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), ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, Sep- Dec (2012) © IAEME AND TECHNOLOGY (IJMET)

ISSN 0976 – 6340 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6359 (Online) Volume 3, Issue 3, September - December (2012), pp. 252-269 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijmet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2012): 3.8071 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

IJMET

©IAEME

**FLOW SIMULATION (CFD) & STATIC STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS (FEA) OF A RADIAL TURBINE
**

Tarun Singh Tanwar1, Dharmendra Hariyani2 and Manish Dadhich3 (Department of Mechanical Engineering, SKIT, Jaipur RTU Kota, India Email:tarun_singh777@rediffmail.com) 2 (Department of Mechanical Engineering, SKIT, Jaipur RTU Kota, India Email: dhariyani12002@gmail.com) 3 (Department of Mechanical Engineering, SKIT, Jaipur, RTU Kota, India Email: scorpion.manish1988@gmail.com) ABSTRACT This paper describes the fluid flow conditions and parameters within a Radial Turbine with regards to each part of the turbine in contact with the working fluid and all working parts of the Radial turbine. The process of obtaining the fluid flow condition and characteristic within the turbine is done by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation with the help of Ansys. In this present work, flow behavior is observed inside the turbine at different guide vane angles and got the maximum Hydraulic efficiency for all cases and comparison is done between theoretical and experimental (CFD) efficiency. Characteristic curve is verified for all the different guide vane angles. For every case inlet velocity is changed as 10m/s, 7m/s, 4 m/s. CFD simulation is done with K-ω (SST) model and simplec algorithm. Before CFD simulation is done, a model of the Radial turbine needs to be selected as there are wide ranges of model ranging from conventional usage. After getting the best efficient model of radial turbine through CFD simulation, structural analysis would be done for runner and guide vanes. Gerber zero based model is used for the static structural analysis. Keywords – cfd, flow simulation, static structure analysis, K-ω (SST) model, radial turbine 1. INTRODUCTION Hydroelectric energy is a clean, safe and renewable energy because it only requires water. Hydraulic turbines are the machines that convert the hydraulic energy into electricity, which are produced since many years ago. Mechanical efficiencies of these turbo machines are quite well, it reaches over 95% [8]. However, reaching such efficiencies is a difficult task and it requires a high engineering effort because hydraulic turbines are usually unique products which must be designed for determined local conditions (head and discharge). For this reason, for each

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These are the basic component of Radial Turbine 1. measurements and model tests. Spiral casing 4. a specific design is needed.94 mm 10 37. biomedical. For the economical design of turbine it is very important to understand the flow characteristics indifferent parts of the turbine i. Guide vanes 3.e. It helps to make the necessary changes to improve the design. 2. ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print). Issue 3. which is too much time and money consuming.International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET). CFD simulation has many applications like aviation.Dec (2012) © IAEME component of the machine. GEOMETRIC MODELING Radial Turbine Geometry is designed with the help of Catia V5R20 and Ansys Blade Gen software. ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3. spiral casing and draft tube is designed in Catia V5R20.8 mm 247.73 25 18 26. CFD simulation is required to judge the right flow behavior of fluid inside or outside the structure.1: Specification of turbine 253 . factor of safety decided. turbo machinery. sports. Axis of turbine Types of draft tube Inlet runner diameter Outlet runner diameter No. hvac. it saves time and money both [6].17 17.65 mm 163. FEA simulation is basically based on structure simulation. Runner 2. of blades Inlet blade angle Outlet blade angle guide vane angle No of guide vanes Blade width at inlet Blade width at outlet Inlet guide vane diameter Outlet guide vane diameter Vertical Elbow type 247. Draft tube Runner is designed in Ansys BladeGen software and guide vanes.56 mm 108 mm 431. The traditional design process is based on experiments. But from last two decades FEA and CFD simulation method is developed which are less time consuming and save money also. automobile. Sep. which help in analyzing their performance in advance before manufacturing them. how energy transfer and transformation take place in the different parts.65 mm Table 2. chemical industries etc. main aim of structure simulation is to find the amount of force or pressure that much a structure can bear and according to that value of force or pressure. Finally these components are assembled in a single radial turbine with the help of Catia Assembly Design.

Issue 3.International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET). ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print).1: Geometry of spiral casing and draft tube Figure 2.3: Complete assembled geometry of radial turbine 254 . ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3. Sep.Dec (2012) © IAEME Figure 2.2: Geometry of guide vanes and runner Figure 2.

1: Mesh image of radial turbine Type of mesh Tetra/mixed No. finite elements. The steps 255 . of nodes 146377 No. or finite differences. The origin of the term mesh (or grid) goes back to early days of CFD when most analyses were 2D in nature. The sub domains are often called elements or cells. ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print). flow domains are split into smaller sub domains (made up of geometric primitives like hexahedra and tetrahedral in 3D and quadrilaterals and triangles in 2D). Issue 3. except for very simple cases.1: Generated Mesh Detail 4. Sep. Typically. Care must be taken to ensure proper continuity of solution across the common interfaces between two sub domains. of elements 827005 Table 3. a domain split into elements resembles a wire mesh. The governing equations are then discretized and solved inside each of these sub domains [3]. in order to analyze fluid flows. one of three methods is used to solve the approximate version of the system of equations: finite volumes. Figure 3. Therefore.Dec (2012) © IAEME 3. CFD ANALYSIS OF RADIAL TURBINE The analysis is carried in fluent by importing the meshed file saved in ansys icem cfd. For 2D analyses. so that the approximate solutions inside various portions can be put together to give a complete picture of fluid flow in the entire domain. and the collection of all elements or cells is called a mesh or grid [9].International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET). ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3.MESHING The partial differential equations that govern fluid flow and heat transfer are not usually amenable to analytical solutions. hence the name.

• Convergence criteria for continuity.1 The following assumptions were taken for simulation: • The walls of the casing were assumed to be smooth hence any disturbances in flow due to roughness of the surface were neglected. In this project three different cases are taken through changing the guide vane angle and for each angle three different inlet velocities are taken.2 Solution parameters • 3-D double precision solver used to solve for simulation. • Second order scheme is used for pressure correction as well as for solving momentum.Dec (2012) © IAEME that are followed are given below which include all the conditions and the boundaries values for the problem statement. velocity and turbulence parameters was set to 10 . 4. Results can get through streamlines. • Clear water is taken as working fluid. Sep. • Standard K-omega (SST) simulation model is used for turbulence modeling.1: Stramline and vector plot of fluid flow in radial turbine 256 . Assumptions 4. Issue 3.International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET). • Steady state conditions and incompressible fluid flow. hence friction between the walls and fluid was neglected. ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3. • SIMPLEC scheme is used for pressure velocity coupling. turbulent kinetic energy and turbulence dissipation rate. 4. ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print).3 Stramline and Vector plot of Radial Turbine Figure 4. • Multiple reference frame technique used to simulate the pump performance. vector plot and velocity and pressure contour. • The friction co-efficient for all surfaces were set to 0.

80 rpm at inlet 257 .Dec (2012) © IAEME 4.55 rpm at inlet Figure 4. ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print).2 Velocity and pressure distribution at 7 m/s velocity of fluid flow for 30 degree guide vane angle and 223.1 Velocity and pressure distribution at 10 m/s velocity of fluid flow for 30 degree guide vane angle and 319. ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3.4 Velocity and Pressure contour for different cases Case 1.2: velocity and pressure contour of fluid flow for 4 m/s at inlet Case 1. Issue 3. Sep.3 Velocity and pressure distribution at 4 m/s velocity of fluid flow for 30 degree guide vane angle and 127.08 rpm at inlet Figure 4.International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET).3: velocity contour of fluid flow for 4 m/s at inlet Case 1.

Sep.5: velocity and pressure contour of fluid flow for 10 m/s at inlet Case 2.1 Velocity and pressure distribution at 10 m/s velocity of fluid flow for 25 degree guide vane angle and 638.Dec (2012) © IAEME Figure 4.6: velocity contour of fluid flow for 7 m/s at inlet 258 .44 rpm at inlet Figure 4. ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3. ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print).2 Velocity and pressure distribution at 7 m/s velocity of fluid flow for 25 degree guide vane angle and 445. Issue 3.International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET).90 rpm at inlet Figure 4.4: velocity and pressure contour of fluid flow for 4 m/s at inlet Case 2.

7: velocity contour of fluid flow for 4 m/s at inlet Case 3. ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3. Issue 3.2 Velocity and pressure distribution at 7 m/s velocity of fluid flow for 20 degree guide vane angle and 815.22 rpm at inlet Figure 4.Dec (2012) © IAEME Case 2.3 Velocity and pressure distribution at 4 m/s velocity of fluid flow for 25 degree guide vane angle and 254.25 rpm at inlet Figure 4.International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET). ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print).1 Velocity and pressure distribution at 10 m/s velocity of fluid flow for 20 degree guide vane angle and 1105.9: velocity contour of fluid flow for 7 m/s at inlet 259 . Sep.80 rpm at inlet Figure 4.8: velocity contour of fluid flow for 10 m/s at inlet Case 3.

A 30 25 20 RPM 223.90 815.28% 98.08 445. No.28% 2. it implies that velocity and pressure distribution in radial turbine is under acceptable condition.11: Graph between N (rpm) and efficiency at 10 m/s velocity At 7 m/s Sr.12% 260 .20% 96.5 Characteristic curve verification and comparison between theoretical and cfd results At 10 m/s Sr. 4.3 Velocity and pressure distribution at 4 m/s velocity of fluid flow for 20 degree guide vane angle and 442. 25 638.16% 95. 2.22 Efficiency theoretical CFD Figure 4. 1.44 N (rpm) 1105. 30 319.A RPM Efficiency (T) Efficiency (CFD) 1.55 638.V.15% 100 98 96 94 92 90 88 86 319. ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3.55 91. Issue 3.International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET).V.08 rpm at outlet Figure 4.25% 98. 25 and 20.51% 3.27% 96. Sep.25 Efficiency (T) 91. 3.36% Efficiency (CFD) 89. G.10: velocity contour of fluid flow for 4 m/s at inlet Contours Analysis: These are the different velocity and pressure contours for three cases of velocities for guide vane angle 30.22% 90. ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print). G.Dec (2012) © IAEME Case 3. These contours are showing the distribution of velocity and pressure of fluid inside the radial turbine.44 96.22 98. No. 20 1105.76% 95. According to these contours.

12: Graph between N (rpm) and efficiency at 7 m/s velocity At 4 m/s Sr.28% Efficiency (CFD) 92. ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3.m) 815.4: Mesh input detail Physical preference Mechanical 261 .13% 95. 100 98 96 94 92 90 88 86 127.47% 97. No.p.Dec (2012) © IAEME 100 98 96 94 92 90 88 86 84 223.97% Efficiency Theoretical CFD Figure 4. According to these graphs.80 254.28% 98. 1. Issue 3.V. ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print). STRUCTURE SIMULATION OF RUNNER Mesh generation of Runner for structural domain Mesh type Element size Mapped face/tetra hadrons 5 mm Table 7.15% 96. 2.9 N (r.13: Graph between N (rpm) and efficiency at 4m/s velocity Efficiency curve analysis: These graphs are showing the hydraulic efficiencies of all the three velocity cases for theoretical and cfd. 3.25 Efficiency Theoritical CFD Figure 4.m) 442.p. Sep.8 254.International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET).08 Efficiency (T) 91.8 N (r. 5.08 445.08 G.A 30 25 20 RPM 127.80 442. it implies that our cfd and theoretical results are very close and under acceptable conditions by the characteristics curve.

1: Mesh output detail 5. of elements 58811 Table 5.1 Assumptions • Number of r/s is constant that is 115.International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET).68. ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print). • The model taken is Gerber zero based.2 Boundary conditions • Applied pressure on blade face is 57380 pa. 5.2: Boundary Condition 262 .Dec (2012) © IAEME Figure 5.1: Mesh picture of runner blades for structure domain Generated output after applying mesh input conditions No. • Linear analysis is being done. Figure 5. Issue 3. • Environmental temperature is 22 C. • Static structure analysis is being done. Sep. of nodes 105280 No. ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3.

Issue 3.4: Life and Damage of runner blade The Fatigue Life plot says that if the loading is of constant amplitude type.3: Equivalent (von-mises) stress and Total deformation in runner blades Figure 5. ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3. 263 . then the result from life represents the number of cycles till which the structure can withstand until it will fail due to fatigue. Sep. ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print). total deformation and fatigue tool. In the preset scenario it can be seen that the damage values are less than 1. Fatigue damage is defined as the design life divided by the available life. For Fatigue Damage. values greater than 1 indicate failure before the design life is reached. So from the above plot we can see that the structure will withstand up till maximum cycles.Dec (2012) © IAEME 5.3 Results In structure analysis results are achieved through analyzing the von misses stress. so the structure will not undergo fatigue damage. Figure 5. Fatigue Damage is a contour plot of the fatigue damage at a given design life.International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET).

Graph between equivalent (von mises) stress and blade edge length figure 5.International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET). In present case the region below 1 does not exist so factor of safety is maximum for this case. ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print). Sep.7: Graph between total def.5: Safety factor of runner blade Fatigue Safety Factor is a contour plot of the factor of safety with respect to a fatigue failure at a given design life. For Fatigue Safety Factor.Dec (2012) © IAEME Figure 5. ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3. Issue 3.6: Graph between equ. values less than one indicate failure before the design life is reached. and blade edge length 264 .(von mises) stress and blade edge length Graph between total deformation and blade edge length Figure 5.

265 . Sep. Issue 3.1: Generated mesh of guide vanes Generated output mesh detail for guide vane in structure domain No. • Linear analysis is being done. • The model taken is Gerber zero based. 6. of nodes 281394 No.Dec (2012) © IAEME These graphs are showing the von mises stress and total deformation with blade edge length and according to these graphs it implies that von mises stress and total deformation is varying with respect to blade edge length.International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET). of elements 139555 Table 6. 6. • Static structure analysis is being done.1: Mesh input detail Physical preference Mechanical Figure 6. ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3. ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print).2: Mesh Output Detail 6.2 Boundary conditions • Applied pressure on blade face is 36490 pa.1 Assumptions • No rotation is there. STRUCTURE SIMULATION OF GUIDE VANES Mesh Generation of Guide Vanes for Structural Domain Mesh type Mapped face/tetrahedron Element size 5 mm Table 6. • Environmental temperature is 22 C.

total deformation and fatigue tool.Dec (2012) © IAEME Figure 6.4: Life and Damage in guide vane 266 . Sep.International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET).3 Results In structure analysis results are achieved through analyzing the von misses stress.3: Equ.2: Boundary conditions 6. ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print). ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3. Figure 6. (von-mises) stress and Total Deformation in in guide vanes Figure 6. Issue 3.

Fatigue Safety Factor is a contour plot of the factor of safety with respect to a fatigue failure at a given design life.Dec (2012) © IAEME The Fatigue Life plot says that if the loading is of constant amplitude type. ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3.6: Graph for Equ. Figure 6. Sep. In the preset scenario it can be seen that the damage values are less than 1. So from the above plot we can see that the structure will withstand up till maximum cycles.(von mises) stress and Total Deformation wth guide vane edge length Graph 6.(von mises) stress and Total deformation(vertical) with guide vane edge length(horizontal) 267 . Issue 3. For Fatigue Damage. ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print). values greater than 1 indicate failure before the design life is reached. Fatigue damage is defined as the design life divided by the available life. For Fatigue Safety Factor. then the result from life represents the number of cycles till which the structure can withstand until it will fail due to fatigue. values less than one indicate failure before the design life is reached.5: Safety factor in guide vane Graph for Equ. In present case the region below 1 does not exist so factor of safety is maximum for this case. Fatigue Damage is a contour plot of the fatigue damage at a given design life.International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET). so the structure will not undergo fatigue damage.

Harbin. 49–61. no. Vishnu Prasad. “recent developments in the dynamic analysis of water turbines” Scientific Bulletin of the “Politehnica” University of Timisoara Transactions on Mechanics Tom 52(66). pelton wheel etc. 2007. however streamlines flow in some reasons have some turbulence which is due to occurrence of loses and losses are not considered very precisely. 7.Dec (2012) © IAEME These graphs are showing the von mises stress and total deformation with guide vane edge length and according to these graphs according to it von mises stress and total deformation is varying with respect to guide vane edge length. T. S.-1. Simulation can be done on the turbine considering losses.8. 2007. Issue 3. 7. Oct 21-23. “Virtual performance experiment of a centrifugal pump”. In this section fatigue analysis is checked and found the life. India. Tao Zhang “Research on Tangential Type Turbine Flow meter Based on Simulation” International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation August 5 . Arun Kumar. Vishal Chauhan2 and Shahil Charnia2. Dr. 2003. Sushil Kumar “cfd approach for flow characteristics of hydraulic francis turbine” International Journal of Engineering Science and Technology . 2010. In other hand factor of safety is also maximum which implies that this model is completely safe. Hence the result obtained are fairly matching. IGHEM-2010. 3824-3831 [3] Kiran Patel1. P. [4] Zhang Shujia. “Evaluation of Hydro Turbine design by Computational Fluid Dynamics” 11th Asian International Conference on Fluid Machinery and 3rd Fluid Power Technology Exhibition Paper ID: AICFM_TM_016.Vol. International Journal of Rotating Machinery. R. China [2] Ruchi Khare.International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET). Hu Qingbo and Li Xianhua. pp. Saini. REFERENCE [1] Zhen Wang. 2(8).Winoto. According to structure analysis blades are having maximum life and damage is minimum. Prediction of turbine performance by CFD gives the idea to know the flow behavior inside the turbine model and get the information about the intricacy of flow pattern. ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3. After getting best model according to the cfd analysis. 2010. ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print). stress analysis on runner blades and guide vane blades is being done. damage and factor of safety for that model. vol. “Investigation of Flow Through Centrifugal Pump Impellers Using Computational Fluid Dynamics”. Fascicola 6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE 7. AHEC. 16th International Conference on Artificial Reality and Telexistence-Workshops (ICAT'O6) 2006. The maximum efficiency regime indicated by both approaches is nearly same. IIT Roorkee. Lee and S. [5] Helmut Keck . Sep. Reason for slight difference of efficiency computed by theoretically and CFD method can be because of human errors and due to discretisation of domains and solution of differential equations in computational methods. 2. Wolfgang Michler.-9. H. Jaymin Desai2.1 Conclusion This project brought out the validation of CFD results with theoretical results. “CFD APPROACH FOR PREDICTION OF EFFICIENCY OF FRANCIS TURBINE”.2 Future scope 1. Zhimei Zhao. [7] Weidong Zhou. 268 . [6] Sanjay Jain. Dr. Zhu Baolin. Simulation can be done on the other hydraulic turbines like Kaplan turbine.

Manuel García2. Germany. “CFD BASED FLOW ANALYSIS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP”. Brian Quintero1.J. Febrero. Univ. ISSN 0976 – 6340(Print). [11] Teodor Miloş 1. Sandor Bernad 5 “Development of francis turbine model with swirling flow control” 269 . Fac. 2010.R. Sep. T. Romeo Susan-Resiga 2. Santiago Orrego2.. ISSN 0976 – 6359(Online) Volume 3. Alexandru Baya 3. [10] V. Lakhera. A. S. Helmrich. Jain and S.International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET). Antioquia N. December 2010. “Numerical Simulation of a Complete Francis Turbine including unsteady rotor/stator interactions” Institute for Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machinery University of Stuttgart.° 51 pp. Issue 3. Ing. Sebastian Muntean 4. Shah.V. 37th National & 4th International Conference on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power IIT Madras. M. Heitele. 24-33.Dec (2012) © IAEME [8] Santiago Laín1*. “CFD Numerical simulations of Francis turbine Simulación numérica (CFD) de turbinas Francis” Rev.. [9] Ruprecht..

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