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Physical Formats: analog audio: CD HD-CD VHS,SVHS,super8,LP,EP,analog tape

44.1khz,16bit, stereo, pro-logic 4ch surround encoding possible? high definition compatible digital - 20bit(4 extra), backwards compatible with CD (also higher quality decoder chip(200MIPS) for regular CD's) DTS CD 5.1 surround SA-CD super audio CD, 109min(2ch), 60-70min (2ch+5.1ch), 1-bit Direct Stream Digital up to 100kHz bandwidth SA-CD discs are DVD discs in that they use the same sector size, error correction and modulation as DVD discs and the same file system (UDF plus ISO 9660) 8.5 GB audio dual layer single layer: sacd dual layer: long play sacd hybrid: 2 layer: 1. normal CD 2. hi-res stereo + 5.1 surround DVD-A readable in dvd player 44.1/48/88.2/96/ 176.4/192 khz sample rate 16/20/24 bits per channel channels: 6 (@ 96 kHz) or 2 (@ 176.4/192 kHz) 8.5 GB A/V dual layer, encoding: PCM/MLP, 2 ch 44.1kHz 16 bits MLP encoding dual layer = 23.6 hours! DualDisc (also known as DVDPlus) adds CD playability to a DVD-Audio disc, providing high quality surround sound, multimedia features and CD compatiblity 4.7 GB A/V single layer, encoding: PCM/MLP video: VCD mpeg,DIVx Playing time 74 minutes, MPEG-1 encoded video, 352 x 240 at 30 fps (NTSC) or 352 x 280 at 25 fps (PAL/SECAM) Audio: MPEG-1 stereo and optional CD audio tracks, Stills: MPEG-1 at up to 720 x 480/576 (can be used for menus) Playlists for predetermined video/still/audio sequences, Entry points: Up to 98 entry points per track (500 total per disc) SVCD 35-70min, MPEG-2, 2.6 Mbps average VBR video, 480 x 480 (NTSC) 480 x 576 (PAL/SECAM) 2 streams MPEG-1 stereo VBR optional 5.1 channel audio XVCD/XSVCD same as above but possible to use higher bitrates and higher resolution DVD MPEG-2 encoding, 133 minutes single layer, 8 audio language tracks, 9 camera angles AUDIO: surround : dolby digital,DTS HD-DVD high density DVD, HD DVD-ROM: pre-recorded, 15 GB per layer, 30 GB per side or 60 GB per disc HD DVD-RW: 20 GB per side BD-ROM/BD-R/BD-RW/BD-DL 25 GB per layer, 50 GB dual layer Surround Sound Formats: 'virtual' simulated surround sound in stereo - based on the fact the ear can detect the difference in front and back sounds, through frequency and delay time

dolby pro logic - from stero signal, 4 channel output, rear is encoded L-R, center is encoded L+R dolby digital 5.1 - 6 channel, L,C,R, 2 rear DTS Digital Theater Systems 5.1 - same as above, DTS 6.1 channel audio - + rear center 7.1 - 8 channel, same as 5.1 plus left center, right center 7.1 - same as 5.1 plus left side, right side THX, 10.1, and 12.2 - ?, proposed? 12.2 - mine: 5 front, 2 subs, back R/L/C, above: front,back,right,left 22.2 - 3 rows.... Universal Formats: MPEG-4 audio/video/systems standard: 1.Speech: CELP and HVXC techniques for low-bitrate speech coding 2.General Audio: Perceptual high-quality coding(inc. AAC &TwinVQ) 3.Structured Audio: Flexible, high-quality, low-bitrate audio synthesis(public domain) 4.Text-to-Speech Interface: A standard for sending synthetic speech also post-production,synchronization,mixing of audio in MPEG-4 Systems standard(AudioBIFS(public domain)),management of intellectual property rights. Video Formats: indeo intel 4:2:0 IYUV microsoft

NTSC/PAL cinepak uncompressed divx discontinued dvd encoding format (older versions) based on the MPEG-4 compression standard. can reduce an MPEG-2 video to 10% Video Filetypes: windows media V8 .wmv , .asf V9 "," audio/video interleave .avi mpeg 1 video .mpg , .mpeg , .mp1 mpeg 1 stream split ? mpeg 2 video .mpg , .mpeg , .mp2 mpeg 4 video .mpg , .mpeg , .mp4 targa .tga IFF anim .anim DV stream .dv quicktime .mov , .qt realmedia .rm , .ram free audio lossless codec .flac 3GPP .3gp or .sdv (small screens, low bit rates, and only a few codecs) Templates/Resolution:

H.261 H.263 RLE video 1 DV standard/widescreen

NTSC 29.97fps

DV 720x480 standard 720x486 square pixel 640x480 crop 704x480 video CD (VCD)352x240 DV, standard square VCD 720x576 768x576 352x288



SMPTE: drop/non-drop smpte 30 EBU film sync 16mm 35mm Frame Rates: NTSC PAL film multimedia Audio Filetypes: full 29.97 25 24 15 half 14.985 12.5 12 29.97 30 25 24 40 frames/foot 16 frames/foot


mpeg 1 layer 2 .mp1 , .mp2 ? mpeg 1 layer 3 .mp3 5.1 mpeg 2 layer 3 .mp3 MPEG-Multichannel does not only support 5.1 audio, but also 7.1 audio Layer I - low complexity, good for consumer recording Layer II- high efficiency with medium complexity, good for professional recording and for broadcast Layer III- high complexity and high efficiency, suitable for very low bit-rates application mpeg 4 audio .mp4 ? AAC .aac advanced audio encoding, for mpeg-2, 48+16sub oggvorbis .ogg uncompressed wav .wav 2 windows media .wma ? yamaha twinVQ .vqf ? (Transform-domain Weighted Interleave Vector Quantization) Other Encoding Types: Dolby Digital AC-3 (Audio Code number 3)(includes information about room size and differences in dB between channel levels)(32 to 640 kbps)(can carry pro logic signal on front 2 channels) DSD 1-bit Direct Stream Digital 2.8224MHz

PCM pulse code modulation MLP Meridian Lossless Packing MP3 (file format & decoding spec) -> FhG (Fraunhofer Gesellschaft) , huffman encoding = mpeg-1 layer3 or mpeg-2 layer3 (48khz)(5.1 channels)(CD-quality sound : 160256kbs or high VBR) Mpeg-2 AAC (Advanced Audio Coding)(superior to ac-3)(96khz) (channels: 48 full audio and 16 low frequency enhancement)(96 kb/s = layer-3 at 128 kb/s = layer-2 at 192 kb/s) (higher encoding times and playback cpu usage) MP3Pro/SBR (spectral band replication)(for low bit rates) TwinVQ (low to 96kbs bit rates)(used in mpeg-4 spec)(very slow encoding) (excellent quality at 96kbs)(stereo imaging problems) Sub Frequency Channel Cutoff: dolby pro/film DTS dolby consumer/DVD 120hz 116hz 80hz

notes: * DVD-Audio uses PCM at up to 96 kHz (192kHz for stereo) sample rate and up to 24 bits per sample. * SACD uses one-bit DSD (Direct Stream Digital) at a bit rate of 2.8224 Mb/s which is 64 times the CD sampling rate of 44.1 kHz. DSD is simpler than PCM and removes the need for steep decimation and interpolation filtering. But independent studies have concluded that DSD (also called 1-bit sigma delta) suffers from a number of problems that makes it unsuitable for archiving and, possibly, distribution. These problems include non-linearity and high frequency noise. DSD is also not easy to edit without converting to PCM. One conclusion is that DSD makes digital to analogue conversion easier and, in the past, cheaper, but PCM provides a more reliable and accurate representation of the music.

DVDPlus was introduced in Europe in 2001 to add a CD layer/side to a DVD disc. DVDPlus discs are 1.5 mm thick, the maximum specified for both CD and DVD discs. DVDPlus can contain any combination of DVD (-Video, -Audio and/or -ROM) with CD audio or CD-ROM. DualDisc was introduced on the US market in November 2004 and is physically identical to a DVDPlus, but contains the following data: * A single DVD layer containing high quality (PCM or MLP) music plus optional video etc. * A CD layer containing the same audio album as the DVD side, but in CD quality according to the Red Book. Each side of a DVD-Audio disc is called an Album. Each album can be subdivided into a maximum of 9 Groups, each Group into 99 Tracks and each track into 99 Indexes.

A DVD-Video disc is divided into Video Title Sets (or titles). As a minimum there will be one Video Manager (VMG) and one VTS. Each Video Title Set Information (VTSI) comprises control data and Video Objects (VOBs) for both menus (if present) and titles (stills and video). Each VOB (the fundamental file element of the disc) comprises video, audio, subpictures and navigation data. Video 1 9.8 Mb/s MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 video and video stills Audio up to 8 6.144 Mb/s Several audio formats for stereo & surround the overall maximum, including control information, being 10.08 Mb/s 720 pixels per horizontal line, 480-500 horizontal lines of resolution letterbox (16:9 video for 4:3 display) pan & scan (16:9 video for 4:3 display) full frame (4:3 video for 4:3 display) widescreen (16:9 video for 16:9 display) To illustrate the difference between Pan and Scan and Letterbox imagine yourself bringing a video camera to a theater to tape a movie. You have two options on how you can tape it: Pan & Scan To tape the movie, you would zoom your lens in so that the picture fills your viewfinder entirely. By zooming in the picture is larger, but you can't see the entire screen (it's wider than your camera's viewfinder). To compensate for this, you can move the camera back and forth, concentrating on where the action is. Letterbox To tape the movie, you would simply zoom your lens out so that you capture the entire picture within your viewfinder. By zooming out, you don't have to move the camera from side to side- all of the action is being recorded. The drawback is that the picture is smaller when compared to the Pan & Scan method. regions: 1: Canada, U.S., U.S. Territories 2: Japan, Europe, South Africa, Middle East 3: Southeast Asia, East Asia (including Hong Kong) 4: Australia, New Zealand, Pacific Islands, Central America, Mexico, South America, Caribbean 5: Former Soviet Union, Indian Subcontinent, Africa (also North Korea, Mongolia) 6: China DVD Audio Coding Formats Normally a compressed format will be used: Dolby Digital, MPEG-1 & MPEG-2, LPCM and DTS. Dolby Digital (formerly known as Dolby AC-3) 5.1-channel surround sound. The coding format is lossy so some of the original audio quality will be lost. Bit rates from 64kb/s (mono) to 448kb/s are available. Full 5.1 channel surround sound requires at least 384kb/s, but Dolby recommends using the maximum 448kb/s. Stereo audio is normally encoded at 192kb/s. DVD-Video players will output the 5.1 channel Dolby Digital (excluding the low frequency effects channel) to Dolby Surround (ProLogic) via the analogue stereo outputs for use where there is no Dolby Digital decoder. MPEG Audio - The MPEG video encoding formats include audio encoding, which uses lossy compression. * MPEG-2 5.1 or 7.1-channel surround sound CBR or VBR. CBR bit rates between 32kb/s and 912kb/s, 384kb/s being the average. The sampling rate is fixed at 48kHz. The 7.1 channel option adds left-centre and right centre speakers. * MPEG-1 layer II stereo audio, as used for Video CD. MPEG-1 can only be CBR with bit rates

up to 224 kb/s. Layer III, known as MP3, is not supported in the DVD standard but some players will play MP3 files. MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 audio coding are identical for stereo audio, so MPEG-2 audio is backward compatible with MPEG-1 decoders. LPCM Audio Linear PCM (LPCM) uncompressed audio format similar to CD audio, but with higher sampling frequencies and quantisations. LPCM up to 8 channels of 48kHz or 96kHz, 16, 20 or 24 bits per sample but not all at the same time. maximum bit rate is 6.144 Mb/s, which is much higher than Dolby Digital or MPEG-2 coding. LPCM offers high quality (similar to DVD-Audio) but its high data rate leaves little bandwidth for video. DTS DTS (Digital Theater Systems) Digital Surround 5.1 channel lossy compression, 48 kHz at up to 20 bits. data rate 64 kbps to 1.536 Mb/s, typical rates 768 and 1536 VCD: They contain MPEG-1 audio and video for mainly linear video applications. Video CDs are multitrack, CD-i Bridge discs designed also to play on CD-i players. MPEG-1 layer II stereo audio, can only be CBR with bit rates up to 224 kb/s. MPEG-1 is suitable only for standard definition TV (SDTV) or lower resolutions. There are two main SDTV formats, PAL/SECAM (625 line) and NTSC (525 line). NTSC stands for the National Television Systems Committee of the Electronic Industries Association (EIA), which prepared the TV standard for the USA, Canada, Japan, Central America, half of the Caribbean & half of South America. When referring to NTSC video what is normally meant is 525 line 30 Hz. The number of active display lines pre frame is 480. PAL (Phase Alternation Line) is the TV format used in most of Western Europe, Australia and other countries. When referring to PAL video, what is normally meant is 625 line 25 Hz video, since PAL only refers to the way colour signals are coded for broadcast purposes. The number of active display lines per frame is 576. SECAM ("SEquential Couleur A Memoire" or sequential colour with memory) is the TV format used in France, Eastern Europe and other countries. Like PAL, SECAM video means 625 line 25 Hz video. The number of active lines per frame is 576. All these TV systems use interlaced scanning, so that the odd lines and even lines are separated into odd and even fields making one frame. The frame rate is 25 or 30 frames per second, but the field rate is twice this, therefore reducing flicker. High Definition TV (HDTV) is defined as 720 lines or above. The two versions currently in use are 720p and 1080i. 720p comprises 720 display lines each of 1280 pixels using progressive scanning where all lines are displayed in sequence at 50 or 60 frames per second. 1080i comprises 1080 display lines each of 1920 pixels using interlaced scanning at 25 or 30 frames per second. YUV Y (or Luma)= 30% Red + 59% Green + 11% Blue Analog Luminance U (or Cb)=R-Y the red signal component minus the luminance V (or Cr)=B-Y the blue signal component minus the luminance XviD - ISO MPEG-4 compliant video codec. It's not a product but an open source project.