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check valves, flow control valves, its functions, operations and application. INTRODUCTION Check Valve: Check Valve allowed free flow in one direction. Pilot Operated Check Valve: Pilot Operated Check Valve allows reverse flow, when a pilot pressure signal is applied to the pilot port. Flow Control Valve: Serve to influence the speed of movement of users by restricting the oil flow.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. 2. Check Valve Pilot Operated Check Valve 2.1 With External Drain Port 2.2 With Internal Drain Port 3.0 Flow Control Valve 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 4.0 Throttle Valve. Double Throttle / Check Valve. Fine Throttle as Cartridge Unit. Flow Regulating Valve 2-Directional Flow Regulating Valve
Flow control valve fitment methods.
OBJECTIVES: To understand in depth the function and operations of (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Check valve Pilot operated check valve Throttle valve Flow control valve .
which is pushed on to the seat 3 in the housing by means of the spring 2. 3 bar is found suitable to limit the pressure reached due to contamination. and is generally between 0. A check valve without spring must always be fitted vertically. 1). The cracking pressure depends on the spring selected. for example. . The shut-off valves are designed as poppet valves and therefore provide leak free closure. depending on the application. When used as a by-pass valve to by-pass a return line filter. where the closing element is a poppet 1. When there is flow through the valve in the direction of the arrow. The mounting position for this valve is optional.1. They are designated as check valves. its compression and the pressurized poppet surface area. for example. Valves with a low cracking pressure are used at present to by-pass a throttle position in one direction.5 and 3 bar. since the spring always holds the closing element on the seat (fig. the poppet is lifted from its seat by the fluid pressure and allows free flow. shut-off valves serve to check flow in a preferred direction and allow free flow in the opposite direction. It should be mentioned that the closing element can also be a disc or. The closing element then remains on the seat in the no flow condition due to gravity. In the opposite direction. A ball or poppet is generally used as the closing element. the spring and the fluid push the poppet onto the seat and close the connection. cracking pressure of. The sectional diagram shows a simple check valve (as in the photo).0 CHECK VALVES Function In a hydraulic system. a hollow poppet.
000 1/min (at voil = 6 m/sec. It is used mainly in connection with flow control valves.) .5. 2 and 3.Important Technical Data Size Flow Operating pressure Cracking pressure 6 to 150 up to 15. 1.) up to 315 bar without spring: 0. With this circuit.5 or 3 bar The so-called “rectifier circuit” is achieved by corresponding arrangement and connection of 4 check valves. the fluid must flow through the valve in the same direction at forward flow (red) and return flow (green) (figs.
Pilot operated check valves .6) Control pressure required at port X: pSt = p1 A1 – P2 (A1 – A4) + C A3 The circuit shows that.1 Pilot operated check valve with external drain port The sectional diagram shows valve type SL. The annulus area of the control spool is separated from port A. The difference between valve type SV is the addition. Pressure at port A affects only surface A 4 of the control spool (fig.2. at drain port Y. part A is pressurized by a pre-switched throttle valve (fig.7) In this case.0 PILOT OPERATED CHECK VALVE 2. a pilot operated check valve with external drain port is necessary. with pilot operation. with drain port and pilot opening poppet.
Left: pilot operated check valve with threaded connections. for example: to seal working circuits under pressure as a protection against the load dropping. . Right: double throttle/check valve. The valves are used. pilot operated check valves can also be opened in the direction of closure. if a line should break against creep movements of hydraulically stressed users. sandwich plate design As opposed to the single check valves.
1 Pilot operated check valve with internal drain port The sectional diagram shows valve type SV.2. without drain port. Symbol for valve type SV A1 = main poppet surface area (cm 2) A3 = control spool surface area (cm 2) C = co-effection for spring and friction (bar) A K = piston surface area at cylinder (cm 2) A R = annulus area at cylinder (cm 2) F = load at cylinder (da N) A 2 = surface area of pilot unloading poppet . with opening poppet.
Required pilot pressure at port X: pSt = p1 Pressure at port B: p1 = (p. the pilot spool 4 is pushed to the right..The following circuit diagram shows once again the conditions given for control pressure in the equation (fig. There are therefore no switching oscillations.5) It also shows that valve port A must be without pressure for pilot operation. Oil can now flow through the valve from B to A also. There is free flow in direction A to B. Ak AR +F ) AR A1 + C A3 .4). Pressure at port A would work against control pressure at the control spool. A certain minimum pilot pressure is required. from B to A the main poppet 1 with pilot poppet 2 is held on its seat by system pressure in addition to the spring 3 (fig. so that the valve can also be safely controlled by means of the control spool. The pilot spool causes a cushioned decompression release of the fluid under pressure. Firstly the pilot poppet 2 and then the main poppet 1 are thus pushed from their seats. When pressure affects control port X.
the flow remains constant. but independent of viscosity 3) independent of pressure. but viscosity related 4) independent of pressure and viscosity 3.3. Stepless speed control is thus possible. independent of the pressure drop at the flow control valve. flow control valves throttle valves Flow at the Throttle Positions The flow at a throttle position is calculated according to the equation: Q A p a p = flow = throttle sectional area = pressure loss (pressure drop between A and B) = flow coefficient = density = resistance coefficient = throttle range v V dH = viscosity = flow speed = hydraulic diameter = 4 A (throttle section) U (flow path) . the flow changes according to the pressure drop at the throttle position. Flow Control Valves While the flow restriction remains the same.0 FLOW CONTROL VALVES Flow control valves serve to influence the speed of movement of users by restricting the oil flow.1 Throttle Valves While the flow restriction remains the same. Flow control valves can be divided into 4 groups: 1) pressure and viscosity related 2) pressure related.
the less noticeable is a change is viscosity. a larger p results in a larger flow. the ringshaped section at the throttle position can be altered steplessly. Throttling procedure is as per type MG (fig 2). In the opposite direction. Oil flows unthrottled through the valve.According to the type of throttle. The equation for the resistance coefficient shows the relationship to the viscosity. If throttling is required in one direction only.1). Throttle valves are used. . depends on the construction of the throttle position. It should also be noted that the flow increases at the fluid becomes thinner. Throttle Valves The flow of throttle valves is related to the pressure drop at the throttle position. when: there is constant working resistance change in speed is irrelevant or desired with changing load. The shorter the throttle length I. Whether a valve is dependent on the viscosity or is practically independent.e. The poppet is lifted from its seat. (right to left) the flow acts on the face surface of the check valve. The poppet of the check valve is pushed on its seat. In throttle direction. These are formed between the housing and the adjustable sleeve 4.9 can be used for jets and orifices. an additional check valve is necessary. These throttle valves are related to pressure and viscosity. i. There is throttling in both directions (fig. fluid reaches the rear side 1 of the valve poppet 2. By turning the sleeve.6 – 0. At the same time. a flow coefficient of 0. Oil reaches the throttle position 3 by means of side bores 1 in the housing 2.
It is pushed against the stop 3 and occupies a throttle position according to the position of adjustment screw 4.part of the fluid passes over the ring slot and thus the desired self cleaning process is achieved. The throttle pin is pushed back and no throttling takes place (fig. Important technical data: Sizes Flow sizes 6 to 102 up to 3000 1/min Operating pressure up to 315 bar. symbol. It is then fitted between pilot and main valves. pressure acts via bore 1 on the mounting face of the check valve. 4). . (See also the sectional diagram for pilot operated directional valves). designed as a throttle pin. 3. Double Throttle/Check valve Type Z 2 FS 22 They are fitted between the direct operated directional valve and the subplate to influence the speed of a user (main flow limiter). With pilot operated valves.2 Double Throttle/Check Valve type Z 2 FS: Double throttle/check valves comprise two throttle/check valves arranged symmetrically in one block. the double throttle/check valve can be used as pilot choke adjustment (pilot flow limiter). With flow from the bottom to the top. With flow from the top to the bottom pressure acts via bore 2 on the rear side of the throttle pin.
Adjustment of the setting device is therefore guaranteed. There is a linear or non-linear flow curve over the adjustment angle (300o) according to the orifice type. 3. The sectional diagram (fig. 22 up to 300 1/min up to 315 bar. the orifice opposite one curved pin can be raised or lowered. the orifice with adjustment screws supported on the valve mounting face. by the position of curve 5 in front of the orifice window 6. i. The viscosity influence is very slight.3 Fine throttle as cartridge unit The fine throttle belongs among flow control valves in group 3 – flow is related to pressure and almost independent of viscosity. depending on the position of the sandwich plate (size 5 and 10) or arrangement of the throttle cartridges (size 16 and 22). Important technical data: Sizes Flow Operating pressure sizes 6.. The flow section is determined by the position of the curved pin. A pin is fitted to ensure that the orifice cannot turn in me wrong direction. The curved pin 2. which is joined to the adjustment knob. By means of an adjustment screw 7. . The direction of flow is preferably from A to B. 8) shows a valve with housing. During operation. 10. 16. setting element 3 with scale and orifice 4 are fitted in the housing.Throttling can take place in the supply or drain.e. The throttle is adjusted by turning the curved pin. due to the orifice type throttle position.
4 Flow regulating valves In flow regulating valves. Flow regulating valves are therefore used when the working speed should remain fixed in spite of different loads at the user. When the working resistance changes. 3. a regulating spool 2 is controlled before the actual adjustable throttle 1 (fig. the maximum system pressure p 1 builds up in front of the valve. it will firstly be described using a circuit diagram. Flow is from A to B. different volumes would therefore flow.10). the flow is not related to the pressure drop between the valve input and output. if there were no regulating spool. even with pressure deviations. While the throttle section remains the same. Pressure p3 is behind the valve. In each case.Important technical data: Size Flow Operating pressure sizes 5 and 10 upto 50 l/min up to 210 bar 3. according to the working resistance at the user. . This means that the oil flow set remains constant. Functional diagram 2 directional flow regulating value. type 2 FRM In order to understand the function better.5 Directional Flow Regulating Valves. In this case. pressure p3 also changes and thus also the pressure drop from p1 to p3.
Thus it decreases the quantity of oil flowing to the throttle position until pressure p2 has fallen again and the pressure drop p2 – p3 corresponds to spring force : surface area A. as with the throttle described previously. also called pressure compensator. in order to prevent the influence of pressure deviations. . Conditions for equilibrium: p2. A spring pushed the spool in opening direction and holds it in neutral position where there is no flow through the valve. The pressure behind the throttle position affects the surface A3 by means of a control line. the forces at the spool are balanced. The following forces result at the control spool: in opening direction (upwards) F spring + p3 . Pressure p2 in front of the throttle position affects the surface A2 by means of a control line. when there is flow through the valve. using the control spool. the regulating spool moves in closing direction. If there is flow through the valve. for example. If pressure p2 increases. A2 in control position. as an adjustable throttle element. This is achieved. for example due to an increase in pressure at the valve inlet. As only slight spring deflections occur. A2 = p3 A3 = F spring/ : A p2 = p3 + F spring A p2 – p3 = F spring A The conditions for equilibrium show that the pressure drop p = p2 – p3 always results at the throttle position corresponding to the spring force. If. A The excess fluid in front of the valve must be drained by means of the pressure relief valve. i.e. the spring force can be assumed to be almost constant. the pressure exert a force on the spool via surfaces A2 and A3. A3 in closing direction (downwards) p2 .It must be ensured that there is always the same pressure difference p2 – p3 at the throttle position. pressure p3 changes (increases or decreases) the spring again moves until the pressure drop p2 – p3 = F spring has been reached again. The flow therefore remains constant.
which lie opposite the spring. 11 shows the actual valve. i. The regulating spool is effective only in flow direction A to B. Pressure behind the throttle position (p3) affects the spool by means of bore 8. if there is sudden flow through the valve. in addition to the spring. An additional check valve 6 is fitted. Pressure in front of the throttle position (p2) is fed by means of bores 7 to the spool surfaces. . to guarantee free flow from B to A. To avoid surges. The throttle pin 2 with orifice 3 (as for the fine throttle) and the control spool 4 with spring 5 are fitted in a housing 1. the regulating spool springs out of neutral position beyond the actual control position. the spool can be fixed at standstill in a set regulating position by means of a stroke limiter 9.Fig.e.
16 (also over size 30 with v – dependent throttle position) Flow Operating pressure up to 160 l/min upto 315 bar . 10.Important technical data: Sizes sizes 5.
the flow control valve is placed between the pump and actuator. In this way.0 FLOW CONTROL VALVE FITMENT METHODS Meter in circuit In meter in operation. it controls the amount of fluid going into the actuator. . Regulating the size of the opening controls the flow rate and thus speed of the cylinder. Bleed of Circuit The flow control valve is simply teed off the main line to control cylinder speed. Pump delivery in excess of the metered amount is diverted to tank over the relief valve. Meter out circuit If the flow control valve is on the outlet side of the cylinder to control the flow coming out.4. it is called meter out. unlike the meter in or meter out circuit there is not excess flow going over the relief valve and the pump operates at only the pressure that is needed to move the workload on the cylinder. In this case.
Pilot operated check valves are used as 2-way valve. REFERENCE 1.SUMMARY Check valves are used for uni-directional flow. Flow control valves control the speed of actuator and give fine control independent of load and system temperature. REVIEW OF QUESTIONS • • • • • • Explain the function of a check valve? How a pilot operated check valve works and differs from a check valve? What are the three methods of fitment of flow control valve? What is meant by temperature compensation? To get accurate flow which flow control valve is used? To take care of runaway load which method of flow control valve fitment is recommended. . Manuals of reputed Hydraulic product manufacturers.
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