell. color.1f–h. it’s removed from the game. A copy of a spell is also a spell. See rule 213. An effect that performs a negative comparison involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack also gets only one answer. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: “Instant — Arcane. Choose targets for the added text normally (see rule 409. or it resolves).” Spell Type Instants and sorceries share the same set of subtypes. If you do. Splice Splice is a static ability that functions while a card is in your hand. reveal them all at once and choose the order in which their instructions will be followed. the other side is ignored completely. “Spells on the Stack.

“Split second” means “As long as this spell is on the stack.” Subgame Some cards allow players to play a Magic subgame. “Timing. Priority.” Stack A spell or ability goes on top of the stack when it’s played or put onto the stack. though it may affect a permanent’s characteristics. has been countered. you may choose new targets for any of the copies.1. and face up/face down. See rule 506. See rule 420. Whenever all players pass in succession.” State Triggers State triggers are triggered abilities that watch for a game state rather than an event and trigger as soon as the game state matches the condition. Certain older cards have received errata . Once a state trigger has triggered. “Storm. “Handling Static Abilities.6. See rule 217.Split Second Split second is a static ability that functions only while the spell with split second is on the stack. “Turn Structure. “Storm” means “When you play this spell. Combat-damage assignments also go on top of the stack as though they were a single object. See section 3. See rule 410.58. state-based effects are checked and applied. A “subgame” is the game created by the card’s effect. Static abilities create continuous effects. it won’t trigger again until the ability it created has resolved. “Split Second. Each permanent always has one of these values for each of these categories.” Storm Storm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack.” Substance Substance is a static ability with no effect. each of which has two possible values: tapped/untapped. See rule 412. “Subgames. the spell. ability. or has otherwise left the stack. Static Ability Static abilities do something all the time rather than being played at specific times. If the spell has any targets. There are three status categories.” State-Based Effects State-based effects continually “watch” the game for a particular state.” and rule 408. “State-Based Effects. which are active as long as the permanent with the ability remains in play and has the ability.” See rule 502. or as long as the object with the ability remains in the appropriate zone. Whenever a player would receive priority. flipped/unflipped.11.” See rule 502. Status is not a characteristic. and the Stack. “Stack. or combat damage on top of the stack resolves and the active player receives priority again. put a copy of it onto the stack for each other spell that was played before it this turn.30. unflipped.” Status A permanent’s status is its physical state. Step Some phases of the turn are further subdivided into steps. Permanents come into play untapped. players can’t play other spells or abilities that aren’t mana abilities. and face up unless a spell or ability says otherwise.

“Supertypes. it comes into play with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to play it. See also Haste. Summoning Sickness (Informal) The term “summoning sickness” is an informal term which describes a creature’s inability to attack or to use activated abilities that include the tap symbol or the untap symbol when it has come under a player’s control since the beginning of that player’s most recent turn. Objects may have multiple subtypes. although they may not be relevant to the new card type. See rule 205. See rule 212. Subtypes are always single words and are listed after a long dash.” An object’s supertype is independent of its card type and subtype. enchantments. Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Summon (Obsolete) Older creature cards were printed with “Summon [creature type]” on their type lines. any supertypes it has are kept. Sunburst Sunburst is a static ability that functions as an object is coming into play from the stack.3f.” Many of these cards’ creature types have also been updated. Supertype. it comes into play with a charge counter on it for each color of mana spent to play it. it retains any other supertypes it had.37. If an object’s card types or subtypes change. “Card Type. and Subtype.” The list of supertypes. and world. Changing an object’s supertype won’t change its card type or subtype. legendary. Suspend Suspend is a keyword that represents three abilities. Artifacts.” See rule 502. See rule 205. If a card with multiple types has one or more subtypes.” These are printed directly before its card types.” Supertype A card can have one or more “supertypes. If this object is coming into play from the stack and isn’t coming into play as a creature.that give them substance for a brief period of time. is as follows: basic. All “Summon [creature type]” cards should be read as “Creature — [creature type]. Creatures and tribals also share their lists of subtypes. Supertype. Instants and sorceries share their lists of subtypes. “Sunburst” means “If this object is coming into play from the stack as a creature. Subtype A card can have one or more subtypes printed on its type line.4. snow. these subtypes are called spell types. “Sunburst. “Subtypes. updated through the Alara Reborn set.3. “Card Type. and Subtype. Changing an object’s card type or subtype won’t change its supertype. See rule 212. any ability that’s written as triggering when a spell is “successfully cast” should be read as triggering when the spell is played.” In general. these subtypes are called creature types. When an object gains or loses a supertype.” Successfully Cast (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the term “successfully cast. use the Oracle card reference to determine their current creature types. lands. The first is a static ability that . each subtype is correlated to its appropriate type. and planeswalkers each have their own unique set of possible subtypes.” and rule 212.

6h. Tap. See rule 415.” Suspended A card is “suspended” if it’s in the removed-from-the-game zone. “Targeted Spells and Abilities. and Untapped. If you can’t. The choice of a spell or ability’s targets is made when the spell or ability is played.” Playing a spell as an effect of its suspend ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.) An Aura permanent doesn’t target anything. player. Swampcycling See Typecycling.” where [something] is a phrase that describes an object. you may pay [cost] and remove it from the game with N time counters on it.” See rule 212. remove a time counter from it. “Suspend.59.3. Any land with the land type Swamp has the ability “{T}: Add {B} to your mana pool. See rule 104. it remains removed from the game. if it’s removed from the game.functions while the card with suspend is in a player’s hand. The second and third are triggered abilities that function in the removed-from-the-game zone. it gains haste until you lose control of the spell or the permanent it becomes. Swampwalk See Landwalk. See also Status. Aura spells are targeted. See rule 502. If you play a creature spell this way. Tap To tap a permanent is to turn it sideways.” An instant or sorcery is targeted if the text that will be followed when it resolves uses the phrase “target [something]. Permanents untap during their controllers’ untap steps. but the spell is not. or zone.) An activated or triggered ability is targeted if it uses the phrase “target [something].1b and 409. play it without paying its mana cost if able. Tapped A permanent that’s turned sideways is tapped.” where the “something” is a phrase that describes an object. Tapping permanents shows that they’ve been used. if this card is suspended. (If an activated or triggered ability of an instant or sorcery uses the word target. player. that ability is targeted. appears in a spell or ability. . “Suspend N— [cost]” means “If you could play this card from your hand.1f–h.” and “When the last time counter is removed from this card. Untap. and their target is specified by their “enchant” abilities. Target Whenever the phrase “target [something]. This action doesn’t use the stack. the controller of the spell or ability chooses something that matches whatever follows that word. Swamp “Swamp” is one of the five basic land types. Creatures that haven’t been under a player’s control continuously since the beginning of his or her most recent turn can’t use any ability of theirs with the tap symbol in the cost. and has a time counter on it. (See rule 415.4. or zone. has suspend. or zone.” where the “something” is a phrase that describes an object.” and “At the beginning of your upkeep. The tap symbol ({T} in these rules) in an activation cost means “Tap this permanent”—a permanent that’s already tapped can’t be tapped again to pay the cost. They target the object or player they will enchant. player.

3. A spell or ability on the stack can’t target itself. The effect can’t change a proper noun.) An Equipment or a Fortification may have abilities which are targeted. (2) Whenever an Aura. the Aura. Timestamp Order An object’s timestamp is the time it entered the zone it’s currently in. Teammate In a multiplayer game between teams. Tie If an effect could result in a tie. Players are seated so that no one is next to a teammate and each team is equally spaced out. a player’s teammates are the other players on his or her team. and the player’s opponents are all players not on his or her team. a land type word used as a land type. It is now an ability word and has no rules meaning. The Two-Headed Giant (see rule 606). or Fortification receives a new timestamp.5e. a Magic color word being used as a color word. The deploy creatures option isn’t normally used in the Teams variant. basic land type. or creature type. “Text-Changing Effects. All cards printed with the threshold keyword have received errata. such as a card name.” Text Box The text box is printed below the illustration on a Magic card and contains rules text that defines the card’s abilities. and attack multiple players options must be used (see rules 604 and 602). Emperor (see rule 607). (3) Permanents that phase in keep the same timestamps they had when they phased out. The Teams variant uses the following default options: (a) The recommended range of influence is 2 (see rule 601) and (b) exactly one of the attack left. Equipment. “Text Box. (See rule 415. See rule 207. attack right. the active player determines their timestamp order at the time they enter that zone. Teams The Teams multiplayer variant involves two or more teams of equal size. See rule 418. A spell that targets the same object. or zone more than once isn’t a “spell with a single target. reminder text. Updated wordings are available in the Oracle card reference. with three exceptions: (1) If two or more objects enter a zone simultaneously.” Text-Changing Effect An effect that changes the text of an object changes only words that are used in the correct way (for example.” Team In a multiplayer game between teams. See rule 418.6. players win or lose as a group rather than as individuals. “Teams Variant. or Fortification becomes attached to an object or player. and Teams multiplayer variants (see rule 609) all use teams. See rule 609. player. A player can’t attack opponents who aren’t seated next to him or her. The Magic game has no default for ties.Neither Equipment spells nor Equipment permanents are targeted.” Threshold Threshold used to be a keyword ability. See . Equipment. the text of the spell or ability that created the effect will specify what to do in the event of a tie. or a creature type word used as a creature type). even if that proper noun contains a word or a series of letters that is the same as a Magic color word. and flavor text. The same is true for Fortification spells and Fortification permanents.

even if it’s a card with a toughness printed on it (such as a Licid that’s become an Aura). Tokens can be tapped and untapped just like cards. A noncreature permanent has no toughness. This is a state-based effect. plus all cost increases and minus all cost reductions.also Depend On. Continuous effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability receive a timestamp at the time they’re created. “Tokens.9. though an alternative to rotation might be needed to distinguish their status. Token A token is a marker used to represent any permanent that isn’t represented by a card. “Power/Toughness. Toughness Toughness is a characteristic that only creatures have.” A creature that’s been dealt damage greater than or equal to its toughness (and greater than 0) has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed. See rule 216. See rule 208.6. Some creature cards have toughness represented by * instead of a number. See rule 409. Then shuffle your library. Continuous effects generated by static abilities have the same timestamp as the object that generated them. Tokens are created by effects. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery” See rule 502. See rule 104.” Tombstone Icon A tombstone icon appears to the left of the name of many Odyssey block cards with abilities that are relevant in a player’s graveyard.wizards. or alternative cost. see rule 420.” . even outside the game. activation cost. Tournament A tournament is an organized event where players compete against other players to win prizes. The purpose of the icon is to make those cards stand out when they’re in a graveyard. Total Casting Cost (Obsolete) Some older cards were printed with the term “total casting cost” to describe the converted mana cost of a spell. This ability functions everywhere. just select “Events” and type in the name of your city. “Trample. The object has a characteristic-defining ability that sets its toughness according to some stated condition. In general. Trample Trample is a static ability modifying the combat damage step of the combat phase. cards that were printed with the term “total casting cost” now use the term “converted mana cost. Sacrifice this permanent: Search your library for a creature card with the same converted mana cost as this permanent and put it into play.” Transfigure Transfigure is an activated ability. The number after the slash printed on the lower right corner of a creature card is its toughness. “Transfigure.” Total Cost The total cost of a spell or activated ability is the mana cost. “Transfigure [cost]” means “[Cost]. See rule 502. Use the Magic Locator at http://locator. This icon has no effect on game play.1f.71. It lets an attacking creature “trample over” blocking creatures and assign part of its combat damage to the player or planeswalker it’s attacking.com to find tournaments in your area.

Then shuffle your library. or lack thereof (for colorless mana). Each team’s creatures also attack the other team rather than individual players. See rule 205.Transmute Transmute is an activated ability that functions only while the card with transmute is in a player’s hand.” “whenever. more broadly.” Turn Marker The Grand Melee multiplayer variant allows multiple players to take turns at the same time. subtype. Cards. Each tribal card has another card type. “Card Type. “Tribals. Each turn marker represents both an active player’s turn and an individual stack. Type Line The card type (and subtype and supertype.” Two-Headed Giant The Two-Headed Giant variant has two unique features.” Tribal Tribal is a card type. Triggered Ability A triggered ability begins with the word “when. See rule 404. See rule 404.48. “Type Line. the ability goes on top of the stack the next time a player would receive priority and stays there until it’s countered. Supertype. “Type Line.” and rule 212. it resolves.” Type-Changing Effect A type-changing effect is an effect that changes the card type. reveal that card. and Subtype. Supertype. The set of tribal subtypes is the same as the set of creature subtypes. and/or supertype. which starts at 30 life. The “type” of mana is its color. See rule 205.” Trigger Condition A triggered ability begins with the word “when.” “whenever. if applicable) of a card is printed directly below the illustration. It’s generated by a type-changing ability.” Whenever the trigger event occurs. See rule 608. and/or supertype of an object.” The phrase containing one of these words is the trigger condition.” or “at. these subtypes are called creature types. Playing and resolving a tribal card follows the rules for playing and resolving a card of the other card type.8.” Trigger. See also Mana. its card type. Discard this card: Search your library for a card with the same converted mana cost as the discarded card. Abilities don’t have types. Moving turn markers keep track of which players are currently taking turns. “Transmute [cost]” means “[Cost]. and each team has takes turns rather than each player. and Subtype. The “type” of an object is its card type or. and put it into your hand.” or “at. “Triggered Abilities. “Triggered Abilities. See rule 418. and spells all have types. or it otherwise leaves the stack. subtype. which defines the trigger event. See Creature Types and rule 212. permanents.” 2. “Two-Headed Giant Variant. “Transmute. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery. The additional rules for the Two-Headed Giant variant explain how the timing of team turns works. Each two-player team has a shared life total.” See rule 502. “Card Type. “Grand Melee Variant.” Type The word “type” has two meanings: 1.5a.” and rule 212. . tokens. See rule 606.

All permanents controlled by the active player normally untap at this time. Equipment. or Fortification becomes unattached if it was attached to an object or player and then is not.Typecycling Typecycling is a variant of the cycling ability. “Unearth. If a permanent leaves play (unless it phases out) while an Aura. reveal it. If you don’t. Discard this card: Search your library for a [type] card.5. Unblockable If an attacking creature “is unblockable. or Fortification becomes unattached. subtype. or Fortification leaves play while attached to an object. If it would leave play. Spells or abilities may still cause it to become blocked. or the combat phase ends. Creatures that haven’t been under a player’s control continuously since the beginning of his or her most recent turn can’t use any ability of theirs with the untap symbol in the cost. supertype.com/Magic/TCG/Events. Equipment. including the Magic game. Equipment. “Untap Step. it stops being a creature. the Aura.” . The untap symbol ({Q} in these rules) in an activation cost means “Untap this permanent”—a permanent that’s already untapped can’t be untapped again to pay the cost. Equipment. or Fortification is attached to it. See rule 302. Then shuffle your library.” Untap To untap a permanent is to rotate it back to the upright position. “[Type]cycling [cost]” means “[Cost]. or combination thereof (as in “basic landcycling”).” no creature can legally block it.” Universal Tournament Rules The DCI Universal Tournament Rules (http://www. “Cycling. “Declare Blockers Step. Unblocked creatures don’t exist outside of the combat phase or before the declare blockers step. Unless Some cards use the phrase “[Do something] unless you [do something else]. and put it into your hand.” Unattach An Aura.18.wizards. it becomes unattached.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home) cover tournament play for all DCI-sanctioned games. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery. It remains an unblocked creature until an effect causes it to become blocked. Untap Step The untap step is the first step of the beginning phase.” See rule 502. “Unearth [cost]” means “[Cost]: Return this card from your graveyard to play. remove it from the game instead of putting it anywhere else.” This means the same thing as “You may [do something else]. See rule 104.” Unearth Unearth is an activated ability that functions while the card is in a graveyard. See rule 502. its controller changes. If an Aura.” This type is usually a subtype (as in “mountaincycling”) but can be any card type. it’s removed from combat. Remove it from the game at end of turn. [do something].84. Unblocked A creature is unblocked if it’s attacking and no creature blocked it during the declare blockers step of the current combat phase. See rule 309. It gains haste.

you may [pay cost].” Vigilance Vigilance is a static ability that modifies the rules for the declare attackers step. Upkeep Step The upkeep step is the second step of the beginning phase. adjusting a player’s starting and maximum hand size and starting life total.14. Win the Game A game immediately ends when a player wins. World World is a supertype that normally applies to enchantments. A Vanguard placard or avatar is selected before the game begins. Attacking doesn’t cause creatures with vigilance to tap. Vanishing Vanishing is a keyword that represents three abilities.” Wither Damage dealt to a creature by a source with wither doesn’t stay on that creature (see rule 212. “Vigilance. A Vanguard placard or avatar has no color or types.Untapped A permanent that’s upright is untapped. such an ability is informally called an “upkeep cost” or an “upkeep effect. In the event of a tie for the shortest amount of time.60. This “world rule” is a state-based effect. Tapped. and it can’t be affected by spells or abilities. and Untap. See rule 502. See . remove a time counter from it.” and “When the last time counter is removed from this permanent. all except the one that has been a permanent with the world supertype for the shortest amount of time are put into their owners’ graveyards.” These are normal triggered abilities—there are no special rules for them. Tapping permanents shows that they’ve been used.” “At the beginning of your upkeep. See rule 102. Permanents untap during their controllers’ untap steps. See rule 303. If you don’t.” Vanguard and Avatars The Vanguard™ supplements consist of oversized placards and Magic Online® avatars that modify the game. “Upkeep Step. all are put into their owners’ graveyards. Some cards have abilities that trigger at the beginning of the upkeep step. See also Tap. “Vanishing N” means “This permanent comes into play with N time counters on it. See rule 502. “Wither. “Vanishing. Many older cards that referred to the Wall creature type also have errata. If two or more permanents have the supertype world.3g).” Wall Wall is a creature type with no particular rules meaning.” Wizardcycling See Typecycling. sacrifice [this card].” See rule 502. Rather. sacrifice it.” An upkeep cost is usually written in the form “At the beginning of your upkeep. Many older cards with the Wall creature type have received errata so that they also have the defender ability. it causes that many -1/-1 counters to be put on that creature. if this permanent has a time counter on it. “Winning and Losing. Updated wordings for all cards are available in the Oracle card reference.80.

this is the controller of the object when the ability triggered. and the value of X is defined by the text of that spell or ability. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. If the value of X isn’t defined.5. The controller of that spell or ability doesn’t get to choose the value. the {X} in its mana cost equals the announced value. its would-be controller (if a player is attempting to play it). and the value of X isn’t defined by the text of that spell or ability. See rule 217. this is the controller of the spell or ability that created it. the controller of that spell or ability chooses and announces the value of X as part of playing the spell or ability.rule 420. Note that the value of X may change while that spell or ability is on the stack. For a static ability. Owner. then that’s the value of X while that spell or ability is on the stack. and an effect lets you play that spell without paying any cost that includes X. All instances of X on an object have the same value. The most common types of zone-change triggers are comes-into-play triggers and leaves-play . You. If a spell or activated ability has a cost with an “{X}” in it. even if the value of X is defined somewhere within its text. this is the player who played the ability. If a world permanent’s card types or subtypes change. Your The words “you” and “your” on an object refer to the object’s controller. X appears in the text of a spell or ability but not in a mana cost or activation cost. even if they reduce it to zero. unless it’s a delayed triggered ability. such as a suspend cost or a morph cost. For a delayed triggered ability. the controller of the spell or ability chooses the value of X. See rule 409. In other cases. This doesn’t apply to effects that only reduce a cost. The permanent will still be a world permanent. these abilities look for the object in the zone that it moved to. the value of X is chosen by the player taking the special action as he or she pays that cost. the value of X isn’t defined by the text of that spell. During resolution. this doesn’t change its supertypes. “Playing Spells and Activated Abilities. For a triggered ability. then the only legal choice for X is 0. For an activated ability. the value of {X} is treated as 0.”) While the spell or ability is on the stack. The controller of that spell or ability doesn’t get to choose the value. X Many cards use the letter X as a placeholder for a number that needs to be determined. If you’re playing a spell that has {X} in its mana cost. the part of the ability attempting to do something to the object will fail to do anything. (See rule 409. “Zones. then that’s the value of X while that spell or ability is on the stack. If the value of X is defined by the text of that spell or ability.” If a spell or activated ability has a cost with an “{X}” in it. Zone A zone is any place that Magic cards can be during a game. has an “{X}” in it. See also Controller.” Zone-Change Triggers Trigger events that involve objects changing zones are called “zone-change triggers.” Many abilities with zone-change triggers attempt to do something to that object after it changes zones. Y See X. this is the current controller of the object it’s on. If a cost associated with a special action. If the object is unable to be found in the zone it went to. If a card in any zone other than the stack has {X} in its mana cost. or its owner (if it has no controller).

10. .triggers. See rule 410.

Eli Shiffrin. David Sachs. Wizards of the Coast. Collin Jackson. Jim Lin. Lee Sharpe. Ingo Warnke. Published by Wizards of the Coast LLC.A. and Elliott Segal. and Bill Rose. Brady Dommermuth. Richard Garfield. Mark Rosewater. Tom Fontaine. Donald X. Skaff Elias.O. Joel Mick. John Carter. P. William Jockusch. Mike Elliott. Henry Stern. Mike Donais. Dave DeLaney. Oracle. Portal Three Kingdoms. 2009. and Alara Reborn are trademarks of Wizards of the Coast LLC in the U. . Robert Gutschera. Renton WA 98057-0707. Exodus. Jeff Jordan.S. Dave Pettey. Vaccarino.957. Barry “Bit” Reich.A. with contributions from Charlie Catiyes. ©1993–2009 Wizards. Vanguard. Magic Online. Chris Page. Yonemura Kaoru. Tom Wylie. Stephen D’Angelo. Odyssey. Gottlieb The Magic: The Gathering game was designed by Richard Garfield. Gottlieb. No. Box 707. U. Russell Linnemann. Bill Rose. Thanks to all our project team members and the many others too numerous to mention who have contributed to this product. Steve Lord. U. These rules are current as of May 1. Michael Phoenix. Future Sight. Beth Moursund. Time Spiral. Ravnica. Skaff Elias. and Bryan Zembruski Editing: Del Laugel Magic Rules Manager: Mark L. Laurie Cheers. Dan Gray. Mark L. The mana symbols were designed by Christopher Rush. Elaine Chase. Thijs van Ommen. Magic. RE 37. Pat. with contributions from Charlie Catiyes. Sheldon Menery. Magic: The Gathering.S. and other countries.S. Jim Lin. Don Felice.Credits Magic: The Gathering Original Game Design: Richard Garfield Comprehensive Rules Design and Development: Paul Barclay. DCI.

Canada.wizards.S.233.S.com/customerservice Wizards of the Coast LLC P.S. Box 707 Renton WA 98057-0707 U. U.S.be Visit our website: magicthegathering.K.277 Email: custserv@hasbro.Questions? Contact the office nearest you.com . Box 43 Newport. NP19 4YD UK Tel: + 800 22 427276 Email: wizards@hasbro.O.70.O. Tel: 1-800-324-6496 (within the U. Eire & South Africa Hasbro UK Ltd.uk All Other European Countries Wizards of the Coast p/a Hasbro Belgium NV/SA Industrialaan 1 1702 Groot-Bijgaarden BELGIUM Tel: +32.co.) 1-425-204-8069 (outside the U. Asia Pacific & Latin America www..) U. P.A..

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