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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Age of Commercial Jets A report in USA TODAY stated that the average age of commercial jets in the United States is 14 years. An executive of a large airline company selects a sample of 36 planes and finds the average age of the planes is 11.8 years. The standard deviation of the sample is 2.7 years. At = 0.01 , can it be concluded that the average age of the planes in his company is less than the national average?

H 0 : 14 H1 : < 14 (claim) one tail test n = 36 X = 11.8 s = 2.7 = 0.01 C.V . 0.50 0.01 = 0.49 then look up in the body of Table E zCV = 2.33 test value : z = X 11.8 14 = = 4.89 s n 2.7 36

Since the test value falls within the critical region, we reject the null hypothesis. There is enough evidence to support the claim that the average age of the planes in the executives airline is less than the national average. 6. Peanut Production in Virginia. The average production of peanuts in the state of Virginia is 3000 pounds per acre. A new plan food has been developed and is tested on 60 individual plots of land. The mean yield with the new plant food is 3120 pounds of peanuts per acre with a standard deviation of 578 pounds. At = 0.05, can one conclude that the average production has increased?

H 0 : 3000 H1 : > 3000 (claim) one tail test n = 60 X = 3120 s = 578 = 0.05 C.V . 0.50 0.05 = 0.4500 then look up in thebody of Table E zCV = 1.65 test value : z = X 3120 3000 = = 1.61 s n 578 60

Since the test value does not fall within the critical region (C.V. = 1.65), we dont reject the null hypothesis. Therefore, there is not enough evidence to support the claim that the average production of peanuts in the state of Virginia has increased.

7. Heights of 1-Year-Olds The average 1-year-old (both genders) is 29 inches tall. A random sample of 30 one-year-olds in a large day-care franchise resulted in the following heights. At = 0.05 , can it be concluded that the average height differs from 29 inches? 25 32 35 25 30 26.5 26 25.5 29.5 32 34 29.5

H 0 : = 29 H1 : 29 (claim) two tail test n = 30 X = 29.45 s = 2.61 = 0.05 C.V . zCV = 1.96 test value : z = X 29.45 29 = = 0.944 s n 2.61 30

= 0.025 2

Do not reject the null hypothesis. There is enough evidence to reject the claim that the average height differs from 29 inches. 15) State whether the null hypothesis should be rejected on the basis of the given P-value. a) P-value= 0.258, =0.05, one tailed test If P-value , reject the null hypothesis. Since 0.258 > 0.05, do not reject H 0 . b) P-value= 0.0684, =0.10, two tailed test Since (0.0684) 0.10, reject H 0 . c) P-value= 0.0153, =0.01, one tailed test Since 0.0153 > 0.01, do not reject H 0 . d) P-value= 0.0232, =0.05, two tailed test Since 0.0232 0.05, reject H 0 . e) P-value= 0.002, =0.01, one tailed test Since 0.002 0.01, reject H 0 .

19) Burning Calories by playing tennis. A health researcher read that a 200-pound male can burn an average of 546 calories per hour playing tennis. Thirty-six males were randomly selected and tested. The mean of the number of calories burned per hour was 544.8. Test the claim that the average number of calories burned is actually less than 546, and find the P-value. On the basis of the P-value, should the null hypothesis be rejected at =0.01? The standard deviation of the sample is 3. Can it be concluded that the average number of calories burned is less than originally thought?

H 0 : 546 H1 : < 546 (claim) one tail test n = 36 X = 544.8 s = 3 = 0.01 test value : z = X 544.8 546 = = 2.4 s n 3 36

Look up table E and find the area that corresponds to z=-2.4 or P(z=-2.4) = 0.4918. Now since this is a one tail test, P-value = 0.5000-0.4918 = 0.0082 Since 0.0082 < 0.01, we reject H 0 . Therefore, there is not enough evidence to support the claim that the average number of calories burned per hours is less than 546. 20) Breaking Strength of Cable. A special cable has a breaking strength of 800 pounds. The standard deviation of the population is 12 pounds. A researcher selects a sample of 20 cables and finds the average breaking strength is 793 pounds. Can one reject the claim that the breaking strength is 800 pounds? Find the P-value. Should the null hypothesis be rejected at =0.01? Assume that the variable is normally distributed.

H 0 : = 800 (claim) two tail test H1 : 800 n = 20 X = 793 = 12 = 0.01 test value : z = X 793 800 = 2.61 n 12 20

Look up in table E for the area corresponding to the z value of 2.61 which is 0.4955. Subtract this area from 0.5000, that is 0.5000-0.4955=0.0045. Since this is a two tail test, P-value is 2(0.0045)=0.0090.

Since 0.0090 < 0.01, We reject the null hypothesis. Thus, there is enough evidence to support the claim that the breaking strength is 800 pounds. 21) Farm Size. Several years ago the department of agriculture found that the average size of farms in the United States was 47.1 acres. A random sample of 50 farms was selected, and the mean size of the farm was 43.2 acres. The standard deviation of the sample was 8.6 acres. Test the claim at = 0.05 that the average farm size is smaller today, by using the P-value method. Should the department of agriculture update its information?

H 0 : 47.1 H1 : < 47.1 (claim) n = 50 X = 43.2 = 8.6 = 0.05 test value : z = X 43.2 47.1 = 3.21 n 8.6 50

Look up in table E for the area corresponding to the z value of 3.21 which is 0.4999. Subtract this area from 0.5000, that is 0.5000-0.4999=0.0001. Since this is a two tail test, P-value is 2(0.0001)=0.0002. Since 0.0002 < 0.01, We reject the null hypothesis. There is enough evidence to support the claim that the mean is less than 47.1 acres. 25) Sick Days A manager states that in his factory, the average number of days per year missed by the employees due to illness is less than the national average of 10. The following data show the number of days missed by 40 employees last year. Is there sufficient evidence to believe the manager statement at = 0.05? Use the P-value method. 0 6 12 3 3 5 4 1 3 9 6 0 7 6 3 4 7 4 7 1 0 8 12 3 2 5 10 5 15 3 2 5 3 11 8 2 2 4 1 9

H 0 : 10 H1 : < 10 (claim) n = 40 X = 5.025 = 3.63 = 0.05 test value : z = X 5.025 10 = 8.67 n 3.63 40

Look up in table E for the area corresponding to the z value of 8.67 which is greater than 0.4999. The P-value is 0.5 0.499 < 0.0001. Since 0.0001 < 0.05, we reject the null hypothesis. There is enough evidence to support the claim that the average number of days missed per year is less than 10.

4(a-f), 5, 6, 9,11,17

4. Using Table F, find the P-value interval for each test value. a) t = 2.321, n=15, right-tailed d.f. = n-1=15-1=14 0.01<p-value<0.025 b) t = 1.945, n=28, two-tailed d.f. =n-1=28-1=27 0.05<p-value<0.10 c) t = -1.267, n=8, left-tailed d.f. =n-1=8-1=7 0.10<p-value<0.25 d) t = 1.562, n=17, two-tailed d.f. =n-1=17-1=16 0.10<p-value<0.20 e) t = 3.025, n=24, right-tailed d.f. =n-1=24-1=23 P-value<0.005

Use the traditional method of hypothesis testing unless otherwise specified. Assume that the population is approximately normally distributed. 5. Summer Rainfall in the United States The average amount of rainfall during the summer months for the northeastern part of the United States is 11.52 inches. A researcher selects a random sample of 10 cities in the northeast and finds that the average amount of rainfall for 1995 was 7.42 inches. The standard deviation of the sample is 1.3 inches. At = 0.05 , can it be concluded that for 1995 the mean rainfall was below 11.52 inches? n = 10, X = 7.42, s = 1.3 = 0.05, d . f . = 9 H 0 : 11.52 C.V . = 1.833 t= X 7.42 11.52 = = 9.97 s/ n 1.3 / 10 H1 : < 11.52 (claim )

Reject the null hypothesis since the test value falls within the critical region. There is enough evidence to support the claim that the rainfall is below average. 6. Park Acreage A state executive claims that the average number of acres in western Pennsylvania state park is less than 2000 acres. A random sample of five parks is selected, and the number of acres is shown. At = 0.01 , is there enough evidence to support the claim? 959 1187 493 6249 541

n = 5, X = 1885.8, s = 2456.3

t= X 1885.8 2000 = = 0.104 s/ n 2456.3 / 5

P-value > 0.25 Is p-value a? Is 0.25<0.01? No Do not reject the null hypothesis. There isnt enough evidence to support the claim that the average acreage is less than 2000. 9. Heights of Tall Buildings A researcher estimates that the average height of the buildings of 30 or more stories in a large city is at least 700 feet. A random sample of 10 buildings is selected, and the heights in feet are shown. At =0.025, is there enough evidence to reject the claim? 485 511 841 725 615 520 535 635 616 582 n = 10, X = 606.5, s = 109.1

t=

H1 : < 700

Is P value ? Is 0.02 0.025? Yes! Therefore, we reject the null hypothesis. There is sufficient evidence to reject the claim that the average height of the buildings is at least 700 feet. 11. Cost of College The average undergraduate cost for tuition, fees, and room and board for two- year institutions last year was $13,252. The following year, a random sample of 20 twoyear institutions had a mean of $15,560 and a standard deviation of $3500. Is there sufficient evidence at the = 0.01 level to conclude that the mean cost has increased?

n = 20, X = $15,560, s = $3, 500 = 0.01, d . f . = 19 H 0 : 13252 H 1 : > 13252 (claim) C.V = 2.539 t= X 15560 13252 = = 2.949 s/ n 3500 / 20 P value < 0.005

Is P value ? Is 0.002 0.01? Yes! Therefore, we reject the null hypothesis. There is sufficient evidence at the = 0.01 level to conclude that the mean cost has increased. 17. Doctor Visits A report by the Gallup Poll stated that on average a woman visits her physician 5.8 times a year. A researcher randomly selects 20 women and obtained these data. 3 2 1 3 7 2 9 4 6 6 8 0 5 6 4 2 1 3 4 1

At = 0.05 , can it be concluded that the average is still 5.8 visits per year? n = 20, X = 3.85, s = 2.519 = 0.05, d . f . = 19 H 0 : = 5.8 t= H 1 : 5.8 (claim) X 3.85 5.8 = = 3.46 s / n 2.519 / 20 P value < 0.01

Is P value ? 0.01 0.05? yes, we reject the null hypothesis. No, there is enough evidence to reject the claim. The average is not 5.8 visits per year.

Chapter 8-5: 13, 16, 17, 19. (Use P-value method) 13) After school Snacks. In the Journal of the American Dietetic Association, it was reported that 54% of kids said that they had a snack after school. Test the claim that a random sample of 60 kids was selected and 36 said that they had a snack after school Use = 0.01 and the p-value method. On the basis of the results, should parents be concerned about their children eating a healthy snack?

x 36 = = 0.6 n 60

q=1-p, q=1-0.54, q=0.46 Ho: p=0.54(claim) Hi: p 0.54 Two tail test.

z=

p p = pq n

Find the area that corresponds to z=0.93 in the E-table. The area is 0.3238 Since this is a two tail test, the area corresponding to each tail is 0.5-0.3238=0.1762. Now the P(value) is 2(0.1762). P(value) is 0.3524 Then compare P(value) with . 0.3524 > 0.01. Since the P(value) is greater than , we do not reject the null hypothesis. There is enough evidence to support the claim that 54% of children have snacks after school. Yes, healthy snacks should be monitor by their parents. 16) Credit Card Usage. For certain year a study reports that the percentage of college students using credit cards was 83%. A college dean of student services feels that this is too high for her university, so she randomly selects 50 students and finds that 40 of them use credit cards. At =0.04, is she correct about her university?

q=1-p, q=1-0.83, q=0.17

x 40 = = 0.8 n 50

z=

p p = pq n

Find the area that corresponds to z= -0.56 in the E-table. The area is 0.2123. Since this is one tail test, the area corresponding to the tail is 0.5-0.2123=0.2877. Now the P(value) is 0.2877.

Then compare P(value) with . 0.2877 > 0.04. Since the P(value) is greater than , we do not reject the null hypothesis. There is not enough evidence to support the claim that students who use credit cards are less than 83%.

17) Borrowing Library Books. For American using library services, the American Library association (ALA) claims that 67% borrow books. A library director feels this is not true, so she randomly selects 100 borrowers and finds that 82 borrowed books. Can he show that the ALA claims is incorrect? Use = 0.05?

q=1-p, q=1-0.67, q=0.33 Ho: p=0.67 Hi: p 0.67(claim) Two tail test.

x 82 = = 0.82 n 100

z=

Find the area that corresponds to z=3.19 in the E-table. The area is 0.4999 Since this is a two tail test, the area corresponding to each tail is 0.5-0.4999=0.0001. Now the P(value) is 2(0.0001). P(value) is 0.0002

Then compare P(value) with . 0.0002 < 0.01. Since the P(value) is less than , we reject the null hypothesis. There is enough evidence to support the claim that is not 67% of people who borrows book. 19) Football Injuries. A report by the NCAA states that 57.6% of football injuries occur during practices. Ahead trainer claims that this is too high for his conference, so he randomly selects 36 injuries and finds that 17 occurred during practices. Is his claim correct, at = 0.05?

q=1-p, q=1-0.576, q=0.424

x 17 = = 0.472 n 36

z=

Find the area that corresponds to z= -1.26 in the E-table. The area is 0.3962. Since this is one tail test, the area corresponding to the tail is 0.5-0.3962=0. 1038. Now the P(value) is 0.1038.

Then compare P(value) with . 0.1038 > 0.05. Since the P(value) is greater than , we do not reject the null hypothesis. There is not enough evidence to support the claim that the percentage of injuries during practice is below 57.6%.

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