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THREE SPECIMENS Eighteenth century COURT TRAIN OF IRISH POINT BLACK CHANTILLY FAN MOUNT Nineteenth century Made for of Queen Mary England " Wisdom with periwigs." —Uuiihras IKE 'rius. figures and scrolls upon a cobweb of threads. 3. a sort of atmosphere that makes the beholder think instinctively of the personages who owned it and of the brilliant scenes amid which it was worn. for rich lace belongs to the class of heirlooms." Connoisseur "To know the age and pedigrees Of points of Flanders and Venise. or counterpane LACE AND LACE MAKING By ESTHER SINGLETON MENTOR GRAVURES VENETIAN RAISED POINT Chalice Veil. a Guarneor an Amati. and to these we must go. laws regulating private expenditure) and contemporary documents. N. Artistic lace. old violins. 1913. 1917 A CARICATURE IN LACE— ITALIAN. sumptuary laws {i. 1S79. old romantic fancy. Courage with swords. Duchess of Milan (Este a famous old princely Itahan family). 1650 MENTOR GRAVURES PILLOW AND BOBBINS MECHLIN Greatly magnified POINT D'ALENQON VALENCIENNES. e.making-:w-as Italy. under the act of March by The Mentor Association. When the Sforza (sfort-sah) property was divided in 1493 the inventory of Beatrice d'Este (dess-te). was first made in the sixteenth century. Mechlin and Honiton carry us farther than a Stradivarius. th^^home of lace-. with designs of flowers. with cassocks grace. Y. 1917. in addition to its intrinsic beauty.THE MENTOR • DEPARTMENT OF FINE ARTS MAY 1. Inc.. lace gains. Alencon. In common with many other beautiful arts. The first portraits in which lacejjccurs are of the earlj/^Florentine School. Brussels. It xeached perfection in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Treasured from generation to generation. at the postoffice at New York. valance. &5 we do to in^ntories. lace makes a direct appeal to the But Venetian. — Entered as second-class matter March 10. SIXTEENTH CENTURY A strip used for curtain. . Copyright. gentility with lace. gives a list of fine laces that fell to her share. for knowledge of ancient lace.

to describe braid. Patterns gradually became (got'-tee-co) . or Gotico A Guipure (gee-pure') is another name for it. button-holed over and having little spiky knots at regular intervals. which says " The men sat at home spinning and working of lace." "points" and "cut-work. or silver. or passement." It was a cord or braid. the lacis to embraid.. from the French dent. dentelle. and to trim large ruffs France (1547-1559) . silk.LACE AND LACE MAKING EARLY SIXTEENTH CENTURY GERMAN LACIS. Passament dentele (toothed. braid." The earliest open-worked lace is Reticella (ret-tee-chel'-lah) . SEVENTEENTH CENTURY in the inventory of Henri II of Used for collars and cuffs. for the open-worked and decorative adornment that we call lace. which Marguerite. In old days Guipure was used to define a gold.«obs(1555). The "tape guipures" of Italy and Flanders were famous. Skelton(i46o-I529). The word lace appears in the Bible.* was described in the reign of James I as "purls. tooth) occurs ITALIAN POINT. France. Guipure is applied to all large patterned laces with coarse grounds. brings us a little nearer to the French word for lace. as tories of passament. His line is "The sampler to sew on. Needlepoint It is stiff. sister of Franfois II. open-worked patterns and a spiky edge. descriptive adjective usually tells if it is made of gold. Early Reticellas were made of stiff threads. . and which have no brides (breed) (or joinings of threads from pattern to pattern) and no delicate reseau (ray-so. with geometrical •Perhaps the first application of the word lace to describe that open-worked fabric of linen with inwrought or applied patterns occurs in Watreman's Fordie f o<. OR DARNED NETTING Representing the story of David and Goliath Lace appears in the old invenFrance and England. We see it in nearly all the early Italian and Flemish portraits. or linen threads. meaning network). owned in 1545. worn only by the rich and on the livery of the king's servants. Black silk guipure was made chiefly at Le Puy (leh pwee). The word lacis (lah-see) was used by the poet. in company with braid and gimp. but the fine dentelle (dahn-tell) de Florence. silver. but the translators used the word to define braid.

It was very popular in Italy. with few changes. and joined. religious or secular. "Cutwork" was made for three centuries. Lacis was made in long strips. Lacis lent itself to all kinds of designs. Catherine de' Medici (deh may'-dee-chee) had a bed draped with such squares. and other household decoration. "Cut-work. darned netting. The home of this lace was the Ionian Islands. SEVENTEENTH The kind CENTURY that appears as the collar in the portraits of Marie de' Medici HONITON Tradition says that the worlier was paid as many shillings as would cover the lace ." The pattern is simply darned with the needle upon a plain ground of coarse net.LACE AND LACE MAKING more ornate: circles. Siena was so famous for it that one of its names is "Siena Point. as anyone can see who examines the lace collars and cuffs in the portraits of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. poetically ITALIAN POINT. Its effect is the same as the geometric needlepoint lace. or " spi- derwork" is known today a. but its manufacture spread from Italy throughout Europe.^ filet (fee-lay). triangles and so. a most celebrated designer. The exquisite Point Lace. Her inventory gives 381 unmounted squares in one coffer and 533 in another. Lacis seems to have been an old art before Vinciola (vin-chee-o'-la)." or drawn-thread work. its elegance harmonizing with the splendid costumes of the Renaissance. Lacis (lah-see). She kept her handmaidens busy making them. It was much used for table-cloths. was also a name for Reticella. Whence Came Lace? In the sixteenth century a new type of lace became popular. published his book of patterns in Venice in 1587. Lacis was sometimes combined with Reticella. wheels. or in separate squares. from small squares with simple patterns to large ones with intricate pictures. The old patterns were handed down for generations.forth were systematically arranged. bed-hangings. as is shown in the pattern-book of Isabella Catanea Parasole (1616).

no matter whether the maker uses her needle. and is called Pillow Lace. The first is made with the needle. was developed in Venice. may have been derived from the Saracens of Sicily. and Egyptian discoveries yield nothing but drawn-work. as we say. a maiden who challenged the goddess Athene to a contest in weaving and was changed by Athene into a spider 4 . solid part of the pattern. The home of diaphanous lace is still a mystery. which Arachne* herself its ful cannot imitate? Antiquaries have ITALIAN POINT sought in vain for its Made in the Tyrol about 1650 origin. a stitch. The name Pillow Lace is unfortunate. This still further confuses the classification of lace. also came from Eastern sources. but Pillow laces. or simply Point. Punto di Milano (poon-toe dee mee-lah-no) and Honiton (hon-ee-ton) Point. moreover. In early days its patterns show affinity with the arabesques of Persian ornament. Its French name is Point cT aiguille (pwan dagwee). in Greek legend. That the darned netting (lacis) has a Byzantine appearance nobody will deny. Whence came this exquisite art. the second is made with bobbins on a pillow. which are not Point laces at all. or simply knots the threads with her fingers. The ground is either a network of — M *Arachne was. cut-work and embroidery in the way of artistic manipulation of threads. Point Lace gets its name from the French point (pwan). and the ground-work should both be examined through a magnifying glass. In order to determine to which class any specimen belongs.? Lace. and is called Needlepoint. because lace of all kinds is supported on a pillow while being made. The name has been given to some laces to denote superiority of workmanship. damascened metal and richly-colored ceramics. Point Lace and Pillow Lace There are only two kinds of hand-made lace: Point Lace and Pillow Lace.LACE AND LACE MAKING called Punto in aria (stitch in the air). the point of the needle needlepoint. literally. Point de Valenciennes (pwan deh val-lon'-see-enn). the Ionian Islands or Constantinople. with motives of gracescrolls and lovelyflowers. as in the case of Point cTAngleterre (pwan dongletare). But it was perfected in the city that "held the gorgeous East in fee. as they are made with bobbins. Lace seems to have been unknown to the Far East. plies the bobbins. like intarsid (or Inlaid work of bone and ebony)." May we not believe that lace. Point de alines (pwan deh mah-leen). the toile (twah-lay). or from the Greeks of the Morea.

16 to 36 are patterns stars. The edge of the pattern is also sometimes decorated with these picot tips. Bobaltogether different. called brides. Pillow Lace is divided into. as was natural. more pr^less at right angles. with small open spaces left in the patterns. In some laces the ground consists of both reseau and brides. A LACE NET. called reseau. there is but one kind of stitch in all varieties of Point Lace. or plaited. or two threads.. The brides consist of twisted. The brides are frequently tipped here and there with little spikes. or it consists of slender threads. wheels. Brussels Pillow {Point d^Angleterre) and Honiton. Nos. Sometimes the needle is twisted twice in each stitch to keep the mesh open. threads and the picots of single loops. No matter how intricate the pattern and no matter from what country the specimen comes. with denticulate edges. like Jthe threads of woven materials. or loosely worked. which connect the different parts of the patterns. 2 and 3 are Venetian and heavy Genoa Bobbin. This lace was suited for boot-tops. a characteristic. etc. because Genoa workers were taken to Malta in 1833. closely \Yorked. It did not go out of fashion until 1660. more properly. (or. When reseau (network) is used for the background. used for decorative fillings 1. garters. or ties. In Point Lace the solid parts are always made of rows of looped stitches. great deal pf the lace that we see in the portraits of this period is the coarse Nos. shoeroses. 4 EUl^^Jjace is bin Lace) While Venice continued to make and export magnificent Point. — The "wJieatgEaiii"* orna- fk.LACE AND LACE MAKING fine threads. Nos. collars and cuffs and' scarfs.-€f^ mentation v^Vi^' . fastened across the patterns. and these brides are closely button-holed over. . to start the lace industry there. To this class belong Punto di Milano. 4 to 15 are various kinds of nets. The picot ornamentation is also button-holed over. OR RESEAU stitches. (2) The pattern and the reseau (network) are made in one piece on the pillow. Genoa and Milan did a large trade in Pillow Lace. called picots (pee-co). This stitch is the familiafToope37oF'^T)utton-hole" stitch. or knots. is * This is also a characteristic of Maltese lace. circles. the meshes are made of loosely looped stitches. The toile is_compQsed_pf threads that cross each^ other. two classes (i) The pattern is worked firston~the pillow and the reseau (network) filled in afterwards. lattice worlc. When brides are used they are made of one thread. Centuries ago our English ancestors called Pillow Lace "Bone-lace" (Sir Thomas More went to his execution in a ruff trimmed with Bone-lace).

and we see the lace-makers busy in the sunshine with their pillows and bobbins. . In England. The wife of the Doge Grimaldi. In England it was long called "Nun's work. persecutions and conquests shifted people of all classes from country to country. Lace It in the Sixteenth Century until the sixteenth century that lace-making became a lay industry. bringing their patterns and methods with them." taught the making of bobbin laces to every country of northern Europe. it ' Wars. vision that the illuminated manuscripts. was not an exception. completed and some women founded workshops and schools.-Elemish refugees into England and France. Devonshire. In 1564 a colony of lace-makers settled -^n Honiton. scattered by the "Spanish Fury. ^. the Fleming "TroUe Kant" became known as trolly lace. her laceworkers. __^ Flanders disputes with Italy the invention of both needlepoint and bobbin lace as hotly as she disputes the art of writing madrigals. learned the work from a Fleming. The bloody sword of Alva sent thousands of. Barbara Uttmann. .^^ frcqucutly figures in the advertisCmCUtS in American UCWSpaperS. who set up a workshop in Venice and employed 130 women at her own expense. It was much worn in the eighteenth century." Pale sisters toiled over needles was not and bobbins in the convents with the same patience and eyes trained to minute monks used for their PILLOW WITH BOBBINS Throughout Showing on a strip of Pillow Lace nearly Europe lace was made in wealthy homes." gains in picturesqueness.LACE AND LACE MAKING because the bobbins were made of When we remember "Twelfth Night": "The spinsters this. No wonder then that Honiton Point closely resembles an open kind of Belgian lace of which large " sprigsjl are characteristic.' But whether she stands first or not with regard to this invention. BEADED PINS Used in outlining the pattern in Pillow Lace the trolly being a thick outlining cord. who introduced the making of bobbin lace into Germany. or cordonnet (core-don'-nay) Trolly lace was quite expensive. bone. For instance. the line in and the knitters in the sun And the free maids that weave their threads with bone.

'' with the nasal ' 7 . But it was Colbert^(coll-bare). Preferring the Netherlands to the foreign country over which he ruled. The so-called "tape" Seventeenth century." However. Brussels. Conde's sister. ence F. Those who spent the most money for lace purchased "Venetian Points. had brought lace-makers to variety * English pronunciation "gent. even so. at that time. Pattern-books of importance were now published. Spanish. a native~oF Ghent." brought from Italy by Marie de' Medici. He published a number of pattern books in Paris. he carried as much of their atmosphere as he could into Spain. Furniture-makers. Charles V. interchange of styles between Spain and the Netherlands. these were followed by small turned down collars made entirely of lace.. ConsequentTy there was an. and the Duchesse ITALIAN PILLOW (OR BOBBIN) de Longueville (doo-shess deh long-veel). Vinciola. Lace began to be used on everything.Next came the tall fan-shaped "Medici Collar. then in the province of Hainault (ay'-no). who was appointed patternmaker for laces and needlework to the court. lace-makers and other artisans were transported in large numbers.LACE AND LACE MAKING Antwerp (with its pot of flowers) and Mechlin were all imitated in England in the sixteenth century. known and The Lace Industry in France \ Catherine de' Medici set the fashion for lace She brought in her suite from Florin France. ten years before Colbert said this Le Puy (leh pwee) had become a center for lace-making. chiefly for needlepoint and darned net. _A great deal of fine lace went to Spain from Flanders. painters. especially as an edging to the frilled ruffs that men and women both wore.. He said: "Fashion should be to France what the mines of Peru were to Spain. claimed the lace of Lille (resembling Mechlin) and also that of Valenciennes. tapestry-weavers. In the last days of Henri IV (1589-1610) ruffs VENETIAN ROSE POINT gave place to turned over collars of linen The most complicated of laces edged with lace.* commanded lace making to be taught in all the Belgian schools. During the reign of Henri III (1574-1589) lace began to be more important." with the V hard "g. Louis XIV's prime ministeiywho made French lace an item of trade. for. but.' French pronunciation *'gahn. the French trade was not large. workers were in return sent to the Low Countries. engravers. Belgium." Cardinal Mazarin (maz'-za-rehn) tried to suppress the importation of foreign laces and to improve the home manufactures by introducing patterns from Italy. in the sixteenth century Flanders was a part of the Spanish domain.

Rembrandt. for Point lace had never before been grounded on net. . taken from angle to angle. Other work- shops were founded in Le Quesnoy. and costume- use has been made of lace at all periods. Colbert now established his famous school near Alen^on. An idea of the minuteness of the work can be formed from the fact that a side of the hexagon would be overcast with some nine or ten button-hole stitches. Rubens and Van Dyck. This was a novelty. Rheims. is about one-sixth of an inch. prints. hexagon. Lace was always considered by the fashionable world the most exquisite of adornments. and exactly such lace is seen in the portraits by Porbus. Any properly constituted "blood" of the period would have returned from the how much pigs and husks for such an inducement. How human eyes and human fingers can produce this is a marvel. swift strokes of his magic brush. and each side of the hexagon is about one-tenth of an inch. realize portraits. It is not by accident.LACE AND LACE MAKING Qiantilly (shon-tee-yee). collars and cuffs. Coques. that an engraving called "The Prodigal Son. was at Fashions in Lace Those who have made a study of old plates. MILAN PILLOW (OR BOBBIN) With many ornamental stitches a bewildering array of laceand of furbelows and fineries made of lace comes to memory as we think of the "Fashion Parade" of the past! Here they come: great circu- What trimmed articles lar ruffs. in an Alencon. represents the richly dressed mother holding out to her repentant child a large collar trimmed with splendid lace. imitated from the bobbin network ground of Flemish lace. or so-called Argentan. Arras. This was just the kind of collar that Frans Hals loved to paint with sure. falling collars. Point d''Alengon (pwan dal-lon'-sohn) or ^^ WHITE SILK SPANISH LACE Nineteenth century Point de France'''' first an exact imitation of Venetian Poini. a celebrated French engraver of the seventeenth century. but soon the clever French invented a beautiful reseau (network) of needlework. taught by lace-makers from Venice. Sedan and Argentan. nor in satire. Paris." by Abraham Bosse. for an authority tells us: "The average size of a diagonal.

Showing floral designs to know esting to how ferociously — it is inter- remember that when Cromwell's body lay in state it was draped with the most splendid Flemish Point. shawls.. hand a lace-trimmed handkerchief. fans. So she wore higher ruffs than anybody in the world except the Queen of Navarre. shoe-roses." much of which was made by the Flemish refugees in Dover and Honiton. scarfs. These ruffs required much lace. flounces. " lappets. Twenty-five yards of Bone-lace were necessary to trim one of those huge filmy butterflies rising above her head." "Brussels-heads. Where should we begin a short survey of artistic lace where should we end ? When we remember the hundreds of portraits in European galleries showing the subject holding in his. berthes. Cinq-Mars BLACK cHANTiLLY LACE SHAWL The kind our grandmothers used to (.S40. and of many patterns. 124 for a gravure picture of Queen Elizabeth in the court costume here referred 9 . lace-trimmed boots. the hand itself framed by a cuff of lace. handkerchiefs. parasols in all styles and shapes. or transparent lawn. aprons. and the style helped her hide it. shirts. The Queen had a yellow neck. or her. cravats. s draw through a wedding-ring to prove its delicacy WHO dlcd to. — — — although much "Bone-lace" and Spanish lace were worn. barbes. pearls. The enormous ruff tipped with lace that came Into fashion about I. lacetrimmed. an K. Her court followed her taste. we are fain to believe that the artists loved to paint lace as much as their sitters loved to wear it. Gallants even filled their wide boot-tops with rich ruffles. Though the Puritans frowned on lace we may read Stubbs' history — BRUSSELS POINT FAN MOUNT Nineteenth century. wrist-ruffles. garters.n. lace and golden threads.. but not so much as those that Queen Elizabeth wore. and which in England was called the "French ruff" and in France the "English monster.i ahr) in *See Mentor No. caps. masks. three-tiered "commodes.* Her spjecial taste was for the laces of Flanders and the "cutworks" and "points" of Italy." was edged in England with "Bone lace. textures and weaves. _ In the reign of Charles II. The latter Katherine of Aragon had introduced. falbalas.LACE AND LACE MAKING Medici ruffs. the English court wore lace in profusion. and she piled finery on them ^jewels.

wishing to protect English lace.LACE AND LACE MAKING The demand 1642. refused to carvc thc " Roast Beef of Old England" for the satirists.590). who wrote home in MECHLIN The pattern and network are made at the 1695: "Venetian Point is no longer in fashsame time on the pillow ion." Nevertheless. in "sprigs" and patterns resembling the kind of Belgian lace we now call Duchesse (also a Pillow Lace). To the Siamese ambassadors the King gave in 1685 cravats and ruffles of "French Point. they say. but the fair ladies. The Queen's lace bill for one year was £1. But the wealthy English would have their rich Flemish lace. This is corroborated by the Venetian ambassador to the English court. smuggled it into England and sold it as "Point d'Angleterre. passed an act prohibiting all importations." If we may credit VENETIAN RAISED POINT lace was worn in "High Life Below Stairs". of England. the belles filled their long "pagoda sleeves" with Mechlin." This lace was Brussels Point. At the King's fete at Marly (1679) when the ladies retired at sunset to dress for the ball. Queen Anne's list of laces mentions Brussels and Mechlin. were as wildly excited over lace as over china. cared still more for china. . but in Flanders. a good deal of " English Point" (which is not Point but Pillow) was made at Honiton by the descendants of Alva's refugees. for. lappets. each found in her room a dress trimmed with exquisite Point.918 (^9. which you know is not made here. At this periodJLouis XIV was proudly buying Alencon and Argentan. Every gentleman now had at least two Point Lace cravats. William's was three times as much. but that called English Point. who seem to have run every mania into the ground. butlers. However. Brussels and Honiton. and the beaux concealed love letters in their "weeping ruffles. though fond of their lace." or "English Point. and only bears the name English Point to distinguish it from the others. and to supply them the merchants bought lace in Belgium." William and Mary. left three hundred lace-trimmed boots for Flemish Point in England occasioned smuggling on a large scale. commodes. and the loosely twisted Steenkirks that were named from the battle of Steenkirk (1692)." Under that name it often went to France. This was the age of lace ruffles. and Parliament. "The women exchanged their Flanders Point for punch bowls and mandarins. if we may believe Addison.

In 1789 the States General. (^40. in the middle of the century. Londoners and Americans all had their black lace shawls. in arranging the costume of the Tiers hat (tee-yares zay-tah). parasols. and had her wedding dress. (fee-shoo) of which she was so fond. The French Revolution killed lace for a time. Queen Adelaide had a splendid dress of Honiton. ANTICHE TRINE ITALIANE By Elisa SEVEN CENTURIES OF LACE By Mrs. M. too. for Beau Nash tore off the Duchess of Queensbury's apron at Bath. This was of Point d'Alenqon. and the well-dressed Parisians. In the nineteenth century England began to patronize her own industries. There were "summer" laces and "winter" laces. Mrs. Nevill Jackson OLD LACE By M. The most splendid lace dress of the period became hers in 1859. exclaiming as he did so that "none but Abigails appeared in white aprons. The lovely soft XV "blonde" came in fashion in 1745 and increased in popularity when Marie She used it for the fichu Antoinette appeared in the French Court.*» Information concerning the above books and Ricci Pollen may be had on application to the Editor II .000). ly made of "Honiton sprigs. barbes. aprons came up in favor. But if ruffles descended.LACE AND LACE MAKING fear of spoiling the ruffles they. Napoleon. John Hungerford articles HAND-MADE LACE By Mrs. Jourdain EMBROIDERY AND LACE By Ernest Lefebure . E. Queen Victoria followed her example." In the days of Louis France subjected lace to strict etiquette.000 francs In later years the Empress gave it to Pope Leo XIII. Clifford POINT AND PILLOW LACE By A. R. the Empress Eugenie made lace popular. who was a great lover of lace. As was natural.ooo) and was of the richest Point. which cost two hundred guineas (^i." In 1840 there was a rage for Chantilly black lace shawls. and many lace-makers were guillotined because of their association with aristocratic dress. ordered the nobility to wear a lace cravat. Napoleon III bought it for 200. fans and "sacques. veils and parasol covers." SUPPLEMENTARY READING A HISTORY OF LACE By Revised by M. and loved thq deep flounces that one still sees in Spain. S. Bury Paliser Jourdain and Alice Dryden THE LACE DICTIONARY By C.000 (^5. which cost £1. wore at their wrists. Our great-grandmothers were able to buy POINT D'ALENgON importations in the New York shops. she favored her own Spanish lace. The chain pattern outlining the scallops Again. F. They were soon dismissed again. Eugenie also made black lace popular again.000). He gave many orders for lace with new patterns in which the Bonaparte bees were generally present. made the wearing of the Alen9on and Brussels obligatory at Court.

" writes one of our members.'' Please tell me about the Holy Picture. On the back of this picture is a description of the Peacock Throne. we are glad to tell you. We frequently have important subjects that demand special treatment in these monographs. "Dear — Why gravure picture describes the subject of the picture. have write to us. In most cases in The Mentor. I think it would be well to call attention to the fact that The Mentor Service is a great time-saver. do you not always do so. In the case of a good picture. but I like to know and I am very 'material. about all • • • another answer to the question. We link two things together an important story that has no picture. I know that you think size is very 'material' and has little to do with art. or a program for a reading club.' " Louisa Brent. there is no descriptive matter. picture of Queen Elizabeth is an interesting one. and about which. the 'monograph' on the back of a and so tantalizing. and in the case of a poor picture. This was done because the size of a Miniature is one of its interesting features. and especially its size.' Even the grim world of Shades will lose its terrors for me if I may 'make and measure it. makes clear what it Picture is a beau- tiful curiosity — a sacred picture composed stated in there is to entirely of gems. In most cases the size of a painting is neither important nor interesting. We stated the dimensions of the original pictures in the case of the gravure reproductions of Miniatures in Mentor No. We get many letters daily from people asking questions on subjects in the various fields of knowledge. The Thibetan Holy however. the bigger it is the greater the offense. That is fact is the title. and of the jewels she wears. I would like a full description of this costume.THE OPEN LETTER Editor: The Mentors are so delightful For instance. and we can help you." — are sufficiently explained in their titles. 123. helped others. Our "Gem" number would not have been complete without the story of the famous Diamond Necklace or without an account of the Peacock Throne. We ^^tog^ Editor . size does not count. But there are no authentic pictures of these — two subjects. and an interesting picture that has no descriptive story and we give our readers the benefit of both. And. "I had no idea that you took so much trouble. The picture is I43^xi2j<4 inches. and we have a staff of no less than twelve who devote time specially to replying to these inquiries. If you are really inter- — —rather apolo- edge. That The is. but no descriptive matter concerning the costume can be found. There are many interesting and beautiful pictures about which very little is known there are others that ested in knowing it. We give the dimensions of pictures where there is a good and sufficient reason for doing so. again. So we print these stories on the backs of pictures that have selfexplanatory titles. Those that take advantage of this service value it. Don't apologize. • • • Just a word about Mentor Service. tial • • • Our correspondent asks getically for the size of the Holy Picture. but it is not possible to do so in every case. It certainly has little to do with its art value. If we printed in The Mentor the responses of interest that we supply in one week. I don't think that some of our readers appreciate what it really means. Most people would prefer to write to The Mentor and have you dig out of the mine of the world's knowledge just what they want to know. "I want to express my appreciation of the comprehensive manner in which you answered me. It saves them time and trouble. As a rule we print on the back of a gravure picture a description of that particular subject. The essen- — • • • not try The Mentor Service you who have not written to us? If you want to know further about subjects covered in The Mentor. or want assistance in a course of reading. the material would fill fifty Mentors. there is a picture of Queen Elizabeth in her court costume. or want to have a question answered in the various fields of knowl. title. There is so much that the 'man of the street' has no time to read. and that say concerning it. in the 'Precious Gems'^which is a gem in itself there is a Thibetan Holy Picture made of gems. and no pictures to go is There with them. — Why — thing is to give Mentor readers the greatest amount of interesting information possible within the limits of each number.

scriptive name of Poirtt de neige (pwan deh nayzh) (Snow-flake Lace) had been given. No. produced in France in in-itation of Venetian Raised Point. or Point de. The brides are important or cordonnet. or cloudy the brides seem to wander at will appearance. The manufacture of this Grounded Point lasted in Burano (Venice) till the beginIt ning of the nineteenth century.LACE AND LACE MAKING ONE Venetian Point HE richest and most beautiful of all laces is Venetian Point. INC. SERIAL No. The terms brides and picots are or other flowers. The most superb and the most complicated of all Point Lace is Venetian Raised Point. or Point de Venise a reseau (including Puntodi Bur ano) (poon'-toedeeboo-rah'-no). for with a button-hole stitch was not followed at Burano. «. (the thread that out- which is button-holed over. in the general design and are tipped with outline of the pattern. It has never been produced anywhere but on the shores of the Adriatic.VTOR ASSOCIATION ILLUSTRATION FOR THE MENTOR. but is merely stitched down round the more abundant. After Point d'Alenpon appeared. 1917. smaller. which was a new idea for Point lace. and horsehair the unevenness of the thread gives Burano rSseau a somewhat streaked. the Venetians. It was inspired by the Point d'Alenfon. Venetian Grounded Point. The raised moreover. Venetian Flat Point is distinguished by the absence of the raised thread. is usually of lilies. according to legend. . The artistic patterns consist of around the branching foliage. and to the picots little whirls and rosettes are added. BY THE MENTOR ASSOCIATION. (2) Venetian Flat Point and (3 ) Venetian Grounded Point. generally in the form of a shallow scallop Rose Point differs little from Venetian Raised Point. and the edge of the lace is defined in the main article in this number. brides play a more important part in the design. famous Coralline Point. This lace is very beautiful. patterns are. was revived in 1872 under the patronage of the King and Queen of Italy. snowy effect of Venetian Rose Point the decordonnet. however. the enriching picots are that forms part of the design. with picots. Venise i rSseau. originated with a lace-worker of The Alengon way outline of covering a Venice who took for her design the net of her fisherman lover in which a piece of sea-weed was entangled. imitated the net ground The pattern. Colbert. fantastic flowers by the enterprise of Louis 3tl V's great minister. The Burano makers copied the late Alengon patterns. hoping to win back the trade that they had lost opening from rich foli^e and scrolls in the splendid Renaissance way. . VOL. of which there are three well-defined kinds: (i) Venetian Raised Point {Gros Point de Venise) (grow pwan deh vay-neez') and Rose Point. Because of the whirling. which. The. The general effect of Coralline Point is a tangle. The patterns are connected by brides. PREPARED BV THE EDITORIAL SIWVFK OF THE ME. The old Burano laces were a coarser outcome of the Point de Venise i reseau. has a net background. Burano mesh is rounder than Alengon. The mesh in Burano resedit is square (as the cordonnet is (like Alengon) and of the spiky picots. as the name shows. though lacking in clear outlines. and the brides are often tipped large. A variety of this is the Brussels needlepoint) stitched around the outline. 5. The is cor- donnet of Venetian Grounded Point not outlined in button-hole (as in Alengon). of the French. To these magnificent and delicate laces the poetic in the air) name of Punio in Aria (stitch was given to distinguish them from older forms. which differs from the ordinary needle point in high relief by means of a padded cordonnet lines the pattern). is edged with innumerable loops. 130 COPYRIGHT.



PREPARED BY THE EDITORIAL STAFF OF THE MENTOR ASSOCIATION ILLUSTRATION FOR THE MENTOR." The name lasted as a "winter lace. smaller and more delicate.LACE AND LACE MAKING -THREE Point (TAlenqon OINT D'ALENgON Lace. and. 5. BY THE MENTOR ASSOCIATION. only to be appreciated by the use of a Napoleon III bought for the Empress Eugenie in 1859 at the Exposition. being worked (with button-holed stitches) over horsehair. employed than that made use of in Italy. is firmer and heavier than that of any other lace. other characteristic (cirdonnel) the thick outline which. The designs are in is the same style and the workmanship extremely beautiful. de Point d'Alenfon is usually r^arded France. The Empress Eugenie gave it to Pope LeoXIII.000 francs (S40/XX)). brides became closer and more regular in srrangement. in France. but by degrees. ." or sptinkling. Its marvelous delicacy. finer thread was troduced. is He. the needlework riseau (ground) was invented in imitation of the pillow laces of the neighboring used in combination with flowers. ter. 130 COPYRIGHT. who wore it as a rochet (a garment similar to a surplice. At present the finest Point d'Alenfon at is made Bayeux (by-yuh). was of this lace. 6. VOL. established a number of schools." issued It has been called the "Queen of was first made in 1665. home. hoping to keep the magnifying-glass. is still The "powdering. among which was one near Alengon. therefore. No. 1917. In the days of Louis XVI. sprigs and insects. where lace was soon produced in By exact imitation of Venetian Point. when many lace-workers were because of their association with the aristocracy and production of such an aristocratic adornment. bees were inguillotined called and produced in Alengon from the Venetian Point. They Thereupon money Colbert. as greater freedom was very wisely allowed to the workers. SERIAL No. the King's prime minis- decided to improve the native laces and to at make them An- fashionable. is a characteristic. tears. the riseau was sprinkled with spots. and in Burano.' An now finest authority says: "It is impossible to distinguish the earliest lace so The factory became extinct during the Revolution. The magnificent Flemish provinces. 6nal1y. and we see attained perfection the style of lace in now known as Point d' Alengon. for which he paid 200. INC. but with closer sleeves or without dress that sleeves). near Venice. a new and separate style The patterns became developed itself. Revived in Napoleon's day. Italian lace. Louis XIV had laws forbidding courtiers extravagant sums to be for spent by his paid no heed." glorious Stupendous prices were paid for this lace. royal decree it was called till "Point 1690.

.. K><>. "^^. 1 'vi KX. >*.: ^.XH-^ a.5^ V wasj^sSi w^ w ^- ^^ r" .

the meshes are circular. usually floral. is a net made of tiny six-pointed The patterns of the earliest Mechlin lace resemble those of Brussels. Open spaces filled in with brides often used." The genuine Mechlin Point (not a needlepoint but a pillow lace). and also the Chantilly back ground known as T^orui Chitit (fohn-shahn). Mechlin finest was A four-petaled flower as a filling Antwerp thread was used. hexagonal.LACE AND LACE MAKING FOUR Mechlin ALINES Malines is the French its consequently lace name for Belgian Mechlin. INC. PREPARED BY THE EDITORIAL STAFF OF THE MENTOR ASSOCIATION ILLUSTRATION FOR THE MENTOR. VOL. BY THE MENTOR ASSOCIATION. became fash(mah-leen') ionable in England at the end of the seven- and Queen Anne purchased Mechlin was also a large amounts of it. 5. in the other. and two kinds of riseau are used. . so fashionable in the lace early nineteenth century. The Mechlin produced a style of its own. 1917. meaning snowy background. The Fond de neige (fon deh nayzh). but they are heavier. lin dresses J partridge eye. meaning Connoisseurs rank Mechlin very high. and the riseau (network) is Mechlin is also sometimes grounded on an ornamental riseau." and was much used to trim the filmy Indian musteenth century. The rose and carnation are the favorite flowers. It is great favorite of Queen Charlotte. The for the spaces in the scrolls is teristic of one charac- Mechlin. which stars. Before 1665 nearly all the lace made in Flanders was called " Malines. 110 COPYRIGHT. The ground and pattern are worked together. (u [as in urn]-ee' deh pare-dree). or spots. is sprinkled with small flowers. SERIAL No. always costly. regarded as a "summer lace. in one. also the Oeilde Perdrix give this exquisite lace a charming delicacy. called Point to define its quality. pattern. No. forms the edge of the lace. «. is known as both Point de Mechlin.


(true Valenciennes). on account of the number of bobbins required. The riseau (network) is fine and compact. con- From 1725 to 1780 there were from 3. SERIAL No.000 lace-workers in the town. fell tre- with the mon. INC. however. PREPARED BY THE EDITORIAL STAFF OF THE MENTOR ASSOCIATION ILLUSTRATION FOR THE MENTOR. pattern usually worked with a scalloped border. Bruges (broo'-jiz). cravats. toiii duced "fausse Valenciennes' ciennes). was sold for a targe price. where they made what the trade called "vraie Valenciennes" tributed the Fond de neige (snowy background) to the world of lace-workers. Menin (may-nan). fichus (fee'-shoo). Valenciennes was the most expensive of all pillow lace to make. Many went blind before they reached the age of thirty.' It was used chiefly for ruffles. fled many lace- workers (al-lost). was begun at Valenciennes when the town belonged . Ypres (eepr). or feather. or anemones) resemble cambric in tfexture Valenciennes was not regarded as a '^denlelle de grande toiletle" (lace for full dress). Its peculiarity is the absence of any cordonnel. stitches. negligis (neg'-lee-zhay) The earliest Valenciennes designs con- and scrolls in thick. according to tradition. It is made in one piece. It was considered a great triumph when a whole piece of lace could be worked "all by the same hand". 130 COPYRIGHT. to make a pair of sleeve ruffles for a man. Le Quesnoy. . containing a or petal.LACE AND LACE MAKING FIVE Valenciennes T is said that bobbin lace in the fifteenth century. earning only a few pennies a day. leaf. It was. into Belgium. It took one sist of flowers and trimmings. The Valenciennes The dotted or is "j«»i^"(seh-may'). iris. Nor was it a "Church lace. working fifteen hours a day. but the Valenciennes supposed to have been developed from the lace factory founded by Colbert in the neighboring The latter drops from town of Le Quesnoy (leh kay-nwah) to Flemish Hainault (ay'-no) that we know is . mi?. VOL. notice as Valenciennes comes into favor.000 to 4. carnations. mendously popular. Valenciennes is the most beautiful of all while the suburbs and vicinity (false pro- French pillow laces. The riseau of every town was distinctive. barbes. close Minute circles form the reseau. Valen- the same threads forming (twah-lay) and reseau. B. and the flowers (tulips. No. BV THE MENTOR ASSOCIATION. The lace-workers sat from four in the morning till eight at night in cellars. and Alost worker ten months. and its Courtrai (coor-tray) became centers for manufacture. of the present day is not so elaborate or fine as old Valenciennes. After the Revolution. S. Valenciennes lace archy. and such a piece Ghent (gahn).


and two transparent paper. No. Carrickmacross is distinguished by a pattern cut in cambric and applied on a Other schools arose in various parts of the net ground. There are more than five million and a quarter stitches in it and nearly twelve miles of the finest linen thread.it exactly. The lace is composed of thread so fine that it was scarcely visible in the hands of the workers. 8. coarse linen thread is "'couched" to the has a reputation for needlepoint in the style of the seventeenth century. transferred to is into the left-hand comer— "YOUGHAL. Youghal. The school continued to prosper and to this day turns out exquisThe design stiff is first were busy upon it for six months. 1917. and it The name drawn This is in general out- where 1911. VOL. tried to think of some way by which she could alleviate the awful misery of the poor people. of the place The sias design consists principally of fuchroses. INC. to fill The worker then proceeds them to the outlining in the design with various lace stitches. worn at the subsequent ceremonies of the Durbar at Delhi. Couiity Cork. who soon became very profi- Linen thread of varying fineness is used. She then tried to remake the lace and found to her great joy that she could reproduce. The first centers were Limerick and Carrickmacross. country. She immediately taught it to a number of young girls. Limerick lace is a tambour embroidered on net. ite lace. Sixty workers starving people. . in the very finest ment refused to help the starving people. SERIAL No. and this Irish Point Lace industry has an interestIn 1847. work the meshes are so small that they cannot be counted. The money earned was a great boon to the cient. Youghal (Yawl).LACE AND LACE MAKING Court Train of Irish Point Lace SIX A. PREPARED BY THE EDITORIAL STAKF OF THE MENTOR ASSOCIATION ILLUSTRATION FOR THE MENTOR. was not it fin- ished in time for the ceremony. attaching threads only. Ireland.CE began to be a particular industry in Ireland in 1829 and 1830. BY THE MENTOR ASSOCIATION. the gift of the ladies of Belfast. The illustration shows the magnificent court train of Irish Point Lace that was made for Queen Mary of England on the It occasion of her coronation. out the stitches to learn the process by which the lace was made. but was With these girls the good nun formed a regular school of lace-making. S. 13U COPYRIGHT. She had in her possession a piece of foreign lace made in Slowly and carefully she picked Italy. The transfer then tacked very carefully to thick white cotton material. when famine was ing history. raging in Ireland and the English Govern- foundation. a nun in the Presentation Convent. Over the outUnes a rather The train is four yards long yards wide at the bottom.'' was made and the date are worked line on paper.

75. 42. Moffat. management. 29. 00. 18. hold stock and securities in. Famous American Women Painters . 21. New York. in cases where the stockholder or security holder appears upon the books of the Company as trustee or in any other fiduciary relation. 33. 71. 120. or other securities. S. 52 East 19th Street. 48. also that the said two paragraphs contain statements embracing affiant's full knowledge and belief as to the circumstances and conditions under which stockholders and security hold'^ra who do not appear upon the books of the Company as trustees. 41. N. 88. New York: Managing Editor. 60. 01. having been duly sworn according to law. TEN EYCKl SECRETARY. SCIENCE. 74. 37 Wall Street. 1917. VICE-PRESIDENT. 44. 117. SUBSCRIPTION. personally appeared Thomas H. 1912. Thomas H. 59. are: None. THE MENTOR ASSOCIATION. 04. 72. Heppenheimer. 46. 107. 79. Eddy. Mount Vernon. Japan 111. New York. Queens County. INC. 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