Glossary

Elementary School Level

Social Studies
Glossary

English / Arabic

Translation of Social Studies terms based
on the Coursework for Social Studies
Grades 3 to 5.
Word-for-word glossaries are used for testing
accommodations for ELL/LEP students

Last Updated: 08/10/09
THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT / THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK / ALBANY, NY 12234

THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT / THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK / ALBANY, NY 12234
Education - P-16
Office of Elementary, Middle, Secondary, and Continuing Education and Office of Higher Education
Office of Bilingual Education and Foreign Language Studies
http://www.emsc.nysed.gov/biling/

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK
Regents of the University
MERRYL H. TISCH, Chancellor, B.A., M.A., Ed.D. .......................................................................
MILTON L. COFIELD, Vice Chancellor, B.S., M.B.A., Ph.D. .........................................................
ROBERT M. BENNETT, Chancellor Emeritus, B.A., M.S. ...............................................................
SAUL B. COHEN, B.A., M.A., Ph.D................................................................................................
JAMES C. DAWSON, A.A., B.A., M.S., Ph.D. ................................................................................
ANTHONY S. BOTTAR, B.A., J.D. ...................................................................................................
GERALDINE D. CHAPEY, B.A., M.A., Ed.D. .................................................................................
HARRY PHILLIPS, 3rd, B.A., M.S.F.S. ...........................................................................................
JOSEPH E. BOWMAN, JR., B.A., M.L.S., M.A., M.Ed., Ed.D.........................................................
JAMES R. TALLON, JR., B.A., M.A. ...............................................................................................
ROGER TILLES, B.A., J.D. ................................................................................................................
KAREN BROOKS HOPKINS, B.A., M.F.A........................................................................................
CHARLES R. BENDIT, B.A. .............................................................................................................
BETTY A. ROSA, B.A., M.S. in Ed., M.S. in Ed., M.Ed., Ed.D.....................................................
LESTER W. YOUNG, JR., B.S., M.S., Ed. D. .....................................................................................
CHRISTINE D. CEA, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. ..........................................................................................
WADE S. NORWOOD, B.A. .............................................................................................................

New York
Rochester
Tonawanda
New Rochelle
Plattsburgh
Syracuse
Belle Harbor
Hartsdale
Albany
Binghamton
Great Neck
Brooklyn
Manhattan
Bronx
Oakland Gardens
Staten Island
Rochester

Interim President of the University and Commissioner of Education
CAROLE F. HUXLEY

Senior Deputy Commissioner of Education, P–16
JOHANNA DUNCAN-POITIER
Associate Commissioner for Curriculum and Instructional Support
JEAN STEVENS
Coordinator, Office of Bilingual Education and Foreign language Studies
PEDRO J. RUIZ
Acknowledgements:
The New York State Education Department Glossaries for English Language Learners were reviewed and
updated during the 2008-2009 school year. We would like to thank in these efforts the New York State
Education Department Language BETACs (Spanish, Asian and Haitian Bilingual Education Technical
Assistance Centers), the NYS Office of Curriculum, Instruction and Instructional Technology; the New York
City Department of Education Office of English Language Learners, and the NYC Department of Education
Translation and Interpretation Unit.
The State Education Department does not discriminate on the basis of age, color, religion, creed, disability, marital status, veteran
status, national origin, race, gender, genetic predisposition or carrier status, or sexual orientation in its educational programs,
services and activities. Portions of this publication can be made available in a variety of formats, including brailed, large print or
audio tape, upon request. Inquiries concerning this policy of nondiscrimination should be directed to the Department’s Office for
Diversity, Ethics, and Access, Room 530, Education Building, Albany, NY 12234.

Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary

ENGLISH

ARABIC

A
A.D.
abilities
absence of government
absentee ballot
accomplishments
achievements
acid rain
across time and place
action plan
activities
adults
aerial photographs
AFL-CIO
Africa
agriculture
Algonquians
alike/different
allegiance
alternative solutions
altiplano
altitude
amendment
American democracy: ideals,
values/principles of
American Revolution, the Americas
Americas
ancestor
Antarctic Circle
Antarctica
anthem
appoint
appointed leaders
appointed office
archaeologists
Arctic Circle
areas
ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic)

‫ﺑﻌﺪ اﻟﻤﻴﻼد‬
‫ﻗﺪرات‬
‫ﻏﻴﺎب اﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫اﻗﺘﺮاع ﻏﻴﺎﺑﻲ‬
‫إﻧﺠﺎزات‬
‫إﻧﺠﺎزات‬
‫أﻣﻄﺎر ﺣﻤﻀﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺮ اﻟﺰﻣﻦ واﻟﻤﻜﺎن‬
‫ﺧﻄﺔ ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫أﻧﺸﻄﺔ‬
‫ راﺷﺪون‬،‫ﺑﺎﻟﻐﻮن‬
‫ﺻﻮر ﻓﻮﺗﻮﻏﺮاﻓﻴﺔ ﺟﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫اﻻﺗﺤﺎد اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻟﻠﻌﻤﺎل وﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎت اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫إﻓﺮﻳﻘﻴﺎ‬
‫زراﻋﺔ‬
‫هﻨﻮد أﻟﻐﻮﻧﻜﻮﻳﻦ‬
‫ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬/‫ﻣﻤﺎﺛﻞ‬
‫وﻻء‬
‫ﺣﻠﻮل ﺑﺪﻳﻠﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺮﺗﻔﻌﺎت اﻷﻧﺪﻳﺰ‬
‫ ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ ﻋﻤﻮدﻳﺔ‬،‫ارﺗﻔﺎع‬
‫ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻞ‬
‫ ﻣُﺜﻠﻬﺎ اﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ وﻗﻴﻤﻬﺎ وﻣﺒﺎدﺋﻬﺎ‬:‫اﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮاﻃﻴﺔ اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ أﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ اﻟﺠﻨﻮﺑﻴﺔ واﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬،‫اﻟﺜﻮرة اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬
(‫اﻟﻘﺎرﺗﺎن اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺘﺎن ) اﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ واﻟﺠﻨﻮﺑﻴﺔ أو اﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻠﻒ‬
‫اﻟﻘﻄﺐ اﻟﺠﻨﻮﺑﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻘﺎرة اﻟﻘﻄﺒﻴﺔ اﻟﺠﻨﻮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺸﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻋﻴّﻦ‬
‫اﻟﻘﺎدة اﻟﻤﻌﻴّﻨﻮن‬
‫اﻟﻤﻜﺘﺐ اﻟﻤﻌﻴّﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻤﺎء ﺁﺛﺎر‬
‫اﻟﻘﻄﺐ اﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺎت‬/‫ﻣﺠﺎﻻت‬
1

Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary

ENGLISH
arid
art
artifacts
assembly
assembly line
authority
autobiographies
autobiography
automobiles
availability
avenues of participation
aztecs

ARABIC
‫ﻗﺎﺣﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻔﻦ‬
‫أﻋﻤﺎل ﻳﺪوﻳﺔ‬
‫ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ‬،‫ ﺟﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬،‫ ﺗﺠﻤّﻊ‬،‫ﺗﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺧﻂ اﻹﻧﺘﺎج‬
‫ﺳﻠﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺮ ذاﺗﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺮة ذاﺗﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺎرات‬
‫ وﺟﻮد‬/‫ﺗﻮﻓﺮ‬
‫ﺳﺒﻞ اﻟﻤﺸﺎرآﺔ‬
‫ﺷﻌﺐ اﻵزﺗﻴﻚ‬

B
B.C.
backgrounds
barter
basic
basin
Battle of Quebec
battles
before/after
belief
belief system
beliefs
Bill of Rights
biographies
biography
bodies of water
border
Boston Tea Party
boundary
boycott
branches of government
British North America Act
budget

ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic)

‫ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﻤﻴﻼد‬
‫ﺧﻠﻔﻴﺎت‬
‫ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻀﺔ‬
‫أﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﺣﻮض‬
‫ﻣﻌﺮآﺔ آﻮﻳﺒﻴﻚ‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎرك‬
‫ ﺑﻌﺪ‬/‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫اﻋﺘﻘﺎد‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﻤﻌﺘﻘﺪات‬
‫ﻣﻌﺘﻘﺪات‬
‫ﻣﻴﺜﺎق اﻟﺤﻘﻮق‬
‫ﺳﻴﺮ ذاﺗﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺮة ذاﺗﻴﺔ‬
‫أﺟﺴﺎم ﻣﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺪود‬
‫هﺠﻮم أهﺎﻟﻲ ﺑﻮﺳﻄﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺴﻔﻦ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺤﻤﻠﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺸﺎي‬
‫ﺣﺪود‬
‫ﻣُﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬
‫أﻗﺴﺎم ﺳﻠﻄﺎت اﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮن ﺷﻤﺎل أﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻴﺰاﻧﻴﺔ‬

2

Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary

ENGLISH

ARABIC

C
cabinet
cable
calendar
campaign
Canada
Canadian Bill of Rights
canal
capital (state and money)
capital goods
capital resources
capitalism
cardinal directions
cause
celebrate
celebration
celebrations
census
Central America
century
change
checks and balances
child labor
children
Chippewa
choice
choices
citizen
citizenship
civic life
civic values
civil rights
civil rights movement
civil wars
civilization
civilizations
clans
ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic)

‫ﻣﺠﻠﺲ‬
‫آﺎﺑﻞ‬
‫ روزﻧﺎﻣﺔ‬،‫ﺗﻘﻮﻳﻢ‬
‫ﺣﻤﻠﺔ‬
‫آﻨﺪا‬
‫ﻣﻴﺜﺎق اﻟﺤﻘﻮق اﻟﻜﻨﺪي‬
‫ﻗﻨﺎة‬
‫ رأس اﻟﻤﺎل‬،(‫ﻋﺎﺻﻤﺔ )اﻟﺪوﻟﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻠﻊ إﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻮارد إﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬
‫رأﺳﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
(‫ ﻏﺮب‬، ‫ ﺷﺮق‬،‫ ﺟﻨﻮب‬،‫اﻻﺗﺠﺎهﺎت اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻴﺔ اﻷرﺑﻊ )ﺷﻤﺎل‬
‫ﺳﺒﺐ‬
‫اﺣﺘﻔﻞ‬
‫اﺣﺘﻔﺎل‬
‫اﺣﺘﻔﺎﻻت‬
‫إﺣﺼﺎء ﺗﻌﺪاد اﻟﺴﻜﺎن‬
‫أﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ اﻟﻮﺳﻄﻰ‬
‫ﻗﺮن‬
‫ ﻏﻴّﺮ‬،‫ ﺗﻐﻴّﺮ‬،‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺿﻮاﺑﻂ وﻣﻮازﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻞ اﻷﻃﻔﺎل‬
‫ أﺑﻨﺎء‬،‫أﻃﻔﺎل‬
‫هﻨﻮد ﺗﺸﻴﺒﻴﻮا‬
‫اﺧﺘﻴﺎر‬
‫ ﺧﻴﺎرات‬،‫اﺧﺘﻴﺎرات‬
‫ﻣﻮاﻃﻦ‬
‫ ﻣﻮاﻃﻨﺔ‬،‫ﺟﻨﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺤﻴﺎة اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻢ ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻮق ﻣﺪﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺮآﺔ اﻟﻤﻄﺎﻟﺒﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﺤﻘﻮق اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺮوب أهﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺣﻀﺎرة‬
‫ﺣﻀﺎرات‬
‫ﻋﺸﺎﺋﺮ‬
3

Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary

ENGLISH
classroom
climate
clothing
collect taxes
colonial
colonial governments
colonies
colonists
colony
Committees of Correspondence
common good
commonwealth
Commonwealth of Nations
communication
communism
communities
community
community service
compact
compare/contrast
compass
compromise
compulsory education
computer
confederacy
conflict
conflict resolution
conflicts
congress
conquistador
consequences
conservation
consideration
Constitution of the State of New York
Constitution of the United States
constitutional democracy
consumer
ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic)

ARABIC
‫ ﺣﺠﺮة دراﺳﻴﺔ‬،‫ﻓﺼﻞ دراﺳﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺎخ‬
‫ ﻟﺒﺎس‬،‫ﻣﻼﺑﺲ‬
‫ﺟﻤﻊ اﻟﻀﺮاﺋﺐ‬
‫اﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎري‬
‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺎت اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮات‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮات‬
‫ﻣﻌﻤّﺮون‬
‫ ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮة‬،‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻃﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻟﺠﺎن اﻟﻤﺮاﺳﻠﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺼﺎﻟﺢ اﻟﻌﺎم‬
‫راﺑﻄﺔ ﺷﻌﻮب آﻮﻣﻨﻮﻟﺚ‬
‫ﺑﻠﺪان اﻟﻜﻮﻣﻨﻮﻟﺚ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻮاﺻﻞ‬
‫اﻟﺸﻴﻮﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬
‫ﺧﺪﻣﺔ ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ ﻋﻘﺪ‬،‫اﺗﻔﺎق‬
‫ ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬/‫ﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻮﺻﻠﺔ‬
‫ ﺗﻨﺎزل‬،‫ﺗﻮاﻓﻖ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ إﺟﺒﺎري‬
‫ آﻤﺒﻴﻮﺗﺮ‬،‫ﺣﺎﺳﻮب‬
‫اﺗﺤﺎد‬
‫ ﺻﺮاع‬،‫ﻧﺰاع‬
‫ﺣﻞ اﻟﻨﺰاع‬
‫ﻧﺰاﻋﺎت‬
‫ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﻣﻤﺜﻠﻲ اﻟﻤﻮاﻃﻨﻴﻦ‬،‫آﻮﻧﻐﺮس‬
(‫ ﻏﺎز )ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺰاة اﻷﺳﺒﺎن ﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ اﻟﺠﻨﻮﺑﻴﺔ‬،‫ﻓﺎﺗﺢ‬
‫ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ‬
‫ ﺻﻴﺎﻧﺔ‬،‫ﺣﻔﺎظ‬
‫اﻋﺘﺒﺎر‬
‫دﺳﺘﻮر وﻻﻳﺔ ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮرك‬
‫دﺳﺘﻮر اﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎت اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪة‬
‫دﻳﻤﻘﺮاﻃﻴﺔ دﺳﺘﻮرﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻠﻚ‬
4

Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary

ENGLISH
consumers
consumption
consumption of goods
continent
Continental Congress
Continental Divide
continents
contour
contrast
contributions
cooperation
costs
cotton belt
credit
criteria
cultural characteristics
cultural contributions
cultural differences
cultural diffusion
cultural diversity
cultural groups
culture
cultures - characteristics, distriubtion,
complexity of
currency
customs

ARABIC
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻬﻠﻜﻮن‬
‫اﺳﺘﻬﻼك‬
‫اﺳﺘﻬﻼك اﻟﺒﻀﺎﺋﻊ‬
‫ﻗﺎرة‬
‫اﻟﻤﺆﺗﻤﺮ اﻟﻘﺎري‬
‫اﻟﺘﻘﺴﻴﻢ اﻟﻘﺎري‬
‫ﻗﺎرات‬
‫ ﻣﺤﻴﻂ‬،‫ﻣﺨﻄﻂ‬
‫ ﺗﻤﻴﻴﺰ‬،‫ اﺧﺘﻼف‬،‫ﺗﺒﺎﻳﻦ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎهﻤﺎت‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎون‬
‫ﺗﻜﺎﻟﻴﻒ‬
‫اﻟﺤﺰام اﻟﻘﻄﻨﻲ )ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻋُﺮﻓﺖ ﺑﺈﻧﺘﺎج اﻟﻘﻄﻦ ﺟﻨﻮب ﺷﺮق‬
(‫اﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎت اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪة‬
‫ ﺳﻠﻒ‬،‫ دﻳﻦ‬،‫اﺋﺘﻤﺎن‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎﻳﻴﺮ‬
‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎهﻤﺎت ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫اﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎت ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻧﺘﺸﺎر ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺗﻨﻮّع ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻲ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺎت ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ ﺗﻌﻘﺪهﺎ‬،‫ ﺗﻮزﻳﻌﻬﺎ‬،‫اﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎت – ﺧﻮاﺻﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﺔ‬
‫ ﺟﻤﺎرك‬،‫ﻋﺎدات‬

D
day
De Witt Clinton
decade
decision
decision-making
decisions
declaration
Declaration of Independence
delta
ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic)

‫ ﻧﻬﺎر‬،‫ﻳﻮم‬
‫دي وﻳﺖ آﻠﻴﻨﺘﻮن‬
‫ ﻋﺸﺮ ﺳﻨﻮات‬،‫ﻋِﻘﺪ‬
‫ﻗﺮار‬
‫ وﺿﻊ اﻟﻘﺮار‬،‫اﺗﺨﺎذ اﻟﻘﺮار‬
‫ﻗﺮارات‬
‫إﻋﻼن‬
‫إﻋﻼن اﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼل‬
‫اﻟﺪﻟﺘﺎ‬
5

Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary

ENGLISH
democracy
Democratic Party
democratic principles
democratic values
developed nations
developing nations
developments
diagram
diagrams
dictatorship
different/same
direction
diseases
display
disputes
distance
distribution
diverse
diversity
document
due process
Dutch colonies
Dutch West India Company

ARABIC
‫دﻳﻤﻘﺮاﻃﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺤﺰب اﻟﺪﻳﻤﻘﺮاﻃﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺒﺎدئ اﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮاﻃﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻘﻴﻢ اﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮاﻃﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺒﻠﺪان اﻟﻤﺘﻘﺪﻣﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺒﻠﺪان اﻟﻨﺎﻣﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻄﻮرات‬
‫رﺳﻢ ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻲ‬
‫رﺳﻮم ﺑﻴﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫دآﺘﺎﺗﻮرﻳﺔ‬
‫ ﻣﻤﺎﺛﻞ‬/‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬
‫اﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬
‫أﻣﺮاض‬
‫ ﺷﺊ ﻣﻌﺮوض‬،‫ﻋﺮض‬
‫ ﺧﻼﻓﺎت‬،‫ﺗﻨﺎزﻋﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻮزﻳﻊ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻨﻮع‬
‫ﺗﻨﻮّع‬
‫ وﺛﻴﻘﺔ‬،‫ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺮاﻋﺎة اﻹﺟﺮاءات واﻷﺻﻮل اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮات هﻮﻟﻨﺪﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺷﺮآﺔ اﻟﻬﻨﺪ اﻟﻐﺮﺑﻴﺔ اﻟﻬﻮﻟﻨﺪﻳﺔ‬

E
earn
Earth’s surface
economic
economic capital
economic concepts
economic decision making
economic decisions
economic development
economic factors
economic growth
economic interdependence
economic systems
economics
ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic)

‫ رﺑِﺢ‬،‫ أﺣﺮز‬،‫آﺴَﺐ‬
‫ﺳﻄﺢ اﻷرض‬
‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬
‫رأس اﻟﻤﺎل اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬
‫ﻣﻔﺎهﻴﻢ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ‬
‫اﺗﺨﺎذ اﻟﻘﺮارات اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺮارات اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻄﻮر اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬
‫ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻤﻮ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي‬
‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎد اﻗﺘﺼﺎدي ﻣﺘﺒﺎدل‬
‫أﻧﻈﻤﺔ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻢ اﻻﻗﺘﺼﺎد‬
6

Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary

ENGLISH
economies
effects
elect
elected leaders
elected office
election
Ellis Island
emigrants
empathy
employee
employer
encomienda system
encounter
enforce
English colonies
environment
environmental factors
equality
equality of opportunity
era
eras
ethnic
ethnic group
ethnicity
Europe
European encounter and exchanges-of
technologies, plants, animals, diseases
events
exchange
executive
executive branch of government
expansion
exploitation
exploration
explorers
exports

ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic)

ARABIC
‫اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺎت‬
‫ﺁﺛﺎر‬
‫اﻧﺘﺨﺐ‬
‫ﻗﺎدة ﻣﻨﺘﺨﺒﻮن‬
‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ ﻣﻨﺘﺨﺐ‬
‫اﻧﺘﺨﺎب‬
‫ﺟﺰﻳﺮة إﻳﻠﻴﺲ ﺁﻳﻼﻧﺪ‬
‫ﻣﻬﺎﺟﺮون‬
‫ﺗﻌﺎﻃﻒ‬
‫ﻣﻮﻇﻒ‬
‫ﺻﺎﺣﺐ اﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬
‫ﻧﻈﺎم اﻟﻮﺻﺎﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺸﻌﻮب اﻷﺻﻴﻠﺔ‬
‫ ﻣﻮﻗِﻌﺔ‬،‫ ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻠﺔ‬،‫ﻣﻮاﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫ ﻳﻔﺮض‬،‫ﻳﻨﻔﺬ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮات ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺌﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﺑﻴﺌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎواة‬
‫ﺗﻜﺎﻓﺆ اﻟﻔﺮص‬
‫ﻋﺼﺮ‬
‫ﻋﺼﻮر‬
‫ ﻋﺮﻗﻲ‬،‫إﺛﻨﻲ‬
‫ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﻋﺮﻗﻴﺔ‬،‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ إﺛﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺮق‬
‫أورﺑﺎ‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮاﺟﻬﺎت واﻟﺘﺒﺎدﻻت اﻷوروﺑﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ واﻟﻨﺒﺎﺗﺎت‬
‫واﻟﺤﻴﻮاﻧﺎت واﻷﻣﺮاض‬
‫أﺣﺪاث‬
‫ﺗﺒﺎدل‬
‫ﺗﻨﻔﻴﺬي‬
‫ﻓﺮع اﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ اﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬي‬
‫ﺗﻮﺳّﻊ‬
‫اﺳﺘﻐﻼل‬
‫اﺳﺘﻜﺸﺎف‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻜﺸﻔﻮن‬
‫ﺻﺎدرات‬

7

Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary

ENGLISH

ARABIC

F
facilities
fact/opinion
factors of production
factory
family
far/near
federal
federal government
festival
festivals
flag
folktale
folktales
food
forced relocation
foreign policy
foreign relations
Fort Orange

‫ﻣَﺮاﻓﻖ‬
‫ رأي‬/‫واﻗﻊ‬
‫ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ اﻹﻧﺘﺎج‬
‫ﻣﺼﻨﻊ‬
‫ﻋﺎﺋﻠﺔ‬
‫ ﻗﺮﻳﺐ‬/‫ﺑﻌﻴﺪ‬
‫ اﺗﺤﺎدي‬،‫ﻓﻴﺪراﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻓﻴﺪراﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻬﺮﺟﺎن‬
‫ﻣﻬﺮﺟﺎﻧﺎت‬
‫ راﻳﺔ‬،‫ﻋﻠَﻢ‬
‫رواﻳﺔ ﺷﻌﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫رواﻳﺎت ﺷﻌﺒﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻃﻌﺎم‬
‫ﺗﺮﺣﻴﻞ إﺟﺒﺎري‬
‫اﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﺔ اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻌﻼﻗﺎت اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻴﺔ‬
(‫ﻓﻮرت أوراﻧﺞ )أول ﻣﺮآﺰ ﺗﺠﺎري هﻮﻟﻨﺪي داﺋﻢ ﻓﻲ ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮرك‬

foundation
free enterprise
free trade
freedom
French Canadians
French colonies
frontier
functions of government
fundamental economic questions
fundamental values
future

‫أﺳﺎس‬
‫أﻋﻤﺎل ﺣﺮة‬
‫ﺗﺠﺎرة ﺣﺮة‬
‫ﺣﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻜﻨﺪﻳﻮن اﻟﻔﺮﻧﺴﻴﻮن‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮات ﻓﺮﻧﺴﻴﺔ‬
‫ ﺗﺨﻮم‬،‫ﺣﺪود‬
‫ﻣﻬﺎم اﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ أﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻴﻢ أﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬

G
game
gender
generation
geographic characteristics
geographic factors
ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic)

‫ﻟﻌﺒﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺠﻨﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ اﻟﺘﺬآﻴﺮ أو اﻟﺘﺄﻧﻴﺚ‬
‫ﺟﻴﻞ‬
‫ﺧﺼﺎﺋﺺ ﺟﻐﺮاﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﺟﻐﺮاﻓﻴﺔ‬
8

Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary

ENGLISH
geographic features
geographic features/areas
geographic information
geography
geological processes
global warming
globe
globes
goods and services - production,
distribution, exchange, consumption of
goods
govern
governance
government
Great Depression
grid
Gross Domestic Product
Gross National Product
groups
growth
Gulf Stream

ARABIC
‫ﻣﻤﻴﺰات ﺟﻐﺮاﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ ﺟﻐﺮاﻓﻴﺔ‬/ ‫ﻣﻤﻴﺰات‬
‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻣﺔ ﺟﻐﺮاﻓﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺟﻐﺮاﻓﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت ﺟﻴﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻻﺣﺘﺮار اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻤﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻜﺮة اﻷرﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫آﺮات‬
‫ إﻧﺘﺎﺟﻬﺎ وﺗﻮزﻳﻌﻬﺎ وﺗﺒﺎدﻟﻬﺎ واﺳﺘﻬﻼآﻬﺎ‬- ‫اﻟﺴﻠﻊ واﻟﺨﺪﻣﺎت‬
‫ ﺑﻀﺎﺋﻊ‬،‫ﺳﻠﻊ‬
‫ ﻳﺴﻴّﺮ‬،‫ﻳﺤﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺣُﻜﻢ‬
‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬
(1929 ‫اﻟﻜﺴﺎد اﻟﻌﻈﻴﻢ )أزﻣﺔ اﻗﺘﺼﺎدﻳﺔ ﺷﻬﺪﺗﻬﺎ أﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻋﺎم‬
‫ﺷﺒﻜﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ اﻟﻤﺤﻠﻲ اﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻨﺎﺗﺞ اﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ اﻹﺟﻤﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺟﻤﺎﻋﺎت‬
‫ﻧﻤﻮ‬
‫ﺗﻴﺎر اﻟﺨﻠﻴﺞ‬

H
habitat
Haudenosaunee
health
hemisphere
historic events
historical
historical evidence
historical narratives
history
Holidays ( Columbus Day, Election Day,
Veterans Day, Thanksgiving, New Years
Day, Dr. Martin Luther King Day,
Presidents Day, Memorial Day, Flag Day)
home
hopes
ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic)

‫ ﺑﻴﺌﺔ‬،‫ ﻣﺴﻜﻦ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﻲ‬،‫ﻣﻮﻃﻦ‬
‫ﺷﻌﺐ اﻟﻬﻮدﻳﻨﻮﺳﻮﻧﻲ اﻟﻬﻨﺪي‬
‫ﺻﺤﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺼﻒ اﻟﻜﺮة اﻷرﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫أﺣﺪاث ﺗﺎرﻳﺨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺨﻲ‬
‫دﻟﻴﻞ ﺗﺎرﻳﺨﻲ‬
‫ رواﻳﺎت ﺗﺎرﻳﺨﻴﺔ‬،‫ﺳﺮد ﺗﺎرﻳﺨﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ‬
‫ ﻳﻮم ﻗﺪﻣﺎء‬،‫ ﻳﻮم اﻻﻗﺘﺮاع‬،‫ أﻋﻴﺎد )ﻳﻮم آﻠﻮﻣﺒﺲ‬،‫ﻋﻄﻞ‬
‫ ﻳﻮم اﻟﺪآﺘﻮر‬،‫ رأس اﻟﺴﻨﺔ اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪة‬،‫ ﻋﻴﺪ اﻟﺸﻜﺮ‬،‫اﻟﻤﺤﺎرﺑﻴﻦ‬
(‫ ﻳﻮم اﻟﻌﻠﻢ‬،‫ ﻳﻮم اﻟﺸﻬﺪاء‬،‫ ﻳﻮم اﻟﺮؤﺳﺎء‬،‫ﻣﺎرﺗﻦ ﻟﻮﺛﺮ آﻴﻨﺞ‬
‫ ﻣﺴﻜﻦ‬،‫ ﻣﻮﻃﻦ‬،‫ ﺑﻴﺖ‬،‫ﻣﻨﺰل‬
‫ﺁﻣﺎل‬
9

Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary

ENGLISH
House of Representatives
human
human capital
human migration
human migrations
human resources
human rights
human settlements
human systems

ARABIC
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺲ اﻟﻨﻮاب‬
‫ إﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ‬،‫إﻧﺴﺎن‬
‫اﻟﺮأﺳﻤﺎل اﻟﺒﺸﺮي‬
‫ ﻧﺰوح ﺑﺸﺮي‬،‫هﺠﺮة ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫هﺠﺮات ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻮارد ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻮق اﻹﻧﺴﺎن‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻃﻨﺎت ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫أﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺑﺸﺮﻳﺔ‬

I
ideals of American democracy
ideas
identity
immigrants
immigration
important
imports
inaugurated confederation
Incas
income
indentured servant
independence
indigenous peoples
individual
individual rights
individual rights to life, liberty, pursuit of
happiness.
individuals
industrial expansion
industrial growth
industrial growth/expansion
Industrial Revolution
industrialization
industry
inhabitants
interdependence
interdependent
ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic)

‫اﻟﻤﺜﻞ اﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮاﻃﻴﺔ اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫أﻓﻜﺎر‬
‫هﻮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻬﺎﺟﺮون‬
‫هﺠﺮة‬
‫ ﻣﻬﻢ‬،‫هﺎم‬
‫واردات‬
‫اﻟﻜﻮﻧﻔﺪراﻟﻴﺔ اﻟﻤﺪﺷﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺷﻌﺐ اﻹﻧﻜﺎ‬
‫دَﺧﻞ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﻣُﺴﺘﺮق‬
‫اﺳﺘﻘﻼل‬
‫اﻟﺸﻌﻮب اﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ ﻓﺮدي‬،‫ﻓﺮد‬
‫ﺣﻘﻮق ﻓﺮدﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻮق اﻟﻔﺮد ﻓﻲ اﻟﺤﻴﺎة واﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ واﻟﺴﻌﻲ وراء اﻟﺴﻌﺎدة‬
‫ أﺷﺨﺎص‬،‫أﻓﺮاد‬
‫ﺗﻮﺳﻊ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬
‫ﻧﻤﻮ ﺻﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬
‫ اﻟﺘﻮﺳّﻊ اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻲ‬/‫اﻟﻨﻤﻮ‬
‫اﻟﺜﻮرة اﻟﺼﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺻﻨﺎﻋﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻜﺎن‬
‫ ﻋﻼﻗﺎت ﻣﺘﺒﺎدﻟﺔ‬،‫ ﺗﺮاﺑﻂ‬،‫اﻋﺘﻤﺎد ﻣﺘﺒﺎدل‬
‫ ﻣﺘﺮاﺑﻂ‬،‫ﻣُﻌﺘﻤﺪ‬
10

Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary

ENGLISH
international organizations
interpret law
interpret laws
interpretations
Inuits
invention
inventions
Iroquois
Iroquois Confederacy
irrigation
issues
isthmus

ARABIC
‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺎت دوﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺆوّل أو ﻳُﻔﺴّﺮ اﻟﻘﺎﻧﻮن‬
‫ﻳﺆوّل أو ﻳُﻔﺴّﺮ اﻟﻘﻮاﻧﻴﻦ‬
‫ ﺗﻔﺴﻴﺮات‬،‫ﺗﺄوﻳﻼت‬
‫إﻧﻮﻳﺖ أو إﺳﻜﻴﻤﻮ‬
‫ ﺷﺊ ﻣﺨﺘﺮع‬،‫اﺧﺘﺮاع‬
‫اﺧﺘﺮاﻋﺎت‬
(‫إﻳﺮوآﻮﻳﺲ )ﺷﻌﻮب أﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴّﺔ أﺻﻠﻴّﺔ اﺳﺘﻘﺮت ﺑﻮﻻﻳﺔ ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮرك‬
‫ﺣﻠﻒ ﻗﺒﺎﺋﻞ هﻨﻮد اﻻﻳﺮوآﻮا اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ي‬
ّ ‫اﻟﺮ‬
‫ ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬،‫ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬
‫ﺑﺮزخ‬

J
judgments
judicial
judicial branch of government
judicial branch
junta
jury
jury service
justice

‫أﺣﻜﺎم‬
‫ﻗﻀﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻔﺮع اﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ اﻟﻘﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
(‫زﻣﺮة ﻋﺴﻜﺮﻳﺔ )ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﺔ ﺗﺘﻮﻟﻰ اﻟﺤﻜﻢ ﻋﺎدة ﺑﻌﺪ اﻧﻘﻼب‬
‫ﻣﺤﻠﻔﻮن‬
‫ﺗﺄدﻳﺔ اﻟﺨﺪﻣﺔ آﻤﺤﻠﻒ‬
‫ﻋﺪاﻟﺔ‬

K
kindergarten

‫روﺿﺔ اﻷﻃﻔﺎل‬
L

labor
labor force
labor movement
labor union
land formations
land masses
languages
Latin America
latitude
laws
laws/rules
leaders
ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic)

‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬
‫اﻟﻘﻮى اﻟﻌﺎﻣﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺮآﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﺎل‬
‫ﻧﻘﺎﺑﺔ اﻟﻌﻤﺎل‬
‫ﺗﻜﻮﻳﻨﺎت أرﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫آﺜﻞ أرﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻟﻐﺎت‬
‫أﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ اﻟﻼﺗﻴﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺧﻂ اﻟﻌﺮض‬
‫ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻦ‬
‫ ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ‬/‫ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻦ‬
‫ ﻗﺎدة‬،‫زﻋﻤﺎء‬
11

Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary

ENGLISH
League of Nations
learn
legal
legends
legislative branch
legislative branch of government
legislature
liberty
library
library resources
life
lifestyle
like/dislike
limited
limited resources
limited/unlimited
local
local government
local region
location
lock
locomotive
long ago
longhouse
longitude
loyalist
loyalty

ARABIC
‫ﻋﺼﺒﺔ اﻷﻣﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫ ﺷﺮﻋﻲ‬،‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮﻧﻲ‬
‫أﺳﺎﻃﻴﺮ‬
‫اﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ اﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻔﺮع اﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ ﻟﻠﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫ ﺳﻠﻄﺔ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ‬،‫ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻌﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻮارد اﻟﻤﻜﺘﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺣﻴﺎة‬
‫ﻧﻤﻂ اﻟﺤﻴﺎة‬
‫ ﻳﻜﺮﻩ‬/‫ﻳﺤﺐ‬
‫ﻣﺤﺪود‬
‫ﻣﻮارد ﻣﺤﺪودة‬
‫ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺤﺪود‬/‫ﻣﺤﺪود‬
‫ﻣﺤﻠﻲ‬
‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﻣﺤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻣﺤﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻮﻗﻊ‬
‫ﻗﻔﻞ‬
‫ﻗﺎﻃﺮة‬
‫ﻓﻲ زﻣﻦ ﺑﻌﻴﺪ‬
‫ﻧﻮع ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﺴﺎآﻦ اﻟﻄﻮﻳﻠﺔ آﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﺒﻨﻴﻬﺎ اﻟﺸﻌﻮب اﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ ﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‬
‫اﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺧﻂ اﻟﻄﻮل‬
‫اﻟﻤﻮاﻟﻲ‬
‫وﻻء‬

M
maize
majority rule
make laws
manor
manufacture
manufacturing
maps
markets
ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic)

‫ذرة‬
‫ﺣﻜﻢ اﻷآﺜﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫وﺿﻊ اﻟﻘﻮاﻧﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺿﻴﻌﺔ إﻗﻄﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺼﻨﻊ‬
‫ﺗﺼﻨﻴﻊ‬
‫ﺧﺮاﺋﻂ‬
‫أﺳﻮاق‬
12

‫‪Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬
‫ﻣﺠﺎﻋﺔ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﻮﻳﻊ ﺟﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺷﻌﺐ اﻟﻤﺎﻳﺎ‬
‫ﻣﻴﺜﺎق ﺳﻔﻴﻨﺔ ﻣﺎﻳﻔﻼور‬
‫ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺿﺨﻤﺔ‬
‫ﻋﻀﻮ‬
‫أﺷﻴﺎء ﺗﺬآﺎرﻳﺔ )ﻧُﺼﺐ‪ ،‬ﻋﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﺣﻔﻞ(‬
‫ﺗﺎﺟﺮ‬
‫ﺧﻄﻮط اﻟﻄﻮل‬
‫اﻟﻮﺳﻂ اﻟﻐﺮﺑﻲ‬
‫ﻧﺰوح‬
‫ﻧﺰوح‪ /‬هﺠﺮة‬
‫اﻷﻟﻔﻴﺔ‬
‫أﻟﻔﻴﺎت )ﺣﺴﺎب اﻟﺰﻣﻦ ﺑﺂﻻف اﻟﺴﻨﻮات(‬
‫ﺗﻨﺠﻴﻢ‪ ،‬ﺗﻌﺪﻳﻦ‬
‫اﺣﺘﺮام ﺣﻘﻮق اﻷﻗﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻴﻠﻴﺸﻴﺎ‪ ،‬أﻓﺮاد ﻣﺴﺘﻌﺪون ﻟﻠﻘﺘﺎل ﻗﺒﻞ اﻟﺜﻮرة اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ وﺧﻼﻟﻬﺎ‬
‫ﻧﻬﺮ اﻟﻤﺴﻴﺴﺒّﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺤﺪﻳﺚ‬
‫ﻋﺪّل‪ ،‬ﻏﻴّﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺎل‬
‫ﺷﻬﻮر‬
‫ﻧﺼﺐ ﺗﺬآﺎري‬
‫ﺁﺛﺎر‪ ،‬ﻣﺂﺛﺮ‬
‫دواﻋﻲ‪ ،‬أﺳﺒﺎب‪ ،‬دواﻓﻊ‬
‫ﺣﺮآﺔ اﻷﺷﺨﺎص واﻟﺒﻀﺎﺋﻊ‬
‫ﻣﺘﻌﺪد اﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺎت‬
‫ﻧﻔﺴﻲ‪ ،‬أﻧﺎ ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺎ‬
‫أﺳﺎﻃﻴﺮ‪ ،‬ﺧﺮاﻓﺎت‬

‫‪ENGLISH‬‬
‫‪mass starvation‬‬
‫‪Mayas‬‬
‫‪Mayflower Compact‬‬
‫‪megalopolis‬‬
‫‪member‬‬
‫‪memorials‬‬
‫‪merchant‬‬
‫‪meridians‬‬
‫‪midwest‬‬
‫‪migration‬‬
‫‪migration/immigration‬‬
‫‪millenium‬‬
‫‪millennia‬‬
‫‪mining‬‬
‫‪minority rights, respect for‬‬
‫‪minutemen‬‬
‫‪Mississippi River‬‬
‫‪modernization‬‬
‫‪modify‬‬
‫‪monarchy‬‬
‫‪money‬‬
‫‪months‬‬
‫‪monument‬‬
‫‪monuments‬‬
‫‪motives‬‬
‫‪movement of people and goods‬‬
‫‪multicultural‬‬
‫‪myself‬‬
‫‪myths‬‬
‫‪N‬‬

‫اﺗﻔﺎق اﻟﺘﺠﺎرة اﻟﺤﺮة ﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ اﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
‫وﻃﻦ‪ ،‬أﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﺪ‬
‫وﻃﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺎت ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺴﺘﻮى اﻟﻮﻃﻨﻲ‬
‫اﻟﺪّوﻟﺔ اﻷﻣّﺔ‬
‫هﻨﺪي أﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺸﻌﻮب اﻷﺻﻠﻴﺔ‬
‫هﻨﻮد أﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﻮن أﺻﻠﻴﻮن‬
‫‪13‬‬

‫‪NAFTA‬‬
‫‪nation‬‬
‫‪national‬‬
‫‪national level of governments‬‬
‫‪nation-state‬‬
‫‪Native American Indian‬‬
‫‪Native American Indians‬‬
‫)‪ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic‬‬

‫‪Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪ENGLISH‬‬
‫‪natural resources‬‬
‫‪near/far‬‬
‫‪needs‬‬
‫‪neighborhood‬‬
‫‪neutral‬‬
‫‪New Amsterdam‬‬
‫‪New Netherlands‬‬
‫‪northwest passage‬‬
‫‪now‬‬
‫‪nuclear family‬‬

‫ﻣﻮارد ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺮﻳﺐ‪ /‬ﺑﻌﻴﺪ‬
‫اﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎت‬
‫ﺟﻮار‪ ،‬ﺣﻲ‬
‫ﺣﻴﺎدي‬
‫اﺳﻢ أﻃﻠﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻃﻨﺔ هﻮﻟﻨﺪﻳﺔ هﻲ اﻵن ﻣﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﻧﻴﻮﻳﻮرك‬
‫هﻮﻟﻨﺪة اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪة )اﻷراﺿﻲ اﻟﻬﻮﻟﻨﺪﻳﺔ ﺑﺄﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ اﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ(‬
‫اﻟﻤﻤﺮ اﻟﺸﻤﺎﻟﻲ اﻟﻐﺮﺑﻲ‬
‫اﻵن‬
‫اﻷﺳﺮة اﻟﻨﻮوﻳﺔ‬
‫‪O‬‬

‫‪OAS‬‬
‫‪objects‬‬
‫‪oceans‬‬
‫‪oligarchy‬‬
‫‪opportunity cost‬‬
‫‪oral history‬‬
‫‪others‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ اﻟﺪول اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫أﺷﻴﺎء‬
‫ﻣﺤﻴﻄﺎت‬
‫ﺣﻜﻢ اﻟﻘﻠـّﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻜﻠﻔﺔ اﻟﺒﺪﻳﻠﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ ﺷﻔﻬﻲ‬
‫اﻵﺧﺮون‪ ،‬اﻟﻐﻴﺮ‬
‫‪P‬‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮازي‬
‫ﻣﺘﻮازﻳﺎت‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺎﺋﺮ‬
‫واﻟﺪ)ة(‬
‫ﺑﺮﻟﻤﺎن‬
‫ﻣﻬﺎرات اﻟﻤﺸﺎرآﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‪ /‬اﻟﺤﺎﺿﺮ‬
‫وﻃﻨﻲ‬
‫وﻃﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫وﻃﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫وﻃﻨﻴﻮن‬
‫إﻗﻄﺎﻋﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺿﻴﻌﺔ إﻗﻄﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻧﺎس‪ ،‬أﺷﺨﺎص‪ ،‬ﺷﻌﺐ‬
‫ﺷﺨﺺ‬
‫وﺟﻬﺎت ﻧﻈﺮ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﻈﻮرات‬
‫ﺑﻴﺘﺮ ﺳﺘﺎﻳﻔﻴﺴﺎﻧﺖ هﻮ ﺁﺧﺮ ﺣﻜﺎم ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻃﻨﺔ هﻮﻟﻨﺪا اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺪة‬
‫اﻟﺘﻤﺎس‬
‫‪14‬‬

‫‪parallel‬‬
‫‪parallels‬‬
‫‪parent‬‬
‫‪Parliament‬‬
‫‪participatory skills‬‬
‫‪past‬‬
‫‪past/present‬‬
‫‪patriot‬‬
‫‪patriotism‬‬
‫‪patriotisms‬‬
‫‪patriots‬‬
‫‪patroon‬‬
‫‪people‬‬
‫‪person‬‬
‫‪perspectives‬‬
‫‪Peter Stuyvesant‬‬
‫‪petition‬‬
‫)‪ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic‬‬

Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary

ENGLISH
physical
physical characteristics
physical environment
physical feature
physical features
physical map
physical setting
physical systems
places
plan
pledge
Pledge of Allegiance
points of view
political
political boundaries
political map
political party
political power
political systems
pollution
population
population density
population distribution
population movement - rural to urban to
suburban - 20th century
power
practices
prairies
Preamble to the Constitution
present
president
Prime Meridian
Prime Minister
principles of democracy
problem solving
problems
producers
ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic)

ARABIC
‫ ﺑﺪﻧﻲ‬،‫ ﻣﺎدي‬،‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬
‫ ﺑﺪﻧﻴﺔ‬،‫ ﻣﺎدﻳﺔ‬،‫ﺧﻮاص ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﻴﺌﺔ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ ﺑﺪﻧﻴﺔ‬،‫ﻣﻴﺰة ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ ﻣﻮاﺻﻔﺎت ﻓﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬،‫ﻣﻼﻣﺢ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺤﻴﻂ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‬
‫ أﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬،‫أﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﻓﻴﺰﻳﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫أﻣﺎآﻦ‬
‫ﺧﻄﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻬّﺪ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻬّﺪ اﻟﻮﻻء‬
‫وﺟﻬﺎت ﻧﻈﺮ‬
‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺪود ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺣﺰب ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫ﻗﻮة ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫أﻧﻈﻤﺔ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻠﻮّث‬
‫اﻟﺴﻜﺎن‬
‫آﺜﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﺴﻜﺎن‬
‫ﺗﻮزﻳﻊ اﻟﺴﻜﺎن‬
‫ﺣﺮآﺔ اﻟﺴﻜﺎن – ﻣﻦ اﻟﺮﻳﻒ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺛﻢ إﻟﻰ ﺿﻮاﺣﻲ اﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫– اﻟﻘﺮن اﻟﻌﺸﺮﻳﻦ‬
‫ ﻗﻮة‬،‫ﻗﺪرة‬
‫ﻣﻤﺎرﺳﺎت‬
‫ رﻳﺎض‬،‫ﻣُﺮوج‬
‫ﺗﻮﻃﺌﺔ أو اﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ ﻟﻠﺪﺳﺘﻮر‬
‫اﻟﺤﺎﺿﺮ‬
‫رﺋﻴﺲ‬
‫ﺧﻂ اﻟﻄﻮل اﻟﺮﺋﻴﺴﻲ‬
‫رﺋﻴﺲ اﻟﻮزراء‬
‫ﻣﺒﺎدئ اﻟﺪﻳﻤﻮﻗﺮاﻃﻴﺔ‬
‫ إﻳﺠﺎد اﻟﺤﻠﻮل‬،‫ﺣﻞ اﻟﻤﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ ﻣﺸﺎآﻞ‬،‫ﻣﺴﺎﺋﻞ‬
‫ﻣُﻨﺘﺠﻮن‬
15

Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary

ENGLISH
production
productivity
products
profit
projects
property
protect
protests
province
public benefit
public education
purpose of government
pursuit of happiness

ARABIC
‫إﻧﺘﺎج‬
‫إﻧﺘﺎﺟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺘﺠﺎت‬
‫رﺑﺢ‬
‫ﻣﺸﺎرﻳﻊ‬
‫ﻣﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻳﺤﻤﻲ‬
‫ﺣﺮآﺎت اﺣﺘﺠﺎج‬
‫ ﻣﻘﺎﻃﻌﺔ‬،‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﻔﻌﺔ ﻋﺎﻣّﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻌﻠﻴﻢ ﻋﺎ ّم‬
‫اﻟﻐﺮض ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺴﻌﻲ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺴﻌﺎدة‬

Q
quantities

‫آﻤﻴﺎت‬
R

race
radios
railroad
rain forest
raw material
reason
receipts
recycling
reference books
reform
region
regions
relationships
relief (physical) map
religion
religious
renewable resource
repeal
representation
representative
ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic)

‫ ﺗﺮاآﺾ‬،‫ ﺳﺒﺎق‬،‫ﺟﻨﺲ‬
‫ إذاﻋﺎت‬،‫ﺑﺚ إذاﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺳﻜﺔ ﺣﺪﻳﺪ‬
‫ﻏﺎﺑﺔ اﺳﺘﻮاﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻮاد ﺧﺎم‬
‫ ﻣﻨﻄﻖ‬،‫ﺳﺒﺐ‬
‫إﻳﺼﺎﻻت‬
‫إﻋﺎدة ﺗﺪوﻳﺮ اﻟﻨﻔﺎﻳﺎت‬
‫ﻣَﺮاﺟﻊ‬
‫إﺻﻼح‬
‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬
‫ﻋﻼﻗﺎت‬
(‫ﺧﺮﻳﻄﺔ ﺗﻀﺎرﻳﺲ )ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻴﺔ‬
‫ دﻳﺎﻧﺔ‬،‫دﻳﻦ‬
‫دﻳﻨﻲ‬
‫ﻣﻮرد ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻟﻠﺘﺠﺪّد‬
‫ إﺑﻄﺎل‬،‫ إﻟﻐﺎء‬،‫ﻓﺴﺦ‬
‫ﺗﻤﺜﻴﻞ‬
‫ ﻣﻤﺜﻞ‬،‫ﻧﺎﺋﺐ‬
16

Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary

ENGLISH
representatives
republic
Republican Party
reservation
resources
respect
responsibilities
revolution
Richard Nicholls
rights
Robert Fulton
role
roles
roles of citizens
roots of American culture
rules
rural
rural to urban to suburban migration

ARABIC
‫ ﻧﺎﺋﺒﻮن‬،‫ﻣﻤﺜﻠﻮن ﻋﻦ‬
‫ﺟﻤﻬﻮرﻳﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺤﺰب اﻟﺠﻤﻬﻮري‬
‫ﻣﺤﻤﻴّﺔ‬
‫ﻣﻮارد‬
‫اﺣﺘﺮام‬
‫ﻣﺴﺆوﻟﻴﺎت‬
‫ﺛﻮرة‬
‫رﻳﺘﺸﺎرد ﻧﻴﻜﻮﻟﺲ‬
‫ﺣﻘﻮق‬
‫روﺑﺮت ﻓﻮﻟﺘﻮن هﻮ ﻣﺨﺘﺮع أﻣﺮﻳﻜﻲ ﻃﻮّر أول ﺑﺎﺧﺮة ﺑﺨﺎرﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﺠﺎرﻳﺔ‬
‫دور‬
‫ ﻣﻬﺎم‬،‫أدوار‬
‫ﻣﻬﺎم اﻟﻤﻮاﻃﻨﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺟﺬور اﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﺔ اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻗﻮاﻋﺪ‬
‫رﻳﻔﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻨﺰوح ﻣﻦ اﻟﺮﻳﻒ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ ﺛﻢ إﻟﻰ ﺿﻮاﺣﻲ اﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬

S
sachem
safeguarding individual liberties
safety
same/different
satellite-produced images
satisfy
scale
scarce resources
scarcity
school
science and technology
scientific/technological exchanges and
connections
seaways
secondary source
security
self
ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic)

‫زﻋﻴﻢ ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺤﺎﻓﻈﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺤﺮﻳﺎت اﻟﻔﺮدﻳﺔ‬
‫ ﺳﻼﻣﺔ‬،‫أﻣﻦ‬
‫ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬/‫ﻣﻤﺎﺛﻞ‬
‫ﺻﻮر ﻋﺒﺮ اﻷﻗﻤﺎر اﻻﺻﻄﻨﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫ ﻳﺴُﺮ‬،‫ﻳُﺮﺿﻲ‬
‫ ﻣﻴﺰان‬،‫ﻣﻘﻴﺎس‬
‫ ﺿﺌﻴﻠﺔ‬،‫ هﺰﻳﻠﺔ‬،‫ﻣﻮارد ﺷﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬
‫ ﻧﺪرة‬،‫ﻗﻠـّﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺪرﺳﺔ‬
‫اﻟﻌﻠﻮم واﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬
‫اﻟﺘﺒﺎدﻻت واﻻرﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎت اﻟﻌﻠﻤﻴﺔ واﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻃﺮق ﺑﺤﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺼﺪر ﺛﺎﻧﻮي‬
‫أﻣﻦ‬
‫ اﻟﺬات‬،‫اﻟﻨﻔﺲ‬
17

Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary

ENGLISH
selling
Senate of the United States
separatists
services
settle
settlement
settlements
settler
shape
shelter
similarities/differences
slave
slave trade
slavery
social
social/cultural changes and connections
socialism
societies
society
solutions
solving problems
songs
Sons of Liberty
South America
Spanish colonies
spatial organization
speeches
standard of living
stars and stripes
state
state government
Statue of Liberty
steamboat
steamboats
stock market
stories
ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic)

ARABIC
‫ﺑﻴﻊ‬
‫ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺷﻴﻮخ اﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎت اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪة‬
‫اﻧﻔﺼﺎﻟﻴﻮن‬
‫ﺧﺪﻣﺎت‬
‫ اﺳﺘﻮﻃﻦ‬،‫اﺳﺘﻘﺮ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻃﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮﻃﻨﺎت‬
‫ﻣُﺴﺘﻮﻃﻦ‬
‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬
‫ﻣﺄوى‬
‫ أوﺟﻪ اﻻﺧﺘﻼف‬/‫أوﺟﻪ اﻟﺘﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬
‫ﻋﺒﺪ‬
‫ﺗﺠﺎرة اﻟﺮﻗﻴﻖ‬
‫ اﻟﻌﺒﻮدﻳﺔ‬،‫اﻟﺮق‬
‫اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻲ‬
‫ﺛﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ‬/‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮات وارﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎت اﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻻﺷﺘﺮاآﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻌﺎت‬
‫ﻣﺠﺘﻤﻊ‬
‫ﺣﻠﻮل‬
‫ﺣﻞ اﻟﻤﺸﺎآﻞ‬
‫أﻏﺎن‬
‫ ﻣﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﺳﺮﻳﺔ ﺿﺪ اﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﺧﻼل‬:"‫"أﺑﻨﺎء اﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺜﻮرة اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫أﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ اﻟﺠﻨﻮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻌﻤﺮات إﺳﺒﺎﻧﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻨﻈﻴﻢ اﻟﻔﻀﺎﺋﻲ‬
‫ﺧﻄﺐ‬
‫ﻣﺴﺘﻮى اﻟﻤﻌﻴﺸﺔ‬
‫آﻨﺎﻳﺔ ﻟﻌﻠﻢ اﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎت اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪة اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫وﻻﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ اﻟﻮﻻﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺗﻤﺜﺎل اﻟﺤﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﻣﺮآﺐ ﺑﺨﺎري‬
‫ﻣﺮاآﺐ ﺑﺨﺎرﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺳﻮق اﻷﺳﻬﻢ‬
‫ﻗﺼﺺ‬
18

Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary

ENGLISH
strategy
strengths
strike
student rights
suburban
suburbs
subways
suffrage
supply and demand
supply and demand 4 symbols
Supreme Court
surplus
symbolize
symbols
systems

ARABIC
‫إﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ‬
‫ ﻧﻘﺎط اﻟﻘﻮة‬،‫ﻣﻮاﻃﻦ اﻟﻘﻮة‬
‫إﺿﺮاب‬
‫ﺣﻘﻮق اﻟﺘﻠﻤﻴﺬ‬
‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﻀﻮاﺣﻲ اﻟﻤﺪﻳﻨﺔ‬
‫ﺿﻮاﺣﻲ‬
‫ اﻟﻤﺘﺮو‬،‫ﻗﻄﺎرات اﻷﻧﻔﺎق‬
‫اﻗﺘﺮاع‬
‫اﻟﻌﺮض واﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬
‫اﻟﺮﻣﻮز اﻷرﺑﻌﺔ ﻟﻠﻌﺮض واﻟﻄﻠﺐ‬
‫اﻟﻤﺤﻜﻤﺔ اﻟﻌﻠﻴﺎ‬
‫ﻓﺎﺋﺾ‬
‫ﻳﺮﻣﺰ‬
‫رﻣﻮز‬
‫أﻧﻈﻤﺔ‬

T
tables
tariff
tax
taxes
teach
teacher
technological
technologies - exchanges of
technology
telegraph
television
tenant farmer
themes
then/now
time
time zones
timeline
today
tolerance
tomorrow
tools
ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic)

‫ ﻗﻮاﺋﻢ‬،‫ﺟﺪاول‬
‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻔﺔ ﺟﻤﺮآﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺿﺮﻳﺒﺔ‬
‫ﺿﺮاﺋﺐ‬
‫ درّس‬،ّ‫ﻋﻠﻢ‬
‫ ﻣﺪرس‬،‫ﻣﻌﻠﻢ‬
‫ﺗﻘﻨﻲ‬
‫ﺗﺒﺎدل اﻟﺘﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬
‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮﺟﻴﺎ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻠﻐﺮاف‬
‫ﺗﻠﻔﺰﻳﻮن‬
‫ﻣﺰارع ﻣﺴﺘﺄﺟﺮ‬
‫ﻣﻮاﺿﻴﻊ‬
‫ اﻵن‬/‫ﺁﻧﺬاك‬
‫ زﻣﻦ‬،‫وﻗﺖ‬
‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ زﻣﻨﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺧﻂ زﻣﻨﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻴﻮم‬
‫ﺗﺴﺎﻣﺢ‬
‫ﻏﺪًا‬
‫أدوات‬
19

Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary

ENGLISH
towpath
trade
traditions
traffic lights
trains
traitor
transmit
transportation
transportation revolution
treaty
trends
tribe
tributaries
Tropic of Capricorn
Tropic of Cancer
trucks
truth
tundra
turning points
turnpike

ARABIC
‫ﻣﻤﺸﻰ أو ﻣﻤﺮ ﻳﻤﺘﺪ ﺑﻤﺤﺎذاة ﻧﻬﺮ ﻟﺠﺮ اﻟﻘﻮارب‬
‫ﺗﺠﺎرة‬
‫ﺗﻘﺎﻟﻴﺪ‬
‫أﺿﻮاء ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ ﺣﺮآﺔ اﻟﺴﻴﺮ‬
‫ﻗﻄﺎرات‬
‫ﺧﺎﺋﻦ‬
‫ ﻧﻘﻞ‬،‫ إرﺳﺎل‬،‫ﺑﺚ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻞ‬
‫ﺛﻮرة اﻟﻨﻘﻞ واﻟﻤﻮاﺻﻼت‬
‫ﻣﻌﺎهﺪة‬
‫اﺗﺠﺎهﺎت‬
‫ﻗﺒﻴﻠﺔ‬
‫رواﻓﺪ‬
‫ﻣﺪار اﻟﺴﺮﻃﺎن‬
‫ﻣﺪار اﻟﺠﺪي‬
‫ﺷﺎﺣﻨﺎت‬
‫ﺣﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬
(‫اﻟﺘﻨﺪرا )ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻗﺎﺣﻠﺔ ﺑﺴﺒﺐ اﻧﺨﻔﺎض درﺟﺎت اﻟﺤﺮارة‬
‫ﻧﻘﺎط ﺗﺤﻮل‬
‫ﺑﻮاﺑﺔ‬

U
unify
unions
unique
unite
United Nations
United States of America
unlimited
unlimited needs and wants
up/down
urban
urbanization
uses of geography

‫وﺣّﺪ‬
‫ﻧﻘﺎﺑﺎت‬
‫ ﻻ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﻟﻪ‬،‫ﻓﺮﻳﺪ‬
‫اﺗّﺤﺪـ ﺗﺂﻟﻒ‬
‫هﻴﺌﺔ اﻷﻣﻢ اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪة‬
‫اﻟﻮﻻﻳﺎت اﻟﻤﺘﺤﺪة اﻷﻣﺮﻳﻜﻴﺔ‬
‫ﺑﺪون ﺣﺪود‬
‫اﺣﺘﻴﺎﺟﺎت ورﻏﺒﺎت ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺤﺪودة‬
‫ أﺳﻔﻞ‬/‫أﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫ ﻣﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﺔ‬،‫ﺣﻀﺮي‬
‫ ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ‬،‫ ﺗﻤﺪﻳﻦ‬،‫ﺣﻀﺮﻧﺔ‬
‫اﺳﺘﺨﺪاﻣﺎت اﻟﺠﻐﺮاﻓﻴﺎ‬

V
values
veteran
ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic)

‫ﻗﻴﻢ‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻗﺪاﻣﻰ اﻟﻤﺤﺎرﺑﻴﻦ‬
20

‫‪Elementary-Level Social Studies Glossary‬‬

‫‪ARABIC‬‬

‫‪ENGLISH‬‬
‫‪veto‬‬
‫‪village‬‬
‫‪vote‬‬
‫‪voting‬‬

‫ﻧﻘﺾ‬
‫ﻗﺮﻳﺔ‬
‫ﺻﻮت‬
‫اﻗﺘﺮاع‬
‫‪W‬‬
‫وﻣﺒﻮم )ﺧﺮز ﺻﺪﻓﻲ أﺑﻴﺾ اﺳﺘﺨﺪﻣﻪ هﻨﻮد أﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ اﻷﺻﻠﻴﻮن(‬
‫ﺣﺎﺟﺎت‪ ،‬اﻓﺘﻘﺎر‬
‫ﺣﺮب‬
‫اﺳﺘﺮاﺗﻴﺠﻴﺔ ﺣﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
‫آﺜﻞ ﻣﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫ﻧﻘﻂ اﻟﻀﻌﻒ‬
‫أﺳﺒﻮع‬
‫اﻟﻨﺼﻒ اﻟﻐﺮﺑﻲ ﻟﻠﻜﺮة اﻷرﺿﻴﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺘﻮﺳّﻊ ﻓﻲ اﺗﺠﺎﻩ اﻟﻐﺮب‬
‫وﻳﻐﻮام )ﺑﻴﺖ ﻋﺸﺎﺋﺮي ﻟﻬﻨﻮد أﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ اﻷﺻﻠﻴﻴﻦ(‬
‫ﻋﻤﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﻬﻨﺔ‬
‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬
‫اﻟﺒﻨﻚ اﻟﺪوﻟﻲ‬
‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ ﺣﺴﺐ ﻣﻘﺎﻳﻴﺲ ﻓﻀﺎﺋﻴﺔ‬
‫آﺘﺎﺑﺎت‬

‫‪wampum‬‬
‫‪wants‬‬
‫‪war‬‬
‫‪war strategy‬‬
‫‪water masses‬‬
‫‪weaknesses‬‬
‫‪week‬‬
‫‪Western Hemisphere‬‬
‫‪westward expansion‬‬
‫‪wigwam‬‬
‫‪work‬‬
‫‪worker‬‬
‫‪world bank‬‬
‫‪world in spatial terms‬‬
‫‪writings‬‬
‫‪Y‬‬

‫ﻋﺎم‪ ،‬ﺳﻨﺔ‬
‫أﻣﺲ‬

‫‪21‬‬

‫‪year‬‬
‫‪yesterday‬‬

‫)‪ALBETAC 2007-2008, T*I-8497 (Arabic‬‬

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