Natrinai is traditionally accepted as being the earliest of the eight Tamil anthologies. The word means
‘good thinai’ or ‘good land’ - §00 g|OM. It is in Akam thinai, and it has 400 poems from nine
to 12 lines, by 192 poets. The poems range from 9 to 12 lines. However, poem 238 has 8 lines and 7
poems (64, 110, 221, 241, 372, 379, and 393) have 13 lines. It is missing poem 234. In addition, it has an
invocatory poem by ML@uGgOGßû, which was added in the 8th century, many centuries after
the poems, by the compiler. It has poems in all the five akam thinais – marutham, mullai, kurinji, neydal
and pālai. The compiler remains anonymous, but the anthology was completed under the patronage of
the Tamil king LGGß_ g§g LßMµüG uß_G O@g|, who composed poems 97 and
301 in the collection. The compiler is unknown. “Linguistically speaking, there is hardly a single Sanskrit
loan word in the entire collection”, writes Dr. Martha Ann Selby.

§__|OM - 1, 3, 4, 6, 9, 11, 12, 17, 22, 27, 28, 30, 33, 38, 45, 52, 54, 60, 61, 64, 70, 79, 86, 90, 95,
97, 98, 100, 102, 105, 110, 111, 118, 119, 124, 136, 147, 149, 150, 152, 162, 169, 172, 175, 176, 180,
182, 184, 191, 195, 199, 200

§__|OM 1, dLl0û, @_|@8| g|OM – gO0Ol Ggßg|ülLu M8ßGG@
§|G_ M8ß00û § _ Ggß@ @G|üû
OG@u OG Ggßu LlûQ ¿_|ü0G[;
gßuO[g gM gß@ 2g|, uu|O88
8ߧg|0 Mgß_gg g u GgG GLß0,
QO[ü uG_, QO[Güßû GdMOu;
§ û @G@ ¿Ouüß 20du GLß0g
gu @G@ ¿Ouüß §u §ü§@ ¿@u|
§@ @g0 L8gg0 ¿@8|8
8|@Ou 2@LGOß? M8üQ ¿_|ü0G[!

He is truthful in speech, eternal in sweet friendship,
and inseparable in our love and embrace.
My friendship with my esteemed man
is like a bee collecting cool pollen from the lotus
flower, carrying it to the tall sandal trees,
and making sweet honey.
Just as the world cannot live without water,
I cannot exist without him.
He loves me, is gracious, and fears that
separation will bring pallor to my forehead.
Will he even consider doing that silly act?
He does not know to do that! Translated by Vaidehi

d@g@O[ – M8ß00|ü M8ß00|0|@§@ uß@LLßgOû. @G|OuüßdL
Lg@u gGOuµOLüû. OG GgßudOu OG@u Llûg0 ¿_|üßgOû.
(OM_)gßuO[L_OlG @u|û88|üßG ud[§gggßg|OGg @Oug@ O_g@,
2üû§@ §|_@u 8§gG u[gg|G 288|ül0 MdßM_GLßü G8ûg@ OOgg
@G|ü GgOGLGLß0(gßuO[ggß@-gO0OG|G 2uuu, 8§gG u[u-
gO0OlülG 2uuu, GgG – @@OûG ¿GQ) §|88üußd 2üûOlOG
2OLü@ 2üû§Ggß[ßd|ü gO0OûG §LQ. § û @G_| @OQ0dußG@
8|_ddOlü0ß@. ¿@GLß0, ¿Oû @G_| §ßu 8|_gg0|0O0. ¿O@u
§uu@ MdßML Ol@LLgg|G dß[Mußd d@OMGüß_ §LLLOû.
¿LLµül@dd, LlûOgß0 §u uMu O ðu M§__|ül0 Ç_L_u L8O0
LLûOg_@ ¿@ðgO0µOLü ¿Oû, Llûg0 OG_ 8|@OuüßG M8üO08
M8üü §|OGLLßG[ß? ¿OOß@ M8üg_@dðL ¿_|üßgOû ¿Oû!

M8ß_MLß@u Oluddu – §|G_ M8ß00û – uß@LLßg M8ß00|OG
2OLüû, § _ - §|O0gg, GgßG@ @G|üû – @G|ü gGOuµOLüû,
OG@u OG Ggßu – OG@u OG GgßudOu, LlûQ ¿_|ü0G[ – LlûOg_@
¿_|üßgOû, gßuO[g gM gß@ -gßuO[ u0ûG @u|û88|üßG
ud[§gggßg|OG, 2g| – @Oug@, u – Gu0|Lu, u|O8 – GuG0, 8ߧg|0
Mgß_gg – 8§gGu[gg|0 G8ûg@OOgg, g u GgG GLß0 – @G|ü GgG
GLß0, QO[ü –2üûQ, uG_ - §|88üußd, QO[Güßû – 2üû§Ggßû,
GdMOu -§LQ, § û @G@ – § û @00ß@, ¿Ouüß– 8|_LLßdßg, 20du
GLß0 – 20dgOgL GLß0, gu @G@ – ¿Oû @00ß@, ¿Ouüß –
8|_LLOLüß, §u – §uOu, §ü§@ ¿@u| – Ol@uLl d@OMGüß_, §@
@g0 – uMu O ðu M§__|, L8gg0 ¿@8| – L8O0 LL@u OGLg_@
¿@8|, 8|@Ou 2@LGOß- 8|@OuüßG M8üO08 M8üg_@
§|OGLLßG[ß, M8üQ ¿_|ü0G[- M8üg_@ ¿_|üßgOG[

§__|OM 3, @u0d[Gßû, LßO0 g|OM - gO0OG gG M§@8|Lu
ÞG L@§@ 2üQu OßG MLß@ M§_@ 8|OGL
MLßû ¿O[ GOuLlG Quu| § g0
dLLOu ¿GG @L_ ¿[0@ @Ogg@
d00ß8 8|_ß¿û M§00| OL_ __u
Ol0 Çû 2gOû MOu @OG8 8@û8
ð[G @g0 O§g 2[G ußü ußO0
2uu|MGG ¿0M0GGß üßGG 2uu|ü
OlOG @µggGG @G|Güßu
uOG ußM ðLM[ß_ LLû MLß@@ OGGO.

A hen-eagle broods, sick
in the great branches
lifted to the sky,
in a neem tree
with cracked trunk and dotted shade

where unschooled children
scratch their squares
on a rock
flat as a touchstone
and play marbles with gooseberries

in that wilderness
with fierce little settlements
of marauders,
the bow their only plow,

and as evening comes creeping in,
sapping my strength, what can I do
but think of her,
who is sweet as a deed
long wished for and done,
standing there
in this hour of memories
in front of a house lamp
blazing. Translated by A.K. Ramanujan

ÞG L@§@ – female eagle one who has given birth, 2üQu – grieve, OßG – sky, MLß@
– lifted, M§_@ 8|OGL – big branches, MLßû – cracked, dry, ¿O[ – tree trunk,
GOuLlG Quu| § g0 – neem tree’s dotted shade, dLLOu – touchstone, ¿GG – like
(rock), @L_ – write, ¿[0@ – square, @Ogg@ – scratch, d00ß8 8|_ß¿û –
unschooled kids, M§00| OL_ __u – play marbles with gooseberries, Ol0 – bow, Çû –
plow, 2gOû – 2gOû, MOu @OG8 8@û8 – fierce little settlements, ð[G@g0
O§g – from wasteland first, 2[G – strengths, ußü ußO0 – dark evening, 2uu|MGG
– I’m thinking, ¿0M0GGß – what can I do, 2uu|ü - thought, OlOG @µggGG –
deed wished done, @G|Güßu – sweet girl, uOG – house, ußM – big, ðLM[ß_ – with
blazing flame, LLû – spread, MLß@@ OGGO – at that time

§__|OM 4, ¿u@OGßû, M§üg0 g|OM – Ggßg| gO0OlülLu M8ßGG@
dßG0 ¿u 8|@@µd dL0 Guu L[gOû
§ 0 §|_ QGOGd Mdß@ §|g0 ¿O8@
gM ML@u L[LLlG gM Lgu G§ßdd|
¿u dM ¿û0 OO0 2Md@u @O_OMGß_
¿0G[ ¿GOG ¿_|ülG @OM 2O_ OßgdOd
¿ûü _@u §ud@ OGd ð_|G
MdßM_u M80OûMdß0 Ggßg| 2uMû
MOM d0 2LLlG MdßuOu 8ß__|
dM §|O[ d|uûd@u M§_ M§_|8 8dLu
uM0 u_g@ 2[@u @O8 dgG|d
d@0 dß0 MOM @@@ MO@2u
@@0 dg|8 G8ûLLlG gu 2O_OlG 2ûdGd.

If we tell the lord of the shores
…..where the fishermen from the small village
…..near the seaside grove
…..rest under the thick shade of the blue
…..punnai trees drying their nets,
…..and waiting for the right time to go to the sea,
that our life here will become difficult
if mother knows about the affair,
will he take us, my friend, to his town
where salt merchants cry out the price
of white salt,
and flocks of black-legged, white herons
fly away in fear
to the large, brackish-water ponds
on hearing the sounds of their wagon
wheels grinding the sand on the long path? Translated by Vaidehi

dßG0 – seashore grove, ¿u 8|@@µ – beautiful village, dL0 Guu L[gOû –
fishermen who go on the seas, § 0 §|_ QGOGd Mdß@ §|g0 ¿O8@ – rested on the
blue colored punnai tree shade – Laurel Tree, Mast wood Tree, Calophyllum inophyllum, gM
ML@u L[LLlG gM Lgu G§ßdd| – look for the perfect time, ¿u dM ¿û0
OO0 – beautiful nets with fine meshes, 2Md@u – dries, @O_OMGß_ – with the lord
of the seaport, ¿0G[ ¿GOG ¿_|ülG – if mother hears the rumor, @OM 2O_
OßgdOd ¿ûü _@u §ud@ – the life led here will become difficult for us, OGd
ð_|G MdßM_u – if we say that, M80Oû Mdß0 Ggßg| – will be take us along my
friend, 2uMû MOM d0 2LLlG MdßuOu 8ß__| – salt merchants call out the
price for white salt, dM §|O[ d|uûd@u – big flocks move away, M§_ M§_| – long path,
8dLu – wagon, uM0 u_g@ 2[@u @O8 – sound of rubbing on the sand, dgG| –
field, d@0 dß0 MOM @@@ – white herons/egrets/storks with black legs, MO@2u –
fear, @@0 dg|8 G8ûLLlG – to the vast/black backwaters, gu 2O_OlG 2ûdGd –
in the town that he resides

§__|OM 6, L[Mû, @_|@8| g|OM – gO0OG gG M§@ðd@ M8ßGG@
§ û Ouû _uL0 @uQOLg g|[u dß0
§ßû 2ûggGG ugG @0 ußOu
@OOu ¿GG ǧ@ Og|0 uOgd dM
g|gO0 ¿0@0 ML@§ Ggßu @@udL@
Oüg8 M8G@ M8LQ§ûL ML_|GG
@Oû üßû OG@Ou ¿00u @Gß¿@
¿ggd @u|g|G Mdß_ @d@ OlOu dG|
O_| uL uß_@ O08| _@u
O0 Ol0 @û dßGu §ß_|
@@u L0 g0|O@u ð§g0
ML@u GL@@Ou üßu O§gGu OGGO.

Her delicate beauty is like the fiber-removed
stem of a white water lily,
her moist eyes are like purple water-lilies that rise up,
and the waist of this dark beauty has yellow beauty spots.
If there is a messenger to talk to this pretty young girl
with rounded shoulders,
she without malice will not ask, “who is he?”
In the strong-bowed king Ori’s fragrant forests,
frolicking deer eat ripe curved-nose kumizham fruits
that grow along the forest paths.
The girl with thick black hair
will be happy, if she knows that I have come. Translated by Vaidehi

§ û Ouû _uL0 - white water-lily growing in the water, @uQOL g|[u dß0 – stem
with hollow, §ßû 2ûggGG – like the fiber removed, ugG @0 ußOu – beautiful dark
color, @OOu ¿GG – like the purple water-lily, ǧ@ – lifted, Og|0 – beautiful, uOgd
dM – moist eyes, g|gO0 ¿0@0 – yellow beauty spots under her waist, ML@§ Ggßu
– large shoulders, @@udL@ – young girl, Oüg8 M8G@ – to give a message, M8LQ§ûL
ML_|GG – if somebody would talk to her, @Oû üßû OG@Ou ¿00u – she’ll not ask,
‘who is he’, @Gß¿@ – without hatred, ¿ggd – forest path, @u|g|G – kumizham tree’s,
Mdß_ @d@ – curved nose, OlOu dG| – ripe fruit, O_| uL uß_@ – for the playful
innocent deer, O08| _@u – will become food, O0 Ol0 @û – king Ori with a strong
bow, dßGu – forest, §ß_| – fragrance, @@u – black, L0 g0| O@u ð§g0 –
thick flowing hair, ML@u GL@@Ou – will be very happy, üßu O§gGu OGGO – if
she knows that I have come

§__|OM 9, LßO0 Lßµü ML@0d_0Gdß, LßO0 g|OM – gO0OG
gO0OlülLu M8ßGG@
¿g|Ol0û @ü@u _ûO ußddu
Og|L_ MgüOu dM dMLß¿0@
¿0u[0 O@ggu g [ üßg §|G
§0 MuG LOMg Ggßu Oüg|Gu _d0|G
MLßûL _u QGd|G ¿g0 gOd gM @_|
ðM0@ ¿Ml OG @O0 ¿M0@ Mdßug g|u|û
§|g0 dßMGgß@u M§µü OOd|
uM0 dßMGgß@u OML0 Og@
O@§gß@ Ç@ug| Oß0 Oül_G_ßGü
uß §OG Mdß@g| ud|g @ül0 _@u
§@§ gM MLßg|0 dßGu
@@u L0 2[ üßu M80@u _G_.

On our path,
cuckoos will prick mango buds and
sing happily in the fragrant cool groves;
faultless and curious travellers
will think that you are a goddess.
My pain and distress will end if I
embrace your fine, bamboo-like shoulders.

There are a few towns on our way.
Whenever there is heavy shade,
we can rest for a long time;
whenever we see sand,
you can make sand dolls.
There are punku trees with
parched-rice-like flowers
and glowing, bright tender sprouts.

My lover with sparkling white teeth,
and beautiful breasts with yellow spots!
Do not worry! let us go soon. Translated by Vaidehi

¿g|Ol0û @ü@u – those who do faultless things, _ûO ußddu – anxious people,
Og|L_ MgüOu – god that is worshipped, dM dMLß¿0@ – like they saw with their
eyes, ¿0u[0 O@ggu – distress and sorrow, g [ – to end, üßg – an expletive, §|G –
your, §0 MuG – fine delicate, LOMg Ggßu – bamboo-like shoulders, could also be wide
shoulders, Oüg|Gu _d0|G – if I attain, MLßûL _u QGd|G – punku tree with
parched rice-like flowers, ¿g0 – glowing, gOd – beautiful, gM – bright, @_| – tender
sprouts, ðM0@ – yellow spots, ¿Ml – beautiful, OG @O0 – full breasts, ¿M0@
Mdßug – fascinates others, shocks others, g|u|û – spread, §|g0 dßMGgß@u –
whenever shade was seen, M§µü OOd| – stayed for long, uM0 dßMGgß@u –
whenever sand was seen, OML0 Og@ – made sand dolls, O@§gß@ – do not feel sad,
Ç@ug| – lets go soon, Oß0 Oül_G_ßGü – one with white teeth, uß §OG – mango
tree buds, Mdß@g| ud|g @ül0 – happy kuyils prick, _@u – sing, §@§ gM –
fragrant and cool, MLßg|0 dßGu – groves, @@u L0 2[ – small few towns, üßu
M80@u _G_ – (on the) way we go

§__|OM 11, 2G0ß88Gßû, M§üg0 g|OM – Ggßg| gO0OlülLu
M8ßGG@ – She tries to comfort the heroine when she is distressed
MLüüß@ OOd|ü GdßOg GLß0
Muü 8ßülOG ¿Oû M8ü @_| LlOgLL
2uu| M§ß@u0û G§ûQ 2O[ Mguu|g|G
Oß[ßû OG@u Q0Ol 2LMdßu0
gg|d ußu §|G M§@8ggßGG
QMû MLß@g _ uM0 ¿OLdO[
_g| u@0d|G ¿0OG @uLl
O0OG OuQ _ü§@ 2[
§|0Q Olû§gG_ß0 dßG0ßGG.

Your body is distressed like an unworn wilted garland,
since you missed the tryst that he suggested.
You are hurt by the slanderers who talk ill about you
and you sulk thinking that your lover will not come.
Destroy such thoughts from your heart.

When the moonlight spreads on the seashore grove
he will come in his chariot,
riding beside the waves on the shore
that is filled with flowers and sand,
as his charioteer handles his bridle with caution
protecting the crabs on the ground. Translated by Vaidehi

MLüüß@ – not worn, OOd|ü – lying around, GdßOg GLß0 – like a garland, Muü –
body, 8ßülOG – you are distressed, ¿Oû M8ü @_| – the secret meeting (tryst) that he
indicated, LlOgLL – misssed, 2uu| – thinking, M§ß@u0û – slanderers, G§ûQ – long
(too much), 2O[ - words (gossip), Mguu|g|G – clearly, Oß[ßû – he will not come,
OG@u – and so, Q0Ol – sulk, 2LMdßu0 – do not do that, gg|d ußu – destroy
(such thoughts), §|G M§@8ggßGG – your heart, QMû MLß@g – wave filled, _ –
flowers, uM0 – sand, ¿OLdO[ – seashore, _g| u@0d|G – near the seashore,
¿0OG – crabs, @uLl – protecting, O0OG – charioteer, OuQ – bridle, _ü§@
2[ – carefully ride, §|0Q Olû§gG_ß0 dßG0ßGG – the moonlight spread on the
seashore grove

§__|OM 12, düuGßû, LßO0 g|OM – Ggßg| gO0OG|Lu M8ßGG@
wood apples were placed in pots to remove stale buttermilk odors
Oluu Lgu du@u duu @0 @g|8|L
Lß8u g|G_ Ggü dß0 uggu
M§ü Mgû @üddu MOu|0 @g0 @g0@u
OO@ Q0û Olµü0 Muü d[§@ gG dß0
¿û ¿Ou 8|0uQ dg @ L0 ußM
Oû QOG L§Mgß_ OO@ü M80GOßu
@OO dßM Ggß@u G§ßOû ußGgß
¿u|üG[ß ¿u|üû OG _ügGgßû OG
@uMuß_ O[Q gßG ¿ü[Qu
gG OO[g@ ¿G_|µu d@g§gG dMGM.

Wood apple fragrance
in the buttermilk pots
rounded like full pregnancy,
their noisy, churning rods
tied to posts,
and reduced by the circling ropes,
are the first sounds as dawn arrives.

She hides her body well
and removes from her feet
beautiful, jingling anklets,
and places them along with her
well-decorated ball.
“Whenever they see these, they’ll be sad”,
she thinks about her pitable friends,
and tears come to her eyes
even though she desires to leave with you. Translated by Vaidehi

OluuLgu du@u – wood apple fragrance spreads, duu @0 @g|8|L – fully pregnant
(women’s stomach-like) round pot, Lß8u g|G_ – ropes reduced, Ggü dß0 uggu –
churning rod has thinned, M§ü Mgû @üddu – churning to make butter, MOu|0 – the post
to which the rope is wound, @g0 @g0@u – first sounds, OO@ Q0û Olµü0 – early
morning hours, Muü d[§@ – hiding her body, gG dß0 – her feet, ¿û ¿Ou 8|0uQ
– beautiful jingling anklets, dg @ – removes it, L0 ußM – many splendor, Oû QOG
L§Mgß_ – with the decorated ball, OO@ü – placed it, M80GOßu – when she went (to do
that), @OO dßM Ggß@u G§ßOû ußGgß – they’ll be pained, ¿u|üG[ß – will be
sad, ¿u|üû – pitiable ones, OG _ügGgßû – my friends, OG – so, @uMuß_ O[Q –
going with you, gßG ¿ü[Qu – feel sad, gG OO[g@ ¿G_|µu – even though she
wants to leave, d@g§gG dMGM – there are tears in her eyes

§__|OM 17, M§ß88|§|üu0d|gßû, @_|@8| g|OM – gO0Ol Ggßg|ülLu
§ßu uOg gO0@ü §0 M§_0@G_g@
uß0 dL0 g|O[ülG @g|g@u ¿@Ol
¿d0 @@0 dßGg@ ¿0@ ¿Ml G§ßdd|
gß0dQu gOdOO[ §|00ß § û ðg0Q
ǧ@ Og|0 uOgd dM d@gg0|G ¿GOG
OOG M8ügOGGüß §|G @00@ Oül@ 2M@ OG
Mu00|ü @G|ü ð_0|G O0 OlO[§@
2ülû@u 8|_§g §ß@u §G| u_§@
2O[gg0 2ü§gGGG Ggßg| 8ß[0
dߧgu 2g|ü uMl §|_g @uLl
g u MgßOL §[uLlG @u|@u
OßG Ggßü MO_LG ußûQ ¿M0@ OGGO.

Early morning rains that fell
on his fine, lofty mountains
flowed down like dark ocean waves.
The waterfalls in the wide big forest
is where we used to meet,
and it hurt me to see that beautiful spot.

Unable to tolerate my pain,
tears flowed down from my beautiful
wet eyes.
“Why are you crying?”, mother asked,
“Let me kiss you, my daughter with splendid
teeth”, she said with tender words.

I almost forgot to guard my more
precious-than-life shyness and started
to tell her that the reason for my sorrow
was that I missed the chest of
the man from the mountain country
where bees that swarm kānthal flowers
sing like sweet yāzh strings.
However, I caught myself before I said anything
and stopped, my friend. Translated by Vaidehi

§ßu uOg gO0@ü – early morning rains fell, §0 M§_0@G_g@ – fine tall
mountains, uß0 dL0 g|O[ülG – dark ocean waves, @g|g@u ¿@Ol – falling
waterfalls, ¿d0 @@0 dßGg@ – wide big forest, ¿0@ – nearby, ¿Ml – beautiful,
G§ßdd| – looked, gß0dQu gOdOO[ §|00ß – unable to tolerate, § û ðg0Q –
water poured, ǧ@ Og|0 uOgd dM – lifted beautiful wet eyes, d@gg0|G – since it
cried, ¿GOG – mother, OOG M8ügOGGüß – what did you do, §|G @00@
Oül@ – your splendid teeth, 2M@ OG – I’ll kiss, Mu00|ü @G|ü ð_0|G –
uttered tender sweet words, O0 OlO[§@ – went fast, 2ülû@u 8|_§g – better than
life, §ß@u – shyness, §G| – lot, u_§@ – forgot, 2O[gg0 – said, 2ü§gGGG –
avoided it, Ggßg| – my friend, 8ß[0 – mountain slopes, dߧgu 2g|ü uMl §|_g
@uLl – the bees that swarm kānthal flowers (purple water lilies), g u MgßOL §[uLlG
@u|@u – like the music of the sweet stringed yāzh, OßG Ggßü – sky high, MO_LG –
man from the mountain country, ußûQ – chest, ¿M0@ OGGO – reason for sorrow

§__|OM 22, LßµüOû MLüû d|OLddOl0O0, @_|@8| g|OM – Ggßg|
gO0OlülLu M8ßGG@
Mdßµ88| dßd@u ¿_dd0 OL§ g|OG
@§@ OlOu ML@u @[0 MdßML u§g|
d00ßd d_OMGß_ §0 OO[ Ç_|
¿0Od §|O_ü M@u|µd MdßM_ gG
g|O[ ¿M0 Mdß_u dQu §|O_ü @dd|
OßG MLü0 §OG§g Q_gg G§ßGLlüû
Od 2M @@dOdülG GgßG@u §ßLG
O§gGG Oßg| Ggßg| 20du
düu dM ¿__ OL@ ¿@ dßO0
L u_ g|[0d|ü M§00|_@
§uMuG üßug@ uOg MLßg|§gß0Gd.

He has come back,
the man from the country
where in the mountain range’s millet field
that is guarded by a mountain girl,
a female monkey, along with her crude mate
climbs the fine mountain,
steals huge clusters of mature millet spikes,
crushes it with her palms,
collects the grain and stuffs her cheeks
curving them along with her jaws,
and as rain pours down,
their wet bodies
appear like austere ritualists
who eat food with their hands.

His arrival in the middle of the night
is like seeing rain in a mature paddy field,
in a world whose ponds have dried up.
May you live long, my friend! Translated by Vaidehi

Mdßµ88| dßd@u ¿_dd0 OL§ g|OG – the fresh millet that the mountain girl
protects in the ranges, @§@ OlOu ML@u @[0 – mature huge clusters, MdßML
u§g| d00ßd d_OMGß_ – the female that took it, along with its crude male, §0 OO[
Ç_| – climbed on the fine mountain, ¿0Od §|O_ü – full in its palm, M@u|µ MdßM_
– crushed, gG g|O[ – gathered it together, ¿M0 – upper jaw, Mdß_u dQu §|O_ü
– filled its curved cheeks, @dd| – stuffed, OßG MLü0 §OG§g Q_gg – their backs got
wet when it rained, G§ßGLlüû – those who do penances (wet after dipping in the streams and
ponds), Od 2M @@dOdülG GgßG@u – appears like they were eating with their
hands, §ßLG – man from such country, O§gGG – came, Oßg| Ggßg| – may you live long,
my friend, 20du düu dM ¿__ OL@ ¿@ dßO0 – when the world’s ponds have
lost their wetness/waters, L u_ g|[0d|ü M§00|_@ – in the rice field with mature grains,
§uMuG üßug@ uOg MLßg|§gß0Gd – like the rain that came in the middle of the

§__|OM 27, @LOßül_ d[ggGßû, M§üg0 g|OM – Ggßg| gO0OlülLu
M8ßGG@, gO0OG GdL@uLµüßd
§ µu üß@u M§@§0 _OlG
@M gß@ 2O_d@u OMµGu @LLl
gg| g|O[ Oûgg MOM uM0 ¿OLdO[d
dg| @g dßG0 _µü@ ¿G_|
d[§@ §ßu M8üg@ gG@ @0O0 2M_ OG|G
L[§@ Ll_û ¿_|§gG@u @0G[ §G@u
OOG @_|ggGu Mdß0 ¿GOG düu Ggß@
@_ _û @Gd @@@ g0|LL ð_Ou
dg| G8û u@0d|G dOMd dß0 § µ
dM GLß0 _ggOu dM_ @M L0
8|@ Lß8OLü M§üg0
@@Guß M8G@ OGd ð_ß GgßGu.

Yesterday you and I played
in the seaside grove surrounded
by backwaters,
in the sand bars brought to the
shores by the dashing waves,
chasing bees that swarm
on the tiny pollen of flowers.

Other than playing,
we did not do anything in secrecy.
If we had, everyone would have
known about it.
It’s good nothing happened.

What does mother think,
the one who does not
ask us to go and pluck
blue waterlily flowers
with thick long stems,
blooming like eyes,
among many small leaves in ponds
where heron flock feed
on shrimp and cry near
shark-infested backwaters? Translated by Vaidehi

§ µu üß@u M§@§0 – yesterday you and I, _OlG @M gß@ 2O_d@u
OMµGu @LLl – chased bees that swarm flower pollen, gg| g|O[ Oûgg MOM
uM0 – white sand that the dashing waves brought, ¿OLdO[ – sand bars, dg| @g
dßG0 – seashore grove surrounded by backwaters, _µü@ ¿G_| – other than playing,
d[§@ §ßu M8üg@ gG@ @0O0 – did not do anything in secrecy/hiding, 2M_
OG|G L[§@ Ll_û ¿_|§gG@u – if there was anything, everybody would have known
about it, @0G[ §G@u – good there is nothing, OOG @_|ggGu Mdß0 ¿GOG –
what does she think, düu Ggß@ – in all the ponds, @_ – prawns, _û @Gd @@@
g0|LL – feeding herds of herons/storks/cranes sound, ð_Ou dg| G8û u@0d|G – in the
brackishwaters where there are sharks, dOMd dß0 § µ – extending their thick stems, dM
GLß0 _ggOu dM_ – on seeing the flowers that bloom like eyes, @M L0 8|@
Lß8OLü M§üg0 – waterlilies with many small leaves, @@Guß M8G@ OGd ð_ß
GgßGu – one who does not ask us to go and pluck

§__|OM 28, @@ð__Gßû, LßO0 g|OM – gO0Ol Ggßg|ülLu
OG Odd MdßM_ gG dM g__|µu
gG Odd MdßM_ OG §0 @g0 § Olµu
¿GOG GLß0 @G|ü ð_|µu
duOû GLß0d MdßµüG ußGgß
uMl OG @g|g@u ¿@Ol MLßG OG
GO0Od gßü @0@ uO0 ¿_ddg@
__ dOg §|O§g OL0 dM @0d|0
@_ uOg d|g|d@u M8GG|
Gdß_ 2üû Ll_0d0 uO0d|gGOßGG

Even though he takes my hands
and presses them to his eyes;
takes up his own hands,
strokes my good forehead
and speaks sweet words like a mother,
he’s a thief, a cruel man,
that lord of the mountains
where the hills have tall peaks
and on the summits
the tall, swaying stems
of the bamboo with green nodes
cleave passing clouds
on the ranging mountain slopes
spread with golden kino flowers
where waterfall drop
like a stream of sapphires. Translated by Martha Ann Selby

OG Odd MdßM_ gG dMg__|µu – even though he takes my hand and presses
them to his eyes, gG Odd MdßM_ OG §0 @g0 § Olµu – takes his own hands and
strokes my good forehead, ¿GOG GLß0 @G|ü ð_|µu – speaks sweet words like a
mother, duOû GLß0d MdßµüG ußGgß – he’s a cruel man like a thief, uMl OG
@g|g@u ¿@Ol – sapphire colored flowing waterfalls, MLßG OG GO0Od gßü –
gold like vengai flowers spread, @0@ uO0 ¿_ddg@ – on the tall mountain range, __ –
swaying, dOg – bamboo, §|O§g – tall, OL0 – green, dM – bamboo node, @0d|0 –
bamboo, @_ uOg – passing clouds, d|g|d@u M8GG| – sloping summit, Gdß_ –
mountain, 2üû – tall, Ll_0d0 – mountain, uO0d|gGOßGG – lord of the mountains

§__|OM 30, Mdß__Gßû, u@gu g|OM- Ggßg| L[gOgüûLu M80@u
gO0OG|Lu M8ßGG@
dMLMGG ud|g§! dM_ OOG M8üGdß!
LßMG Odü@ LMQOL8 8_|üßg
üßMû OMµG @uMuG @u|@u
Çû g@ Mg@OlG Og|û88| G§ßdd| §|G
ußûQ gO0dMdßML ußMlOg udu|û
dO0 Ç@__ MOü@ O g ¿ûL LG|
dß0 Ç@__ OLg@ dßO0
dL0 u[u dOlg§MgGd d00d| 2LG O gQ
L0û Mdßu L0Od GLß0
Oß0d Oß0d §|G@ 20@ ¿@û §|O0Gü.

Lord! I saw you!
But what can I do about it?
When you walked on the beautiful street
where bees hum like the music
from the bard’s small lute,
women wearing elegant jewels were
waiting for you.
They who had hugged your chest before,
wanted you back again.
They shed tears and pulled you toward them
like a bunch of ship-wrecked people
fighting for a single wooden board
to save their lives.
What a pitiable situation? Translated by Vaidehi

dMLMGG ud|g§ – 2GOGd dMGLG gO0OGG, dM_ OOGM8üGdß
– dM_ OGG M8üO@, LßMG Odü@ LMQOL8 8_|üßg – LßMG|G
Odül0 §00 8|@ üßg, üßMû OMµG @uMuG @u|@u – OgOuüßG
OM_LGLß0 @uMuG g0|d@u, Çûg@ Mg@OlG – ¿gdßG Mg@Ol0,
Og|û88| G§ßdd| §|G – § O@OOg Og|ûLLßûg@, ußûQ gO0dMdßML –
ußûOL g@OldMdßML, ußMlOg udu|û – _L[M0du ¿Ml§g
MLMdu, dO0 Ç@__ MOü@ – dOO0üß0 u|dQu O@§g|, O g ¿ûL
LG| – dMM û OlL_, dß0 – dß_@, Ç@__ OLg@ dßO0 – ¿g|dußd
¿µgg MLß@@, dL0u[u – u[dd0u, dOlg§MgGd – dOlg, d00d| 2LG
O gQ – d0ddg@LG üßO@u (dL0|0) Olg, L0û Mdßu L0Od GLß0 –
L0@u L_@u L0OdOüLGLß0, Oß0dOß0d §|G@ – 2GOG Llµg@
@@g@, 20@ ¿@û §|O0Gü – LûgßLußG §|O0OuGü

§__|OM 33, @uGOLLGßû, LßO0 g|OM - Ggßg| M8ßGG@
L_ ðLû ¿OL§g L@ Oßü M§_ OO[
@[uQ G8û 8|@ @µ L[§g ußO0
Q0uQ ðL_M@u Q0M0G uG_g@
d0@OL L_Ol0 d@g| g§@
§|O_ MLü0 ¿_|üßd @O_ 2M ¿00|0
@Oû M8ü _OL M8§ MgßOL u_Oû
¿gû Lßûg@ ¿0@u ¿@ðO@ M§_|ülOL
@_LL OM@Oû ¿Oû OG|G u@gg0
O0@Ou Mdß0G0ß Mu0 @ü0 §ßu OG
Olu@@ d|uOlüu OG @du G§ßdd|
§0 ¿d OG @O0d dO[ G8ûQ
u0@ QG0 L[§g u0û Çû dMGM.

My friend looks at my face and utters,
“I’m a weak person, and I don’t
have the strength to deny him the trip”.
She sobs between words and tears stream down
her flower-like beautiful eyes,
and fall on her breasts.
She fears that when the hot rays fold
into the widely split tall mountains
and the long evening hours speed,
he’ll sit alone in a hut on a rough land
in the parched wasteland, and
eat his left over grain meal after sunset
and drink water from dirty puddles.
The marauders wear red dyed clothes
on their strong bodies,
and eye the fierce paths at night. Translated by Vaidehi

L_ ðLû ¿OL§g – hot rays ended, L@ Oßü – widely split , M§_ OO[ – tall
mountains, @[uQ G8û 8|@ @µ – gravel land hut, L[§g ußO0 – spreading evening
time (after sunset), Q0uQ – alone, sad, ðL_M@u – eat many, Q0M0G – grains,
uG_g@ – common place, d0@OL L_Ol0 – rock puddles ,d@g| g§@ – give
muddied water, §|O_ MLü0 ¿_|üßd – does not know rains (parched land), @O_ –
leftover , 2M – food, ¿00|0 – be in contact, @Oû M8ü _OL – red dyed clothing,
M8§ MgßOL – strong body, u_Oû – robbers, ¿gû Lßûg@ ¿0@u – look at the path
at night ,¿@ðO@ M§_|ülOL – among the fearful paths, @_LL OM@Oû – desires to
cross ,¿Oû OG|G u@gg0 -to deny him, O0@OuMdß0G0ß – I don’t have the
strength, Mu00|ü0 §ßu OG – I’m a weak person, Olu@@ – sobbing, d|uOlüu –
she utters (words) ,OG @du G§ßdd| – looks at my face, §0 ¿d OG, @O0d dO[
G8ûQ – tears falling on her breasts, u0@ QG0 – full stream, L[§g – spread, u0û –
flower, Çû – beautiful, dMGM – eye

§__|OM 38, 2G0ß88Gßû, M§üg0 g|OM – Ggßg| gO0OlülLu
M8ßGG@ – she says this when she sees the heroine in pain due to separation from her lover
GOLLu MLßüüß@ OO0 Ouu 8|_LL
LßLLu MLßüüß@ L[gOû Ld[
@@u LG§ g u Llg| 2MGLßû ud|@u
_û d0| üßMûg@ _ül@u Ggû Md@
Mu00u Q0uLG LlûülG Q0M0G
Q0uQ _d|GG_ Ggßg| d00@ § û
dg| @g LLLOL dßMLOßül0
g0| dß @O0 @u u|OL GO0|
MLMOM @O@u _0dM
MOu uM0 LLLOL Ou ¿@0d0 2G[.

Unfailing abundance in their nets,
unfailing rains from the skies,
our flourishing fishermen sell fish,
drink toddy from the palmyra trees
and enjoy their lives.

Such is the happiness
in our grove-filled, loud Kāndavāyil town
that is surrounded by brackish waters.
It becomes sad if your man with
a fine chariot does not come,
and this slanderous town with its
palm fronds and thorn-fenced yards
with white sands and palm trees,
causes you grief. Translated by Vaidehi

GOLLu – fishing, MLßüüß@ – unfailing, OO0 Ouu 8|_LL – abundance in the nets,
LßLLu – clouds, MLßüüß@ – do not fail L[gOû – fishermen, Ld[ – sell, @@u – dark,
LG§ g u Llg| – palmyra liquor, 2MGLßû ud|@u – drink and be happy, _û – abundant,
d0| – bountiful, üßMûg@ – new income, _ül@u – yet, Ggû Md@ – chariot owning,
Mu00u Q0uLG – seashore lord, neythal land thalaivan, LlûülG – if he separates,
Q0M0G – becomes sad, Q0uQ _d|GG_ - gives grief, Ggßg| – friend, d00@ § û
– brackish waters, dg| – salty land, @g – surrounding, LLLOL – groves, dßMLOßül0 –
town called Kāndavāyil, g0| – noisy, dß – grove, @O0 – palm fronds (leaves), @u u|OL
GO0| – thorny fence, MLMOM – female palm tree, @O@u – grows, _0dM – there,
MOu uM0 – white sand, LLLOL – grove, Ou ¿@0d0 2G[ – our slanderous town

§__|OM 45, LßµüOû MLüû d|OLddOl0O0, M§üg0 g|OM - Ggßg|
gO0OG|Lu M8ßGG@
@OGu dßG0 §MMlü dßuû 8|@@µ
§ 0 §|_L ML@0 dL0 d00d 2uQd@
uG O_| L[gOû udGu § Gü
M§_0 Mdßµ @L0@u §|üu @@ûd
d_§ Ggû8 M80OG dßg0 udGG
§|M8 ð_ß ¿@gg 2Mdd0 GOMµ
@GL Qu gLQu Oud@ §0G OOGGß
Q0Q §ß@@u M80 §|G_ Guß
ML@ § û OlOuµu Ou 8|@ §0 OßgdOd
@uMuß_ QO[OGgß ¿GG_
OuuGGßû0 M8uu@u 2OLgGg.

This girl
lives in a village
near the shore,
a daughter of fishermen
who pierce and stir up the water
of the big blue sea
as they kill fish.

And you?
You’re from that old market town
where long banners shiver
in the breeze,
a beloved son
of a rich man
with fast chariots.

What is your beauty to us,
who want the dried meat
we slice from fat sharks
as we sit and scare off
flocks of birds?

We reek of fish,
so get ready to leave.

The good little lives
that we make for ourselves
from the fruits of the sea
are not like yours
and among us, too,
there are fine men to be had. Translated by Martha Ann Selby

@OGu – This girl, dßG0 – seashore, §MMlü – nearby, dßuû – desirable, 8|@@µ –
village, § 0 §|_L ML@0 dL0 – blue colored big ocean, d00d – d00d, 2u –
interior, Qd@ – splash, uG – uG, O_| – cut into pieces, kill , L[gOû udGu – daughter of
the fishermen, § Gü – § Gü, § Gü – you, on the other hand, M§_0 Mdßµ – long/tall
banner, @L0@u – shiver, §|üu – market, @@ûd – old town, d_§ Ggû8 – fast chariot,
M80OG – rich man, dßg0 udGG – loving son, §|M8 ð_ß – fat shark, ¿@gg –
sliced, 2Mdd0 – dried food, GOMµ – request, @GL Qu – flock of birds, gLQu –
chase, O ud@ §0G OOGGß – what is your beaty to us? (§0G – beauty)
Q0Q §ß@@u – reek fish, M80 §|G_ Guß – get ready to leave, ML@ § û – sea
OlOuµu – yields, Ou 8|@ §0 OßgdOd – the good little lives, @uMuß_
QO[OGgß ¿GG_ – are not great like yours, OuuGGßû0 – among us, M8uu@u
2OLgGg – have fine men

§__|OM 52, Lß0ggGßû, LßO0 g|OM – gO0OG gG M§@ðd@
ußd Mdßµ ¿g|[0 _MOß_ Lßg|ûg
@g gdL_ Og|û u0û GOü§g ð§g0
uMu dug §ß__u uû@ üßu @Ou
ðM0@ ¿Ml _du ¿OLü @ü0d|
O 0@ 2Oûd dOOlG § 0d0 M80G0u
§ Gü _u OlOG 8|_LL OMMl §ßgu
Llû§@ 2O_ OßgdOd Qû§@ ¿OuüO0Gü
¿GQ @O0 Oßg| OG M§@G8 MOu GLßû
ugOû ML@ udG uß Ou @û
Od Ouu @OüO@ _ül@u
@@ Ç@ ¿uu @Oü§@ M8ü MLß@Gu.

My heart! You want to earn wealth.
You don’t understand the life of separation
from my beautiful girl who adorns her hair
with vine-grown, dark, wild jasmines and gold-sheet
like pāthiri flowers that are woven
together, spreading their full fragrances.

I will not leave the sweet embraces of
that girl with yellow beauty spots on her breasts.
Even if I earn wealth like that of the generous
great victorious charitable warrior king Ori,
that is not more than her love. Translated by Vaidehi

ußd Mdßµ – dark vine, ¿g|[0 _MOß_ – with wild jasmine, Lßg|ûg – pāthiri flower,
@g gdL_ – pure gold sheet, Og|û u0û – place flowers opposite, GOü§g ð§g0 –
woven for the hair, uMu dug – very fragrant, §ß__u uû@ üßu – fragrance mixed,
@Ou – she, ðM0@ – yellow beauty marks, ¿Ml -beauty, _du – breasts, ¿OLü
@ü0d| – embrace, O 0@ – increased, 2Oûd dOOlG – sweet embrace , § 0d0
M80G0u – will not leave and go, § Gü – you, _uOlOG 8|_LL OMMl – you want to
achieve wealth, §ßgu – daily, Llû§@ 2O_ OßgdOd – a life with separation, Qû§@
¿OuüO0Gü – don’t understand, ¿GQ @O0 , Oßg| OG M§@G8 – greetings, my
heart, MOu GLßû – fierce battle, ugOû – warriors, ML@ udG – leader, uß – big, Ou
@û – brave king Ori, Od Ouu – charitable hands, @OüO@ _ül@u – if I get, @@
Ç@ ¿uu – it is not more, @Oü§@ M8ü MLß@Gu – that earned wealth

§__|OM 54, G8§g0 dMMGßû, M§üg0 g|OM - gO0Ol M8ßGG@
OOu § û Guü§@ d|Ou @g0M80 @
OßL LO_ Ol@uLlOG_ül@u @8 8|O_
@@u Q0ß ¿@§@u §|G d|Ouü_ 8|_|@ @@§@
d@0 dß0 MOM @@@ OGO GdMug|
ML@u Q0uLlGG_ 8|@ QG ußO0
¿@ § ¿_|ülG ¿GQußû 2OLOü
M§ß@u0 M§@8u Mdßuuß@ OG @O_
@__ß0@ 2M[ 2O[ug| gOgGüßû
Mdßü @Og ¿@uLlü @uû @ßg0
MgM g|O[ uMlL Q_u OgO@u
dML0 GO0| @u @O_ d|gGOß_Gd.

O White heron with pure feathers
and black legs!
You love to dive into the ocean
with your relatives
and eat abundant fish.

Please listen to me!
This evening time brings me
great sorrow.
If you understand the reason,
you’ll be kind to me
and let him know how I feel,
the man from the port where
cold waves spray on the trunks
of young gnazhal trees,
and fences of screwpines with leaves
are easy to pluck for making clothes, abound. Translated by Vaidehi

OOu § û – surrounded water (ocean), Guü§@ – eat, d|Ou @g0 – with relatives,
M80 @ – go, OßLLO_ – fly and dive, Ol@uLlOG _ül@u – even if you desire, @8
8|O_ – pure feathers, @@u Q0ß – lots of meat – fish, ¿@§@u §|G d|Ouü_ – eat
with your relatives, 8|_|@ @@§@ – stay a little bit, d@0 dß0 – blacked legged, MOM
@@@ – white heron, OGO GdMug| – and so hear me, ML@u Q0uLlGG_ ,8|@
QG ußO0 – hours of the painful evening, ¿@ § ¿_|ülG – if you understand,
¿GQußû 2OLOü – you will show kindness, M§ß@u0 M§@8u Mdßuuß@ -
without any reservations, OG @O_ – my complaint, @__ß0@ 2M[ 2O[ug| –
understand it and tell him, gOgGüßû – those who wear leaf clothing, Mdßü – plucking, @Og
– leaves, ¿@uLlü – growing, @uû – young, @ßg0 – gnālal tree – a small tree growing in the
seashore – neythal land, tigerclaw tree, cassia sophera, MgM g|O[ – cold waves, uMlL Q_u
– on the base, OgO@u – hit against, dML0 GO0| – thāzhai, fragrant screw-pine fence,
@u @O_ d|gGOß_Gd – man of our port

§__|OM 60, @0dG0ßûüßû, u@gu g|OM - Ggßg| M8ßGG@
uO0 dMLGG §|O0 QMû§|OLLlG
ML@ M§0 L0 ðL_ O@Ou 2gO
dM LOL ML_ß¿@ gM Q0û Olµü0
d@0 dM O[ß¿0 ML@§ gµ u|u|û OOü_
QdûOO ¿û8|L MLßuu0 ML@@ G8ß@
dOû L_ OdOü d@u uߧg|
§ û 2@ M8@OlG §ß@ @µ ¿@gg §|G
§_§M[ß_ G8_|_ülG ¿OM
8ßµu M§üg@u @uQug| Ouu|G
uß @@0 ð§g0 uL§Og
_ü OOu ðL_u ¿Mlµußû ¿OOGü.

Farmer who has many buffaloes
and many tall, mountain-like rice bins!
You wake up at the crack of dawn
without much sleep
and eat big shining pieces of cooked
black-eyed varāl fish
with big balls of fine rice.
When you go to plant paddy
grass in the water-filled fields,
please protect the drooping
The young girl with thick dark hair
wears them as beautiful bangles. Translated by Vaidehi

uO0 dMLGG – like mountains, §|O0 QMû – put together, §|OLLlG – tall, ML@
M§0 L0 ðL_ – many big rice bins, O@Ou 2gO – farmer/plouhman owning buffaloes,
dMLOL ML_ß¿@ – not sleeping, gM – cold, Q0û – dawn, Olµü0 – early morning,
d@0 dM O[ß¿0 – black eyed varāl fish, ML@§ gµ – big pieces, u|u|ûOOü_ –
shining as it is cooked, QdûOO – food, ¿û8| – rice, MLßuu0 – splendid, ML@@ G8ß@
– big rice balls, dOû L_ – enjoy and eat, OdOü - with your hands,d@u – lots, uߧg|
– eat, § û 2@ M8@OlG – water filled fields, §ß@ @µ ¿@gg – plant paddy grass,
§|G – your, §_§M[ß_ – those who plant, G8_| – go, _ülG ¿OM – and there,
8ßµu M§üg@u – bending neythal plants - purple waterlilies, @uQug| – protect, Ouu|G
– our, uß @@0 ð§g0 – dark thick hair, uL§Og – young girl, _ü OOu – beautiful
bangles, ðL_u – weaves, ¿Mlµußû ¿OOGü – and wears them

§__|OM 61, 8|@Guß0|dGßû, @_|@8| g|OM – Ggßg| gO0Ol
ð@OOgLGLß0 M8ß0@O@ - The friend utters these words knowing that the hero
listening to her. Indirectly she is urging him to come and marry her friend, by being the voice of the

Gdußü O00 Ggßg| ¿0d0
GOMOß §0|ü MOüü 2ül[ß
Ç ußG LlOMülG O@§g|MGGßd
@üû u@0@ ¿_|§gGu GLß0 ¿GOG
@@8ßGüß OG @@udu OG_0|G
M8ß0 MOu|LLLßOu Mu00 OG M§@8|0
L_ uOg MLßg|§g LßO_ u@0d|0
8|[0 Oßü 2__ guOlG L[0 ¿O0
dßG Md@ §ßL_ LLû§Ggßûd@d
dM@u L_Guß OG_|8|G üßGG.

Listen my friend!
Last night I was distressed with desire
for my lover and was in deep pain like
a female deer pierced by an arrow.

I sighed deeply and mother asked me
“are you not sleeping my little girl?”,
like she understood my sadness.
Words didn’t come out of my mouth,
but quietly I said to my heart,
“how could I close my eyes when I am
separated from my man from the country
with splendid forests, heavy rains
and kingfisher-mouth like jasmine
that grow near rocks on gravel beds. Translated by Vaidehi

Gdußü O00 Ggßg| – listen my friend, ¿0d0 – yesterday night, GOMOß –
increasing desire, §0|ü – distressed, MOüü – hot, 2ül[ß – deep breath, sighed, Ç – arrow,
ußG LlOMülG – like a female deer ,O@§g|MGGßd – when I was sad, @üû
u@0@ ¿_|§gGu GLß0 - like she understood my sadness, ¿GOG – mother,
@@8ßGüß OG @@udu OG_0|G – aren’t you not sleeping my little daughter she
asked, M8ß0 MOu|LLLßOu – words didn’t come out, Mu00 OG M§@8|0 – slowly
in my heart, L_ uOg MLßg|§g – heavy rains had fallen ,LßO_ u@0d|0 – near the
rocks, 8|[0 Oßü 2__ – like the kingfisher’s mouth, guOlG – jasmine vine, L[0
¿O0 – tiny gravel, dßG Md@ – splendid forest, §ßL_ – country man, LLû§Ggßûd@d
– those separated from him, dM@u L_Guß OG_|8|G üßGG – could I close my eyes
(an sleep), I said

§__|OM 64, 2G0ß88Gßû, @_|@8| g|OM – gO0Ol Ggßg|ülLu
M8ßGG@ – when the friend
wants to send word (@@) to the hero.
OGGû_ül@u @G| §|OGQ gg|d
¿GGOßd @OGü0 Ggßg| üßu
@GGußd §g @_§Ggßû §LQ OOG
u[0 §ßû 2_dOd uO0 2O_ @_Oû
¿_|üß@ ¿@gg 8|_|ülO08 8ߧgu
O_@_@ _[ @@dd| OLMüG
u[u O_|gßd8 G8ßû§@ 2ddß0@ OG
¿_|Qu 2uu@u ¿Oû OülG M8GM_G
O_|gß0 @@Ou OG üßdOd @G| ¿Oû
Oû@u G§ßü u@§@ ¿00û Oß[ß@
¿OMû _@d dßg0û @OM §u
dßuu LLû ¿L O@§g|ü
G§ßü u0| O@ggu dßMGußû OuG[.

However special he is,
let thoughts of him end.
Don’t feel sad my friend.
Why do we need the friendship
of the one who abandoned us?
The mountain men who wear hemp fiber
clothes have peeled sandal tree barks
that have dried out and wilted.
Their oozing sap, is like my
intelligence and heart that go toward him
even when my body has no feelings.
He will not be a cure to my illness
even if he comes back.
Let him stay there, my friend.
I hope that my relatives don’t see
my deep sadness and heavy sorrow. Translated by Vaidehi

OGGû _ül@u – however he is, @G| §|OGQ gg|d – let thoughts (of him) end,
¿GGOßd – for that, @OGü0 – don’t feel sad, Ggßg| – friend, üßu – our,
@GGußd §g @_§Ggßû – gave sorrow and parted us, §LQ – friendship, OOG – why,
u[0 §ßû 2_dOd – hemp fiber clothing, uO0 2O_ @_Oû – mountain residing
kuravars, ¿_|üß@ – without knowing, ¿@gg – cut, 8|_|ülO0 – small leaved, 8ߧgu –
sandalwood tree, O_@_@ – dried – no feelings, and sap oozed, _[ – fully, @@dd| –
destroyed, OLMüG – slowly, u[u O_|gßd8 G8ßû§@ – tree dried and got sick looking,
2d@ _0@ – wilted there, OG – my, ¿_|Qu 2uu@u – intelligence and heart,
¿Oû OülG M8GM_G – went toward him, O_|gß0 – dried out , @@Ou – friend,
OG üßdOd – my body, @G| ¿Oû – now his, Oû@u – if he comes, G§ßü u@§@
¿00û – he won’t be medicine to my sickness, Oß[ß@ – not come, ¿OMû _@d – stay
there, dßg0û – lover, @OM §u – here our, dßuu LLû – love affliction, ¿L
O@§g|ü – heavy sadness, G§ßü – disease, u0| O@ggu – lot of sorrow, dßMGußû
OuG[ – (I hope) my relatives don’t see it

§__|OM 70, MOuu| O g|üßû, u@gu g|OM – gO0Ol M8ßGG@ (@@@
could be herons, egrets or storks)
8|@ MOuuß0@@Gd 8|@ MOuuß0@@Gd
@O_ GLß@ ¿@OOg @ uµ ¿GG
§|_u d|uû @Ol8 8|@ MOuuß0@@Gd
Ou 2û O§@ Ou 2M @O_g @Og@
8|OGd Mdu|_@ _ûOdOü ¿Oû 2ûL MLüûg|
¿OGü ¿GLlOGGüß ML@ u_OlOüGüß
_0dM g u QG0 Þ0dM L[d@u
dgG| §0 2û ud|g§ûd@ OG
@Og M§d|g L@O[0 M8LLßGgßGü.

O Small white heron! O Small white heron!
with bright white feathers looking
like shore-washed clothes,
Come to our town and search our ponds
for pregnant keliru fish,
and eat them until you are full.

Go to his town with fertile fields
and wide sweet waters
and kindly remember to tell my beloved man
that I am sad and afflicted with love,
and that my bangles are slipping away from my hand. Translated by Vaidehi

8|@ MOuuß0@@Gd – small white heron, 8|@ MOuuß0@@Gd – small white heron,
@O_ GLß@ – (taken to) water shores, ¿@OO – garments, @uµ – washed ,¿GG –
like, §|_u – color, d|uû – bright, @Ol – feathers ,8|@ MOuuß0@@Gd – small white
pelican, Ou 2û O§@ – came to our town, Ou – our, 2M@O_g – drinking water shores,
@Og@ – search, 8|OGd Mdu|_@ – get the pregnant keliru fish, _ûOdOü – full,
¿Oû 2ûL MLüûg| – move to his town, ¿OGü ¿GLlOGGüß – with kindness
,ML@ u_OlOüGüß – without forgetting, _0dM – there, g u QG0 – sweet water,
Þ0dM – here, L[d@u – spread, dgG| §0 2û – good town with fields, ud|g§ûd@ –
my loved one, OG – my, @Og M§d|g – jewel (bangle) slipping, L@O[0 – sadness,
M8LLßGgßGü – won’t you tell him

§__|OM 79, dMMdGßû, LßO0 g|OM – gO0Ol M8ßGG@
8|O_ §ßu Þ0Od 2O_ §G| g|[uO
ðO[ §0 uOGd @@§ Mgßµ udu|û
uM0 __ dg0d|G ¿O_ u|O8g gß¿u
Çû g[@__ @üd@ ¿@0 dOO0L
Llû§Ggßû O§@ §LQM[L QMû§Ggßû
Llûg0 @gg0|G ¿ûü@u 2MGLß
OG@ §ßu ð_|d dßuu M8LQ@u
M8LLß@ OlµGG 2ülM[ß_u O§gG@
¿uu Oßg| Ggßg|
üßgG|G gOlûd@Ou dßg0û M80GO.

May you live long, my friend!
He wants to go
on the confusing difficult paths,
honey that fresh eengai
flowers drop on the rocks below
look like molucca beans on sand
in the yards of fine houses with
with which girls with small bangles play.

Is there anything more harsh
than separation from a loved one?
I want to tell him how I feel.
If I don’t tell him, my life will
not be a good one.
How can I stop him from going away? Translated by Vaidehi

8|O_ – this side, nearby, §ßu Þ0Od – day’s fresh eengai 2O_ – (honey) drops, §G|
g|[u – filled, O – flowers, ðO[ §0 uOGd – fine house with a roof, @@§ Mgßµ
udu|û – women with small bangles, uM0 __ dg0d|G – veriyattam kazhangu seeds,
¿O_ – rocks, u|O8 – on it, gß¿u – spread, Çû – beautiful, g[@__ – that yielded,
@üd@ – moving, ¿@0 dOO0 – confusing curved paths, Llû§Ggßû – those who are
separated, O§@ §LQM[L QMû§Ggßû – embraced me with love, Llûg0 @gg0|G –
if separation happens, ¿ûü@u 2MGLß – is there anything more harsh, OG@ §ßu ð_|
– if I say that, dßuu M8LQ@u – tell that with love, M8LLß@ OlµGG – if I don’t tell him,
2ülM[ß_u O§gG@ – my life will not be good, ¿uu Oßg| Ggßg| – greetings my
friend, üßgG|G gOlûd@Ou – how can I stop, dßg0û M80GO – lover’s going away

§__|OM 86, §dd[û, LßO0 g|OM – Ggßg| M8ßGG@
¿_Oû Oßg| Ggßg| u_Oû
GO0 OG Olû§g d@LLlG Ggß0
LßMµ0 gLLlG LdGO_ u0@u
d_u LG| ¿_8|[u §_0d dßMgdd
Od O0 OlOGOG OgµQ M8ßû§g
ðûgd 2@OlG _d|L MLûü
Gdß0du @Ol @Od ¿Olg Þ0Od
§0 gu|û §üO[ @L0@u
@__ß GOG|0 @GG| O§GgßG[.

My friend!
Your lover left in the very harsh
early dew season
when the round pakandrai flowers
that are as wide as spears of warriors
were in bloom, and you trembled.
If he thinks about you and comes back
in early summer
when the kongam flowers that look
like skilled artists-created
beautiful head ornaments bloom
and the elegant eengai sprouts sway,
he is a just man. May be live long! Translated by Vaidehi

¿_Oû Oßg| – long live the just man, Ggßg| – friend, u_Oû – warriors, GO0 OG
Olû§g – spread like a spear, d@LLlG Ggß0 – covered skin, LßMµ0 – round, gLLlG
– like, LdGO_ u0@u – pakandrai flowers, d_u LG| – harsh dew season, ¿_8|[u –
early dew season, §_0d – tremble, dßMgd -seen, Od O0 OlOGOG – talented
hand-skilled man, OgµQ – created, M8ßû§g – made, ðûgd – hair jewel, 2@OlG _d|L
– MLûü – big, Gdß0du – kongam, @Ol @Od – closed buds, ¿Olg – open, Þ0Od –
eengai, §0 gu|û – fine sprouts, §üO[ – elegantly, @L0@u - swaying, @__ß
GOG|0 – early summer, @GG| O§GgßG[ – think of me and come

§__|OM 90, ¿@8|0 ¿@8|üßû, u@gu g|OM – Ggßg| gO0OlülLu
M8ßGG@, LßMG GdL@uLµüßd – The urai written by the Tamil scholar S. V.
Subramanian and others state that the hero sends a message through the bard that he wants to return,
and the friend refuses the offer – the implication is that due to his quarrel with his concubine (the
dancer), he wants to return to his wife.
__ @ü0 OlgOlG ¿@0d0 @@û
2OLGüßû LGOuülG ML@0 Od @Oß
O_G @0 QO0gg| O00|g Ggßügg
QdßL Qdû MdßML QG _0 d0|0dMuß_
OßLß ußO0 @ü0O[ @µ
ML@0 dül@ §ß@u @@u LGu LlOMü0
_0 dM _üu 2dd 20dßu
¿@gGu MLü@u ¿u 8|0 @g|
§0ðû MLMµG 8|0 OOud @@udu
280 2@ Mgßg|0 _80 ðLLß
§üG @0 ußddGuß_ Mdg @
LüG @G@ ¿uu @O GO§@OL ¿OOGü.

During the dance festival
in this loud ancient town,
the poor washer-woman washes for many,
soaks the clothes in thin rice gruel
and rinses them.
The dancing girl wears soft fine clothes
washed by her,
dons a fresh flower garland that sways
as she runs,
sits on a swing with thick ropes made
with dark palmyra fibers
which is pushed by her friends.
She cries and moves away,
this young girl with soft hair and few bangles,
the one who is in pain because of the quarrel.
She is in the midst of undesirable people,
and the king’s dancing hall remains unused. Translated by Vaidehi

__ @ü0 OlgOlG – dance festival, ¿@0d0 @@û – loud ancient town,
2OLGüßû – having, LGOuülG – many, ML@0Od @Oß – non-stopping, O_G
@0 – without wealth, QO0gg| – washerwoman, O00| – night, Ggßügg – soaked, Qdß
– food, Qdû – kanji, MdßML – with, QG _0 d0|0dMuß_ – some fresh clothes,
OßLß ußO0 – fresh garland, @ü0 O[ – swaying, @µ – run, ML@0 dül@ – big
rope, §ß@u – twisted, @@u LGu – dark palmyra, LlOMü0 – woven, _0 dM –
flower-like eyes, _üu – friends, 2dd – push, 20dßu – does not swing, ¿@gGu
MLü@u – cried and moved, ¿u 8|0 @g| – beautiful delicate hair, §0ðû – suffering,
weary MLMµG – woman , 8|0 – delicate or few, OOud @@udu – young girl with
bangles, 280 – swing, 2@ Mgßg|0 – inherent business, _80 ðLLß – without quarrel,
§üG @0 ußddGuß_ Mdg @ – mixed with undesirable people, LüG @G@ –
without use, ¿uu – an expletive, @O GO§@OL ¿OOGü – this king’s dance hall,
assembly hall

§__|OM 95, GdßLLuL0OGßû, @_|@8| g|OM – gO0OG M8ßGG@
dOg Lß_ @[0d L0 @üu d_0d
__ udu §L§g Mdß_u Qû G§ßG dül_@
¿gOg g u dG| ¿GG M8u @dg
@üg gO0 u§g| OG L_g @0d
dOgd dM @@u MLßO_ Ç_| OlO8g@ O@§@
@_d @@ußddu gßuu MdßL_u ¿d
@G_dgg@GO @@ u|Ou8 8@û
8@G[ßGu §ß@ uülûd Mdßµ88|
Mdßµ88| Odüdgg@GO Ll_û
Ol_gg_@ _dß@ LlMlgg OG M§@G8.

In the small well-guarded hamlet in the hills
where my girl with fragrant hair lives,
bamboo flutes and instruments create loud music
and kuravar children climb rapidly
on big boulders and clap to that beat,
as a sweet-fig colored soft-headed, red-faced,
strong young female monkey balances and sways
on the tightly twisted high rope,
that belonged to a dancing girl.
She holds my heart, and only she can release it. Translated by Vaidehi

dOg – @0d|0 (Q00ß0@g0), Lß_ @[0d – @O8 g0|dd, L0 @üu
d_0d – L0 OOd Oßgg|ü0dgu @g0d, __ udu §L§g – __u
MLMM §L§g, Mdß_u Qû G§ßG dül_@ – ML@u @@d@ML
O0|OuüßG dül__|0, ¿gOg g u dG| ¿GG – ¿gg|ülG @G|ü
LggOgLGLßG_, M8u @dg – 8|dLQ @du, @üg gO0 u§g| – L@ð
(GLßG_) gO0Oü 2OLü MLM @[0d|G, OG L_g @0d – O@OßG
@Lµ _L, dOgd dM – @0d|0 ¿@d|0, @@u MLßO_ Ç_| – MLûü
LßO_ülG u@ Ç_|, OlO8g@ O@§@ – GOdußd O@§@, @_ @@ußddu –
uO0ül0 Oß@LOûdu|G 8|@Oûdu, gßuu MdßL_u – gßuu
MdßL_Oßûdu, ¿d @G_dgg@GO – ¿§gd@G_gg|G0, @@ – OuußG,
u|Ou 8@û – dßO@OLü 8|_@û, 8@G[ßGu – 8|_@û0 2uuOGu, §ß@
uülûd Mdßµ88| – §@ uG@uu ð§gO0QOLü uO0 §ßL_LMLM,
Mdßµ88| – ¿§gLMLM, Odüdgg@GO – OdüßG0, Ll_û – Ll_[ß0,
Ol_gg_@ _dß@ – Ol_Oldd @µüß@, LlMlgg OG M§@G8 –
LlMlddLLLL@ OG M§@ð

§__|OM 97, uß_G O@g|, @0O0 g|OM – gO0Ol Ggßg|ülLu
¿@§@ L_ Ol@L QM O@uQ Oßü Q0[ß
OOO M§@8g@ O@ O_|§gß0@
LlûOl0 Q0uLl @O@u @ül0|@u
Gg@ § û Mdg @ü üß@ §G| MdßµGg
¿gG|@u Mdßµüu gßGG ugG|G
@üg gO0 @gg OL0 @@ddgg|Güß_
Llgg|Od Ol[Q u0û Mdßuu G[ß OG
OM_ @g OLµüu g|ûg@u
gMLO0 2gOû gG| uL udGu.

When the cuckoo
sings near me
in plaintiff notes,
the hurt is like a deep,
unhealed wound sore being
thrust with a lance.

Harsher than that is when the
river runs with abundant
clear water.

Much more harsher than that
is the farmer’s special,
delicate daughter who
calls out and sells
in her bee-swarming basket,
fresh kurukkathi flowers
with beautiful soft petals,
mixed with jasmine flowers
raised in the field. Translated by Vaidehi

¿@§@ L_ Ol@L QM – deep old sore, O@uQ Oßü Q0[ß – scar that’s edges have
not dried up, OOO M§@8g@ – painful heart, O@ O_|§gß0@ – like a spear was plunged,
LlûOl0 Q0uLl @O@u @ül0|@u – more than the cuckoo bird singing mournfully,
Gg@ § û Mdg @ü üß@ – river that runs with abundant clear water, §G| MdßµGg – is
more harsher, ¿gG|@u Mdßµüu gßGG – the girl who is harsher than that, ugG|G
@üg gO0 @gg – beautiful soft top petals, OL0 @@ddgg|Güß_ Llgg|Od
Ol[Q u0û Mdßuu G[ß OG – mixed fresh kurukkathi and jasmine flowers, will you take,
OM_ @g OLµüu – bee-swarming basket, g|ûg@u – going around, gMLO0 –
field, 2gOû gG| uL udGu – the farmer’s special delicate daughter

§__|OM 98, LßMµüG 2dd|[L ML@O@g|, @_|@8| g|OM – gO0Ol
Oüu @u ¿GG L@2 uülûO@gg|G
M8üüuu GuO0 8|@ dL LG_|
@0@ uO0 OlüG QGu Lk@üû O 0@ MLß_|
@Og @Ogµu MLß@g|0 gßgß@
Lß0dûL Lddg@L L00| LLMLG
Mu00Mu00L Ll_dGd MLüû§@ gG
d0 ¿OuL Luu| Og|µu §ßLG
O§Og @uQu dµ 2OL Olü0 §dûg
@@8ßd dßO0û @dg Lgu G§ßdd|
@[OlG O@2u ¿gG|@u MdßµGg
OOd@u MLß@§g0 g00ßd
dMMMß_ Oß[ß OG §ßû @0 M§@G8.

O man from the country where
a small-eyed pig with porcupine-quill-like
coarse neck hair
walks toward the wide millet field
in the tall mountain
anxious to graze, unaware of the big trap,
but walks back to his cave to sleep,
when he hears a lizard call from a nearly
toothbrush tree!

You come into my father’s well-guarded big house
when the guards are tired.
Harsher than that is when
my tired eyes are unable to close
during the day, and my soft heart is lost. Translated by Vaidehi

Oüu @u ¿GG – porcupine hair like, L@2 uülû – coarse hair, O@gg|G – in the
neck, M8üüuu GuO0 – to eat, 8|@ dL LG_| – small-eyed pig, @0@ uO0 – tall
mountain, OlüG QGu – wide field, Lk@üû – to catch, O 0@ – big, MLß_| – trap,
@Og – small path, @Ogµu MLß@g|0 – when entering, gßgß@ – without delay,
Lß0dûL – toothbrush tree, Lddg@L – nearby, L00| LLMLG – heard lizard calls,
Mu00Mu00L Ll_dGd MLüû§@ gG – slowly went back to his, d0 ¿OuL –
rock cave, Luu| – to sleep, Og|µu – lives, §ßLG – country man, O§Og @uQu – my
father fosters (my) virtue, dµ 2OL – with protection, Olü0 §dûg – big house, @@8ßd
dßO0û – sleepless guards, @dg Lgu G§ßdd| – see when they are tired, @[OlG
O@2u – to come at night, ¿gG|@u MdßµGg – harsher than that, OOd@u – every
day, MLß@§g0 g00ß – unable to close, dMMMß_ – tired eyes, Oß[ß – doesn’t come
back, OG §ßû @0 M§@G8 – my soft heart

§__|OM 100, L[Mû, u@gu g|OM - L[gOg Ol_0|ülLu M8ßGG@
2ugMgß@u §@GOG Ggßg| Ou2d|û
ußûd Mdßdd|G ðû ¿0@ ¿GG
@M_ § û _uL0 gM @O_ 2[G
Ggu dug @uLß0 L__| OG OülG
OßG Gdß0 O0 OOu MOuOlü _80
8|GOlü @dg@ 8|GOß@ M8G@ §|G
uOGGüßL@ 2O[LL0 OG_0|G @OG 2ûL
L0 _ M§_ §|O[ Ol00|G güµu
Ggû OM uO0üG @§Og GLû @O8L
Q0u Qû Oülûüû §0u Qû @gOlG
uM _û dMMlG ¿g|@u
§GG[ßuG §_0@ ¿@û §|O0Gü.

Whenever I think about it,
I laugh my friend.
The man
from the cool port
where waterlilies grow
in ponds deep like bills of
rainy-season storks,
pulled my honey-fragrant,
five-part braid and plucked
my white, bright bangles
from my hand
when we had a quarrel,
and made me angry.

I told him
that I was going to tell his wife
about what happened.
The man who wants it good,
trembled with fear
like the roaring
mud-packed, beautiful
tight drums of the dancers
who came from another land
to dance for king Malaiyamān,
who donates fine chariots
to those who come
to him after winning cattle herds
from the other side of town. Translated by Vaidehi

2ugMgß@u – whenever I think about it, §@GOG Ggßg| – I laugh my friend, Ou2d|û
– sharp claws, ußûd Mdßdd|G – rainy season stork, ðû ¿0@ – sharp beak, ¿GG –
like, @M_ – pond, § û – water, _uL0 – white waterlily, gM @O_ – cool port, 2[G
– man from such town, Ggu dug – honey fragrant, @uLß0 – five-part braid, L__| – held,
OG – my, OülG – with me, OßG Gdß0 – white round, O0 OOu – bright bangles,
MOuOlü – plucked, removed, _80 – quarrel, 8|GOlü @dg@ – angry face, 8|GOß@
M8G@ – go without anger, §|G – your, uOGGüßL@ 2O[LL0 – I’ll tell your wife,
OG_0|G – I said that, @OG 2û – edge of town, L0 _ – many cows, M§_ §|O[ –
lots of cattle, Ol00|G – battle with arrows, güµu – win, Ggû OM uO0üG –
Malaiyaman who gives fine chariots, @§Og – ancient, GLû @O8 – great fame, Q0u Qû
Oülûüû – dancers who came from another land, §0u Qû @gOlG – beautiful tight
drum’s, uM _û dMMlG – mud packed eyes, ¿g|@u – sound, §GG[ßuG – one
who wants it good, §_0@ – tremble, ¿@û §|O0Gü – distressed situation

§__|OM 102, M8uLlüGßû, @_|@8| g|OM – gO0Ol d|u|ülLu M8ßGG@
– She wants the bird to tell her lover that she’s alone in the millet field
Mdß_0 @[0 @O_gg M8O OßüLOL0 d|u|
¿@80 @uLl _û Lgu MdßM_
§|G @O_ @µgg LlGO_ OG @O_
M8üg0 GOM_uß0 Od Mgß@@ @[LL0
L0 GdßL L0OlG 8ß[0 ¿Oû §ßL_
§|G d|Ou u@0d|G G8_| _ülG
¿u uO0 d|gGOß_@ 2O[ug| @u uO0d
dßGd @_Oû uL udu
ÇG0 dßO0 _ülGu OGGO.

O beautiful red-mouthed green parrot!
Do not fear me!
Eat as much as you want, and when satisfied,
take care of my desire.
I beg your favor with my clasped hands.
If you go to see your relatives in the nearby
mountains where jackfruit trees have many branches,
see the lord of the mountain
and tell him that the forest dweller’s innocent daughter
is waiting for him in the millet field. Translated by Vaidehi

Mdß_0 @[0 – curved millet stalks, @O_gg – reduced (by eating), M8OOßüL OL0
d|u| – red mouthed green parrot, ¿@80 @uLl – remove (your) fear, _ûLgu MdßM_
– take food, §|G @O_ @µgg LlGO_ – once your need is satisfied, OG @O_ – my
need, M8üg0GOM_uß0 – to take care, Od Mgß@@ @[LL0 – I plead with my
hands, L0 GdßL L0OlG – many branched jackfruit tree, 8ß[0 – mountain slopes, ¿Oû
§ßL_ – his country, §|G d|Ou – your relatives, u@0d|G – nearby, G8_| _ülG – if
you reach, ¿u uO0 d|gGOß_@ – lord of that mountain, 2O[ug| – tell him, @u
uO0d – this mountain, dßGd @_Oû uL udu – forest kuravar’s innocent daughter,
ÇG0 dßO0 _ülGu OGGO – is in the millet field to protect

§__|OM 105, @Lgg|@uß_G , LßO0 g|OM – gO0OG gG M§@8|Lu
@u| Mdßµ O0§g @u ¿O[ @0Og@
gu|û 8|OG ¿g|[ O 8| Olu|LL
MOO Ou| Og0@u GOü Lül0 u@0d|0
d_ §OL üßOG dGM_ß_ O@§g
M§_ § û ¿__ §|g0 @0 _0dM
¿@@ ð[d dOO0ü OGGßü M§_@ G8M
LLLOG Oßg|ü M§@G8 @L_OG
@L OO[8 ðOGü uß @ggd @OOu
OM_ L_ OßG GLß@ du@u
¿u 8|0 @g| ¿@u LLû 2_GO.

Greetings to you, my heart!
The hot wind is blowing and
silk-cotton trees with thorns in their trunks
and dry vine twined around them,
are trembling as their branches break;
an elephant walking with her calf is distressed
with no water or shade in sight;
you are trying to cross this difficult path.

Your bond with the girl with eyes like
the blue waterlilies of Cheran’s mountain springs,
and delicate hair
filled with the fragrance of white buds
swarmed by bees, is precious. Translated by Vaidehi

@u| Mdßµ – dried creepers, O0§g – surrounded, @u – thorny, ¿O[ – trunk,
@0Og@ – silk-cotton tree’s, gu|û 8|OG – branch, ¿g|[ – tremble, O 8| – blow, Olu|
– sounds, LL – break, MOO Ou| – hot wind, Og0@u – happen, GOü Lül0 –
bamboo filled, u@0d|0 – area, d_ §OL üßOG – fast walking elephant, dGM_ß_
O@§g – sad with calf, M§_ § û ¿__ §|g0 @0 – no water or shade for a long distance,
_0dM – there, ¿@@ ð[d – difficult dry path, dOO0ü – cuved paths, OGGßü –
you do not think, M§_@ G8M – far away, LLLOG – Oßg|ü M§@G8 – may you live
long my heart, @L_OG – Cheran king, @L OO[ – western mountains, ðOGü – springs,
uß @ggd @OOu – dark leaf purple water-lilies, OM_ L_ – bees swarming, OßG
GLß@ du@u – white bud fragrance, ¿u 8|0 @g| – beautiful delicate hair, ¿@u LLû
2_GO. – precious increasing bond

§__|OM 110, GLßgGßû, LßO0 g|OM – gO0OlülG gßü M8ßGG@
Ll[8u d0§g MOM ðOOg g uLß0
Olû dg|ûL MLß_d0g@ g@ Od ǧg|
QOLLLlG ð_@u _§ gO08 8|@ Gdß0
2M OG@ @d@Q LlOgLL MgM § û
@g@ ¿ûL MLß_8|0uQ g0|LLg gg@_@
¿û §O[d ð§g_ M8u @@ M8Ol0|üû
Lû Mu0|§@ gg|ü L§gû @µ
ÇO0 u@d@u 8|@ OlOuüßLµ
¿_|Qu g@dd@u üßM_ 2Mû§gGuMdß0
MdßML Mdß@ §G @µ O_G 2_M_G
Mdß_gg g§Og Mdß@@ G8ß@ 2uußu
g@@ § û @M0@ ¿_0 GLß0
MLß@@ u@g@ 2M@u 8|@ u@OdüGu.

Her slightly grey-haired, wise foster mothers
used to carry glowing gold bowls
with sweet milk mixed with honey and follow her.
They ran behind her to the pavilion,
with their soft-headed small sticks
and forced her to eat.

My playful daughter’s golden anklets
filled with pearls from clear waters,
jingled as she jumped and ran away,
refusing the food they brought.

Her husband’s family has grown poor now.
She doesn’t think about the rich rice her father used to give,
softer than the delicate sand under running water.
She eats what she can,
that little girl with such great strength. Translated by Vaidehi

Ll[8u d0§g – GgG d0§g, MOM ðOOg g uLß0 – MOMMl_
ðOOüßG @G|ü Lß0, Olû dg|ûL – MLûü LLû§g, MLß_d0g@ g@ Od
ǧg| – g@ Odüß0 MLß_d0gOg ǧg|, QOLLLlG ð_@u – @Lgg|0
ð_@u, _§ gO0 – MuGOuüßG gO0, 8|@ Gdß0 – 8|GG duQ, 2M
OG@ @d@Q – 8ßLLl_ OG@ ¿gLµ, LlOgLL , MgM § û – Mgu|§g § û,
@g@ ¿ûL MLß_8|0uQ – @g@ §|[uLlü 800Od, g0|LL – g0|dd,
gg@_@ – @g|g@, ¿û §O[d ð§g_ – 8|_|@ §O[gg ð§g0, M8u @@
M8Ol0|üû – OügßG M8Ol0|g gßüußû, Lû Mu0|§@ gg|ü – LlGGß0
@L @ü0ß@, L§gû @µ – L§g0 ¿µGü @µ, ÇO0 u@d@u 8|@
OlOuüßLµ – GOMµüOg u@g@ 8|@L LluOuggGußd OlOuüßµ,
¿_|Qu g@dd@u üßM_ 2Mû§gGuMdß0 – OLLµ ¿_|Qu
g@dd@u O§gG, MdßML Mdß@§G @µ O_G 2_M_G – MdßML
dMOG|G @_uLu ÇgOu 2__gß, Mdß_gg g§Og Mdß@@ G8ß@
2uußu – g§Og Mdß_gg ¿@LLlü G8ß_O_ 2MM ußLLßu, g@@
§ û @M0@ ¿_0 GLß0 – ¿O8§@ @_u § û ¿µül0 2uu @MMlü
uM0 GLß0, MLß@@ u@g@ 2M@u 8|@ u@OdüGu – u@g@ ¿OG
O Lµ0 2uuOg 2M@u @MlQOLüOu

§__|OM 111, Lßµüû MLüû d|OLddOl0O0, M§üg0 g|OM – Ggßg|
gO0OlülLu M8ßGG@ – The word ‘maral’ has two meanings - ’hemp plant’ and ‘tree’. It
means tree here. I have used S. V. Subramanian’s urai for this translation. In other songs, it means
hemp. The hemp fibers are used by the mountain people to make clothing.
¿gg @@LOLL _OlG ¿GG
@üg gO0 @_MOß_ MgßOd uG ML_ @üû
Oû OO0L L[gOû d@ OlOG8 8|_ß¿û
u[0 Gu_MdßM_ ußG dMu gOdußû
MO§ g|_0 @OuüOû GOL_ O@§gß0@
g|u|0 Gu_MdßM_ g|O[8 ð[u § §g|
Oßu Oßü8 ð_MOß_ Oü uG MdMµ
§|Mu MLü GgßMlüû @@ uM0 @g| g@u
ML@0 dg|L Lßddu d0M0G
O@Gu Ggßg| MdßMdG GgG[.

Brave fishermen kids
take their tightly woven nets
to catch many kinds of fish,
and prawns with heads as soft
as wasteland iruppai flowers.
They are like the strong youngsters who
climb on trees and raise their voices
to chase deer herds.

They climb on their boats
and brave the salty waves,
come back with a bountiful catch of fish
and sword-mouthed sharks,
and cut and place the flesh
on the spread sand.
Your lover will come in his chariot
with a loud noise from that seaside town. Translated by Vaidehi

¿gg – LßO0 §|0u, @@LOLL _OlG ¿GG – @@LOLL _OOL GLßG@,
@üg gO0 – MuGOuüßG gO0 (2OLü), @_MOß_ – @_ß0 uMGß_,
MgßOd uG ML_ @üû – Ll_ uGdOuµu LlµLLg_dßd, Oû OO0 –
dLµü OO0, L[gOû d@OlOG8 8|_ß¿û – O0|OuµOLü L[gO8
8|@Oûdu, u[0 Gu_MdßM_ – u[u Gu0 Ç_| (maral has two meanings – jute
plant and tree), ußG dMu gOdußû – ußG @GgOg g_dd, MO§ g|_0
@OuüOû – O0|OuQOLü 8|@Oûdu, GOL_ O@§gß0@ – g0|Oü
O@LLlGß_GLß0, g|u|0 Gu_MdßM_ – LLd|0 Ç_|, g|O[8 ð[u § §g| –
2LQ § û ¿O0Gu0 M8G@, Oßu Oßü8 ð_MOß_ – OßOuLGLßG_
OßOüd MdßML ð_ßGOß_, Oü uG MdMµ – §|O_ü uOG ¿@g@,
§|Mu – 2G (flesh), MLü GgßMlüû – GgßMlül0|@§@ MdßM_ O§@, @@
uM0 @g|g@u – L[Olü uM0|0 L[LLl, ML@0 dg|L Lßddu – MLûü
2OûLLßddu, d0M0G O@Gu – ‘d0’ OG_ g0|Güß_ O@Gu Ggßg| –
Ggßg|, MdßMdG GgG[ – dL_dO[ 2[@OLü GgG[

§__|OM, 118, LßO0 Lßµü ML@0d_0Gdß, LßO0 g|OM – gO0Ol
Ggßg|ülLu M8ßGG@
¿OLdO[ uß¿g@ ¿00@ 8|OG g0|üg
gu|û dOlG Oüg|ü gM §@u MLß@uLl0
G8OM0ß_ Mdg @ü M80dM @@0 @ül0
QdG@ Og|û _@u _ u0| dßO0µu
¿dGG_ßû uG_ §u u_§g|8|GGßû OG
@Mû 2@Q 2OLOgGgO0µu QMû OlOG
@O ußddu gu ¿[d@ 2Lµü
@d|0|Od ¿GG @üg gO0L Lßg|û
Oß0 @gg ¿0û OM_ LL ǧg|
Q@ u0û Mg@QMgß@ @O@u
M§ß@u0ßLµd@ G§ßu OG M§@G8.

A red-eyed, black female cuckoo
unites with her male
and sings lovingly with him
on the fresh, sprout-covered
dense branches of a mango tree
in the cool, fragrant grove
on the sandy shores.

He left us when the flowers
were in full bloom,
and I am very sad that he forgot us.
Also, my heart aches
when I see the new flower vendor
as she calls out and sells
on all the streets,
fresh, white petaled pāthiri flowers,
swarmed by bees,
their soft tops looking like the
paint-filled brushes of skilled painters. Translated by Vaidehi

Meanings: ¿OLdO[ – on the sand-filled shore, uß¿g@ ¿00@ 8|OG – mango tree’s
close branches, g0|ü gu|û – thriving sprouts, dOlG Oüg|ü – attained beauty, gM
§@u MLß@uLl0 – in the cool fragrant groves, G8OM0ß_ Mdg @ü – united/close with
its male, M80 dM @@0 @ül0 – red-eyed black kuyil, lark, QdG@ Og|û _@u –
sings back with desire, _ u0| dßO0µu ¿dGG_ßû – the one who left when flowers were
in full bloom, uG_ – for sure or an expletive, §u u_§g|8|GGßû OG – that he forgot us,
@Mû – close, 2@Q – lot or pālai tune, 2OLOgG gO0µu – on top of feeling very sad ,
QMû OlOG @O ußddu – painters with trade skill, gu ¿[d@ – red paint, 2Lµü
@d|0|Od ¿GG – filled brush like, @üg gO0L Lßg|û – soft topped pāthiri flowers,
Oß0 @gg ¿0û – white petaled flowers, OM_ LL ǧg| – carrying (flowes) that bees
swarm, Q@ u0û Mg@QMgß@ @O@u M§ß@u0ßLµd@ – the new lady who calls
out and sells new flowers in all the streets, G§ßu OG M§@G8 – my heart aches

§__|OM 119, ML@0@G@ûd|gßû, @_|@8| g|OM – Ggßg| M8ßGG@ -as
the hero listens surreptitiously
g|OG 2M Gdg0 @ûü QGOG
8|@ MLß_| ußLµü ML@0 d0 ¿Lß¿û
gM Gdg OüL Q0| L_2u §ßLG
_û g[ O§gGG _ül@u LLLOL
@G @ðL ML@0 dO0 §G Guü0 _@u
L0 u0ûd dßG üß_@ 2uLû d@0 dO0
d_uQ _L_ O@OLGüß_ gßOG 2dgu
ML@ OO[ § g0 O@@OG @uOl ¿_
ðguu gOg§g dMMlüG üßO@u
@ü0d0 ML@@OG ¿00G
Q0Ol Mdßu @üû gG uO0ül@u MLûGg.

Even if the man from the mountain
where a mountain dweller places a big rock
trap with a small device
to catch a boar that comes to eat his millet,
only to find a bright colored, strong tiger
get trapped,
has come back with love wearing a garland
woven with jasmine and koothalam flowers,
he will not get her embraces,
since her sulking is larger than his mountain
where sweet-faced monkeys graze on fine food
in the groves near the stream with many flowers,
black deer herds leap and romp around with
mountain goats in the vast mountain shade. Translated by Vaidehi

g|OG 2M Gdg0 – pig that eat millet, @ûü – wander, QGOG 8|@ MLß_|
ußLµü – small trap device that the mountain dweller places, ML@0 d0 – big rock, boulder,
¿Lß¿û – trap, gM Gdg OüL Q0| L_2u – bright colored strong tiger gets trapped,
§ßLG – man from such country, _û g[ O§gGG _ül@u – even if he came to give his
love, LLLOL – grove, @G @ðL ML@0 dO0 §G Guü0 _@u – sweet faced
big male monkey grazes well and get full, L0 u0ûd dßG üß_@ – forest stream and many
flowers, 2uLû – above, d@0 dO0 d_uQ _L_ – black deer herds, O@OLGüß_
gßOG 2dgu – with mountain goats they romp around, ML@ OO[ § g0 – in the huge
mountain shade, O@@OG – when he comes, @uOl ¿_ ðguu – wild jasmine and
koothalam woven together, gOg§g dMMlüG – wearing esteemed man, üßO@u
@ü0d0 ML@@OG ¿00G – he will not get all that embraces, Q0Ol Mdßu @üû
gG uO0ül@u MLûGg – the sulking he has to deal is larger than his mountain

§__|OM 124, Guß8| dMMggGßû, M§üg0 g|OM – Ggßg| M8ßGG@ –
the friend is being the voice of the heroine in this poem. She is repeating what the heroine told her,
when the hero listens surreptitiously, to encourage him to come and marry her friend.
gG@ @0 dßO0 ¿G_|0 GLß0L
Q0uQ MdßM_ 2O_µu QGdM OßgdOd
üß@u __G_G ¿@gß@u O§gG@
§ 0d0 Oßg|üû @ü Þ0Od
@Od O ¿g|[0 GußL_ uM0 Oddû
§OOl G§ßG @uuQ ¿@§MgG MOuu|
2@d@@ Mdßud0u d_LL Ol@LQ_g
MgM § ûd @u|g| @g|g@u
gMM û gOg@ §|G_ MLß@Gg.

In the early morning hours
the black ibis cries sadly when
it is separated from its beloved.
I am living alone unable to bear
this misery.

Sir, greetings to you! If you don’t come
my desire is to die.
The eengai buds and jasmine flowers
are scattered on big sand dunes
where deers’ strong hooves press down
and create puddles of water.
The time has come for water bubbles to flow
from these pits, looking like melted silver
that is poured to make bowls. Translated by Vaidehi

gG@ @0 dßO0 – the morning when it was separated, ¿G_|0 GLß0 – like the andril
bird, Q0uQ MdßM_ 2O_µu – living alone, QGdM OßgdOd – miserable life,
üß@u __G_G – I am unable to bear, ¿@gß@u O§gG@ – if he doesn’t come,
§ 0d0 Oßg|üû – desire to die, @ü – sir, Þ0Od – eengai shrub, @Od – buds, O –
flowers (of the), ¿g|[0 – wild jasmine, GußL_ uM0 Oddû – big sand mound, §OOl –
deer’s, G§ßG @uuQ – strong hoofs, ¿@§MgG – pressed down, MOuu| – silver,
2@d@@ – melted, Mdßud0u – bowl, d_LL – like, Ol@LQ_ – with desire, MgM
§ ûd @u|g| – clear water bubble, @g|g@u – flow down, gMM û gOg@ – water filled,
§|G_ MLß@Gg – when it stops

§__|OM 136, §__0 Mdß__Gßû, @_|@8| g|OM – gO0Ol Ggßg|ülLu
g|@§@ Gdß0 O0 OOu GOMµ üßG ¿gQu
¿@u LlMl 2@§ûd@ GOLL@ MdßLß¿@
u@§@ _ü§@ Mdß_gg ¿_GOßG GLß0
OG ¿ü Oßg|ü L0GO LGG|ü
uO0 Md@ §ßLMGß_ §uu|OL8 8|_|ü
gO0LLlûQ 2MOu ¿_|OßG GLß0
§ LL § 0dß@ OûG OO[ ¿Ou§@
Ggßu Lg| uO_d@u 2gOlL
GLßd@ @0 MLß0§ Mgßµ M8_ @GüßGG

I cried that I wanted skillfully
made armlets, and my father
who was like a good physician
who gives the right medicine,
gave them to me.

May he live long!
He gave me faultless gold armlets
that didn’t slip off, fitting
tightly on my shoulders,
as if he knew that I was separated
from my mountain country lover
who has been praised by many. Translated by Vaidehi

g|@§@ Gdß0 – skillfully made ,O0 OOu – bright bangles, GOMµ üßG ¿gQu –
cried that I wanted, ¿@u LlMl – incurable disease, 2@§ûd@ – affted one, GOLL@ –
desired, MdßLß¿@ – not refusing that, u@§@ _ü§@ Mdß_gg ¿_GOßG GLß0
– like a good physician who checks and gives the right medicine, OG ¿ü – my father, Oßg|ü –
long live,L0GO LGG|ü – many praise, uO0 Md@ §ßLMGß_ – with the mountain
country man, §uu|OL – between us, 8|_|ü – small, gO0LLlûQ 2MOu – separation
truth,¿_|OßG GLß0 – like he understood, § LL – armlet, § 0dß@ OûG OO[
¿Ou§@ – one that doesn’t slip, tight, Ggßu – shoulder, Lg| uO_d@u – without blame,
2gOl – helped, GLßd@ @0 – faultless, perfect ,MLß0§ Mgßµ – gold armlets,
M8_ @GüßGG – he gave it to me

§__|OM 147, MdßuuuLddGßû, @_|@8| g|OM – Ggßg| gO0OlülLu
üß0@ _@OGuß ¿Ml @g0 @@udu
Ggu L_ 8ß[0 8|@ g|OGL ML@0 @[0
M8O OßüL OL0 d|u| dO[ § u_@
OO Oßü8 M8G_OG ¿OM OGd ð_|
¿GOG _Gßu dg_ @G §|G@
¿@Ol _ûd@u ML@ OO[ §ßLOG
¿_|ü@u ¿_|GüG dßML@u @0GG
MOg|û QOG gLOLGüG u0û _d Mdßü@
ðOG Lßü§@ _µ_@u @0G OG §|OGOlO0
MLßüü0 ¿§Ggß OßüggOG ¿@ GdL_
gO0 @O_@8|GGu ¿GOG
M80Q gg|§gOGüß0 ¿u|Oü § QGgGg.

Your mother asked you angrily,
“my young daughter with a beautiful
forehead, when you went to the millet field
to chase red-mouthed, green parrots
from eating the tiny millets in the big spears,
where else happened?”, and you lied
without thinking,
“I with my bamboo-made rattle in my hand,
do not know the lord of the big mountains
with roaring waterfalls, I haven’t seen him,
or plucked flowers and played with him
in the springs”.
On hearing that, your mother bent her head in anger.
You destroyed your chances of going
to the millet field. You are pitiable. Translated by Vaidehi

üß0@ _@OGuß – what happened, ¿Ml @g0 @@udu – beautiful forehead girl,
Ggu L_ 8ß[0 – honeycomb filled mountain slopes, 8|@ g|OG – tiny millet, ML@0
@[0 – big spear, M8O OßüL OL0 d|u| – red-mouthed green parrots, dO[ – to take it,
§ – you, u_@ – and, OO Oßü8 M8G_OG ¿OM – where did you go from there?,
OGd ð_| – thus she asked, ¿GOG – mother, _Gßu dg_ – asked angrily, @G
§|G@ – standing before you, ¿@Ol _ûd@u – waterfall roaring, ML@ OO[ – big
mountain, §ßLOG – man from such country, ¿_|ü@u ¿_|GüG – I don’t know,
dßML@u @0GG – I haven’t seen, MOg|û QOG – bamboo made, gLOLGüG – I
was holding the rattle, u0û _d Mdßü@ – pluck flowers, ðOG Lßü§@ _µ_@u
@0G OG – didn’t jump and play in the spring, §|OGOlO0 – without thinking, MLßüü0
¿§Ggß – it is a lie, OßüggOG – you uttered, ¿@ GdL_ – on hearing that, gO0 –
head, @O_@8|GGu – bent and angry, ¿GOG – mother,
M80Q – going, gg|§gOGüß0 – since it is destroyed, ¿u|Oü – pitiable, § – you,
QGgGg – to the millet field

§__|OM 149, 2G0ß88Gßû, M§üg0 g|OM – Ggßg| M8ßGG@ – the friend is
being the voice of the heroine in this poem. She utters this from where the hero can hear her, so that
he can come and marry the heroine.
8|0@u L0@u dOLddM G§ßdd|
@dd|G 288|8 ðL_ Ol[0 G8ûgg|
u@d|0 MLMµû ¿uL0 @__
8|@ Gdß0 O0§gGu ¿GOG ¿O0LL
¿0§gMGG Oßg| Ggßg| dßG0
Q@ u0û g Mµü _ §ß@ @@28 ðO0
d_ ußG Lûü dgg Lû dOL@
§_ §ßu O@2u @ü0 Ggûd MdßMdMGß_
M80Q ¿üû§g|8|Gß0 üßGG
¿0û ðu§@ gg|d @O ¿@0d0 2G[.

Greetings to you my friend!
Peering through the side of their eyes,
women in small and big groups look at me
raise their fingers on their noses
and spread gossip about me on our streets.
Hearing that, mother hit me with a swirling, small stick.
When my seashore lord comes at midnight
with his fast trotting colorful-maned strong horses
tied to his chariot
riding through the groves treading on fragant flowers,
I desire to leave with him.
Let this slanderous town get lost. Translated by Vaidehi

8|0@u – few, L0@u – many, dOLddM – side of their eyes, G§ßdd| – looking,
@dd|G 288|8 ðL_ Ol[0 G8ûgg| – put their pointing fingers on their noses, u@d|0
– in the street, MLMµû – women, ¿uL0 – gossip, @__ – spread, 8|@ Gdß0 – small
stick, O0§gGu – she hit, ¿GOG – mother, ¿O0LL – swirled,
¿0§gMGG – hit with it, Oßg| Ggßg| – greetings my friend, dßG0 – seashore grove, Q@
u0û – new flowers, g Mµü – touched, _ §ß@ – flower fragrance , @@28 – colorful,
ðO0 – manes, d_ ußG – strong horses, Lûü – trotting, dgg – fast, Lû – fast trotting,
horse (2 meanings), dOL@ – riding, §_ §ßu – midnight, O@2u – will come, @ü0
Ggûd – by the moving chariot, MdßMdMGß_ – with the lord of the seashore, M80Q –
leaving, ¿üû§g|8|Gß0 üßGG – I desired, ¿0û – gossip, slander, ðu§@ gg|d ,@O
¿@0d0 2G[ – this slanderous town

§__|OM 150, d_OG @uuuuGßû, u@gu g|OM - L[gOg M8ßGG@
– Bards sometimes helped the hero get a concubine. They were messengers between the concubine
and the hero. They were also messengers between the hero and the heroine during his infidelity.
§Od §G@ 2OLüG LßM @u ML@udG
u|Ou O0| 8|Ogüd du|@ L0 L[LLl
¿[M L0 dL§g @[M Mdßu gßOG
O@g| Oßg|ü L0 OGg Mgß@@ ÞM_
uG Oül0 2OLGüßû GLß0 ¿@ üßu
OGG@u LûüG0ß @0u OGg gM §OLd
d0| uß dOL@ O§@ Ou G8ûg
gß@u dMMlµu dßLµ g@Ouü
M§@8u MdßMLOu Ol_Guß ¿@8
dM@OL8 8|@ Gdß0 L__|d
dgu MLû@ 2OLüu üßü ¿@0dG0ß @0Gu.

Bard, your lord is a big joke!
Pandiyan king Vazhuthi
with his elephant forces and armies
destroyed many strong forts.
The small-region kings who
praised him saved their forts
from his victorious armies.
“I don’t feel sorry for them” he said
as he rode his proud trotting horse
into our settlement,
gave me garlands and flower strands
and took my heart.
Will that blame go away?
You’ll fear my angry mother who’s holding
a small bamboo stick with no compassion. Translated by Vaidehi

§Od §G@ 2OLüG - he’s a joke, LßM – bard, @u ML@udG – your lord,
u|Ou – fort, O0| – strong, 8|Ogü - ruined, du|@ L0 L[LLl – spread few
¿[M L0 dL§g – victorious over many forts, @[M Mdßu gßOG – victorious army,
O@g| – Pandiyan Vazhuthi, Oßg|ü L0 OGg Mgß@@ – praising that he’ll live long,
ÞM_ – here, uG Oül0 2OLGüßû GLß0 – like those who still have their forts, ¿@
üßu – for that, OGG@u LûüG0ß @0u – we don’t feel sad, OG – thus, gM §OL
– cool trotting, d0| uß – proud horse, dOL@ O§@ Ou G8û – rode on it and came to our
settlement, gß@u dMMlµu dßLµ – showed me garland and flower strands, g@Ouü
– independent, M§@8u MdßMLOu – took my heart, Ol_Guß – will it leave, ¿@8 –
(for you) to fear, dM@OL8 8|@ Gdß0 L__| – holding small stick with nodes (bamboo),
dgu MLû@ – great anger, 2OLüu – she has, üßü – mother, ¿@0dG0ß @0Gu
– has no compassion, has no sadness

§__|OM 152, _0uGLû 8ßggGßû, M§üg0 g|OM - gO0OG
uLG0 dßuu g§g@ ¿0G[
u|OL _ O@dd|G ¿0û g§gGG_
@00@ dg|û u@0d| O0 OlðuQ LL[
Q0uQ g§gGG_ QdG@ M8ü uMµ0u
O00ßu g§ggGgO0µu OLMüG
OL§Og @OO0 @O @LuOLL
MLOL QMû ¿G_|0 2ü0@ @[0 ¿Ou@
d0@@u Odü_Q g§gG@
üß0@ _@MOGMdß0 ¿u|MüG üßGG.

Love for her gave me this palm horse,
and scandal gave me
the densely petaled erukkam flowers.
The sun’s rays have become dull
and darkness has spread in the skies.
All these declare sorrow in this world.

The northern winds spray cold mist
and the male black ibis cries loudly
for his mate.
Night has given me helplessness.
What’s going to happen now? I’m pitiable. Translated by Vaidehi

uLG0 dßuu g§g@ – love gave me this palm horse, ¿0G[ – scandal, u|OL _
O@dd|G ¿0û g§gGG_ - gave densely formed erukkam flower blossoms, @00@
dg|û u@0d| – the splendid sun’s rays has got dull, O0 OlðuQ LL[ – darkness spread in
the sky, Q0uQ g§gGG_ – gave sorrow, QdG@ M8ü uMµ0u – the world annouces
(to me), O00ßu g§ggGgO0µu – all these have given, OLMüG – slowly, OL§Og
@OO0 @O -northern winds spray old rain drops, @LuOLL – in the nest, MLOL
QMû ¿G_|0 – the andril bird (black ibis – Pseudibis papillosa)without his female, 2ü0@
@[0 ¿Ou@ – cries out in loud screeches, d0@@u Odü_Q g§gG@ – night gave
me helplessness, üß0@ _@MOGMdß0 – what is going to happen now, ¿u|MüG
üßGG – I’m pitiable

§__|OM 162, LßµüOû MLüû d|OLddOl0O0, LßO0 g|OM – gO0OG
gO0OlülLu M8ßGG@ – The hero says this to the heroine who wants to go with him on his
uOG 2O_ Q_OlG M80 dß0 GLOLd
dßuû @OMü_ G8O0 G8[
Q0uLlG@ O@g@ QGdM ußO0g
gG|Gü @@gg0 __G_G OG@ §|G
LG| Oßû 2MdM OLg0 d@g
@uMuß_ O@O0 OG_| OuMuß_
ML@u MLüûg g§Og § _ Qdg M§_ §dû
üßü ¿_ §G| u|d uLOO @Gß¿@
GOG|0 @__|g Ggßüß M§_ O g
Og| §ßû 280|G GdßOL @d@Mgß@u
@@ð Llµ O@_u ¿ggu
O0O0 _@g0 g0@Guß §|GdGd.

“I will come with you”, you say
when you see the male pigeon
that lives in your house
join his red-legged mate with love
in the painful evenings
when you are alone.
Unable to bear the pain,
your kohl-decorated wet
eyes shed tears.

You have never been separated
from your mother and famous father
who live in a mansion.
Innocent young lady!
Does it suit you to go with me
through difficult paths in summer,
when aerial roots of white fig trees
sway in the breezes
and gently touch
the female elephants sleeping under them. Translated by Vaidehi

uOG 2O_ Q_OlG – pigeon that resides in the house, M80 dß0 GLOL – red-legged
female, dßuû @OMü_ G8O0 G8[ – to joins his mate with love, Q0uLlG@
O@g@ QG dM ußO0 – lonely, painful evening, gG|Gü @@gg0 – to be alone,
__G_G – unable to hear, OG@ – thus, §|G – your, LG| Oßû – wet, 2M dM – eyes
with kohl, OLg0 d@g – crying with sorrow, @uMuß_ O@O0 OG_| – “I will come
with you”, you said, OuMuß_ – with me, ML@u MLüûg g§Og – very famous father,
§ _ Qdg M§_ §dû – great big mansion, üßü – mother, ¿_ – separated, §G| u|d
uLOO – very innocent young lady, @Gß¿@ - without hatred, GOG|0 – summer,
@__| – white fig tree, Ggßüß – without touching (the earth), M§_ O g – straight hanging,
Og| §ßû – hanging roots, 280|G – swing, sway, GdßOL – when wind blows,
@d@Mgß@u – whenever it blows, @@ð – sleeping, Llµ – female elephant, O@_u –
will blow on it, ¿ggu – path, O0O0 _@g0 – to go fast, g0@Guß §|GdGd –
does this fit you

§__|OM 169, LßµüOû MLüû d|OLddOl0O0, @0O0 g|OM –
gO0OG M8ßGG@ (lizard calls - good omen)
@GG|ü@ @µggGu _ülG §G@g0
O@Ou OG@u L@O[0 g [
L_uMdß0 Oßg| M§_@ ðOûL L00|
L[0 gO0 GLßd|ü 8|[0 gO0d duu|
uu|O8d d0|gg O §@ @0O0
__ gO0g @@OlG Ggß_ gO0LMLüûd@u
OG Od @OLüG O00|L Lû@
MOM GLßg Og@ü ¿00d0¿u MgßLO0
u@@LG du@u ußO0
8|@@µL Lßddg@ Ou ML@ §d[ßGG.

I will finish my work that I came to do
and return home soon,
and her sorrow will be removed.
Long live the lizard on our tall walls
which announces the good news to her.
The wasteland here is filled
with pebbles and cactus
that are covered with
fragrant jasmines that
appear like kingfisher birds.
A smart goat herder plucks
white palm fronds at night
and weaves a garland,
and when he walks
on our settlement streets
the evenings are filled
with fragrance. Translated by Vaidehi

@GG|ü@ @µggGu _ülG – when I finish what I came to do, §G@g0 – good,
O@Ou OG@u – that I will return, L@O[0 g [ – remove (her) sorrow, L_u Mdß0 –
will go away, Oßg| – long live, M§_@ ðOûL L00| – lizard on tall walls, L[0 gO0
GLßd|ü – pebbles filled area, wasteland, 8|[0 – kingfisher, gO0d duu| – cactus, uu|O8
– above, d0|gg – flourishing, O – flowers, §@ @0O0 – fragrant jasmine, __ gO0g
@@OlG – shaking head goats, Ggß_ – herd, gO0LMLüûd@u – moving them (grazing),
OG Od – smart hands, @OLüG – cattle herder, O00| – at night, Lû@ – plucks,
MOM GLßg – white palm fronds, Og@ü – created, ¿00d0 – garland, ¿u –
beautiful, MgßLO0 – garland, u@@LG – in the streets, du@u ußO0 – fragrant
evenings, 8|@@µL Lßddg@ – small town settlement in the seashore, Ou ML@
§d[ßGG – our big house

§__|OM 172, Lßµüû MLüû d|OLddOl0O0, M§üg0 g|OM - gO0Ol
OlOuüß_ _üMuß_ MOM uM0 ¿@gg|
u_§gGu @_§g dßg @Ou ¿Odü
M§ü MLü g u Lß0 MLü@ @G|@ OuûLL
@uu|@u 8|_§g@ @OOO _@u OG@
¿GOG ð_|Gu QGOGü@ §0GG
¿uu §ß@@u @uMuß_ §OdGü
Ol@§g|G LßMû Oluû @O8 d_LL
O0uQû OßG Gdß_ §[@u @00@ § ûg
@O_ Md@ MdßMd § §0d|G
@O_L_ § g0 Ll_Qußû 2uGO.

when I was playing with my friends
on the seashore,
we pressed a mature punnai seed
on the white sand
and forgot all about it.
That seedling thrived.
Mother fed it with ghee and milk
and raised it with love.
“It is your sister,
and she’s better than you”, she said.

I’m shy to laugh and play with you under this tree.
Lord of the thriving seaport with vibrant waves
where white conch shells sound
like the vilari tune of bards!
If you desire,
we can seek another shade tree. Translated by Vaidehi

OlOuüß_ _üMuß_ – OlOuüßL_ Ggßg|dgLG, MOM uM0
¿@gg| – MOM uM0|0 ¿@gg|, u_§gGu – u_§@ OlLGLßu, @_§g
dßg @Ou – (§ß0du) @_§g @OuµOLü OlOg, ¿Odü – M8g|dd,
M§ü MLü g u Lß0 MLü@ @G|@ OuûLL – M§üµu @G|ü Lß@u 2gg|
@G|gßd Ouûg@, @uu|@u 8|_§g@ @OOO _@u OG@ – 2GOG
OlL8 8|_§g@, @@ 2G g0Od OG@, ¿GOG ð_|Gu – QGOGü@
§0GG – QGOG u[gg|G 8|_LQ _@u, ¿uu §ß@@u @uMuß_
§OdGü – 2GGGß_ 8|ûg@L GL8 §ßMußd 2uu@, Ol@§g|G –
Ol@§g|0, LßMû Oluû @O8 d_LL – LßMûG OluûLLM GLß0,
O0uQû OßG – MOuOu O0uQû, Gdß_ §[@u – 80@ g0|d@u,
@00@ § ûg – @00@udL0, @O_Md@ – M8g|LLßG @O_µOLü,
MdßMd – dL_dO[ gO0Oß, § §0d|G – § Ol@uLlGß0, @O_L_ § g0 -
2üû§g (u[) §|g0, Ll_Qußû 2uGO – GO@ 2uuGGO

§__|OM 175, LßµüOû MLüû d|OLddOl0O0, M§üg0 g|OM - Ggßg|
gO0OG GdL@uLµ gO0OlOüLGLß0 GL8|ü@ – This is common in Sangam
poems where the friend is the voice of the heroine – she’s urging the hero to come and marry her
friend, and implies that she might be locked up at home by her mother
M§_0 dL0 ¿O0gg Mdß_u g|u|0 L[gOû
Mdß@ uG MdßuOu ¿g| uM0 @OO@
uG M§ü ¿Lµd d|u|@8|0 MLßgg|ü
8|@ g Oludd|0 @@ðu §@ u0ûL
QGOG @0d|ü @O_OMGß_ ¿GOG
gßG ¿_|§gGG_ß @0Gu LßGßu
G8û¿u MLMµû 8|@ M8ß0 §uLl
ð_OßG GLß0 G§ßd@u
¿_ Lß0 ¿GG OG L8O0 MuüGü.

Fishermen catch fish in the wide ocean
and heap them on the shore with shifting sands.
At night they light small clay lamps
with fish oil and go to sleep.
Mother does not know about my affair
with the lord of the seashore.
She heard the village women talk ill of me,
and looked at my pallor-spreading
hot-milk-like body in the middle of the night
like she was scorching me. Translated by Vaidehi

M§_0 dL0 – big ocean, ¿O0gg – caught, Mdß_u – curved, g|u|0 – boat, L[gOû
– fishermen, Mdß@ uG – fat fish, MdßuOu – (to) sell, ¿g| uM0 – moving sands,
@OO@ – put them in a heap, uG M§ü – fish oil, ¿Lµ – pour, d|u|@8|0 – small mud
lamps, MLßgg|ü – lit, 8|@ g – small flame, Oludd|0 – light, @@ðu – they sleep,
§@ u0û – fragrant flower, QGOG – punnai tree, laurel tree, mastwood tree, @0d|ü –
flourishing, @O_OMGß_ – lord from such port, ¿GOG – mother, gßG ¿_|§gGG_ß
@0Gu – she does not know, LßGßu – midnight, G8û – setllement, ¿u MLMµû –
pretty women, 8|@ M8ß0 – slanderous words, §uLl – believing, ð_OßG GLß0
G§ßd@u – looked at me like she’d burn me, ¿_ Lß0 ¿GG – like hot milk, OG L8O0
MuüGü – pallor on my body

§__|OM 176, LßµüOû MLüû d|OLddOl0O0, @_|@8| g|OM – L[gOg
Ol_0|ülLu M8ßGG@
Ou §ü§@ 2O_Ol _ülG üßu §ü§@
§0d|Gu OlLL@ OG §0gGgßG ¿O OülG
8ß0LlG ¿u|gg0 ¿_|üß@ ¿OL@ ¿Ou
dßg0u OG@Guß 2O[gg|8|G Ggßg|
§|O[gg üßOG @dg@ Oû d_LLL
GLß@ MLßg| 2OL§g gM M80 dߧgu
OßOg ¿u 8|0uLlG OuQ LLd @OO@
üßg @ûggGG @G @[0 @G OM_
¿@Ol @gOlG LßMLß_ g[ß0@
MuGMu0 @O8d@u 8ß[0
@G_ GO0|g gu 2O_OlG 2G[.

Tell me my friend,
Did I do the right thing?
I was being magnanimous and
sent the man who cares for me
to his wife who is nice to me.

Will the people in his town,
surrounded by mountains
bearing bright red lily
buds that open up like designs
on elephant faces,
where there are banana trees,
swarms of bees that create
sweet music like that of lutes,
and wateralls that roar down
with gentle sounds in
the mountain slopes,
know that I sent him there? Translated by Vaidehi

Ou §ü§@ 2O_Ol _ülG – his wife being nice to me, üßu §ü§@ – I being nice,
§0d|Gu – being nice, OlLL@ – allowed, OG §0gGgßG – one who takes care of me,
¿O OülG – there, 8ß0LlG ¿u|gg0 – give magnanimously, ¿_|üß@ – not knowing,
¿OL@ – them, ¿Ou – her, dßg0u OG@Guß – will his wife know, 2O[gg|8|G
Ggßg| – tell me, my friend, §|O[gg – spread, üßOG @dg@ Oû d_LL – like the
designs/lines on an elephant’s face, GLß@ – bud ready to open, MLßg| – full, 2OL§g – buds
opened, gM M80 dߧgu – bright red malabar lily, OßOg – banana trees, ¿u –
beautiful, 8|0uLlG – mountain slopes, OuQ LL – new, @OO@ – crowded,spreading,
üßg @ûggGG – like yāzh music, @G @[0 – sweet voice, @G OM_ – swarms of
bees, ¿@Ol @gOlG – roaring waterfalls, LßMLß_ – with the sounds, g[ß0@ – there,
MuGMu0 @O8d@u – delicate sounds, 8ß[0 – mountain slopes, @G_ – mountain,
GO0| – fenced, gu 2O_OlG 2G[ – town where he lives

§__|OM 180, LßµüOû MLüû d|OLddOl0O0, u@gu g|OM – Ggßg|
M8ßGG@ – these are the frustrated words of the heroine’s friend who tries to make peace
between her sulking friend and the hero
LgGL Lßd0 @ül@ @ð @LuOL
dgG| §ßO[ 2O[gg0|G M8§M§0
Ol[Q MOuuû8|ülG gß¿u 2[G
L0ûL ML_0 §O8@ §u @0 Oß[0GG
ußGüßu §0gOg §uLl OlL0 g00ßGu
¿GG|µu MLûüG ¿OG|@u Ol@u|ü
@@ ML@ GO§gû MLß@ dug@ gg|gg
QGOG Ol@uu GLß0
OGMGß_ dg|µu @O @@O[@ @dG0.

The field pelican sucks red weaver ants
from their nests in the jackfruit tree
and they get scattered
along with their eggs in the fields,
looking like red rice mixed with white rice.

The man from that town with many desires
does not come to our house any more.
The dark, beautiful girl will not let him in.
I am caught in the middle of their enmity
like the punnai tree that got destroyed
in the battlefield in the war between
two great kings, Anni and Thithiyan. Translated by Vaidehi

LgGL Lßd0 – field jackfruit tree, @ül@ – weaver ants, @ð – swarms, crowds, @LuOL
– nest, dgG| §ßO[ – field pelican, 2O[gg0|G – sucks, M8§M§0 – red paddy, Ol[Q
– mixed, MOuuû8|ülG – white rice, gß¿u – scattered, 2[G – man from such town,
L0ûL ML_0 – gets few of them, §O8@ – desiring, §u @0 Oß[0GG – does not
come to our house, ußGüßu – dark pretty girl, §0gOg – welfare, §uLl – trusting, OlL0
g00ßGu – will not let him in, ¿GG|µu – a king called Anni, MLûüG – King Thithiyan,
¿OG|@u Ol@u|ü – with their enmity, @@ ML@ GO§gû – two great kings, MLß@
dug@ – big battle field, gg|gg – destroyed, QGOG – punnai tree, Ol@uu GLß0 –
like enmity, OGMGß_ dg|µu – end with me, @O @@O[@ @dG0 – the hatred of
these two

§__|OM 182, LßµüOû MLüû d|OLddOl0O0, @_|@8| g|OM – Ggßg|
gO0OlülLu M8ßGG@
§|0Qu uO_§gG@ @@gu LLLG@
@Og@ ¿GG @L@OL OO[LLlG
LßOO ¿GG §|_ Q_0dßd@u
8|_§g M80Og@ ¿GOGµu @@8|Gu
Md_g@LL_ §G d0u O_g@d MdßMLß0@
§G ußûQ ¿OLü @ü0d| MuGMu0
dMLGu O@du M8GGuß Ggßg|
d@u Gu@u dßLGLßû § gg
O@§ gO0L ML@0 du|@ GLß0
gu|üG O§GgßG LG|üO0 § Gü

The moon has vanished
and it has become dark.
She is sleeping, your rich
mother who protects you like
Kolli goddess with a painting-like temple.

Let’s go and see him quietly, my friend.
He has come like a dry-headed, big elephant
who came away from his guarded stable,
and this is like getting back lost jewels.
Get rid of your sorrow. Translated by Vaidehi

§|0Qu uO_§gG@ – the moon has gone, @@gu LLLG@ – it has become dark,
@Og@ ¿GG – painting like, @L@OL -in wide space, OO[LLlG – temple, LßOO
¿GG – Kolli Pāvai like, §|_ Q_0dßd@u – standing and protecting, 8|_§g M80Og@
– very rich, ¿GOGµu @@8|Gu – mother slept, Md_g@LL_ – to lose, §G d0u –
nice jewels, O_g@d MdßMLß0@ – to take it, §G ußûQ – handsome chest, ¿OLü
@ü0d| – to embrace him ,MuGMu0 – quietly, dMLGu – let’s go and see, O@du –
come, M8GGuß Ggßg| – let’s go my friend, d@u Gu@u – elephant pole ,dßLGLßû –
one who protects, § gg – removed, O@§ gO0L – dry head,ML@0 du|@ GLß0 – like
a big elephant, gu|üG O§GgßG – he came here sad, LG|üO0 § – get rid of your sorrow

§__|OM 184, Lßµüû MLüû d|OLddOl0O0, LßO0 g|OM -
gO0OlülG gßü M8ßGG@
g@ udu 2OLGüG uGGG ¿Ogu
M8@ u|@ MußüuLlG ðû GO0 dßOuü_
ML@ uO0 ¿@@ ð[u M§@§0 M8G_Gu
@G|Gü gß0@ §|G ¿O0u OG_|û ¿@ u_@
üß00Gu g0@Guß ¿_|QOLü G[
2uu|G 2uuu GOGu 2MdM
uMl Oßg LßOO §OL d__GG OG
¿Ml @ü_ @@udu _µü
uMl Çû M§ß88|µu Mg__|µu dMGL.

I am a mother with just one daughter.
Yesterday she left
with a smart strong young man
with a sharp spear
to cross the harsh wastelands
with tall mountains.

Wise men!
You ask me how I handle my sorrow!
My heart aches when I think of her.
How can I tolerate this pain,
when I think of her beauty with
kohl-rimmed eyes and delicate walk,
and when I see our verandah
and the beautiful nochi tree near it,
where my little girl played. Translated by Vaidehi

g@ udu 2OLGüG – g@ udOuµOLü gßü §ßG, uGGG –
dg|Qd@_|LQ, ¿Ogu – ¿Ogu, M8@ u|@ MußüuLlG – ___@u
O0|OuOüµu u|@§g, ðûGO0 dßOuü_ – ðûOuüßG GOO0µOLü
@Ou@GGß_, ML@ uO0 – MLûü uO0, ¿@@ ð[u – d_OuüßG
LßO0 §|0u, M§@§0 M8G_Gu – G§_@8 M8G_ßu, @G|Gü gß0@ §|G
¿O0u OG_|û – @G| OLLµ 2G @GLgOg gß0@Oßü OGd|G_ ûdu,
¿@ u_@ – ¿Og,
üß00Gu g0@Guß - OOOß@ gß0d @µµGuß, ¿_|QOLü G[ –
¿_|QOLü G[, 2uu|G 2uuu GOGu – §|OGggß0 2uuu G§ß@Gu,
2MdM – OuülLL dM, uMl Oßg LßOO – (dM) uMlüßd @@d@u
MLM, §OL d__GG – §OL LülG@ §L§g@LGLßG@, OG – OG, ¿Ml
@ü_ – ¿gdßG8 8ßüO0µOLü, @@udu _µü – 8|@ udu
OlOuüßµü, uMl Çû M§ß88|µu - ¿gd|ü M§ß88| u[gOgµu,
Mg__|µu dMGL – g|MOMOüµu dMGL

§__|OM 191, 2G0ß88Gßû, M§üg0 g|OM – Ggßg| gO0OlülLu
M8ßGG@ – the friend is being the voice of the heroine in this poem.
She says this in such a way that the hero could hear. He’s on the other side of a wall.
8|@ O @ßg0 GgG Ggßü gu @Mû
G§û @Og udu|û Oßû uM0 @Oggg
OML_ LßOO OG @O0 @__g@
gM MLß_|8 ðM0d|G @@ LLg gß¿u
dML0 GO0|d dßuû 8|@@µ
O00| O§gGG_ß Ggû OG8 M8ß00|
¿0û O@§gG@ @O 2G[ L0@gu
OG G§ßdd|GGu ¿GOG §ßOu
uMlL _ @MLdu MdßüGüG _ülG
¿Mld dOlG 2MOuGüß ¿ûGg uMld dg|
§@u _0 dßG0 O§@ ¿Oû
O@§ Ggû GLßg0 ¿gG|@u ¿ûGg.

The honey-filled, bright small gnalal flowers
drop delicately on the breasts of the sand dolls
made by the beautifully-jeweled young girls,
and they appear like women’s beauty spots.

Gossip has started
in this small town with beautiful screwpine fences,
since my lover came riding his chariot last night.

I was with a few friends when mother looked at me
with questioning eyes.
If I am not sent out to cut the sapphire-like
blue mundakam flowers, my beauty will be distressed.
If he comes to the flower-filled fragant seaside grove
and leaves with an empty chariot, that would be even more painful. Translated by Vaidehi

8|@ – small, O – flower, @ßg0 – gnālal tree, tigerclaw tree, cassia sophera, GgG Ggßü –
honey filled, gu @Mû – bright bunch, G§û @Og – perfect jewels, udu|û – women, Oßû
– long, uM0 – sand, @Oggg -filled, OML_ LßOO – sand doll, OG – full, @O0
– breasts, @__g@ – front yard, gM – bright, MLß_| – dotted, ðM0d|G – yellow splts,
@@ – delicately, LLg gß¿u – fall, dML0 – thazhai, screwpine, GO0| – fenced, dßuû
– beautiful, 8|@@µ – little town, O00| – night, O§gGG_ß Ggû OG8 M8ß00| – that
the chariot came, ¿0û – gossip, O@§gG@ – arose, @O 2G[ – in this town, L0@gu
– among many, OG G§ßdd|GGu – looked at me, ¿GOG – mother, §ßOu – tomorrow,
uMl – sapphire (colored), _ @MLdu – mundakam flowers, thorn-bush, MdßüGüG
_ülG – if I don’t pluck, ¿Ml – beautiful, dOlG - (my) beauty, 2MOuGüß ¿ûGg
– will really become rare, uMl – beautiful, dg| – brackish waters, §@u _0 dßG0 –
fragrant flower-filled grove, O§@ – come, ¿Oû -his, O@§ Ggû – empty chariot, GLßg0
– to leave, ¿gG|@u ¿ûGg – is more painful

§__|OM 195, Lßµüû MLüû d|OLddOl0O0, M§üg0 - Ggßg|
gO0OG|Lu M8ßGG@
¿@ußüßdG0ß MdßµGg @@0 dg|d
@@Ou § û§ßü Mdß@ uG uߧg|
g|0O0¿u MLß@uLl0 Luu| Mdßugu
Mu00u Q0uL üßG dMµ8|GG
d0M0G Quu|G dßG0¿u MgßMµ
M§0 ¿û Mgß@Oû ðû Oßu 2_M_G
L0 @gg gü0d|ü ðuLß M§üg0
§ û ¿O0g Ggß__u GLß0
Þûü d@@u § §ü§Ggßu dMGM.

Lord of the seashore
where young otters eat fat fish
and sleep in mangrove tree hollows,
and birds make loud noises
in the grove-filled Thondi city!
Hear what I have to say!

Farmers cut rice stalks with sharp knives
and many-petaled blue waterlilies
float on the moving waves.
The eyes of the woman you love
is filled with tears and she cries a lot.
Please show some pity, and marry her. Translated by Vaidehi

¿@ußüßdG0ß – ¿@uOßüßd (uGu QûOßüßd), MdßµGg – @@
MdßµüGg, @@0 dg|d – d@OuüßG 2LQ § û @OL,
@@Ou § û§ßü – @u § û§ßü, Mdß@ uG uߧg| – Mdß@gg uOG 2M_,
g|0O0 ¿u MLß@uLl0 – g|0O0 u[gg|G MLߧg|0, Luu| Mdßugu –
2_0@u, Mu00u – @GG|O0üO8, Q0uL – M§üg0 §|0ggO0OGG,
üßG dMµ8|GG – OGOGd dßMLßüßd, d0M0G Quu|G – d0 OG_
g0|Güß_ L_OOdu, dßG0¿u MgßMµ – dL_dO[ G8ßO0 §|O_§g
MgßMµ, M§0 ¿û Mgß@Oû – M§0O0 ¿@d@u OlO8ßd|du, ðû Oßu
2_M_G – ðûOuüßG Oßuß0, L0 @gg gü0d|ü ðuLß M§üg0 – L0
@ggdu (2OLü) u0û§g M§üg0, § û ¿O0g Ggß__u GLß0 –
¿O0ülG u@ u|gLL@ GLß0, Þûü – Þ[ußG, d@@u – ¿@u, §
§ü§Ggßu dMGM – § Ol@uLlüOu|G dMGM

§__|OM 199, GLû 8ßggGßû, M§üg0 g|OM - gO0Ol Ggßg|ülLu
@0@ uM0 2_gg M§_ ußL MLMOM
O 0@ uL0 @LuOLL OLg0 MOM @@@
§uMuG üßug@ 2üQGgß@ 2@d|
¿uu0 ¿GG OG 2uuMuß_ 2u 2OL§@
2MuGG Oßg| Ggßg| OOu § ûd
d_@ ð_ß O_|§g Mdß_u g|u|0 L[gOû
Oß0@ OlO8g @Mµ0 20@20@ _d|
Ou| MLß[d d_O_ gß¿ü §u| ðLû
§ 0 §|_ OlðuLlG uMGß_ QO[ü
OLLü @Oud@u @O_OG
Muü Ggßü @üddu dßMß 20Gd.

May you live long, my friend!
A white heron sits in its nest
on the mature fronds
of a tall and dark palmyra tree
that stands in the sand dunes
draped in sand,
and cries for its mate
in the middle of the night,
breaking my heart,
that becomes mushy like mud.

Net-throwing fishermen
who catch fierce sharks
in the ocean that surrounds the land
throw their fishing rods to catch fish,
and when the wind blows,
the bright flames in their boats
look like the twinkling stars
in the blue-hued skies.
I don’t have the hugging embraces of my man
from this port town, and I’m still alive. Translated by Vaidehi

@0@ uM0 – sand dunes, heaped sand, 2_gg – covered, M§_ ußL MLMOM –
tall dark palmyra palm trees, O 0@ uL0 – mature frond, @LuOL – nest, OLg0 – sad,
MOM @@@ – white heron, §uMuG üßug@ – in the middle of the night,
2üQGgß@ – whenever it cries, 2@d| – (I) melt, ¿uu0 ¿GG OG 2uuMuß_
– with my heart that is like mud – mushy, 2u 2OL§@ – heart broken, 2MuGG – I am like
this, Oßg| Ggßg| – greetings my friend, OOu § û - (land) surrounded water, ocean, d_@
ð_ß – fierce shark, O_|§g – throwing their nets, Mdß_u – curved, g|u|0 – boat, L[gOû
– fishermen, Oß0@ – curved, OlO8g @Mµ0 – fishing rod with a gadget (mechanical),
20@ 20@ _d| – in between, Ou| MLß[ – wind blowing, d_O_ – fullness, gß¿ü
-spreading, §u| ðLû – splendid flame, § 0 §|_ OlðuLlG – blue colored skies, uMGß_
– with the stars, QO[ü – like, OLLü @Oud@u – slowly twinkle, @O_OG – man from
such a port, Muü – body, Ggßü – hugging, attached, @üddu – embracing, dßMß – not
having it, 20Gd – there

§__|OM 200, ðL@û L0 dMMGßû, u@gu g|OM – Ggßg| @üOG|Lu
M8ßGG@ – the bard is the hero’s messenger
to the heroine after his infidelity, and he usually approachers the heroine’s friend with the message
dMMl dLµü dg|[ ¿GG
gM @[0 M§ß88|g Mgûü0 @µ
üß@ d|L§gGG ¿d0 M§_§ Mg@Ol0
8ß@ OG @O@u @@ Oßüd @üO
Þ@u _0dM @OG_|8|G ußGgß
_uL0 ¿uG_ g u ML@u LgGg@L
MLßüOd 2ûd@L GLßGOßü_d|
Od dOû §[uLlG L@O0 LßMG
M8üg ¿000 L0@O OO Oül_@
@@ ¿d0 ¿0@0 udu|û @OG
MLßü MLßg| Mdß_@ M8ß0 @uQu|G OGGO.

O Potter with ancient wisdom!
Wearing nochi garland
with bud clusters of buds
that are bright like the sun’s rays,
and standing
on this wide and long street
that appears like a river,
announcing the festivities of our town,
please announce this message for me.

If you go to the town with fields
with white waterlilies,
tell the women with delicate wide waists
and sharp teeth,
that the trained bard who plays lovely
lute music has caused a lot of pain
with his cruel words filled with many lies,
and that they need to protect themselves. Translated by Vaidehi

dMMl dLµü – buds tied, dg|[ ¿GG – bright like the rays, gM – bright, @[0 –
flower bunch, M§ß88|g Mgûü0 @µ – wearing a nochi flower garland, üß@ d|L§gGG
– appearing like a river, ¿d0 M§_§ Mg@Ol0 – wide and long street, 8ß@ – festival, OG
@O@u – saying that, @@Oßüd @üO - potter with ancient wisdom, Þ@u – these,
_0dM – there, @OG_|8|G ußGgß – won’t you say this too, _uL0 – water-lily
flowers, ¿uG_ – existing, g u ML@u LgGg@L – sweet huge fields, MLßüOd –
ponds, 2ûd@L GLßGOßü _d| – go to that town, Od – hand, dOû §[uLlG –
desirable yāzh, L@O0 LßMG – trained bard, M8üg ¿000 – caused the pain,
L0@O – many, OO – sharp, Oül_@ – teeth, @@ ¿d0 – delicately spread, ¿0@0
– waist , udu|û – women, @OG – he, MLßü – lies, MLßg| – filled, Mdß_@ M8ß0 –
harsh words, @uQu|G OGGO – so, protect yourself

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