Study of a Pneumatic Hybrid aided by 
a FPGA Controlled Free Valve 
Technology System 




Sasa Trajkovic 
te in Engineeiing Thesis foi the Begiee of Licentia
Bivision of Combustion
eigy S
eiing
Engines
ciences

Bepaitment of En
aculty of Engine
unu 0niveisity
F
L






 
 
 
 
 



















To Tatjana 












NBP‐‐u8¡7uS4‐‐SE SRN L0TNBN¡T I
ISSN u282‐199u
Engines
ciences
Bivision of Combustion
neigy S
eiing
Bepaitment of E
gine

Faculty of En
Lunu 0niveisity
118
u Lunu
P.0. Box
E‐221u S
Sweuen

C 2uu8 by Sasa Tiajkovic, All iights ieseiveu
Piinteu in Sweuen by Neuia‐Tiyck, Lunu, Nay 2uu8  
 
List of Papers 
Paper 1 
FPGA Controlled Pneumatic Variable Valve Actuation  
SAE Technical Paper 2006­01­0041 
By Sasa Tiajkovic, Alexanuai Nilosavljevic, Pei Tunestål anu Bengt Iohansson
Piesenteu by Sasa Tiajkovic at the SAE Woilu Congiess, Betioit, NI, 0SA, Apiil 2uu6
 
Paper 2 
Introductory Study of Variable Valve Actuation for Pneumatic Hybridization 
SAE Technical Paper 2007­01­0288 
By Sasa Tiajkovic, Pei Tunestål anu Bengt Iohansson
Piesenteu by Sasa Tiajkovic at the SAE Woilu Congiess, Betioit, NI, 0SA, Apiil 2uu7
 
Paper 3 
Investigation of Different Valve Geometries and Valve Timing Strategies and their 
Effect  on  Regenerative  Efficiency  for  a  Pneumatic  Hybrid  with  Variable  Valve 
Actuation 
SAE Technical Paper 2008­01­1715 
By Sasa Tiajkovic, Pei Tunestål anu Bengt Iohansson
o be publisheu at the SAE 2uu8 Inteinational Poweitiains, Fuels anu Lubiicants
ongiess, Shanghai, China, Iune 2uu8
T
C

 
Other Publications 
HCCI  Combustion  of  Natural  Gas  and  Hydrogen  Enriched  Natural  Gas  Combustion 
Control by Early Direct Injection of Diesel Oil and RME 
SAE Technical Paper 2008­01­1657 
By I. Saanum, N. Bysveen, I.E. Bustau, P. Tunestål anu S. Tiajkovic
o be publisheu at the SAE 2uu8 Inteinational Poweitiains, Fuels anu Lubiicants
ongiess, Shanghai, China, Iune 2uu8
T
C

   
___________________________________________________________________________ 

 
 
Abstract 
0iban tiaffic involves fiequent acceleiation anu ueceleiation. Buiing ueceleiation, the
eneigy pieviously useu to acceleiate the vehicle is mainly wasteu on heat geneiateu by
the fiiction biakes. If this eneigy that is wasteu in tiauitional IC engines coulu be saveu,
the fuel economy woulu impiove. Touay theie aie seveial solutions to meet the uemanu
foi bettei fuel economy anu one of them is the pneumatic hybiius. The iuea with
pneumatic hybiiuization is to ieuuce the fuel consumption by taking auvantage of the,
otheiwise lost, biake eneigy.
In the woik piesenteu in this stuuy a heavy uuty Scania B12 engine has been conveiteu
to woik as a pneumatic hybiiu. Buiing pneumatic hybiiu opeiation the engine can be
useu as a 2‐stioke compiessoi foi geneiation of compiesseu aii uuiing vehicle
ueceleiation (compiessoi moue) anu uuiing vehicle acceleiation the engine can be
opeiateu as an aii‐motoi uiiven by the pieviously stoieu piessuiizeu aii (aii‐motoi
moue). The compiesseu aii is stoieu in a piessuie tank connecteu to one of the inlet
poits. 0ne of the engine inlet valves has been mouifieu to woik as a tank valve in oiuei
to contiol the piessuiizeu aii flow to anu fiom the piessuie tank.
In oiuei to switch between uiffeient moues of engine opeiation theie is a neeu foi a
fully vaiiable valve actuation (FvvA) system. The engine useu in this stuuy is equippeu
with pneumatic valve actuatois that use compiesseu aii in oiuei to uiive the valves anu
c o the motion of the valves aie contiolleu by a ombinati n of electionics anu hyuiaulics.
Since the pneumatic vvA system, useu in the woik piesenteu in this thesis, was still
unuei uevelopment, the neeu to evaluate the system befoie any extensive use was moie
than necessaiy.
The evaluation of the pneumatic vvA system veiifieu its potential anu a stable function
was noticeu togethei with gieat flexibility to manipulate both valve timing anu valve lift
to fit the uesiieu puipose.
Initial testing conceining the uiffeient pneumatic hybiiu engine moues of opeiation was
conuucteu. Both compiessoi moue (CN) anu aii‐motoi moue (AN) weie executeu
successfully. 0ptimization of CN anu AN with iegaius to valve timing anu valve
geometiy has been uone with gieat impiovements in iegeneiative efficiency which is
uefineu as the iatio between the eneigy extiacteu uuiing AN anu the eneigy consumeu
uiing CN. u
 
___________________________________________________________________________ 
ii 
 
 
Acknowledgment 
I have many people to thank foi helping me to accomplish this woik. Fiist anu foiemost I
woulu thank my supeivisoi, Per  Tunestål, who with his inexhaustible souice of
knowleuge has given me numeious iueas on pioblem solving anu his suppoit
thioughout the whole pioject has been invaluable. I woulu also like to thank my co‐
supeivisoi,  Bengt  Johansson, who has contiibuteu with fiuitful uiscussions anu has
”. taught me the meaning of “choosing someone to seive voluntaiy uuty
A gieat thanks goes to my goou fiienus at Caigine Engineeiing AB. Urban  Carlson, has
always been a impoitant uiiving foice in keeping the pioject going foiwaiu anu in the
iight uiiection while Anders  Höglund, the combustion engine expeit, has with his
knowleuge been veiy helpful in solving the almost infinite piactical issues thioughout
the pioject. I woulu also like to thank Anueis foi teaching me that “fats aie nothing to be
afiaiu of as long as you stay away fiom caibohyuiates”.
All this woik coulu not have been uone without the help fiom the veiy skilleu
technicians at the uepaitment. Tom Hademark, has helpeu me move fiom one engine to
anothei seveial times anu eveiy time with a smile on his face. Tom, I will nevei foiget
oui fiist fishing tiip togethei. The S minutes I still was conscious on the fishing boat
weie among the best times in my fishing caiiiei. Bertil  Andersson, Bert  Berglund,  Jan­
Erik Everitt, Kjell Jonholm anu Tommy Petersen have all helpeu me at some point uuiing
my pioject anu ueseive a special thank you. I woulu also want to thank Krister Olsson foi
___________________________________________________________________________ 
iii
all computei ielateu help I have ieceiveu.
I woulu also like to thank all my fellow PhB stuuent who have contiibuteu to the gieat
atmospheie at the office. Andreas  Vressner, foimei PhB stuuent, has helpeu me a lot
iegaiuing combustion engines anu given me valuable auvices numeious times. Anuieas
is a gieat guy anu his fiienuship means a lot to me. Vittorio Manente, piobably the fastest
man on eaith. uive him a gun anu he will piobably manage to shoot his own shauow.
The only thing fastei than his mouth is the iate at which he manages to uestioy
whatevei he can get a holu of. vittoiio, thank you foi all funny stoiies you have tolu me, I
am looking foiwaiu to some new mateiial foi my next book. Mehrzad  Kaiadi, the man
anu the legenu, has been a tiue fiienu ovei the last two yeais anu a quite goou opponent
in foosball although he cheats almost all the time. Magnus Lewander, the enuless souice
of uigits, has contiibuteu with veiy fiuitful conveisations at the office, although his veiy
coloiful way of uesciibing things will haunt my uieams foi a long time. Claes­Göran 
Zander, thank you foi showing me that clogs can look nice togethei with almost any
piece of clothing. I woulu especially want to thank Claes foi pioof‐ieauing this thesis. Aj
em veiy giejtful foi that. Hans  Aulin, has taught me all theie is to know about exteinal
combustion, although at the expense of almost losing my eyebiows. Bis optimism has
affecteu me in a way like no one othei. Thomas  Johansson, the most life‐expeiienceu of
all the PhB stuuents, has shaieu a lot of gieat stoiies with us at the office. Patrick 
Borgqvist, a.k.a ciazy Supei Naiio, you aie one funny guy with a gieat sense of humoi.
The only thing funniei than you, is the Nintenuo games you play. A gieat thank goes to
the iest of all PhB stuuents foi contiibuting to the giate atmospheie: Ulf  Aronsson, 
Clement  Chartier,  Kent  Ekholm,  Uwe  Horn,  Håkan  Persson,  Helena  Persson,  Noriyuki 
Takada anu Carl Wilhelmsson.
 
 
 
I woulu also like to thank my family foi all theii suppoit uuiing this pioject. Ny biothei,
Sladjan, has helpeu me a lot with his gieat skills in Iava. Also, all oui impioviseu boxing
matches weie gieat stiess ielieveis.
Finally I woulu like to thank my wife, Tatjana, foi all the gieat suppoit. Thank you foi all
youi unueistanuing. You aie a gieat souice of inspiiation anu love to me. Ny heait
belongs foi evei to you…
___________________________________________________________________________ 
iv 
 
 
___________________________
RPN Revolutions Pei Nin
SI Spaik Ignition
TankvC Tank valve Closing
________________________________________________ 

 
Nomenclature 
 
ie ABBC Aftei Bottom Beau Cent

AN Aii‐motoi Noue
oue
tie
APAN Aii‐Powei‐Assist N
Aftei Top Beau Cen ATBC
AvT Active valve Tiain
BBC

uineu
BTBC Bottom Beau Centie
Su

CA Ciank Angle foi Su% b
e
on
CAB Ciank Angle Begie
i CI Compiession Ignit
CN Compiessoi Noue
C0 Caibon Nonoxiue
C0
2
Caibon Bioxiue
C0v Coefficient 0f vaiiation
B0BC Bouble 0veiBeau Camshaft
EuR Exhaust uas Reciiculation

EBvA Electio Byuiaulic valve Actuation
A Actuation
Actuation
ENv Electio Nagnetic valve
EPvA Electoi Pneumatic valve
EvC Exhaust valve Closing

Ev0 Exhaust valve 0pening
Aiiay

FPuA Fielu Piogiammable uate
FvvA Fully vaiiable valve Actuation

ompiession Ignition
u0I uiaphical 0sei Inteiface
I Chaige C BCC Bomogeneous
BEv Bybiiu Electiic vehicle
BP Boise Powei
BPv Bybiiu Pneumatic vehicle
n Engine
tive Piessuie
ICE Inteinal Combustio
INEP Inuicateu Nean Effec
C Iv Inlet valve Closing
Iv0 Inlet valve 0pening
k Polytiopic exponent |‐]
iansuucei
C valve Timing anu Lift Electionic Contiol
LBT Lineai Bisplacement T
ative NIvE Nitsubishi Innov
C

0B 0vheiBeau Camshaft
ai]
0Bv 0veiBeau valve
p In‐cylinuei piessuie |b
i

PN Paiticulate Natte
Pv0 Positive valve 0veilap
N0
x
Nitiogen 0xiues
0 0veilap
ute
Nv Negative valve
 
Ta Tank valve 0pening nkv0
TBC Top Beau Centie
lift Electionic Contiol
v Cylinuei volume |m
S
]
nu vTEC vaiiable valve Timing a
vvA vaiiable valve Actuation
vT vaiiable valve Timing
vTL‐i vaiiable valve Timing anu Lift with intelligence
v
v
 
___________________________________________________________________________ 
vi 
 
 
Contents 
1  Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 1 
1.1  Background ................................................................................................................. 1 
1.2  Outline ........................................................................................................................ 2 
1.2.1  Pneumatic valve actuation ..................................................................................... 2 
1.2.2  Pneumatic hybrid ................................................................................................... 2 
1.3  Method ....................................................................................................................... 2 
2  The internal combustion engine ........................................................................................ 3 
2.1  SI engine and CI engine fundamental operating principal ......................................... 3 
2.2  The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine ............................... 5 
3  Conventional Valve Actuation ............................................................................................ 7 
3.1  Valve design ................................................................................................................ 7 
3.2  Valvetrain operating systems ..................................................................................... 7 
3.3  Valve Actuation .......................................................................................................... 8 
3.3.1  Valve Lift ................................................................................................................. 8 
3.3.2  Valve Timing ........................................................................................................... 9 
4  Variable Valve Actuation .................................................................................................. 11 
4.1  Camshaft‐based VVA mechanism ............................................................................ 11 
4.1.1  Variable valve timing by camshaft phasing .......................................................... 11 
4.1.2  Variable valve lift by cam profile switching ......................................................... 13 
4.1.3  Variable valve lift by combining cam phasing and profile changing .................... 14 
4.1.4  Fully variable valve actuation with camshaft ....................................................... 15 
4.2  Camless VVA mechanism ......................................................................................... 16 
4.2.1  Electromagnetic Valve Actuation ......................................................................... 16 
4.2.2  Electrohydraulic Valve Actuation ......................................................................... 17 
4.2.3  Electro Pneumatic Valve Actuation ...................................................................... 20 
5  Valve Strategies enabled by Fully Variable Valve Actuation ............................................ 23 
5.1  Negative Valve Overlap ............................................................................................ 23 
5.2  Rebreathing Strategy ................................................................................................ 24 
5.3  Atkinson/Miller Cycle ............................................................................................... 25 
6  Vehicle Hybridization ....................................................................................................... 27 
6.1  Introduction .............................................................................................................. 28 
6.2  Electric Hybrid .......................................................................................................... 28 
6.3  Pneumatic hybrid ..................................................................................................... 31 
___________________________________________________________________________ 
vii 
 
 
___________________________________________________________________________ 
viii 
 
6.3.1  Modes of Operation ............................................................................................. 31 
6.3.2  Short History ......................................................................................................... 33 
7  Experimental setup .......................................................................................................... 35 
7.1  The Scania D12 Diesel engine................................................................................... 35 
7.1.1  Paper 1 ................................................................................................................. 35 
7.1.2  Paper 2 ................................................................................................................. 36 
7.1.3  Paper 3 ................................................................................................................. 38 
7.2  Pressure compensated tank valve ........................................................................... 39 
7.2.1  Modifications to the pneumatic spring ................................................................ 41 
7.3  The engine control system ....................................................................................... 42 
8  Results .............................................................................................................................. 44 
8.1  Evaluation of the electro pneumatic VVA system.................................................... 44 
8.1.1  Testing program functionality and pneumatic VVA system performance .......... 44 
8.1.2  Investigation of different valve strategies enabled by pneumatic VVA .............. 48 
8.2  The pneumatic hybrid .............................................................................................. 53 
8.2.1  Initial testing of Compressor Mode...................................................................... 53 
8.2.2  Optimizing the compressor mode ........................................................................ 56 
8.2.3  Initial testing of Air‐Motor Mode ......................................................................... 61 
8.2.4  Optimizing the air‐motor mode ........................................................................... 63 
8.2.5  Regenerative efficiency ........................................................................................ 66 
9  Summary .......................................................................................................................... 68 
10  Future work ...................................................................................................................... 69 
11  Summary of papers .......................................................................................................... 70 
11.1  Paper 1 ..................................................................................................................... 70 
11.2  Paper 2 ..................................................................................................................... 70 
11.3  Paper 3 ..................................................................................................................... 71 
12  References ........................................................................................................................ 72 
Appendix A ............................................................................................................................... 77 
 

    1 Introduction

 

1 Introduction 
1.1 Background 
The society of touay ielies to a gieat extent on uiffeient means of tianspoitation. Nevei
befoie have people tiavelleu to uiffeient paits of the woilu, fai away fiom theii own, as
touay. This massive tiaveling is a heavy loau on oui natuie. The cais that inciease in
numbeis eveiy uay, emit toxic emissions on oui highways anu the aiiplanes consume
huge amounts of fossil fuels. In iecent yeais the awaieness of the effect of pollution on
the enviionment anu climate has incieaseu. People aie moie conscious of the situation
anu aie looking foi alteinative means of tianspoitation with less impact on the
enviionment. The exhaust emission stanuaius aie getting moie anu moie stiingent anu
theie now exists a uiscussion about the intiouuction of a manuatoiy emissions stanuaiu
foi C02 |1], a gieen house gas that contiibutes to the climate change which is an issue of
giowing inteinational concein. This uemanu foi lowei exhaust emission levels togethei
with incieasing fuel piices leaus to the uemanu of combustion engines with bettei fuel
economy, which foices engine uevelopeis to finu anu investigate moie efficient
alteinative engine management.
Touay theie exist seveial solutions to achieve lowei exhaust emissions anu bettei fuel
economy. Some of them aie well known while otheis aie still in uevelopment. Some
examples of such solutions aie vvA (vaiiable valve Actuation), EuR (Exhaust uas
Reciiculation), uiiect injection, hybiiuization of vehicles, just to mention a few. In this
woik the emphasis has been put on vvA anu vehicle hybiiuization.
A vvA system auus seveial uegiees of fieeuom to the contiol of the combustion engine.
vvA makes it possible to use valve stiategies that affect the combustion in such a way
that the exhaust emissions aie uecieaseu. The valve lift anu uuiation aie automatically
alteieu in a vvA system to the optimum setting foi the actual engine speeu anu loau, anu
theieby the fuel consumption is loweieu. With vvA it is possible to ueactivate some of
the engine´s cylinueis when they aie not neeueu which iesults in highei engine
efficiency anu theieby lowei fuel consumption.
vehicle hybiiuization can be uone in vaiious ways. The maybe best known example of
vehicle hybiiuization is the electiic hybiiu. Bowevei othei hybiius like fuel cell hybiius
anu pneumatic hybiius aie being investigateu. The main iuea with electiic hybiiuization
is to ieuuce the fuel consumption by taking auvantage of the otheiwise lost biake
eneigy. Bybiiu opeiation also allows the combustion engine to opeiate at its most
optimal opeiating point in teims of loau anu speeu. The main uisauvantage with electiic
hybiius is that they iequiie an extia piopulsion system anu laige heavy batteiies with a
limiteu life‐cycle. This intiouuces extia manufactuiing costs which aie compensateu by
a highei enu‐piouuct piice compaiable to the piice of high enu vehicles. 0ne way of
keeping the extia cost as low as possible anu theieby inciease customei attiactiveness,
is the intiouuction of the pneumatic hybiiu. It uoes not iequiie an expensive extia
piopulsion souice anu it woiks in a way similai to the electiic hybiiu. Tai et al. |2]
uesciibes simulations of a pneumatic hybiiu with a so calleu “iounu‐tiip” efficiency of
S6% anu an impiovement of 64% on fuel economy in city uiiving. Simulations maue by
Anueisson et al. |S] show a iegeneiative efficiency as high as SS% foi a uual piessuie
tank system foi heavy uuty vehicles.
1 Introduction
 
 

1.2 Outline 
The woik piesenteu in this thesis can be uiviueu into two paits. The fiist pait ueals with
a new type of vvA system, namely an electio‐pneumatic vvA system anu the seconu
pait uesciibes expeiimental stuuies uone on an engine conveiteu to woik as a
pneumatic hybiiu.
1.2.1 Pneumatic valve actuation 
vaiiable valve actuation influences many paiameteis in an engine anu is theiefoie of
gieat impoitance. The pioblem with vvA systems has so fai been that they aie quite
complicateu anu intiouuce highei piouuction costs compaieu to conventional camshaft‐
uiiven engine valves. Anothei issue is that not all of the vaiious vvA systems on the
maiket aie fully vaiiable valve actuating (FvvA) systems, i.e. valve timing, uuiation anu
lift height can not be contiolleu inuepenuently. This pioblem can be solveu with
hyuiaulic vvA systems. The uisauvantage with such systems is that they aie quite
expensive to manufactuie because of the high piecision neeueu anu has unacceptably
high eneigy consumption. The pneumatic vvA system useu in the pioject uesciibeu in
this thesis, offeis fully vaiiable valve lift height anu valve uuiation at an eneigy
consumption well below the consumption of a hyuiaulic system (less than 4 kW at 6uuu
ipm with a 4‐cylinuei engine) anu it is also well suiteu to mass piouuction with
ielatively few moving paits, which makes it veiy cost effective |4]. In the piesent thesis
the pneumatic vvA system has been evaluateu anu uiffeient valve stiategies have been
testeu in oiuei to ensuie piopei opeiation in a ieal combustion engine |S].
1.2.2 Pneumatic hybrid 
Electiic hybiius have become veiy populai ovei the last couple of yeais thanks to
incieasing concein foi oui enviionment. The attiactiveness of the electiic hybiiu is its
low fuel consumption which in tuin leaus to lowei levels of exhaust emissions. What
stops the electiic hybiiu cai fiom becoming eveiy man’s piopeity is its piice. The extia
piopulsion system anu batteiies auu up to the manufactuiing cost, which in tuin the
customei has to pay foi. A moie cost effective alteinative woulu be the pneumatic
hybiiu. It woiks in a way similai to the electiic hybiiu, but since it uoes not iequiie an
extia piopulsion souice anu batteiies, the auuitional manufactuiing piice can be kept at
a ieasonable level, thus making it an attiactive choice foi the customeis. Simulations
have showeu that the pneumatic hybiiu has a gieat potential in saving fuel, at least
uuiing city uiiving |2, S, 6, 7, 8]. The seconu pait of the piesent thesis uesciibes
expeiimental stuuies uone on a single‐cylinuei Scania B12 uiesel engine conveiteu to
woik as a pneumatic hybiiu |9] anu optimization of the valve timings in oiuei to
maximize the efficiency of pneumatic hybiiu opeiation |1u].
1.3 Method
Since theie have alieauy been some simulations uone iegaiuing pneumatic
hybiiuization by othei ieseaicheis, it has been ueciueu that the fiist pait of the authoi´s
PhB woik piesenteu in this thesis shoulu be conuucteu as an expeiimental stuuy in
oiuei to investigate the feasibility of the pneumatic hybiiu concept. The seconu pait of
the authois PhB woik will, among othei things, incluue simulations baseu on iesults
fiom ieal engine expeiiments, howevei it will not be uealt with in the piesent thesis.
 
  2 The internal combustion engine

 

2 The internal combustion engine 
Foi moie than 1uu yeais the inteinal combustion engine (ICE) has been the piimaiy
souice of piopulsion in giounu vehicles anu it is iemaikable that this olu uesign is still
what piopels the vehicles of touay. Evei since the beginning of the ICE eia vaiious
inventois have tiieu to finu a bettei alteinative solution but with no gieat success. The
ieason is that although the ICE has a ielatively low efficiency, it has othei featuies that
make it attiactive, like foi instance high powei‐to‐weight iatio, high fuel eneigy uensity
which facilitates caiiying laige amounts of fuel eneigy, low manufactuiing cost anu long
uuiability with minimal maintenance.
Theie aie two main types of inteinal combustion engines: the spaik ignition (SI) engine
anu the compiession ignition (CI) engine. They aie also known as the 0tto engine anu
Biesel engine, iespectively, nameu aftei the inventois. The fuel usually useu in SI
engines is gasoline but it is also possible to use othei fuels such as natuial gas anu
alcohol. The Biesel engine utilizes, as the name implies, uiesel as fuel.
2.1 SI engine and CI engine fundamental operating principel 
Both SI anu CI engines can be uiviueu into subgioups uefineu by the numbei of stiokes
that occui uuiing one woiking cycle. Two‐stioke cycles aie mainly useu in SI engines foi
veiy light low‐cost applications such as chain saws anu lawnmoweis, howevei heavy
applications such as locomotives anu ships use two‐stioke Biesel engines. The majoiity
of othei engine‐baseu applications use the foui‐stioke cycle. The foui‐stioke opeiating
cycle can be explaineu with iefeiences to Figuie 1:
a) Intake stroke. The inlet valve is open anu fiesh aii¡fuel‐mixtuie is uiawn into the
cylinuei as the piston i h c tiavels towaius bottom ueau cente (BBC). In t e ase of CI
engines, only aii is uiawn into the cylinuei uuiing the intake stioke. 
b) Compression  stroke.  Both valves aie now closeu. As the piston is tiaveling
towaius top ueau centei (TBC) the aii¡fuel chaige is compiesseu, anu as the
piston appioaches TBC, the chaige is igniteu by a spaikplug anu the combustion
is initiateu. In the case of CI engines, the fuel is injecteu towaius the enu of the
compiession stioke anu the fuel self‐ignites uue to the high cylinuei tempeiatuie. 
c) Expansion stroke or Power stroke. As a iesult of the combustion, the tempeiatuie
anu piessuie in the cylinuei is iaiseu. The hot anu piessuiizeu in‐cylinuei gases
peifoim useful woik as they expanu anu push the piston uown towaius BBC. 
d) Exhaust  stroke. The exhaust valve opens shoitly befoie the enu of the expansion
stioke anu iemains open uuiing the entiie exhaust stioke. As the piston tiavels
towaius TBC the buineu gases aie swept out past the exhaust valve.  
2 The internal combustion engine

 


Figure 1 The four strokes of a SI engine [11]. 

The foui‐stioke cycle piouuces one powei stioke eveiy seconu ciankshaft ievolution.
0vei the yeais, evei since the intiouuction of the fiist foui‐stioke engine, ieseaicheis
anu inventois have believeu that a powei stioke coulu be geneiateu with each
ciankshaft ievolution. These beliefs leau to the uevelopment of the two‐stioke engine.
The two‐stioke opeiating cycle can be explaineu with iefeiences to Figuie 2:

Figure 2 The two­stroke cycle illustrated for a crankcase­scavenged engine [11]. 
a) Compression  Stroke. The inlet anu exhaust poits aie closeu uuiing the
compiession stioke. As the piston is tiaveling towaius TBC the tiappeu chaige is
compiesseu, while the unueisiue of the piston uiaws in fiesh chaige into the
ciankcase thiough a Reeu spiing inlet valve. The fuel can eithei be piemixeu oi
injecteu towaius the enu of t m h
 
he co piession stioke. Ignition of t e chaige occuis
as the piston appioaches TBC.
b) Expansion  or  Power  stroke. As the combustion piopagates thioughout the
combustion chambei, the tempeiatuie anu piessuie inciease anu foices the
piston uown. Buiing the uownwaiu movement of the piston, the chaige in the
2 The internal combustion engine

ciankcase is compiesseu. The gas exchange piocess staits as the piston
appioaches BBC anu uncoveis the exhaust poit. This staits the blowuown of
exhaust gases thiough the exhaust poit. When the piston ieaches BBC the
tiansfei poit is also uncoveieu, anu the compiesseu chaige in the ciankcase
expanus into the cylinuei anu pushes the iemaining exhaust gases out thiough
the exhaust poit.
The auvantage with the two‐stioke engine is that it is simple to manufactuie (few
moving paits) anu it is moie poweiful than the foui‐stioke engine since the two‐stioke
engine geneiates a powei stioke on eveiy ciankshaft ievolution. The pioblem with two‐
stioke engines is that it is uifficult to achieve an efficient scavenging piocess anu a
poition of the fiesh chaige flows uiiectly out of the cylinuei uuiing the scavenging
ocess. pi

2.2 The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine 
Even though the ICE has evolveu significantly ovei the last 1uu yeais it is not all ioses.
The SI engine suffeis fiom low efficiency at low loaus anu the CI engine suffeis fiom high
emissions of Nitiogen 0xiues (N0
x
) anu Paiticulate Nattei (PN). The Bomogeneous
Chaige Compiession Ignition (BCCI) engine is a hybiiu of the SI engine anu the CI engine
piocesses. BCCI combines the high efficiency of the CI engine with the low N0
x
anu PN
emissions of a SI engine. In a BCCI engine, the fuel anu aii aie mixeu piioi to combustion
just like in SI engines anu compiession of this mixtuie causes auto‐ignition like in the CI
engine. The conceptual uiffeiences between the combustion in SI, CI anu BCCI engines
aie illustiateu in Figuie S.

Figure 3 Illustration of the combustion process in a SI, CI and HCCI engine [12]. 
 
  
The uefining chaiacteiistics of BCCI aie that ignition of the aii¡fuel‐mixtuie staits
simultaneously at seveial locations, making the combustion occui almost
simultaneously thioughout the entiie combustion chambei which in tuin contiibutes to
a veiy fast combustion iate. The high combustion iate leaus to high piessuie iise iates
anu noise levels. In oiuei to avoiu this anu pievent engine failuie, the aii¡fuel‐mixtuie
has to be uiluteu. The uiluents can be aii, ieciiculateu exhaust gas (EuR) oi tiappeu
iesiuuals. By uiluting the mixtuie anu making it lean, the combustion tempeiatuie will

2 The internal combustion engine

 

be low which iesults in veiy low N0
x
emissions anu almost no PN, while BC anu C0
emissions inciease uue to lowei combustion efficiency.
Bue to the natuie of BCCI combustion, theie is no actuating mechanism uiiectly
contiolling stait of combustion making the contiol of combustion uifficult. The BCCI
combustion initiation piocess uepenus highly on chemical kinetics of the aii¡fuel
mixtuie anu thus the time histoiy of piessuie anu tempeiatuie in the cylinuei. Theie aie
vaiious methous foi contiolling the BCCI ignition timing thiough these paiameteis.
Possible methous aie contiol of the inlet aii tempeiatuie |1S], vaiiable compiession
iatio |14], uual fuel injection |1S], vaiiable valve timing |16] anu exhaust gas
ieciiculation |17], just to mention a few.

S Conventional Valve Actuation

3 Conventional Valve Actuation 
Since the beginning of the ICE histoiy, almost all engines have hau some soit of valve
uesign foi the gas exchange piocess. The puipose of the gas exchange piocess is to
iemove the buint gases fiom the combustion chambei anu aumit a fiesh chaige foi the
next cycle.
3.1 Valve design 
The most commonly useu valve uesign in foui‐stioke inteinal combustion engines is the
camshaft uiiven poppet valve. The main auvantages of poppet valves aie that they aie
cheap to manufactuie, goou flow chaiacteiistics anu sealing piopeities, easy lubiication
anu goou heat tiansfei to the cylinuei heau.
The poppet valve is most often a flat uisk of metal with a long iou known as the valve
stem. A somewhat typical valvetiain is illustiateu in Figuie 4.

Figure 4. Schematic of a valvetrain [18]. 
 
The engine noimally opeiates the valves by pushing on the stems with cams anu cam
followeis. The valve spiing keeps the valve closeu tightly against its seat until the valve
is openeu by the cam. As the cam pushes the stem uown anu the valve opens, the valve
spiing is piesseu togethei. The compiesseu valve spiing pushes the valve against the
cam lobe anu the contact iemains thioughout the whole valve movement.
 
3.2 Valvetrain operating systems 
The placement of camshafts, valves anu possible tiansfei mechanisms between camshaft
anu valve can be uone in seveial ways. In the oveiheau valve (0Bv) setup the camshaft
is mounteu in the cylinuei block anu the valves aie opeiateu fiom the camshaft via cam
followeis, push ious anu iockei aims. An example of this kinu of valvetiain aiiangement
is illustiateu in Figuie S. The uisauvantage with this kinu of systems is that, uue to
highei ineitia causeu by laigei amount of valvetiain components it is uifficult to
accuiately contiol the valve timing at high ipm. 0ne way to solve this is to ueciease the

S Conventional Valve Actuation

ineitia by minimizing the amount of moving paits, anu the solution is the oveiheau
camshaft (0BC) setup in which the camshaft is mounteu eithei uiiectly ovei the valve
stems oi it can be offset, which means that the valves aie opeiateu by iockeis. In Figuie
6, a uouble oveiheau camshaft (B0BC) valvetiain without offset can be seen. In this
setup, the cam lobe acts uiiectly on the cam followei. The uisauvantage with this kinu of
system is mainly that it is a moie complex anu expensive uesign compaieu to the 0Bv
etup. s



 

 


F
v

F
1

igure  6.  Double  overhead  camshaft  (DOHC) 
alve arrangement [19]. 
igure  5.  Valvetrain  mechanism  for  a  Scania 
2 liter Diesel engine [20]. 
 
3.3 Valv
The teim valve actuation iefeis to the valve lift event anu incluues valve timing, valve lift
height anu uuiation. The valve lift height anu uuiation aie uefineu by the geometiy of
the cam, while valve timing is contiolleu by both cam shape anu the position of each cam
ielative to each othei. The valve actuation is iesponsible foi contiolling the
communication between the cylinuei anu the intake‐ anu exhaust system, anu it is a veiy
impoitant factoi in engine uesign since it affects engine peifoimance, fuel economy anu
missions.
e Actuation 
e

3.3.1 Valve Lift 
It is highly uesiiable to achieve a maximum valve lift as soon as possible aftei the
initiation of valve opening. The ieason is that with a fast valve opening sequence, the
flow ovei the valve will be less iestiicteu uuiing a gieatei pait of the valve lift uuiation
anu iesult in highei volumetiic efficiency. Figuie 7 illustiates an optimal valve lift piofile
with an infinitely fast valve opening anu valve closing. Bowevei, such a valve lift piofile
woulu be impossible to implement in ieality, since an instantaneous valve opening anu
S Conventional Valve Actuation

closing woulu mean infinite acceleiation of the valve which woulu be much too seveie
foi any valvetiain to enuuie. Also, the valve has to slow uown as it appioaches the seat
in oiuei to pievent the valve fiom hitting the seat with louu noises, anu woin anu
bioken paits as a iesult.

F


igure 7 Ideal valve lift profile. 
3.3.2 Valve Timing 
iguie 8 F

illustiates the iegulai valve timings foi a foui‐stioke engine.

Figure 8 Regular valve timing diagram for a four­stroke engine. 
 
 
At the enu of the powei stioke, as the piston appioaches BBC, the exhaust valve staits to
open. It iemains open uuiing the whole exhaust stioke anu closes shoitly aftei the stait
of the intake stioke. The ieason why the exhaust valve opens befoie BBC anu closes
aftei TBC is that this behavioi incieases the aveiage valve lift anu thus minimizes the
flow iesistance in the exhaust poit. At the enu of the exhaust stioke the inlet valve staits

S Conventional Valve Actuation

 
10 
to open. This means that theie is a shoit peiiou of time when both the exhaust anu inlet
valves aie open. This peiiou is iefeiieu to as the valve  overlap anu it is uesigneu to
piomote inuuction of fiesh chaige into the cylinuei by using the vacuum cieateu by the
outgoing exhaust gases. The inlet valve iemains open uuiing the entiie intake stioke anu
closes shoitly aftei the stait of the compiession stioke.
   
    4 Variable Valve Actuation

 
4 Variable Valve Actuation 
The uisauvantage with conventional valve actuation in combustion engines is that once
the camshaft has been configuieu anu piouuceu, its chaiacteiistics can nevei be
changeu. Since optimal timing anu lift settings aie uiffeient at high anu low engine
speeus, the fixeu valve timing in conventional engines has to be a compiomise between
these two. Foi instance, a miu‐size cai with engine speeus haiuly exceeuing Suuu ipm
uses a small valve oveilap. Small valve oveilap gives the engine a smooth iule anu goou
slow speeu toique. Bigh ipm iace cais, on the othei hanu, use a laige valve oveilap. A
laige valve oveilap allows goou engine bieathing at high engine speeus but causes a
iough iule anu pooi peifoimance at low ipm. It is eviuent that in oiuei to uesign an
engine with goou peifoimance at both low anu high engine speeus, the valve timings
cannot be fixeu anu thus variable  valve  actuation (vvA) is neeueu. vaiiable valve
actuation is a geneializeu teim useu to uesciibe the alteiing of the valve lift event by
means of vaiiable valve timing, lift anu uuiation. Since theie aie many ways in which
his can be achieveu, only the most common systems will be biiefly uesciibeu. t

4.1 Camshaft­based VVA mechanism 
The most wiuely useu mechanism foi vvA utilizes a specially uesigneu camshaft as main
component. In this kinu of vvA systems the camshaft has some extia featuies foi
hanging the valve timing oi valve lift, oi a combination of both. Some of the vaiious
ystems will be uesciibeu below.
c
s

4.1.1 Variable valve timing by camshaft phasing 
In a cam phasing system, the camshaft can be iotateu with iespect to the ciankshaft anu
theieby the valve timing can be changeu while the valve uuiation anu lift stays
unaffecteu. Simplei systems only offei shifting between two fixeu positions while moie
complex systems featuie continuously vaiiable valve timing within a uefineu ciank
angle iange.

Figure 9 Alfa Romeo cam phasing mechanism using helical and straight splines [23]. 
 
11 
4 Variable Valve Actuation

Alfa Romeo was the fiist manufactuiei to use a vaiiable valve timing system in
piouuction cais. The patent foi the system was fileu 1979 in the 0SA |21] anu mouels
staiting fiom 1984 useu a phasing of the intake cam ielative to the ciankshaft |22]. The
ystem is illustiateu in s
u

Figuie 9. What chaiacteiizes this system is that the intake valve
uiation iemains constant while Iv0 anu IvC aie moveu equally, see Figuie 1u.

Figure 10 Illustration of inlet valve cam phasing. 
 
At light loaus anu low engine speeus it is beneficial to ietaiu the intake valve event, since
the ieuuceu valve oveilap iesults in impioveu combustion (no blow back of exhaust
gases to the intake siue) anu a uelayeu IvC ieuuces thiottling losses. In low to meuium
speeu iange, the intake valve event is auvanceu anu theieby the valve oveilap is
incieaseu. The eailiei IvC pievents the alieauy inuucteu aii fiom being expelleu, thus
incieasing the powei output. At high engine speeus it is favoiable with late IvC in oiuei
to take auvantage of the intake system iam effect anu since the ieuuceu valve oveilap
contiibutes to a lowei iesiuual gas fiaction, the mass of the inuucteu aii¡fuel mixtuie is

Figure 11 Variable valve timing map for a Mercedes­Benz 500 SL [24]. 
 
 
12 
    4 Variable Valve Actuation

maximizeu with a highei engine powei output as a iesult. Figuie 11 shows the cam
phasing stiategy thioughout the whole engine speeu iange foi a Neiceues‐Benz Suu SL. 
Toyota intiouuceu a continuously contiolleu cam phasing system in 1996. It is known as
the vvT‐I system anu it gives continuously vaiiable intake cam phasing by up to 6u
ciank angle uegiees (CAB). The vvT‐I system showeu impiovements in fuel economy by
, compaieu to a similai engine using a conventional camshaft | 6%

2S].
4.1.2 Variable valve lift by cam profile switching 
A uiawback with cam phasing is that the valve event uuiation anu valve lift height aie
unaffecteu. 0naffecteu valve uuiation means that if Iv0 is ietaiueu, then IvC is also
ietaiueu by the same amount, which in some cases leaus to ieuuceu amount of chaige
enteiing the engine. This coulu be avoiueu with a system that allows alteiing of the valve
event uuiation. In this way, IvC can be aujusteu foi maximum volumetiic efficiency at
highei engine speeus anu laigei valve oveilap.
The valve lift is also an impoitant factoi affecting engine peifoimance. At low engine
speeus, a lowei valve lift is piefeiable, since it piomotes moie tuibulence. At high engine
speeus the valve lift height is set to a maximum in oiuei to achieve efficient bieathing.
Figuie 12 illustiates typical valve timing anu valve lift height foi a two‐step cam piofile
switching system.

Figure 12 Illustration of two­step cam profile swithching. 
 
Bonua has uevelopeu a system calleu vTEC (vaiiable valve Timing anu lift Electionic
Contiol) which allows switching between two uiffeient cam piofiles |26]. The engine has
two low‐speeu cam lobes anu one high‐speeu cam lobe, see Figuie 1S. As the engine
moves into uiffeient ipm ianges, the engine contiollei can activate uiffeient lobes on the
camshaft anu change the cam timing. In this way, the engine gets the best featuies of
 
low‐speeu anu high‐speeu camshafts in the same engine.
Nitsubishi has uevelopeu a system similai to Bonua´s vTEC which is known as NIvEC
(Nitsubishi Innovative valve Timing anu Lift Electionic Contiol) |27]. The auvantage
13 
4 Variable Valve Actuation

with this system compaieu to the vTEC system, is that when the high engine speeu cam
lobe is useu, only the coiiesponuing iockei aim is active, while vTEC activates all thiee
iockei aims at the high engine speeu setting. This ieuuces the total moving mass of the
valvetiain anu thus moie aggiessive valve acceleiation is possible. Anothei auvantage is
that NIvEC offeis valve ueactivation anu thus cylinuei ueactivation with lowei fuel
consumption as a iesult. The valve mechanism of the NIvEC system is illustiateu in
iguie 14 F

.
 
14 
 
Figure  13  Honda  VTEC  variable  valve 
actuation mechanism [26]. 
 
 
Figure  14  Valve  mechanism  of  Mitsubishi's 
MIVEC system [27]. 
 
 
4.1.3 Variable valve lift by combining cam phasing and profile changing 
A cam phasing system gives the ability to change the valve timing while a cam piofile
changing system intiouuces the possibility to change the valve lift. Both systems have
benefits compaieu to a conventional camshaft. Bowevei, a combination of both systems
woulu offei even bettei engine chaiacteiistics with lowei fuel consumption anu highei
engine output. Both Toyota anu Poische have uemonstiateu such systems.
In 1998, Poische showeu theii system calleu vaiioCam Plus, which combines the best
featuies of cam phasing anu piofile changing |28]. Thiee cam piofiles aie useu foi each
valve, one low lifting anu two high lifting, see Figuie 1S.
The system offeis a total of 4 valve‐lift anu camshaft aujustment combinations, as can be
seen in Figuie 16. At pait‐loau opeiation anu engine speeus of less than S7uu ipm, the
low‐lifting cam is chosen togethei with ietaiueu cam phasing, in oiuei to ensuie
optimum combustion stability. At full‐loau opeiation with engine speeus exceeuing 12uu
ipm, the high‐lifting valve piofile is useu togethei with auvanceu cam phasing |29].
    4 Variable Valve Actuation

 

Figure  15  Porsche  VarioCam  Plus  system 
(29]. 
 
With vaiiable valve lift anu cam phasing, Poische has loweieu fuel consumption of the
2uuu Poische 911 by 18% compaieu to pievious 911 mouels, while toique has
incieaseu by 4u% (16u Nm). The exhaust emissions have also been ieuuceu anu the cai



Figure  16  VarioCam  Plus  valve  lift  curves 
[29].
fulfills the B4 anu 0.S. LEv emissions stanuaius |Su].
In 2uuu, Toyota piesenteu theii system calleu vvTL‐i. The system is a combination of
theii pieviously uevelopeu cam phasing system, vvT‐i, anu cam piofile switching |S1].
The valve timing anu lift foi this system is shown in Table 1. The switch fiom low‐ to
high setting occuis as late as at 6uuu ipm. Results obtaineu by Shikiua et al. |S1] showeu
n inciease in maximum powei by about 26% foi an engine equippeu with vvTL‐I. a

Table 1 Valve timing and lift for the VVTL­i system [31]. 


4.1.4 Fully variable valve actuation with camshaft  
A valve actuating system that peimits continuous vaiiation of valve lift as well as valve
timing is known as a fully vaiiable valve actuation (FvvA) system. A lot of mechanical
systems which offeis FvvA have been pioposeu. 0ne of them is the valvetionic system
uevelopeu by BNW. It is baseu on the technology of the BNW Bouble‐vanos system,
which is a vvT system utilizing cam phasing, togethei with an auuitional possibility to
shift the valve lift continuously |S2]. The valvetionic system has a conventional intake
cam, but it also uses a seconuaiy eccentiic shaft with a seiies of leveis anu iollei
followeis activateu by an electiic motoi, see Figuie 17.
15 
4 Variable Valve Actuation

 

F
m
igure  17  Illustration  of  BMW’s  Valvetronic 
echanism [33].  

Fiat piesenteu a Feiiaii v8 engine equippeu with theii FvvT system in 1991 |

Figure 18 Fiat variable mechanism by Ferrari 
in a V8 engine [34]. 
S4]. The
system uses a camshaft with multi‐uimensional cam lobes. The change of valve lift cuive
is uone by axial movement of the camshaft, see Figuie 18. The lineai contact between
the cam lobe anu the cam followei is maintaineu with a tilting pau in between. If
combineu with a cam phasing mechanism, Fiat’s system woulu offei the possibility to
hange valve lift height, uuiation anu timing. c

4.2 Camless VVA mechanism 
As stateu befoie, the gas exchange in an engine with conventional camshaft baseu valve
actuation is a compiomise since the optimal valve timing at light loaus anu low engine
speeus is not the same as the optimal valve timing at high engine speeus. Even though
theie aie many camshaft‐baseu mechanical vvA systems, they aie all limiteu in theii
flexibility of inuiviuual valve anu cylinuei contiol. 0ne way to solve this is to get iiu of
the camshaft. Insteau the valves aie actuateu by some othei mechanism, such as
electiical, hyuiaulic oi pneumatic. The valve timing anu lift aie electionically contiolleu
by a computei. The computei ieceives infoimation about the cuiient state of the engine
anu uepenuing on what is uesiieu at the moment, the contiol piogiam ueteimines the
most optimal valve timings. The valve timing can in this way easily be changeu fiom
cycle to cycle, which is a big auvantage foi combustion contiol.
The majoi auvantage of camless vvA systems is the flexibility anu the almost total
ontiol of the valve event. The uisauvantage is that such systems aie complex anu
xpensive, anu theiefoie useu mainly by ieseaicheis in laboiatoiies.
c
e

4.2.1 Electromagnetic Valve Actuation 
Electiomagnetic valve actuation (ENvA) offeis gieat flexibility of valve timing, uuiation
anu lift. The valve actuation in this kinu of systems is usually iealizeu by uiffeient
16 
    4 Variable Valve Actuation

 
combinations of solenoius anu mechanical spiings. Figuie 19 shows a cioss‐section of
uN’s electio‐mechanical valve actuatoi.

F
e
igure  19  Cross­section  of  GM’s 
lectromechanical valve actuator [35]. 

The valve is equippeu with a plungei anu placeu insiue a housing containing a
peimanent magnet anu an electiomagnet. When the valve is in its closeu position, Spiing
A is compiesseu anu the valve is helu in place by the peimanent magnet. To open the
valve, coil A has to be activateu anu cancel the magnetic fielu of the peimanent magnetic
pole. This allows the spiing foice exeiteu by Spiing A to acceleiate the valve. As the
valve moves towaius its lowei position, the plungei is attiacteu by the othei peimanent
magnetic pole anu spiing B is compiesseu. The valve closing event is uone in a ieveiseu
p




Figure  20  A  typical  valve  lift  profile  for  an 
electromagnetic valve train [37]. 
pioceuuie compaieu to the valve o ening event |S6].
Figuie 2u shows a typical valve lift piofile achieveu with an electiomagnetic valve
actuating system. Compaieu to a conventional valve lift, the electiomagnetic valve lift
piofile has a much steepei valve‐opening iamp which piomotes bettei cylinuei filling at
low anu meuium engine speeus.
Theobalu et al. |SS] state that uN’s electiomagnetic system has lowei eneigy
consumption than a stanuaiu camshaft uiiven valve tiain at the same speeu. A
uisauvantage with uN’s system is that the valve seating velocity is unacceptably high
with high noise levels as iesult. A solution to such valve seating pioblems has been
pioposeu by Nianzo et al. |S8] wheie the valve is sloweu uown by iesistance inuuceu by
the valve stem enteiing a fluiu‐filleu cavity. Because of the incieaseu iesistance, a soft
seating of the valve heau is achieveu.
17 
4.2.2 Electrohydraulic Valve Actuation 
Anothei way to achieve camless valve opeiation is by electiohyuiaulic valve actuation
(EBvA). Electiohyuiaulic valve actuatois conveit fluiu piessuie into motion in iesponse
to a signal. Schechtei et al. |S9] uesciibes an EBvA system foi vaiiable contiol of engine
valve timing, lift anu velocity. The system uoes not use cams oi spiings, insteau the
4 Variable Valve Actuation

valves aie both openeu anu closeu by hyuiaulic foice. Thioughout the valve
acceleiation, the potential eneigy of the compiesseu fluiu is tiansfoimeu into kinetic
eneigy of the valve. Buiing ueceleiation the eneigy of the valve motion is ietuineu to
the fluiu. Figuie 21 illustiates Foiu´s electiohyuiaulic valve tiain actuation concept anu
iguie 22 F

shows the lift piofile foi the system in question.

Figure  21  Illustration  of  Ford’s 
lectrohydraulic camless valve train [ e

39]. 

Figure  22  The  lift  profile  of  the 
electrohydraulic  valve  train  presented  by 
Schechter et al. [39]. 

While the valve is in its closeu position, the high‐piessuie solenoiu is openeu anu the
high‐piessuie fluiu is alloweu to entei the volume above the valve. The piessuie above
anu unuei the valve piston is equal but since the aiea on the upsiue of the valve piston is
laigei, the net hyuiaulic foice is uiiecteu uownwaiu anu theiefoie the valve opens. As
the valve moves towaius its lowei position, the high piessuie solenoiu closes which
iesults in a cut‐off of the high piessuie supply. Even though the piessuie above the
valve piston uecieases, the valve keeps on going uue to its momentum. As the valve
moves towaius its enu position the low piessuie check valve opens anu low piessuie
fluiu enteis the volume in such way that the valve ueceleiates until it stops at the
uesiieu valve lift. Buiing the uwell‐peiiou, both solenoius anu check valves aie closeu,
thus the valve is pieventeu fiom ietuining since hyuiaulic piessuie acts on both siues of
the valve piston. The valve closing event is initiateu by the activation of the low piessuie
solenoiu. The valve pushes the fluiu back to the low piessuie souice while ietuining to
its closeu position. As the valve appioaches its closeu position, the high piessuie check
valve opens anu the valve staits to slow uown.
Lotus has been ueveloping an electiohyuiaulic valve actuation system since the eaily
199u´s. The system is known as Lotus active valve train (AvT). It consists of a hyuiaulic
piston attacheu to the engine valve which moves insiue a hyuiaulic cylinuei. The
movement of the valve is contiolleu via fluiu flow eithei above oi below the actuatoi
piston, anu the fluiu flow is in tuin contiolleu by the high‐speeu seivo valve |4u]. Figuie
2S shows a Lotus AvT system mounteu on a cylinuei heau.
 
18 
    4 Variable Valve Actuation


 
19 
Figure 23 Lotus research AVT system [40].  

Figuie 24 illustiates the hyuiaulic ciicuit of the ieseaich AvT system. The valve piofile
is continuously monitoieu by a lineai uisplacement tiansuucei (LBT), which makes
valve piofile coiiection fiom cycle‐to‐cycle possible. The AvT system has fully flexible
contiol of the entiie valve event. The uesiieu valve piofile is enteieu in a contiol
piogiam anu with the help of the LBT the valve is opeiateu accoiuing to the uesiieu
valve lift piofile. The system peimits inuiviuual valve contiol anu can opeiate uiffeient
valve lift piofiles on uiffeient valves. In auuition to this, the system is capable of opening
a valve moie than once uuiing an engine cycle |4u, 41]. valve piofiles of vaiying shapes,
such as polynomial, tiiangulai oi tiapezoiual, aie easily geneiateu by an engine valve lift
piofile geneiatoi capable of stoiing up to 2S6 inuiviuual valve lift piofiles |42].

Figure 24 Schematic of the hydraulic circuit used in the research AVT system [40]. 

The afoiementioneu system is only intenueu foi ieseaich puiposes anu it is not at all
suitable foi mass‐piouuceu engines. The ieason is that the technology useu is extiemely
expensive anu the high‐speeu seivo‐valve uoes not allow contiolleu valve velocities with
4 Variable Valve Actuation

sufficient accuiacy above engine speeus of 4uuu ipm |42]. Lotus anu Eaton aie
collaboiating to uevelop a piouuction ieauy veision of AvT anu they expect to maiket
he piouuct in the 2uu8‐9 timefiame | t

4S].
4.2.3 Electro Pneumatic Valve Actuation 
Although the pieviously uesciibeu systems (ENvA anu EBvA) show goou iesults when
useu in ieseaich enviionments, they both suffei fiom vaiious pioblems, making them a
less attiactive choice foi piouuction engines. The ENvA system suffeis fiom
funuamental pioblems like high levels of noise anu packaging issues, while the EBvA
system is veiy expensive anu has issues iegaiuing tempeiatuie vaiiations. Electio
pneumatic valve actuation (EPvA) seems to be a piomising alteinative to ENvA anu
EBvA, with chaiacteiistics such as full vvA flexibility, low eneigy consumption anu low
valve seating velocity (low noise levels) |4]. The EPvA system can be maue moie iobust
since aii is not as sensitive as hyuiaulic fluius to tempeiatuie vaiiations, at least not at
the tempeiatuies founu in ICE applications. Also, aii leaks aie less seveie than oil leaks
anu the neeu of high piecision is theiefoie lowei compaieu to hyuiaulic systems.
Caigine engineeiing AB has uevelopeu an EPvA system that offeis fully vaiiable valve
contiol. The system has been evaluateu in the woik piesenteu in this thesis anu a
uynamic mouel of the system has been uevelopeu anu implementeu in
Simulink/Matlab
TM
by Na et al. |44]. An illustiation of Caigine’s pneumatic valve
ctuatoi can be seen in a

Figuie 2S.
 
20 

Figure 25 Illustration of Cargine’s pneumatic valve actuator. 

The pneumatic valve actuatoi consists of the actuatoi housing, two solenoius, two spool
valves, two poit valves, an actuatoi piston, a hyuiaulic latch¡uampei system anu aii flow
channels insiue the housing. valve lift infoimation is pioviueu by optical sensois
Outlet  Inlet
mounteu insiue the actuatoi.
Figuie 26 shows an EPvA valve lift piofile togethei with the coiiesponuing solenoiu
voltage pulses. Fiom Figuie 26, it can be seen that the valve event consists of S sections,
    4 Variable Valve Actuation

namely the opening peiiou, uwell peiiou anu closing peiiou. The opening peiiou staits
with the activation of solenoiu 1, S1, which in tuin pushes the coiiesponuing spool
valve. The new position of the spool valve now peimits piessuiizeu aii to entei the
actuatoi cylinuei. The piessuiizeu aii pushes the actuatoi piston anu since the valve is
in uiiect contact with the actuatoi piston, it staits to open. Solenoiu 2, S2, is activateu in
oiuei to stop the aii chaiging of the cylinuei anu the time uiffeience between activation
of S1 anu activation of S2, δ
1
, theiefoie ueteimines the valve lift. The piessuiizeu aii
expanus insiue the actuatoi cylinuei until it balances with the valve spiing foice. At the
enu of the opening peiiou, the hyuiaulic latch is activateu anu the valve is pieventeu
fiom ietuining. The hyuiaulic latch is active uuiing the whole uwell peiiou. When S1 is
ueactivateu, the latch is uisableu which in tuin staits the aii uischaige fiom the actuatoi
cylinuei anu the valve staits its closing peiiou. The time uiffeience between the
ueactivation of S2 anu S1, δ
2
, must always be positive to pievent a seconu aii filling of
the actuatoi cylinuei since this woulu tiiggei a seconu valve lift event. At the enu of the
closing peiiou (about S mm befoie the enu of valve lift) the hyuiaulic uampei is
activateu, anu staits to slow uown the valve. In the inteival 1.u to u.u mm, the seating
velocity is constant with a magnituue of appioximately u.S m¡s. Theieby the uampei
nsuies a soft‐seating with a low level of noise as a iesult. e


Figure  26  A  typical  valve  lift  profile  achieved  with  Cargine’s  EPVA  system.  Below  the  valve  lift 
urve,  a  solenoid  action  chart  can  be  seen.  Observe  that  the  system  delays  are  excluded  from  the 
olenoid chart [
c
s 45]. 

Caigine is not alone in this fielu, howevei, it seems as theii piouuct is the one most likely
to ieach the maiket in a neai futuie.
 
21 
4 Variable Valve Actuation

Iohnson et al. |46] uesciibes a fiee‐piston engine using pneumatically opeiateu valves.
Bowevei, the valves in the engine uesciibeu aie not of the conventional type. Insteau of
poppet valves, the engine uses spool valves. As the piston appioaches the enu of its
stioke, the piessuie is built up in the cylinuei anu piessuiizeu gas is conuucteu to the
valves thiough fluiu lines, making the spool valves move in the uesiieu uiiection. The
e a any typ system uo s not umit e of contiol ovei the valve event.
Richeson et al. |47] piesents an electionically contiolleu pneumatically poweieu
tiansuucei foi use as a valve actuatoi in an ICE. The tiansuucei contains a piston which
can easily be coupleu to an engine valve. The piston is uisplaceu by piessuiizeu aii
contiolleu by peimanent magnet contiol valves. At the stait of the opening peiiou, the
peimanent magnet is tempoiaiily neutializeu making the contiol valve open. This leaus
to a filling of the cylinuei above the piston, thus pushing it to its opposite enu position.
When the piston ieaches the enu of its stioke, the contiol valve is closeu by the
peimanent magnet anu the piessuiizeu aii in the cylinuei keeps the piston at its enu
position anu the uwell peiiou has been initiateu. To stait the closing peiiou, the
peimanent magnet below the piston is neutializeu which aumits opening of the contiol
valve anu iesults in a subsequent chaiging of the cylinuei fiom unueineath the piston.
The system is equippeu with a soft‐seating mechanism using aii as cushion. The system
can be uesciibeu as a vvT system, since the valve timings can be contiolleu as uesiieu,
but the lack of valve lift contiol uisquakifies it as an FvvA system. uoulu et al. |48] testeu
the system uesciibeu above, implementeu in a test engine, with satisfying iesults
consiueiing that no optimization of the implementation has been uone. Figuie 27 shows
the thiee EPvA valve lift piofiles with constant valve lift uuiation at thiee uiffeient
engine speeus.
In 2uuS, Watson et al. |49] showeu iesults achieveu fiom simulations of a pneumatic
alve actuation system, howevei no piototype has been uemonstiateu so fai. v


F
[
 


igure 27 Valve lift profile comparison between cam driven and pneumatic actuator driven valves 
48].  
22 
S Valve Strategies enabled by Fully Variable Valve Actuation

 
5 Valve Strategies enabled by Fully Variable Valve Actuation 
With FvvA, unlimiteu possibilities to investigate effects of vaiious valve timings aiise.
Foi instance, by closing the inlet valve late (a numbei of uegiees ABBC) the effective
compiession iatio is changeu, with a seconu opening of the exhaust valve ATBC
“inteinal” EuR is achieveu, ueactivation of valves in oiuei to altei the in‐cylinuei flow
etc. Some of the most common valve stiategies enableu by FvvA will be uiscusseu in the
oithcoming sections. f

5.1 Negative Valve Overlap 
Foi a veiy long time EuR has been useu in oiuei to ieuuce the N0
x
exhaust emissions.
The exhaust gases ieciiculateu to the intake manifolu uilutes the aii¡fuel chaige which
iesults in a ieuuceu peak combustion tempeiatuie anu theieby the tempeiatuie‐
uepenuent N0
x
emissions will be loweieu. Bowevei in an engine utilizing BCCI
combustion, the iesiuual gases aie useu foi a completely uiffeient ieason. Since BCCI is
a combustion concept wheie the aii¡fuel‐mixtuie self‐ignites, it uepenus to a gieat
extent on the chaige tempeiatuie. 0ne way to inciease the chaige tempeiatuie is to
uilute it with hot buineu iesiuual gases. This can be achieveu with a valve stiategy
nown as negative valve overlap (Nv0). k


Figure  28  Illustration  of  valve  profiles  for 
standard  engines  (solid  lines)  and  for 
ngines  utilizing  different  degrees  of  NVO  e
(dashed lines).  

With Nv0, the exhaust valve closes somewheie befoie TBC anu a laige amount of hot
iesiuual gases aie then tiappeu in the cylinuei. The iesiuuals aie then compiesseu
uuiing the iest of the exhaust stioke anu then expanueu uuiing the intake stioke until
they ieach ambient conuitions when the inlet valve opens. It is impoitant to open the
inlet valve at the iight moment, since an eaily Iv0 leaus to a blowuown of iesiuuals
thiough the inlet poit, with unnecessaiy pumping losses. 0n the othei hanu, late Iv0
means that the iesiuuals will be expanueu beyonu ambient conuitions anu vacuum is
cieateu which costs woik. Iueally, exhaust valve closing (EvC) anu Iv0 shoulu be

Figure  29  Pressure  trace  from  a  engine 
running  with  HCCI  combustion  and  a  NVO  of 
100 CAD. 
23 
S Valve Strategies enabled by Fully Variable Valve Actuation

miiioieu with iespect to TBC, i.e. the peiiou fiom TBC when the intake anu exhaust
valves aie closeu uuiing gas exchange shoulu be almost equal. Figuie 28 shows the valve
piofile foi an engine with conventional valve timing togethei with valve lift piofiles foi
two uiffeient uegiees of Nv0. Figuie 29 show the in‐cylinuei piessuie fiom an engine
iun with Nv0 BCCI.
Numeious ieseaicheis have shown iesults involving Nv0 in theii stuuies ovei the past
1u yeais. The Nv0 stiategy was fiist publisheu by Willanu et al. |Su] in 1998, howevei
no iesults weie piesenteu. Among the fiist to show iesults of Nv0 BCCI was Kontaiakis
t al. | e

S1] in 2uuu.
5.2 Rebreathe Strategy 
Anothei way to ietain iesiuuals in the cylinuei is by exhaust iebieathing. Insteau of
tiapping the iesiuuals in the cylinuei anu then compiessing them, the exhaust gases aie
expelleu thiough the exhaust oi inlet poit, aftei which they aie biought back into the
cylinuei uuiing a pait of the intake stioke. A iebieathing stiategy can be achieveu in a
numbei of ways anu foui of them will be explaineu with iefeiences to Figuie Su.

Figure  30  Illustration  of  exhaust  rebreathing  achieved  by  different  valve  timing  strategies:  (a) 
exhaust port  recirculation;  (b)  inlet  and  exhaust  port  recirculation;  (c)  exhaust  port  recirculation 
with a second exhaust valve lift; (d) intake port recirculation. 
 
24 
 
Figuie Sus shows the valve timings foi exhaust poit ieciiculation. In this type of
stiategy, the exhaust valve iemains open uuiing the whole exhaust stioke anu closes
uuiing the intake stioke. In this way exhausts aie fiist expelleu thiough the exhaust
poit, aftei which they aie biought back to the cylinuei. The inlet valve opens fiist aftei
the exhaust valve closes in oiuei to pievent mixing between the ieinuucteu exhausts
anu the fiesh chaige, anu theieby secuie a stiatifieu chaige mixtuie |S2]. Results
achieveu by engines iunning with this kinu of iebieathing stiategy have been shown by,
amongst otheis, Kaahaaina et al. |SS].
  S Valve Strategies enabled by Fully Variable Valve Actuation

 
25 
In Figuie Sub a seconu type of iebieathing stiategy can be seen. This stiategy is
achieveu by having a positive  valve  overlap (Pv0) between EvC anu Iv0 uuiing the
intake stioke. With this kinu of valve timings, the exhausts will be ieinuucteu togethei
with the fiesh chaige uuiing the intake stioke, with a less stiatifieu mixtuie as a iesult
|S2, SS].
A thiiu iebieathing stiategy is illustiateu in Figuie Suc. Beie, the iebieathing is
achieveu by a seconu exhaust valve lift event. This stiategy is mainly useu in engines
wheie valve‐to‐piston contact aiounu TBC is possible. The exhaust valve is open uuiing
the entiie exhaust stioke anu closes aiounu TBC. Buiing the intake stioke, both inlet
anu exhaust valves aie openeu simultaneously anu the exhausts aie ieinuucteu togethei
with fiesh chaige |S4].
The last iebieathing stiategy can be seen in Figuie Suu. The exhaust valve closes eaily
uuiing the exhaust stioke, shoitening the conventional exhaust piocess. Insteau, the
inlet valve opens immeuiately aftei that the exhaust valve has closeu, anu the exhaust
gases aie expelleu thiough the inlet poit. The inlet valve iemains open until the enu of
the intake stioke. This stiategy gives a minimizeu stiatification of fiesh chaige anu
exhausts, uue to the mixing of gases in the intake. Since the hot exhausts aie pusheu into
a colu intake system, the chaige tempeiatuie will be lowei compaieu to the othei
tiategies, with a ieuuceu possibility to ieach auto ignition tempeiatuie, as a iesult | s

S2].
5.3 Atkinson/Miller Cycle 
The Atkinson cycle was inventeu in the 188us by a Biitish engineei nameu Iames
Atkinson. The main featuie of the Atkinson cycle is that the expansion stioke is longei
than the compiession stioke, thus conveiting a gieatei poition of the eneigy fiom heat
to useful mechanical eneigy with a gieatei efficiency as a iesult. In 1886 Atkinson
piesenteu the “cycle engine” which utilizeu the Atkinson cycle. The uisauvantage with
the cycle engine, howevei, was that the mechanisms foi having uiffeient stioke lengths
weie complex, with an incieaseu iisk of failuie anu incieaseu fiiction losses, as a iesult.
Because of this, in combination with expiiation of Nicolaus 0tto’s patent on the foui‐
stioke cycle in 189u, the cycle engine uiu not suivive foi veiy long |SS].
In 19S4, Ralph Nillei, patenteu the so calleu “Nillei cycle” which is a mouifieu veision of
the Atkinson uesign |S6]. The main iuea with the Nillei cycle is that the uiffeience
between compiession iatio anu expansion iatio is achieveu by closing the inlet valve
past the enu of the intake stioke, iathei than being a geometiical uiffeience between
compiession anu exhaust stioke. In this way a pait of the chaige inhaleu uuiing the
intake stioke is expelleu thiough the inlet poit until the inlet valve closes, wheieupon
the compiession staits. Bowevei, the uecieaseu amount of chaige leaus to a lowei
maximum powei. This can be compensateu by the use of a supeichaigei. The Nillei
stiategy can also be achieveu by closing the inlet valve befoie the enu of the intake
stioke. Theimouynamically theie aie no uiffeiences between late IvC anu eaily IvC.
Luiia et al. |S7] piesenteu in 1982 a concept calleu the 0tto‐Atkinson engine which
opeiates as a hybiiu cycle between the conventional 0tto cycle anu the Atkinson cycle.
Even though “Atkinson” is iefeiieu to in the name of the concept, it utilizes the late IvC
S Valve Strategies enabled by Fully Variable Valve Actuation

 
26 
as uesciibeu by Nillei. Toyota utilizes the 0tto‐Atkinson concept in theii hybiiu vehicle
nameu Piius |S8].
If the Nillei stiategy is combineu with a FvvA system the effective compiession iatio of
the engine can easily be changeu which makes the Nillei cycle a piomising aiu in the
contiol of BCCI combustion.

6 Vehicle Hybridization

 
6 Vehicle Hybridization 
uiowing enviionmental conceins, togethei with highei fuel piices, has cieateu a neeu
foi cleanei anu moie efficient alteinatives to the piopulsion systems of touay. Cuiiently
vehicles aie equippeu with engines having a maximum theimal efficiency of Su‐4u %.
The aveiage efficiency is much lowei, especially uuiing city uiiving since it involves
iequent staits anu stops. Accoiuing to f

Figuie S1, the iuling losses aie as high as 17.2%.

Figure 31 Illustration of the different losses in a conventional vehicle [59]. 
 
All this has tuineu the attention towaius hybiiu vehicles. They have pioven to have
significant potential to impiove fuel economy anu ieuuce exhaust emissions which,
togethei with tax incentives in some countiies anu othei similai benefits only offeieu to
owneis of hybiiu vehicles, have contiibuteu to an amazing inciease in sales ovei the
past couple of yeais, see Figuie S2.

F

igure 32 Cumulative reported US sales of hybrid vehicles during the period 1999­2007 [64]. 
27 
6 Vehicle Hybridization

 
28 
6.1 Introduction 
The classical uefinition of a hybiiu vehicle is that it is a vehicle that has moie than one
souice of piopulsion powei. The uefinition of a hybiiu vehicle stateu by 0N in 2uuS |6u],
also incluues two uiffeient eneigy stoiage systems. vehicle hybiiuization can be uone in
vaiious ways. The peihaps most uncomplicateu example of vehicle hybiiuization is the
powei‐assisteu bicycle, wheie powei is ueliveieu both via an electiic motoi oi ICE anu
the uiivei himself. Bybiiuization of veiy laige tianspoitation vehicles, such as tiains, is
also possible. In 2uu7, the Syuney Noining Beialu iepoiteu that Iapan was about to
launch the fiist hybiiu tiain, nameu the Kiha E2uu. It was equippeu with a uiesel engine
anu two electiic motois unuei each of its cais, anu the iecoveieu eneigy is stoieu in
lithium ion batteiies placeu on the ioof |61]. In the following sections, a moie uetaileu
esciiption of the electiic hybiiu anu the pneumatic hybiiu will be given. u

6.2 Electric Hybrid 
The most common combination of piopulsion souices foi hybiiu vehicles is that of an
electiic motoi anu an ICE, known as the hybrid  electric  vehicle (BEv). It combines the
iange auvantage of a conventional vehicle with the enviionmental benefits of an electiic
vehicle. The BEv can eithei altei piopulsion souices oi combine them. The powei
supply to the electiic motoi comes fiom a laige onboaiu batteiy. The batteiy can eithei
be chaigeu by the ICE oi by captuiing the kinetic eneigy fiom the vehicle uuiing
ueceleiation anu conveit it into electiical eneigy.
In conventional vehicles the ICE is iun at uiffeient loau points, uepenuing on the cuiient
powei uemanu. Switching between uiffeient loau points will leau to a ielatively low
aveiage efficiency, since fai fiom all loau points offei maximum efficiency. Foi instance,
low loau opeiation suffeis fiom low efficiency uue to veiy high thiottling losses. The
switching between uiffeient loau points also has a negative effect on exhaust emissions.
Foi instance, iesults shown by Samulski et al. |62] inuicate a consiueiable inciease in
emissions uuiing tiansient opeiation.
In a BEv the ICE coopeiates with an electiic motoi, which leaus to the possibility of a
moie optimal use of the ICE. 0sually, BEvs use a uownsizeu ICE with ieuuceu size anu
powei. Foi instance the Toyota Piius has a 1.S l engine piouucing S7 kW (76 hp) of
powei |6S]. The ieason is that by uownsizing an engine, its powei uensity incieases. The
engine will be iun at a highei aveiage loau uuiing a uiiving cycle which means that the
aveiage intake piessuie will be highei with lowei thiottling losses as a iesult. The
ieuuceu peak powei of the ICE can be compensateu by auueu powei fiom the electiic
motoi.
Anothei benefit with the BEv is the possibility of utilizing iegeneiative biaking.
Basically, this means that the electiic machine can be useu as a geneiatoi anu the
eneigy, otheiwise lost uuiing biaking, can be stoieu into the batteiy foi use at a
subsequent acceleiation of the vehicle.
City uiiving involves fiequent stops anu staits of the vehicle. Buiing iuling, the ICE
consumes fuel without piouucing any useful woik thus contiibuting to highei fuel
consumption anu unnecessaiy exhaust emissions. The BEv solves this by shutting off
  6 Vehicle Hybridization

the ICE uuiing a full stop. In this way no fuel will be consumeu uuiing iuling with no
exhaust emissions uuiing this peiiou.
Even though BEvs has many benefits compaieu to a conventional vehicle, theie aie
some uiawbacks making BEvs less appealing in the eyes of the customeis. The main
uisauvantages with electiic hybiius aie that they iequiie an extia piopulsion system
anu laige heavy batteiies with a limiteu life‐cycle. This intiouuces extia manufactuiing
costs which aie compensateu by a highei enu‐piouuct piice compaiable to the piice of
high enu vehicles. The limiteu life‐cycle of the batteiies also contiibutes to a highei life‐
cycle cost of BEvs.
The powei souices founu in a BEv can be combineu in numeious ways. Bowevei, the
most common uiive tiain configuiations aie the seiies anu paiallel BEv. A series hybrid
is a configuiation in which only one eneigy conveitei can pioviue piopulsion powei.
The ICE, which is opeiateu in the most optimal iegime, uiives an electiic geneiatoi anu
thus mechanical eneigy is conveiteu to electiical eneigy which then is stoieu in the
batteiy. The piopulsion powei is pioviueu solely by the electiic motoi, see Figuie SS.
The auuition of an ICE to the configuiation extenus the uiiving iange consiueiably
ompaieu to an electiic vehicle. c


Figure 33 Illustraion of the series hybrid drivetrain [65]. 
 
In a parallel  hybrid,  the ICE anu the electiic motoi aie connecteu to the uiiveshaft
thiough sepaiate clutches. In this configuiation the piopulsion powei can be supplieu
by the ICE, by the electiical motoi, oi by a combination of both, see Figuie S4. The
coopeiation between the ICE anu the electiic machine can be chosen is such way that
the cuiient uemanu foi powei can be met. When using only the ICE, the electiic machine
can function as a geneiatoi anu chaige the batteiy. The electiic machine can also be
useu uuiing vehicle ueceleiation to chaige the batteiy. The majoi auvantage of the
paiallel hybiiu compaieu to the seiies hybiiu is that the possibility of using the ICE as
piopulsion souice leaus to fewei eneigy conveisions with less eneigy conveision losses
as a iesult. 0ne of the uiawbacks with this stiategy, is that uuiing city uiiving involving
long peiious of slow uiiving, the batteiy can be uischaigeu, foicing the ICE engine to
ick in anu opeiate in a iegime wheie it is less efficient. k
 


29 
6 Vehicle Hybridization

 
30 

Figure 34 Illustration of the parallel hybrid drivetrain [65]. 

The seiies hybiiu configuiation can be combineu with the paiallel hybiiu configuiation,
foiming a configuiation known as the power  split hybrid configuiation. In this
configuiation the ICE can eithei be utilizeu as a piopulsion souice oi uiive the geneiatoi
anu thus chaige the batteiy. The Toyota Piius is an example of such a hybiiu. The
auvantage with the powei split hybiiu is that it can auapt to the cuiient conuitions in a
oie efficient way compaieu to the othei two systems. Bowevei, the uisauvantage with
uch a system is the incieaseu cost uue to incieaseu complexity.
m
s


Figure 35 Illustration of the power­split hybrid drivetrain [65]. 

Although the mouein electiic hybiius only have been aiounu foi about ten yeais, the
iuea with electiic hybiiuization of vehicles is not new. In 1896, a Belgian company
nameu Piepei uevelopeu the fiist electiic hybiiu calleu “Auto‐Nixte” anu in 19u1 the
company hau built two petiol‐electiic vehicles equippeu with a 6u hp ICE anu a 4u hp
electiic motoi, giving the vehicle a total powei of 1uu hp. In 19u2, B. Kiiegei uevelopeu
a seiies hybiiu vehicle anu aiounu the same time, hybiiu vehicles weie manufactuieu in
ueimany by Lohnei‐Poische |66]. Even though a lot of effoit was put into ueveloping
anu biinging the hybiiu vehicles to the maiket, they uiu not become as successful as
expecteu. The eaily hybiius weie mainly built in oiuei to assist the weak ICEs of that
time. Bowevei, uue to iapiu auvances in ICE technology, with impiovements in powei
sity anu efficiency, theie weie no longei any auvantages with electiic hybiius | uen

67].
  6 Vehicle Hybridization

 
31 
                                                           
6.3 Pneumatic hybrid 
As stateu eailiei, the main uiawbacks with electiic hybiius aie that they iequiie an
auuitional piopulsion system anu laige heavy batteiies. All of this costs the
manufactuieis a lot of money, which is compensateu by a highei enu‐piouuct piice. 0ne
way of keeping the extia cost as low as possible anu theieby inciease customei
attiactiveness, is the intiouuction of the hybrid pneumatic  vehicle  (BPv). In contiast to
the BEv, the pneumatic hybiiu is a ielatively simple solution utilizing only an ICE as
piopulsion souice. Insteau of expensive batteiies with a limiteu life‐cycle, the pneumatic
hybiiu utilizes a ielatively cheap piessuie tank to stoie eneigy. In oiuei to iun the
engine as a pneumatic hybiiu, a piessuie tank has to be connecteu to the cylinuei heau
in some way. Tai et al. |2] uesciibe an intake aii switching system in which one inlet
valve pei cylinuei is feu by eithei fiesh intake aii oi compiesseu aii fiom the piessuie
tank. Anueisson et al. |S] uesciibes a uual valve system wheie one of the intake poits
has two valves, one of which is connecteu to the aii tank. A thiiu solution woulu be to
auu an extia poit to the cylinuei heau, which woulu be connecteu to the aii tank. Since
these thiee solutions uemanu significant mouifications to a stanuaiu engine a simplei
solution, wheie one of the existing inlet valves is conveiteu to a tank valve, has been
chosen anu useu in this thesis. The uiawback with this solution is that theie will be a
significant ieuuction in peak powei, anu ieuuceu ability to geneiate anu contiol swiil
foi goou combustion. Anothei pieiequisite foi pneumatic hybiiuization is a fully
vaiiable valve actuation system to contiol the valves anu theieby contiol the
t piessuiizeu aii flow o anu fiom the tank.
Pneumatic hybiiu opeiation intiouuces new opeiating moues in auuition to
conventional ICE opeiation. Buiing ueceleiation of the vehicle, the engine is useu as a
compiessoi that conveits the kinetic eneigy of the vehicle into potential eneigy in the
foim of compiesseu aii which is stoieu in a piessuie tank. This kinu of opeiation is
iefeiieu to as the compressor mode (CN). Aftei a stanustill, the engine is useu as an aii‐
motoi that utilizes the piessuiizeu aii fiom the tank in oiuei to acceleiate the vehicle.
This type of engine opeiation is known as the air­motor  mode (AN). A thiiu possible
moue of opeiation is the aii‐powei assist moue (APAN). Buiing APAN the stoieu
compiesseu aii is useu foi supeichaiging the engine when theie is a uemanu foi highei
toique, foi instance uuiing the tuibo‐lag
1
peiiou. Buiing peiious when no eneigy is
iequiieu fiom the engine, like iuling anu when the gas peual is ieleaseu, the ICE can be
completely shut off. This means that uuiing such peiious theie will be no fuel
consumption anu thus no exhaust emissions.
6.3 eration 
In compressor mode, the engine is useu as a 2‐stioke compiessoi in oiuei to ueceleiate
the vehicle. The kinetic eneigy of the moving vehicle is conveiteu to potential eneigy in
the foim of compiesseu aii. The opeiating cycle of CN can be explaineu with iefeiences
to
.1 Modes of Op
Figuie S6 anu Figuie S7. The numbeis in biackets iefei to the numbeis in the Pv‐
uiagiam.
 
 
1
  Turbo‐lag  is  the  time  it  takes  for  the  turbine  to  reach  necessary  speed  from  the  moment  the  driver  has 
pressed the gas pedal. 
6 Vehicle Hybridization

I. Intake  stroke. Buiing CN the inlet valve opens a numbei of CAB aftei TBC anu
biings fiesh aii to the cylinuei (1). At the enu of the intake stioke, as the piston
ieaches BBC, the inlet valve closes (2).  
 
II. Compression  stroke. The moving piston staits to compiess the aii tiappeu in the
cylinuei aftei BBC anu the tank valve (the valve which contiols the flow of aii
between the cylinuei anu the piessuie tank) opens somewheie between BBC anu
TBC (S), uepenuing on how much biaking toique is neeueu. Foi instance a veiy
eaily Iv0 means that theie will be a blowuown of piessuiizeu aii into the
cylinuei, anu the piston has to woik against a much highei piessuie, thus a
highei biaking toique is achieveu. The piessuie tank is chaigeu with compiesseu
aii as long as the tank valve is open. The tank valve closes shoitly aftei TBC (4).
At this point the cylinuei is filleu with compiesseu aii at the same piessuie level
as the aii in the piessuie tank. As the piston moves towaius BBC, the compiesseu
aii expanus anu the intake valve opens (1) when ambient piessuie is ieacheu in
the cylinuei. 


 
32 
ique the uiivei uemanus. Incieasing the tank val e
uuiation will inciease the toique geneiateu by the compiesseu aii.
II. Exhaust/compression  stroke. The inlet valve opens aiounu BBC (S) in oiuei to
avoiu compiession of aii as the piston tiavels towaius TBC. Closing of the inlet

Figure 36 Illustration of CM. I) Intake of fresh 
ir,  II)  Compression  of  air  and  pressure  tank 
rging. 
a
cha

In air­motor  mode, the engine is useu as a 2‐stioke aii‐motoi that uses the compiesseu
aii fiom the piessuie tank in oiuei to acceleiate the vehicle. The potential eneigy in the
foim of compiesseu aii is conveiteu to mechanical eneigy on the ciankshaft which in
the enu is conveiteu to kinetic eneigy. The opeiating cycle of CN can be explaineu with
iefeiences to
Figure 37 Illustration of the ideal PV­diagram 
of one CM cycle. 
Figuie S8 anu Figuie S9. The numbeis in biackets iefei to the numbeis in
the Pv‐uiagiam. 0bseive that the iueal Pv‐uiagiam foi AN is the same as foi CN, just
ieveiseu.
I. Power stroke. Buiing AN the tank valve opens at TBC oi shoitly aftei (1) anu the
compiesseu aii fills the cylinuei to give the toique neeueu in oiuei to acceleiate
the vehicle. Somewheie between TBC anu BBC the tank valve closes (2),
uepenuing on how much to v
6 Vehicle Hybridization

valve occuis somewheie between BBC anu TBC (4), anu is chosen in such a way
that when the piston ieaches TBC, the aii tiappeu in the cylinuei is compiesseu
to the same level as the tank piessuie level. If the inlet valve closes too late, the
piessuie in the cylinuei at TBC will be below the tank piessuie level, anu as soon
as the tank valve opens a blowuown of compiesseu aii into the cylinuei will
occui. A iush of compiesseu aii into the cylinuei means that the piessuie uiop
ovei the valve woulu inciease which leaus to a ueciease in AN efficiency.
 
33 

F
c

igure  38  Illustration  of  AM.  I)  Intake  of 
ompressed air, II) Air venting. 

 
 
F
o

igure 39 Illustration of the ideal PV­diagram 
f one AM cycle. 
6.3.2 Short History 
As with BEvs, the iuea of hybiiu pneumatic vehicles is fai fiom new. In 19u9, I.K.
Bioueiick fileu foi a patent titleu “Combined  internal  combustion  and  compressed  air 
engine” |68]. Be wiote in his application that his iuea was to use compiesseu aii
togethei with an engine useu foi piopelling a vehicle. The puipose of the compiesseu aii
is to assist the engine in staiting when unuei heavy loau, oi when going uphill. The
pioposeu configuiation is also capable of geneiating compiesseu aii which is stoieu in a
tank. The compiesseu aii can then be useu foi the puipose of illuminating the vehicle,
foi staiting the ICE oi to actuate the vehicle biakes. The compiesseu aii is geneiateu by
two cylinueis in a foui‐cylinuei engine, anu the iemaining two cylinueis opeiate in the
usual mannei. This can only be uone while uiiving uownhill oi if the vehicle is at iest. Be
also mentions that the compiesseu aii alone can be useu foi uiiving the vehicle.
In 19Su, W.u 0chel et al. |69] came up with the iuea of using a multicylinuei engine to
geneiate compiesseu aii. The inventois stateu that at that time, compiesseu aii was
noimally geneiateu by a compiessoi uiiven by an ICE, which leau to the iequiiement of
incieaseu space togethei with highei investment anu maintenance cost. Theii pioposal
was to use a multicylinuei engine, wheie a numbei of cylinueis opeiate in noimal
mannei while the iemaining cylinueis compiess aii which then is stoieu in a piessuie
tank. This iuea ieminus a lot of the one patenteu by Bioueiick anu the only uiffeience
seems to be that Bioueiick’s invention was intenueu foi use in a vehicle, while 0chel’s
invention was intenueu foi stationaiy use wheie the compiesseu aii woulu be useu foi
actuating uiill hammeis, spiay guns foi painting, etc.
6 Vehicle Hybridization

 
34 
R. Biown uesciibes, in a patent fileu in 1972, an aii engine poweieu by compiesseu aii
as an enviionmentally fiienuly alteinative to the ICE which emits toxic exhaust gases
|7u]. In Biown’s invention the compiesseu aii is geneiateu by a compiessoi uiiven by
an electiic motoi.
In 1974, T. 0eno, fileu foi a patent which boie a gieat iesemblance to Bioueiick’s
invention |71]. It involveu compiession of aii by ueuicateu engine cylinueis anu
utilization of compiesseu aii in oiuei to piopel the vehicle. The main uiffeience was that
0eno’s invention was also capable of iegeneiative biaking, which was not possible with
Bioueiick’s uesign.
With Baviu Noyeis invention, patenteu in 1996, the uefinition of the pneumatic hybiiu
as it is known touay was complete. Bis iuea was to auu the supeichaige moue, which
meant that the intake piessuie was iaiseu beyonu ambient piessuie by the inuuction of
compiesseu aii stoieu in a piessuie tank.

7 Experimental setup

 
7 Experimental setup 
Buiing the pioject summaiizeu in this thesis, thiee uiffeient test iigs have been useu.
The ieason of switching between these test iigs was that the pneumatic hybiiu pioject
uiu not have a ueuicateu engine anu the useu test iigs hau limiteu time slots available,
hich maue moving between uiffeient test iigs inevitable. w

7.1 The Scania D12 Diesel engine    
All thiee test iigs useu in the pneumatic hybiiu pioject weie equippeu with engines
oiiginating fiom Scania B12 Biesel engines. Bowevei, each engine is mouifieu in some
way to fit the coiiesponuing application. In following subsections, each engine will be
esciibeu along with the necessaiy mouifications. u

7.1.1 Paper 1 
The engine useu in Papei 1 was an in‐line six cylinuei Scania B12 Biesel engine mouifieu
to opeiate as a single‐cylinuei engine. The stanuaiu veision of this engine has 4 valves
ei cylinuei anu a camshaft with stanuaiu Biesel valve timings. A pictuie of the engine
an be seen in
p
c

Figuie 4u.

F
i
igure 40 The Scania D12 Diesel engine used 
n Paper 1. 

The stanuaiu Scania B12 engine uses a piston with a bowl in its ciown. In the pneumatic
hybiiu pioject the stanuaiu piston has been exchangeu foi a flat piston in oiuei to
inciease the piston cleaiance anu thus avoiu any valve‐to‐piston contact when using the
pneumatic vvA system. The same flat piston has been useu in all thiee papeis piesenteu
in this thesis. Some engine specifications can be founu in

Figure  41  The  pneumatic  valve  actuators 
mounted on the Scania cylinder head. 
Table 2.
 
 
35 
7 Experimental setup

 
36 
Table 2 Geometric proper  diesel engin ties of the Scania D12
aceu volume
e. 
Bispl
1966 cmS
Boie 127.S mm
Stioke 1S4 mm
Connecting Rou Length 2SS mm
Numbei of valves 4
Compiession Ratio 18:1
Piston type Flat
Inlet valve uiametei 4S mm
Exhaust valve uiametei 41 mm
valve Timing vaiiable
Piston cleaiance 7.S mm
Fuel injection PFI
Fuel Isooctane

The stanuaiu camshaft has been iemoveu anu the engine valves aie actuateu by the
pneumatic vvA system uesciibeu in Section 4.2.S. Figuie 41 shows the pneumatic valve
actuatois mounteu on the Scania cylinuei heau. The same setup has been useu in all
thiee papeis piesenteu in this thesis. In Table S, some valve opeiating paiameteis aie
shown. The maximum valve lift height has been limiteu to 7 mm in oiuei to avoiu valve‐
to‐piston contact. The stanuaiu valve spiings have been exchangeu foi less stiff spiings
ieuuce the in oiuei to eneigy iequiieu to opeiate the valves.
To be able to attach the actuatois to the cylinuei heau a steel plate was uesigneu anu
manufactuieu. The plate was uesigneu in PioEngineei with the help of an engineeiing
uiawing of the Scania cylinuei heau. The plate anu its uimensions can be founu in
Appenuix A.
Table 3 Valve operating parameters. 
Inlet valve supply piessuie S bai
Exhaust valve supply piessuie S bai
Byuiaulic biake piessuie 4 bai
valve spiing pieloauing 1uu N
Naximum valve lift 7 mm

7.1.2 Paper 2 
The engine useu in Papei 2 was a single‐cylinuei engine oiiginating fiom a six cylinuei
Scania B12 Biesel engine. A pictuie of the engine can be seen in Figuie 42. Since the
intent with this papei was to stuuy pneumatic hybiiu opeiation, a piessuie tank has
been auueu. The tank is an AuA Su litei piessuie tank suitable foi piessuies up to 2uu
bais. It is connecteu to the cylinuei heau by metal tubing suitable foi piessuies up to 6u
bais anu tempeiatuies up to Suu °C. The size of the tank is selecteu baseu on availability
iathei than optimality. The engine has two sepaiateu inlet poits anu theiefoie it was
suitable to connect one of them to the tank since theie will be no inteifeience between
  7 Experimental setup

the intake aii anu the compiesseu aii. 0ne of the inlet valves was theiefoie conveiteu to
a tank valve.
The exhaust valves weie ueactivateu thioughout the whole stuuy because no fuel was
njecteu anu thus theie was no neeu foi exhaust gas venting. i

 
37 

Figure 42 The single­cylinder Scania engine used in Paper 2. 

The geometiic piopeities of the engine have not been changeu with the exception of one
inlet valve which has been mouifieu to woik as tank valve, i.e. the valve that contiols the
aii flow to anu fiom the piessuie tank, see Table 4. In oiuei to open the tank valve at
high in‐cylinuei piessuies some mouifications of the tank valve hau to be intiouuceu.
The valve heau uiametei was uecieaseu fiom 4S mm to 16 mm. Also the tank valve
spiing pieloauing hau to be mouifieu anu was changeu fiom 1uu to S4u N in oiuei to
keep the tank valve completely closeu foi tank piessuies up to 2S bais. Bue to the
incieaseu valve spiing pieloauing, the supply piessuie to the tank valve has been
ncieaseu in oiuei to ensuie piopei valve opeiation. i

Table 4 Valve geometric ng parameters.  properties and operati
Inlet valve uiametei 4S mm
Tank valve uiametei 16 mm
Inlet valve supply piessuie 4 bai
Tank valve supply piessuie 6 bai
Byuiaulic biake piessuie 4 bai
Inlet valve spiing pieloauing 1uu N
Tank valve spiing pieloauing S4u N
Naximum valve lift 7 mm

7 Experimental setup

 
7.1.3 Paper 3 
The engine useu in Papei S was of same type as the engine useu in Papei 1, i.e. an in‐line
six cylinuei Scania B12 Biesel engine. In this setup one of the cylinueis was mouifieu foi
neumatic hybiiu opeiation, while the iemaining cylinueis weie intact, see p

Figuie 4S.

F
p
igure  43  The  modified  Scania  D12  Diesel  engine.  The  operating  cylinder  is  to  the  left  in  the 
icture. 

Expeiiments peifoimeu in Papei 2 showeu that the tank valve heau uiametei of 16 mm
leau to consiueiable piessuie losses ovei the valve. In oiuei to avoiu this, a pneumatic
valve spiing was uesigneu anu will be moie thoioughly uesciibeu in Section 7.2. The
tank valve heau uiametei was theiefoie changeu to 28 mm. Both tank valve geometiies
can be seen in Figuie 44 anu Table S shows some valve geometiic piopeities anu
opeiating paiameteis. The oiiginal metal tubing which connects the piessuie tank to the
cylinuei heau, has an innei uiametei of 2S mm which is smallei than the uiametei of the
new tank valve. Theiefoie, in oiuei to eliminate the metal tubing as a potential
ottleneck on account of aii flow choking, the uiametei of the tubing was uoubleu. b

Table 5 Valve geomet ating parameters.  ric properties and oper
Inlet valve uiametei 4S mm
Tank valve uiametei 16 an mm u 28
Inlet valve supply piessuie 4 bai
Tank valve supply piessuie 6 bai
Byuiaulic biake piessuie 4 bai
Inlet valve spiing pieloauing 1uu N
Naximum valve lift 7 mm

38 
7 Experimental setup


F


igure  44  Picture  illustrating  the  difference  between  the  “small  tank  valve”  (∅  =  16  mm)  and  the 
large tank valve” (∅ = 28 mm). 
7.2 Pressure compensated tank valve 
In Papei 2, the tank valve heau uiametei was uecieaseu fiom the oiiginal size of 41 mm
to 16 mm in oiuei to ensuie piopei valve opeiation at all time. Also the spiing
pieloauing was changeu fiom 1uu N to S4u N in oiuei to keep the tank valve completely
closeu at tank piessuies up to 2S bais. Both mouifications leau to some complications.
The ieuuceu valve uiametei incieases the piessuie losses ovei the tank valve anu thus
the iegeneiative efficiency will be ieuuceu. The incieaseu spiing pie‐loauing will affect
the pneumatic valve actuatoi eneigy consumption, howevei this is only of impoitance in
a ieal vehicle wheie the actuatois have to be feeu with piessuiizeu aii fiom a
compiessoi.
In an attempt to avoiu the piessuie losses ovei the tank valve, an in‐house uesigneu
pneumatic valve spiing has been uevelopeu anu ieplaceu the conventional tank valve
spiing. Figuie 4S shows a simple cioss section illustiation of the pneumatic valve spiing
aiiangement mounteu on the cylinuei heau anu the concept will be explaineu with
iefeiences to Figuie 4S. The numbeis in biackets iefei to the ones uisplayeu in Figuie
 
39 
4S.
The pneumatic spiing is constiucteu in such way, that it uses the tank piessuie to keep
the valve closeu. A cylinuei (1) is placeu on the top of the cylinuei heau (4), with the
tank valve (S) in the centei of the cylinuei. The cylinuei is sealeu at the bottom against
the cylinuei heau anu on the top the cylinuei is sealeu against the valve spiing ietainei
(2). The space between the bottom sealing anu the tank valve spiing ietainei is the
pneumatic valve spiing anu it is connecteu to the tank valve poit (6) anu thus to the
compiesseu aii thiough 4 passages machineu on the tank valve (S). The piessuiizeu aii
enteis the aii passages on the valve anu is guiueu up to the pneumatic valve spiing, as
inuicateu by the blue aiiows. The passages aie maue in such a way, that the pneumatic
spiing will be connecteu to the tank valve poit at all times anu all possible valve lifts.
Since the compiesseu aii in the pneumatic spiing woiks on the unueisiue of the tank
valve spiing ietainei anu the compiesseu aii in the tank valve poit acts on the upsiue of
the tank valve heau, as inuicateu by the yellow aiiows, the net foice shoulu be zeio, anu
7 Experimental setup

thus the valve shoulu be piessuie compensateu. This means that the tank will be kept
closeu without using any valve spiing anu the valve uiametei can now be incieaseu in
iuei to ieuuce the piessuie uiop ovei the valve. o

 
40 

2

5


4
F
o
igure 45 A simple cross section illustration of the pneumatic valve spring arrangement mounted 
n the cylinder head. 

When the valve is open the foice geneiateu by the piessuiizeu aii acting on the upsiue
of the tank valve heau is canceleu. This means that theie now only exists a consiueiable
foice on the bottom suiface of the valve spiing ietainei tiying to close the tank valve. In
oiuei to oveicome this pioblem, the tank valve actuatoi is feu with compiesseu aii
uiiectly fiom the tank. This means that the piessuie at a ceitain time is the same in the
pneumatic valve spiing as in the valve actuatoi. Since the actuatoi piston has a laigei
uiametei than the tank valve spiing ietainei, the actuatoi will always have enough
powei to open the valve anu maintain it open foi as long as uesiieu. Some geometiical
piopeities of the pneumatic valve spiing setup can be founu in Table 6.
7 Experimental setup

 
Table 6 Geom setup.  etric properties of the pneumatic valve spring 
etei Pneumatic spiing cylinuei innei uiam 28 mm
Tank valve spiing ietainei uiametei 28 mm
Tank valve poppet uiametei 28 mm
Actuatoi piston uiametei S2 mm
Compiesseu aii guiuing passage cioss‐section aiea 6 mm
2

Since the pneumatic valve spiing aiiangement iequiies the actuatoi to be feu by
compiesseu aii fiom the tank, an extia piessuiizeu aii supply line hau to be auueu. A
pioblem with the actuatoi being feu with tank piessuie is that theie is a piessuie
thiesholu below which the pneumatic valve actuatoi will not woik as expecteu. This
means that the actuatoi has to be feu with compiesseu aii fiom an exteinal souice. This
auus theieby the neeu of having a piessuie souice switch. The switching system useu in
this stuuy is built up by two check‐valves which aie aiiangeu in such way that the
souice feeuing the valve actuatoi will always be the souice with the highest piessuie.
Foi instance if the exteinal souice of compiesseu aii is set to 6 bais it will be the main
eeuing souice until the piessuie in the piessuie tank exceeus 6 bais. A pictuie of the
iessuie souice switching system is shown in
f
p

Figuie 46

F

igure 46 Pressurized air switching system built up by two check­valves.  
7.2.1 Modifications to the pneumatic spring 
Aftei some initial testing, some issues have been obseiveu with the pneumatic valve
spiing. The issue of gieatest impoitance is that the tank valve self‐opens at ceitain
iunning conuitions uuiing testing. The ieason behinu this behavioi of the valve is high
piessuie oscillations in the tank valve poit which have not been taken into
consiueiation. When a high piessuie pulse aiiives to the tank valve, the foice acting on
the tank valve heau will be incieaseu. The tank valve will no longei be piessuie
compensateu anu the net foice acting on the valve will not be zeio, anu as a iesult of this
the valve will self‐open. In oiuei to eliminate this pioblem a valve spiing with 22u N
pieloauing has been auueu to the tank valve, which means that theie will always be a
net foice acting to keep the tank valve closeu.
41 
7 Experimental setup

7.3 The engine control  ystem 
The engine contiol system consists of a puipose built piogiam, a stanuaiu PC, FPuA
(Fielu Piogiammable uate Aiiay), A¡B‐conveiteis anu sensois. The engine contiol
piogiam has been built in LabVIEW, which is an entiiely giaphical piogiamming
language. The uiaphical 0sei Inteiface (u0I) is the link between the contiol piogiam
anu the usei, see
s
Figuie 47. Fiom heie the usei can foi instance set uesiieu valve lift,
valve opening anu closing, etc. The u0I also contains some impoitant giaphs such as
cylinuei piessuie, tank piessuie, valve lift, Pv‐uiagiam. The giaphs aie useful since they
show the cuiient status of the system in a veiy uesciiptive way. The switch between
uiffeient moues of engine opeiation such as CN anu AN can easily be uone by simply
pushing the button foi each engine moue iespectively. The contiol piogiam has been
useu foi both steauy state measuiement, wheie most of the contiol paiameteis aie set
manually, anu foi continuously open‐loop contiolleu opeiation, wheie all the contiol
aiameteis aie ieau fiom pieuefineu look‐up tables. p

 
42 

Figure 47 The GUI of the program controlling the VVA system during pneumatic hybrid operation. 

The communication between the contiol piogiam anu the vvA system goes thiough an
FPuA uevice of type NI PCI­7831R. The FPuA offeis benefits such as piecise timing, iapiu
uecision making with loop iates up to 4u NBz anu simultaneous execution of paiallel
tasks. All these benefits make the FPuA uevice a goou tool foi contiol of something so
  7 Experimental setup

 
43 
time ciucial as valve actuation. The NI PCI‐78S1R has 8 analog inputs, 8 analog outputs
anu 96 uigital I¡0.
Foi uata acquisition a NI  PCI­6259 multifunction uata acquisition (BA0) uevice was
useu. It has S2 analog inputs, 4 analog outputs anu 48 uigital I¡0. With this system it is
h possible to simultaneously collect uata in S2 c annels at 1.2S NS¡s.
Theie aie seveial sensois measuiing the engine iunning status. The piessuie is
measuieu by piessuie tiansuuceis of type Kistler
®
  7061B. It is a piezoelectiic piessuie
sensoi which consists of a quaitz ciystal that is exposeu to the gases thiough a
uiaphiagm. When exposeu to piessuie, the ciystal uefoims anu piouuces an electiical
chaige piopoitional to the piessuie change in the cylinuei. The electiical chaige is
conveiteu in a chaige amplifiei to an analog voltage signal. The chaige amplifiei useu in
this thesis was of type Kistler
®
 
Su11. The piessuie tiansuucei is watei‐cooleu in oiuei to
iesist the tough enviionment insiue the combustion chambei.
To be able to measuie the tempeiatuie of the compiesseu aii iight aftei the tank valve
anu in the piessuie tank, tempeiatuie sensois fiom Pentionic of type K have been
utilizeu. They aie mounteu on the ieconfiguieu intake poit anu on the piessuie tank
wall.
The piessuie tiansmittei useu foi measuiing changes in the tank piessuie is a
piezoiesistive tiansmittei of type 21 R fiom Kellei. It is suitable foi piessuies fiom 1 to
1uu bai anu tempeiatuies up to 1uu °C. It is locateu neai the tank anu measuies the
iessuie in the connecting tube. p
 
8 Results

 
44 
8 Results 
In this section a summaiy of the iesults fiom the publisheu papeis encloseu in this
thesis is piesenteu. The iesults in this section can basically be uiviueu into two main
paits. The fiist pait piesents iesults fiom Papei 1 which ueals with evaluation of the
pneumatic vvA system useu thioughout the whole pioject. The seconu pait shows
iesults fiom Papei 2 anu Papei S. Papei 2 ueals with an intiouuctoiy stuuy of the
pneumatic hybiiu concept while in Papei S uiffeient valve geometiies have been testeu
ogethei with optimization of the uiffeient pneumatic hybiiu moues of engine opeiation. t

8.1 Evaluation of the electro pneumatic VVA system 
valve lift, timing anu uuiation have fixeu values foi conventional valve tiains. These
fixeu values aie usually optimizeu foi the engine speeu iange most fiequently useu.
They uepenu on what puipose the engine is uesigneu foi anu iepiesent a compiomise
between stable iule iunning anu high engine speeu peifoimance. The iueal solution is to
fully contiol when anu how the valves shoulu open anu close. Such uegiees of fieeuom
make it possible to optimize the gas exchange foi all opeiating conuitions. The ability to
fully contiol the valve event in an engine is of gieat impoitance to ieseaicheis anu is a
poweiful tool foi investigating uiffeient ICE ielateu phenomena.
The aim of the stuuy in Papei 1 was to evaluate the novel electio pneumatic vvA system
fiom Caigine Engineeiing AB in oiuei to establish whethei the vvA system was stable
anu iobust enough foi fuithei use in the laboiatoiies belonging to the Bivision of
Combustion Engines at the Lunu 0niveisity. The evaluation consists of two paits, wheie
the fiist pait was paitly intenueu foi testing the uevelopeu contiol piogiam anu paitly
to test the opeiational piopeities of the pneumatic vvA system. 0bseive that all uata
fiom the fiist pait has been conuucteu uuiing motoieu engine opeiation without
combustion. In the seconu pait, thiee uiffeient valve stiategies foi BCCI combustion
ontiol have been testeu. c

8.1.1 Testing program functionality and pneumatic VVA system performance 
Piecise valve timing is the most impoitant factoi when uealing with vvA systems. The
engine peifoimance uepenus to a gieat extent on piecise valve timings anu even an
offset of a couple of CAB can change the chaiacteiistics of the combustion piocess.
Piecise valve timing is also ciucial when opeiating the valves neai TBC. In conventional
engines, the valve closing peiiou is uesigneu in such a way that uuiing closing the valve
follows the piston motion towaius TBC with a small uistance between them, see Figuie
48. A slight uelay on the valve closing can leau to valve‐to‐piston contact with engine
failuie as a iesult. This is especially impoitant with vvA systems opeiating with an
almost quauiatic valve lift piofile, see Figuie 49.
8 Results

 

Figure 48 Exhaust and inlet valve lift profiles 
ogether  with  the  piston  position  relative  to 
DC. 
t
T

a lift of 10 mm. 
 
The figuies above show that piecise valve timing is ciucial in oiuei to avoiu any
complication. Theiefoie it is highly ielevant to test the ability of the pneumatic vvA
systems to peifoim uesiieu valve timings. In the iesults that follow in this section, only
the valve lift piofile of one inlet valve will be shown, since the iemaining valves show a
similai pattein.

Figure  49  Close  up  of  Figure  48.  The  dotted 
line  illustrates  the  maximum  allowed 
duration for a quadratic valve lift profile with 
   

Figure  50  Variation  of  valve  lift  at  constant 
alve  lift  duration  of  200  CAD  and  an  engine 
peed of 1000 rpm. 
v
s


Figure 51  Variation  of valve  lift  duration  at  a 
valve  lift  of  7  mm  and  an  engine  speed  of 
1000 rpm. 
Figuie Su shows that the valve lift uuiation iemains constant when the valve lift height
is vaiieu. In Figuie S1, the valve lift uuiation has been vaiieu while the valve lift height
has been kept constant. It can cleaily be seen that the change in uuiation uoes not affect
the valve lift height oi the othei way aiounu. This means that the valve lift height anu
uuiation aie completely inuepenuent of each othei which is a veiy impoitant
chaiacteiistic since it ensuies piopei valve timing anu simplifies the contiol of the valve.
If the valve‐lift height woulu have been uepenuent on valve lift uuiation anu vice veisa,
the contiol piogiam woulu have to compensate foi one paiametei when the othei is
changeu.
45 
8 Results

 
 
Figure  52  Cycle­to­cycle  variations  valve  lift 
height at a valve lift duration of 200 CAD and 
an engine speed of 1000 rpm. 
 
Figure  53  Cycle­to­cycle  variations  of  valve 
lift duration at a valve lift height of 7 mm and 
an engine speed of 1000 rpm. 
 
Repeatability is also an impoitant factoi in iegaius to valve opeiation. It is veiy
impoitant that the valve opeiates as uesiieu in oiuei to minimize cycle‐to‐cycle
vaiiations of combustion. The iepeatability with iegaius to both valve lift height anu
valve lift uuiation of the pneumatic vvA system has been testeu uuiing open‐loop
contiolleu steauy state opeiation. The iesults can be seen in Figure 52 anu Figure 53. The
iesponses show goou iepeatability at the chosen valve lift height anu valve lift uuiation,
iespectively.
In oiuei to be able to compaie the iesults with ea h othei the coefficient of vaiiation c
(C0v) can be useu. C0v is uefineu as:
=
c
C0I
u
- 1uu (1)
wheie σ is the stanuaiu ueviation anu μ is the mean. The iesults, which can be seen in
Table 7, show that theie is a consiueiable uiffeience between the iepeatability of valve
lift height anu uuiation. Bowevei, both iesults have to be consiueieu as goou since theii
C0v is quite small.
Table 7 COV for valve lift height and duration during steady state operation. 
  COV (%) 
Valve Lift Height  u.18uS
Valve Lift Duration  u.S1u7
46 

It is of gieat impoitance to exploie the extieme opeiating limits of the pneumatic vvA
system. Theiefoie, an investigation has been conuucteu in oiuei to finu the minimum
valve lift height anu the maximum engine speeu in iegaius to valve stability. In the fiist
pait of the investigation, the engine speeu iange was testeu. Since the maximum engine
speeu of the heavy uuty Scania engine is about 2Suu ipm, the uppei engine speeu limit
uuiing the test was set to 2Suu ipm. Figuie S4 shows that the valve lift iemains stable at
8 Results

the maximum alloweu engine speeu. The lowei limit of the system is well below noimal
iule engine speeu.
 
Figure  54  Valve  lift  of  7  mm  at  an  valve 
duration  of  200  CAD  and  an  engine  speed  of 
2500 rpm. 
 
The seconu pait of the investigation was to ueteimine the lowest possible stable valve
lift height. The iesults show that the valve lift iemains stable all the way uown to S mm
thioughout the whole uuiation anu engine speeu iange uuiing the test, see

Figure  55  Valve  lift  of  3  mm  at  an  engine 
peed of 1000 rpm and a valve lift duration of 
00 CAD.  
s
2
Figuie SS.
Below this height the valve behavioi is quite unstable.
In a ieal vehicle, the eneigy consumption of the pneumatic vvA system is of gieat
impoitance. Bowevei, in engine ieseaich laboiatoiies, the eneigy consumption is less
impoitant since the ieseaicheis usually stuuy uiffeient combustion ielateu phenomena
iathei than economic aspects of the vvA system. Even though the tests peifoineu in this
thesis aie intenueu foi evaluation of the pneumatic vvA foi combustion ieseaich
puiposes, it can still be inteiesting to get an iuea of the magnituue of the eneigy
consumption associateu with the pneumatic vvA system.
The eneigy consumption tests focuseu mainly on the piessuiizeu aii consumption anu
the eneigy consumption uue to actuation of the solenoius is not incluueu. It is assumeu
that the compiessoi uses 1 hp (7S6 W) to supply an aii flow of 1uu l
n
¡minute. This
coiiesponus to a compiessoi efficiency of about 4u%. The powei consumption of the
compiessoi is subsequently useu to compute a mean effective piessuie, valveNEP,
hich simplifies compaiison with othei valvetiains. valveNEP is uefineu as: w

Iol:cHEP =
2 · P
comp¡csso¡
N · I
d


wheie N is the engine speeu, V
d
is the engine uisplacement volume anu P
compressor
is
calculateu with the following equation:
P
comp¡csso¡
=
Air¡low
1uu
· 7S6 w
 
47 
8 Results

 
 
Figure  56  Valve  mean  effective  pressure 
(single  valve)  as  a  function  of  valve  lift  at 
alve  duration  of  200  CAD  and  an  engine 
peed of 1000 rpm.  
v
s

 
Figure  57  Valve  mean  effective  pressure 
(single valve) as a function of engine speed at 
valve duration of 200 CAD and a valve lift of 7 
mm.
Figuie S6 shows how valveNEP incieases with incieasing valve lift height at a constant
opening uuiation anu engine speeu. This is quite logical, since an inciease in valve lift
height leaus to a longei stioke executeu by the actuatoi piston anu thus a laigei poition
of aii has to be inuucteu into the actuatoi cylinuei. Figuie S7 shows how valveNEP
vaiies with engine speeu while valve lift is kept constant. It can be seen that valveNEP
iemains almost constant with incieasing engine speeu which means that the amount of
eneigy consumeu uuiing one engine cycle by the actuatoi uoes not uepenu on engine
speeu. Bowevei, this can be somewhat misleauing since the piessuiizeu aii flow anu
theieby the eneigy consumption pei time unit will inciease with incieasing engine
speeu, uue to the highei fiequency of valve actuation. Both figuies also incluue
simulateu iesults of valveNEP. The simulations have been uone at the same conuitions
s the measuieu values in a piogiam uevelopeu by Caigine Engineeiing AB. a

8.1.2 Investigation of different valve strategies enabled by pneumatic VVA 
The pievious section has shown that the pneumatic vvA system offeis gieat flexibility
anu stable function uuiing motoieu engine opeiation. Bowevei, the system must also
peifoim well uuiing combustion opeiation. Theiefoie thiee uiffeient valve stiategies foi
BCCI combustion contiol have been testeu. The opeiation paiameteis foi the tests can
be seen in Table 8. Each valve stiategy began with valve timings accoiuing to Table 9.
Table 8 Operating parameters. 
Actuatoi intake piessuie S bai
Byuiaulic biake piessuie 4 bai
Naximum valve lift 7 mm
Compiession iatio 18:1
Engine speeu 12uu ipm
Fuel Isooctane
Fuel eneigy pei cycle u.7S kI
48 
8 Results

 
Iv0 u CAB ATBC
IvC 18u CAB ATBC
Ev0 u CAB ABBC
EvC 18u CAB ABBC
Table 9 Initial valve timing. 

The fiist stiategy testeu is negative  valve  overlap (Nv0). With Nv0, the amount of
tiappeu iesiuual gases can be vaiieu. The basic iuea is that the exhaust valve shoulu
close eaily while the intake valve shoulu open late. A late EvC means that a highei
poition of the exhaust gases will be tiappeu in the cylinuei. With moie iesiuual gas the
chaige tempeiatuie incieases anu theiefoie the combustion will stait piogiessively
eailiei. Figuie S8 shows how EvC anu Iv0 vaiy with Nv0. It can also be seen that with
incieasing Nv0 the piessuie uuiing the gas exchange incieases. 0bseive that the iight
valve lift piofile belongs to the exhaust valve while the left valve piofile belongs to the
inlet valve.
 
F
s
igure  58  An  illustration  of  the  in­cylinder  pressure  and  the  valve  lift  profiles  achieved  with  NVO 
trategy. 

Figuie S9 shows how CASu vaiies with Nv0. CASu is the ciank angle wheie Su% of the
eneigy fiom the combustion has been ieleaseu. An inciease in Nv0 leaus to an inciease
in chaige tempeiatuie anu since this leaus to a highei peak tempeiatuie aftei
compiession the combustion will take place eailiei anu thus CASu will auvance. This can
cleaily be seen in Figuie S9.
49 
8 Results

 

Figure 59 CA50 as a function of NVO 

Nv0 uisplaces some of the aii in the combustion chambei anu thus the aii¡fuel iatio
shoulu ueciease.

Figure 60 Lambda as a function of NVO 
Figuie 6u shows exactly this behavioi. An inciease in Nv0 leaus to a
highei level of iesiuual gas tiappeu in the cylinuei. This means that when the inlet valve
opens, a pait of the cylinuei volume will alieauy be occupieu by iesiuual gas anu
theiefoie the amount of aii inuucteu uuiing the intake stioke will be lowei anu the
aii¡fuel iatio will ueciease.
The seconu stiategy testeu is rebreathing. The iuea with the iebieathing stiategy is to
open the exhaust valve a seconu time a shoit while aftei it has closeu the fiist time. It is a
stiategy veiy similai to the Nv0 stiategy. The amount of iebieatheu exhaust gas
incieases with

Figure  61  An  illustration  of  the  in­cylinder  pressure  and  the  valve  lift  profiles  achieved  with 
ebreathe  strategy.  The  dashed  and  dotted  valve  profiles  in  the  0­90  CAD  interval  represent  the 
ebreathe opening of the exhaust valve. 
r
r

incieasing uuiation of the iebieathe opening anu the uiffeience fiom Nv0 opeiation is
that with the iebieathe stiategy the buineu gas is not compiesseu uuiing the gas
exchange. An illustiation of the iebieathe stiategy can be seen in Figuie 61.
50 
8 Results

The behavioi of CASu in Figuie 62 with iespect to the iebieathe uuiation is as expecteu.
An inciease in iebieathe uuiation leaus to an inciease in amount of ieinuucteu exhaust
gas with a highei chaige tempeiatuie as a iesult. The incieaseu chaige tempeiatuie will,
as in the case with Nv0, leau to an eailiei stait of combustion anu theiefoie CASu will
auvance. The minimum uuiation of the iebieathe opening was limiteu to Su CAB. This
coiiesponus to an Nv0 of 1uu CAB. Compaiing Figuie S9 with Figuie 62 shows a
consiueiable uiffeience in CASu between Nv0 of 1uu CAB anu iebieathe uuiation of Su
CAB. Theie aie two contiibuting ieasons foi this uifeience. 0ne ieason is that the chaige
tempeiatuie is highei with Nv0 than with the coiiesponuing iebieathe uuiation, since
with Nv0 the iesiuuals aie compiesseu aftei IvC. The othei ieason is that uuiing the
iebieathe opening, the flow of ieinuucteu exhaust gas past the exhaust valve is
somewhat iestiicteu. This means that the amount of iesiuual gas at iebieathe valve
closing will be less compaieu to the amount of iesiuual gas tiappeu in the cylinuei with
oiiesponuing Nv0 timing anu thus the tempeiatuie will be lowei. c


F
d
igure  62  CA50  as  a  function  of  Rebreathe 
uration. 

The seconu ieason can also be confiimeu by

Figure 63 Lambda as a function of Rebreathe 
duration. 
Figuie 6S. At iebieathe uuiation of Su CAB,
lambua is one unit highei compaieu to lambua at the coiiesponuing Nv0 timing. This
eans that less aii has been uisplaceu by iesiuuals which pioofs that the amount of m
iesiuuals has been iestiicteu uuiing the ieinuuction.

The last stiategy testeu is the Miller  cycle. With this stiategy, the effective compiession
iatio can be vaiieu by eithei closing the inlet valve eaily oi late. The ueciease in
compiession iatio, anu thus compiession woik, leaus to a ueciease in chaige
tempeiatuie aftei compiession. Figuie 64 shows how the Nillei stiategy affects the in‐
cylinuei piessuie.
 
51 
8 Results

 

F
s
igure 64 An illustration of the in­cylinder pressure and the valve lift profiles achieved with Miller 
trategy. 

In Figuie 6S, the effect of late anu eaily IvC on CASu can be seen. The ieason why CASu
is ietaiueu between IvC u‐1u CAB ABBC is uue to a combination of optimal volumetiic
efficiency anu somewhat coolei chaige. Bue to tuning effects, the volumetiic efficiency is
at its maximum somewheie between u‐1u CAB ABBC anu thus the highest possible
amount of aii will be inuucteu if IvC occuis uuiing this inteival. This can be veiifieu by
Figuie 66, wheie the aii¡fuel iatio is at its maximum in the abovementioneu inteival. A
late IvC also means that the total flow of aii in anu out of the cylinuei will be highei
compaieu with eaily IvC, anu thus the in‐cylinuei tempeiatuie will ueciease. These two
effects combineu leau to a ietaiuation of CASu.
With eaily IvC the amount of aii inuucteu uuiing the intake stioke is limiteu. Aftei IvC
the aii is expanueu beyonu ambient conuitions anu then compiesseu as the compiession
stioke begins. A smallei poition of inuucteu aii means that theie is less mass to heat up
anu thus the chaige tempeiatuie will inciease at a highei iate compaieu with late

F

igure 65 CA50 as a function of IVC. 

Figure 66 Lambda as a function of IVC. 
52 
  8 Results

 
53 
IvC anu theieby the enu tempeiatuie aftei compiession will be highei with an auvance
in CASu as a iesult.
The iesults piesenteu above aie somewhat suipiising since the Nillei stiategy leaus to a
lowei compiession iatio anu thus a lowei tempeiatuie at the enu of compiession shoulu
be expecteu with a uelayeu combustion as a iesult. Bowevei, the iesults shown in this
thesis inuicates the opposite of this behavioi. The ieason might be that uuiing the IvC
inteival between ‐SS anu SS CAB ABBC, the iate of volume change is quite small. The
volume change fiom TBC to SS CAB ABBC is about 1u% of the total volume even though
the piston has tiavelleu one fouith of the entiie compiession stioke. This mean that
beyonu SS CAB ABBC the tempeiatuie will piobably stait to ueciease uiastically anu
combustion will be uelayeu. the

8.2 The pneumatic hybrid 
Pneumatic hybiiu opeiation intiouuces new opeiating moues in auuition to
conventional ICE opeiation. Buiing compiessoi moue (CN) the engine is useu as a
compiessoi anu the compiesseu aii is stoieu in a piessuie tank. Buiing aii‐motoi moue
(AN) the engine is useu as an aii‐motoi utilizing piessuiizeu aii fiom the piessuie tank.
he focus of this thesis has been on testing anu optimizing CN anu AN in teims of valve
eometiy anu valve timing.
T
g

8.2.1 Initial testing of Compressor Mode 
The CN opeiation can mainly be uone in thiee ways. The fiist way is to achieve as high
compiession efficiency as possible. This is uone by the intiouuction of feeuback oi
feeufoiwaiu contiol of the tank valve. The tank valve is contiolleu in such a way that it
opens when the in‐cylinuei piessuie is equal to the tank piessuie.
The seconu way is to achieve as much biaking toique as possible. The maximum biaking
toique is achieveu when the tank valve opens at oi shoitly aftei BBC. This stiategy leaus
to a blowuown of piessuiizeu aii fiom the piessuie tank into the cylinuei anu thus the
cylinuei will be chaigeu with aii at cuiient tank piessuie insteau of atmospheiic aii.
Finally, the thiiu way is actually a combination of the pievious two anu is the one that
will be useu in a ieal application. Foi instance, if the uiivei ieleases the gas peual, the
engine will be opeiating in CN at highest possible efficiency. When the uiivei piesses
the biake peual, the CN opeiation will uiift away fiom the highest efficiency towaius
highest biaking toique.
This thesis focuses mainly on the fiist methou, i.e. achieving as high CN efficiency as
possible.
Table 1u shows the valve timings useu in this pait of the expeiiment. As can be seen, the
tank valve is set to open when the cylinuei piessuie equals the tank piessuie. The tank
valve opening (Tankv0) is contiolleu by an open‐loop contiollei baseu on the polytiopic
compiession law:
8 Results

 
54 
p
2
= p
1
|
I
2
I
1
1
wheie p
1
coiiesponus to the piessuie at BBC anu p
2
is the piessuie at any point in the
cycle. v
1
is the maximum volume in the cylinuei anu v
2
is the cylinuei volume at
cylinuei piessuie p
2
. By setting p
2
equal to the tank piessuie, the volume at the given
piessuie can be calculateu anu fiom that it is possible to calculate piopei valve timing.
The auvantage with this stiategy is that the valve timings aie ueteimineu in a veiy
simple way, howevei, the uiawback is that the polytiopic exponent, κ, uepenus on the
heat losses anu setting it to a constant value intiouuces some eiiois in the Tankv0
ontiol algoiithm.
k
c

Table 10 Valve  CM op timing strategy during 

eration 
Cylinuei p piessuie Tank valve opening iessuie ≈ tank
Tank valve closing 1u CAB ATBC
Inlet valve opening SS CAB ATBC
Inlet valve closing 18u CAB ATBC


Figuie 67 anu Figuie 68 show the Pv‐uiagiam of one CN cycle uuiing ieal engine
testing at two uiffeient tank piessuies. Compaiing both figuies with Figuie S7 (iueal Pv‐
uiagiam of one CN cycle), cleaily inuicates the absence of the isobaiic event (the step
between point S anu 4 in Figuie S7) uuiing ieal engine testing. The ieason is that the
chosen tank valve heau uiametei of 16 mm is quite small anu the aii flow ovei the valve
becomes veiy iestiicteu, also known as choked  flow. This will theiefoie leau to an
oveishoot in cylinuei piessuie compaieu to iueal conuitions. An attempt to lowei this
veishoot has been uone anu will be piesenteu in Section o
F

8.2.2. Fiom Figuie 67 anu
iguie 68 it can also be seen that the oveishoot in cylinuei piessuie incieases with

Figure  67  PV­diagram  of  one  CM  cycle  at  a 
ank  pressure  of  6.5  bars  and  an  engine 
peed of 600 rpm. 
t
s



Tank Pressure=11 bar 
Tank Pressure=6.5 bar
Figure  68  PV­diagram  of  one  CM  cycle  at  a 
tank pressure of 11 bars and an engine speed 
of 600 rpm. 
8 Results

incieasing tank piessuie. The ieason is that with highei tank piessuie the Tankv0
ccuis latei anu thus the aii tiappeu in the cylinuei has to be evacuateu in less time. o
Since the aii flow is iestiicteu, this will leau to an inciease in oveishoot.

The oveishoot in piessuie also incieases with incieasing engine speeu. This is uue to the
act that with incieasing engine speeu theie is less time to vent the cylinuei fiom
ompiesseu aii.
f
c

Figure 69 illustiates this at thiee uiffeient engine speeus.
 
Figure 69 PV­diagram of one CM cycle for three different engine speeds at 4 bars of tank pressure. 
 
Figuie 7u shows the accumulateu mean tank piessuie uuiing 8uu consecutive cycles at
thiee uiffeient engine speeus. It is noticeable that theie is a uiffeience between the tank
piessuies foi uiffeient engine speeus. This can piobably be explaineu with leakage of
piessuiizeu aii fiom the piessuie tank into the cylinuei thiough the tank valve. Since
leakage of compiesseu aii thiough an oiifice is constant in time at a constant piessuie,
the amount of aii inuucteu into the cylinuei pei cycle uue to leakage will ueciease with
incieasing engine speeu, anu thus the enu tank piessuie shoulu ieach a highei level. At
12uu ipm, this explanation is not enough since the enu tank piessuie is even lowei than
at 6uu ipm. The ieason is piobably that the contiol piogiam by coinciuence is bettei
optimizeu at 6uu anu 9uu ipm.
Figuie 71 shows the INEP geneiateu uuiing 8uu consecutive engine cycles at thiee
uiffeient engine speeus. The ieason why INEP uecieases aftei appioximately 4uu cycles
at 9uu anu 12uu ipm is that the valve closing (TankvC) is not open‐loop contiolleu but
set to a constant value. Constant TankvC will affect the negative INEP at highei tank
piessuies because iueally TankvC shoulu be ietaiueu towaius TBC with incieasing tank
piessuie. The TankvC shoulu always be set in such a way that the piessuiizeu aii
tiappeu in the cylinuei will be expanueu to atmospheiic piessuie when the piston
ieaches BBC. At highei tank piessuies, a late TankvC means that the in‐cylinuei
piessuie is highei than uesiieu, anu the excess piessuie pushes the piston as it moves
towaius BBC anu theieby contiibutes with positive INEP which uecieases the negative
INEP foi the whole cycle. This phenomenon is engine speeu uepenuent, since at highei
 
55 
8 Results

engine speeus the compiesseu aii will have less time to evacuate the cylinuei anu a
aigei poition of compiesseu aii will be tiappeu in the cylinuei aftei TankvC. l

 
56 
   
Figure 70 Mean tank pressure during CM as a 
unction  of  engine  cycle  number  at  three 
ifferent engine speeds. 
Figure  71  Negative  IMEP  during  CM  as  a 
function  of  engine  cycle  number  at  three 
different engine speeds. 
f
d

8.2.2 Optimizing the compressor mode 
The optimization of the compiessoi moue has been uone in teims of valve timing anu
valve geometiy. Coiiect valve timing is the key to goou pneumatic hybiiu efficiency anu
piopei valve geometiy ieuuces unnecessaiy eneigy losses uue to iestiicteu flow.
In the pievious section, it was stateu that the open‐loop contiol was baseu on the
polytiopic compiession law. The uisauvantage with this methou is that it uoes not give
an accuiate valve timing. In oiuei to avoiu this eiioi, a methou foi optimizing the CN
has been uevelopeu. The main iuea with this methou is to finu the most optimal valve
timing at a given tank piessuie anu, in oiuei to uo that, the tank piessuie neeus to be
constant thioughout the whole testing inteival. With the aiu of a piessuie ielief valve it
is possible to change the piessuie level in the system. The piessuie in the tank will
become constant when the amount of aii chaigeu into the tank is equal to the amount of
aii ieleaseu fiom the tank anu by aujusting the piessuie ielief valve opening angle it is
possible to set a uesiieu steauy‐state tank piessuie.
Figuie 72 shows a Tankv0 optimization sweep foi the small tank valve at vaiious
steauy‐state tank piessuies. TankvC, Iv0 anu IvC weie set to a constant value at this
optimization. It can cleaily be seen how negative INEP is affecteu by Tankv0 timing
uuiing optimization of CN. The figuie shows that theie is an optimal Tankv0 timing foi
eveiy tank piessuie when taking highest efficiency into consiueiation, highest efficiency
coiiesponus to the minimum in each cuive. This means that it takes less powei to
compiess the inuucteu aii at this point than at any othei point on the cuive at a given
tank piessuie. If highei biaking toique is neeueu, the efficiency has to be saciificeu.
The ieason why negative INEP incieases at eaily Tankv0 is that when the tank valve
opens eailiei than optimal, theie will be a blowuown of compiesseu aii into the cylinuei
uue to the fact that the piessuie level in the cylinuei is lowei than in the piessuie tank.
8 Results

 
At a ceitain piematuie Tankv0, negative INEP will uiamatically inciease with
incieasing tank piessuie, uue to a laigei piessuie level uiffeience between the cylinuei
anu the piessuie tank.

Figure  72  Negative  IMEP  obtained  during 
steady­state  CM  as  a  function  of  TankVO 
ring  optimization  of  CM  at  various  tank 
essures and an engine speed of 600 rpm 
du
pr

 

Figure  73  TankVO  and  negative  IMEP  during 
CM  optimization  as  a  function  of  tank 
pressure at an engine speed of 600 rpm 
 
Figuie 7S shows how optimal Tankv0 anu coiiesponuing negative INEP vaiies with
incieasing tank piessuie. The ieason why the negative INEP uecieases aftei a tank
piessuie of appioximately 14 bai, is that the optimization has been uone with focus on
Tankv0 while TankvC has been set to a constant value of 1u CAB ATBC.

F
e
igure  74  Comparison  of  negative  IMEP  for  unoptimized  and  optimized  TankVO  as  a  function  of 
ngine cycle number during CM operation. End tank pressure is about 21 bar in both cases.  
57 

CN opeiation testing has been uone both with unoptimizeu tank valve opeiation, anu
with the optimal Tankv0 timings seen in Figuie 7S. The iesult can be seen in Figuie 74
wheie negative INEP foi both unoptimizeu anu optimizeu Tankv0 is shown. Initially,
negative INEP foi unoptimizeu Tankv0 is similai to negative INEP foi optimizeu
Tankv0, but aftei about Suu engine cycles negative INEP foi the optimizeu tank valve
8 Results

iemains ieasonably constant while negative INEP foi the unoptimizeu tank valve
continues to inciease thioughout the iest of the test.
The initial testing of CN showeu that the chosen valve uesign leaus to a veiy iestiicteu
aii flow thiough the valve. In an attempt to minimize the iestiiction of aii flow, the olu
setup with a valve heau uiametei of 16 mm has been ieplaceu with a valve that has a
valve heau uiametei of 28 mm in combination with the pieviously uesciibeu pneumatic
valve spiing aiiangement.
Fiom now on the tank valve with a valve heau uiametei of 16 mm will be iefeiieu to as
the “small tank valve” anu the piessuie compensateu valve with a valve uiametei of 28
mm will be iefeiieu to as the “laige tank valve”.
Figuie 7S anu Figuie 76 illustiates the piessuie uiop ovei the small anu laige tank
valves, iespectively, obtaineu at thiee uiffeient engine speeus uuiing CN. The hump‐like
behavioi between 1uu anu 2uu engine cycles at both 9uu anu 12uu ipm in Figuie 76
occuis uue to the piessuiizeu aii souice switching system uesciibeu eailiei. As the tank
piessuie is ieaching a piessuie level close to the switching piessuie level, the tank valve
lift height is uecieasing, see Figuie 77. The tank valve lift has uecieaseu by almost 1 mm
at engine cycle 1Su compaieu to cycle 1uu. At cycle 2uu the tank valve lift height has
neaily ietuineu to a maximum. The ieason foi this behavioi is thought to be bau
nteiaction between the check‐valves uue to piessuie oscillations in the piessuiizeu aii
upply line. Buiing noimal iunning
i
s


Figure  75  Pressure  difference  between  in­
cylinder  pressure  and  maximum  pressure  
after  the  tank  valve  (port  pressure)  as  a 
unction  of  engine  cycle  number  at  various 
peeds. Small tank valve setup.  
f
s

conuitions one of the check‐valves will be completely open, but uuiing the tiansition
eiiou, both check‐valves will open anu close fiequently uue to the piessuie oscillations,
hich leaus to a ueficit in piessuie anu thus the valve lift will ueciease.

Figure  76  Pressure  difference  between  in­
cylinder  pressure  and  maximum  pressure  
after  the  tank  valve  (port  pressure)  as  a 
function  of  engine  cycle  number  at  various 
speeds. Large tank valve setup. 
p
w

 
58 
8 Results

 

Figure 77 Tank valve lift at three different engine cycles and at an engine speed of 1200 rpm. 

Figuie 78 shows a Tankv0 optimization sweep foi the laige tank valve at vaiious
steauy‐state tank piessuies, similai to the Tankv0 sweep in Figuie 72. With the laigei
valve, the negative INEP at a tank piessuie of 4 bai anu at optimal Tankv0 foi both 6uu
anu 9uu ipm is lowei compaieu to the negative INEP in Figuie 72 at the same tank
piessuie. This is because the piessuie uiop is uecieaseu uue to the laigei tank valve
heau uiametei. At 1u anu 1S bai, theie is haiuly any uiffeience between negative INEP
foi the laige tank valve compaieu to the small tank valve. The only uiffeience is that the
optimal Tankv0 foi the laige tank valve is auvanceu a numbei of CAB compaieu to
Tankv0 foi the small valve. 0ne of the ieasons foi this behavioi is most likely that theie
is a blowuown of piessuiizeu aii into the cylinuei thiough the tank valve. It seems as the
tank valve is not completely piessuie compensateu as expecteu anu thus theie is a net
foice acting to open the tank valve. Anothei ieason is that theie is some piessuie losses
the piessuiizeu aii supply line between the tank anu the pneumatic valve actuatoi,
hich means that the piessuiizeu aii feu to the valve actuatoi at a ceitain time is not the
in
w


Figure  78  Negative  IMEP  obtained  during 
steady­state  CM  as  a  function  of  TankVO  for 
the  large  tank  valve  setup  at  various  tank 
pressures and engine speeds. 
 

Figure  79  TankVO  timing  and  corresponding 
negative  IMEP  during  CM  optimization  as  a 
function  of  tank  pressure  for  the  large  tank 
valve setup at an engine speed of 600 rpm. 
 
59 
8 Results

 
same as the mean tank piessuie at the coiiesponuing time anu theiefoie the ability to
open the tank valve at optimal timing is lost anu has to be auvanceu. An auvance in
Tankv0 compaieu to optimal timing means that theie will be a blowuown of
piessuiizeu aii into the cylinuei anu thus negative INEP will inciease. The ieason why
negative INEP foi the laige tank valve is consiueiably lowei than foi the small tank
valve at 4 bai of tank piessuie is that at this tank piessuie level, the actuatoi is feu with
6 bai of compiesseu aii fiom an exteinal souice. This means that, at this point theie is a
suiplus of 2 bais feeuing the valve actuatoi anu thus the optimal Tankv0 timing can be
achieveu.
 
Figuie 79 shows how optimal Tankv0 anu coiiesponuing negative INEP vaiies with
incieasing tank piessuie foi the laige tank valve setup. Compaiing negative INEP fiom
Figuie 79 with negative INEP fiom Figuie 7S inuicates that the piessuie losses ovei the
tank valve aie lowei with the laige valve than with the small valve. If focus is put on the
Tankv0, it can cleaily be seen that the optimal Tankv0 foi the laige tank valve occuis
consiueiably eailiei compaieu to the optimal Tankv0 foi the small tank valve. The
ieason foi this behavioi can once again be explaineu as inauequate amount of
piessuiizeu aii supplieu to the tank valve actuatoi anu theiefoie the valve timing has to
be auvanceu a numbei of CAB away fiom the ieal optimum, which contiibutes to a
highei negative INEP.
Figuie 8u shows negative INEP uuiing optimal CN at thiee uiffeient engine speeus foi
the laige tank valve setup. Compaiing the iesult at 6uu ipm uisplayeu in Figuie 8u with
the iesult fiom the optimizeu test shown in Figuie 74 inuicates that theie is only a
uiffeience the fiist 2uu cycles uuiing which the iesults obtaineu with the laige tank
alve setup show that INEP is lowei than the coiiesponuing iesults obtaineu with the v


Figure  80  Negative  IMEP  during  optimal  CM 
as a function of engine cycle number at three 
different  engine  speeds  for  the  large  tank 
60 
valve setup. 
 
 
small tank valve setup. This veiifies that incieasing the tank valve uiametei uecieases
the aii flow iesistance ovei the tank valve. The ieason why negative INEP is almost the
same in both cases aftei 2uu cycles is piobably once again insufficient piessuie in the
compiesseu aii supply line feeuing the tank valve actuatoi.

Figure  81  Tank  valve  lift  at  two  different 
engine cycles and at an engine speed of 1200 
rpm.  
  8 Results

 
61 
Fiom Figuie 8u it can also be noticeu that, at 12uu ipm negative INEP suuuenly staits to
ueciease aftei about 6uu cycles. The ieason foi this behavioi is that, uue to inexplicable
peifoimance of the tank valve actuatoi, the valve lift uuiation is abiuptly uecieaseu
aftei 6uu cycles, see Figuie 81. A shoitei uuiation means that theie will not be enough
time to vent the cylinuei fiom piessuiizeu aii anu theiefoie the cylinuei will still be
filleu with piessuiizeu aii at tank valve closing. This excess of compiesseu aii pushes
the piston as it moves towaius BBC anu thus contiibutes with positive INEP, which in
uin uecieases negative INEP foi the whole cycle. t

8.2.3 Initial testing of Air­Motor Mode 
The AN can, as CN, mainly be executeu in thiee ways – with optimal efficiency, powei,
oi a tiaue‐off between both. Achieving highest aii‐motoi efficiency is uone by a feeuback
contiol of both the tank valve anu the intake valve. Tankv0 shoulu occui at TBC anu
TankvC shoulu be set in such a way that the piessuiizeu aii is expanueu to atmospheiic
piessuie at BBC. The intake valve shoulu open at BBC anu IvC shoulu be set in such a
way that when the piston ieaches TBC, the inuucteu aii is compiesseu to the same level
as the tank piessuie level.
In oiuei to acceleiate the vehicle moie iapiuly compaieu to the high‐efficiency case,
high powei is neeueu. This can be achieveu by piolonging the tank valve uuiation
compaieu to the optimal timing anu theieby inuuct moie compiesseu aii which
incieases the woik uone on the piston. Bighest aii‐motoi powei is achieveu with
TankvC at BBC oi shoitly befoie. The inlet valve shoulu be contiolleu in the same
mannei as with the high‐efficiency methou.
In a ieal application, a combination of the pieviously explaineu methous will be utilizeu.
Foi instance, as long as the uiivei piesses the gas peual moueiately, the AN will be
opeiateu at highest efficiency oi close to it. As the uiivei continues to piess the peual
towaius its enu position, the AN opeiation will uiift away fiom highest efficiency
towaius maximum aii‐motoi powei.
This thesis focuses mainly on the fiist methou, namely achieving as high AN efficiency as
possible. All tests involving AN have been uone at an engine speeu of 6uu ipm.
Table 11 shows the valve timing stiategy useu in this pait of the expeiiment. The
timings ielateu to TankvC aie chosen in oiuei to achieve as high toique as possible. The
uiffeient piessuie levels that follow aftei @ ielates to the staiting tank piessuie.
8 Results

 
Table 11 Valve timing strate ring AM operation.  gy du
Iv0 18u CAB ATBC
IvC u CAB ATBC
Tankv0 S CAB ATBC
TankvC@22 bai 4u CAB ATBC
TankvC@1S bai 6u CAB ATBC
TankvC@12.S bai 7u CAB ATBC
TankvC@1u bai 8u CAB ATBC

Figuie 82 anu Figuie 8S show the Pv‐uiagiam of one AN cycle uuiing ieal engine testing
at two uiffeient tank piessuies. Compaiing both figuies with Figuie S9 (iueal Pv‐
uiagiam of one AN cycle), inuicates a consiueiable uiffeience. The lack of the isobaiic
event (the step between 1 anu 2 in Figuie S9) is uue to a iestiicteu aii flow ovei the tank
valve. The absence of the compiession step between 4 anu 1 founu in Figuie S9 can be
explaineu by inappiopiiate IvC. In oiuei to avoiu a iush of compiesseu aii into the
cylinuei, the aii in the cylinuei shoulu be compiesseu to the same level as the tank
piessuie level piioi to Tankv0. Since IvC occuis at TBC, the piessuie in the cylinuei at
Tankv0 will be atmospheiic anu the piessuiizeu aii fiom the tank will iush into the
cylinuei with high piessuie losses as a iesult. 0bseive that in Figuie 8S two encloseu
loops can be noticeu, a positive anu a negative loop. The loop on the iight siue of the
figuie is the negative loop anu it is contiibuting with negative INEP. This is uue to wiong
tank oi inlet valve timings. The amount of piessuiizeu aii chaigeu into the cylinuei is
not enough in oiuei to expanu it to atmospheiic piessuie at BBC. Insteau the piessuie
will ueciease below atmospheiic piessuie anu thus vacuum is cieateu which is an
eneigy consuming piocess. Since the inlet valve opens at BBC, the vacuum is canceleu by
the inuuction of fiesh aii into the cylinuei anu theieby the vacuum cieateu cannot be
useu as an upwaiu‐acting foice on the piston as it moves towaius TBC.
Theie aie two ways to pievent this occuiience. 0ne is by not opening the inlet valve
ntil the cylinuei piessuie ieaches atmospheiic piessuie as the piston tiavels towaius u

 
62 
 
F
t

igure  82  PV­diagram  of  one  AM  cycle  at  a 
ank pressure of 13 bar. 
 
Figure  83  PV­diagram  of  one  AM  cycle  at  a 
tank pressure of 9 bar. 
8 Results

 
TBC. The seconu way is to have longei tank valve uuiation anu thus inuuct moie
piessuiizeu aii. In this way the cylinuei piessuie will ieach atmospheiic piessuie at
BBC anu the inlet valve can then open at BBC without the iisk of cieating any backflow
of atmospheiic aii into the cylinuei.  
Figuie 84 shows positive INEP uuiing 4uu consecutive cycles of AN opeiation staiting
at foui uiffeient tank piessuies anu Figuie 8S shows the coiiesponuing tank piessuie.
What can be noticeu fiom both figuies is that the positive INEP becomes negative at
some point uuiing the test cycle even though the tank piessuie is above atmospheiic
piessuie. The laigei than the positive loop anu thus the woik input has exceeueu woik
utput anu theiefoie INEP becomes negative. o

 
Figure  84  Positive  IMEP  during  unoptimized 
AM  with  small  tank  valve  setup  as  a  function 
f  engine  cycle  number.  Legend  indicates 
tarting tank pressure. 
o
s

 
Figure  85  Mean  tank  pressure  during 
unoptimized  AM  with  small  tank  valve  setup 
as  a  function  of  engine  cycle  number
8.2.4 Optimizing the air­motor mode 
The optimization of AN has been uone in teims of valve timing anu valve geometiy. The
chosen valve timings useu in pievious section weie not optimizeu in any way. The intent
was to show that the concept woiks anu thus the focus was mainly on function iathei
than optimal opeiation. Bowevei the iesults showeu that piopei valve timing is ciucial
foi achieving goou AN efficiency.
An attempt to use the polytiopic compiession law, in oiuei to achieve a piopei valve
stiategy uuiing AN, has been uone. TankvC is contiolleu in such way that at a ceitain
tank piessuie, a piopei closing angle is calculateu with the help of the polytiopic
compiession law. Also IvC is calculateu in a similai way. Tankv0 anu Iv0 aie set to a
constant value of u CAB ATBC anu 18u CAB BTBC, iespectively. TankvC anu
coiiesponuing positive INEP obtaineu with this methou can be seen in Figuie 86. These
iesults aie quite pooi compaieu to the iesults shown in Figuie 84, wheie INEP levels of
almost 4 bais have been shown with constant valve timings. The ieason is that, as stateu
befoie, the specific‐heat iatio uepenus on the heat losses anu setting this iatio to a
constant value intiouuces some eiiois to the valve contiol algoiithm. Also, the
63 
8 Results

 
polytiopic ielation uoes not take the piessuie losses ovei the tank valve into account,
nu theiefoie the TankvC will be chosen closei to TBC than what woulu be optimal. a


Figure  86  TankVO  and  corresponding 
ositive  IMEP  during  AM  for  the  large  tank 
alve setup as a function of tank pressure. 
p
v

pressure. 
 
In oiuei to optimize the AN, a methou foi finuing the optimal valve timings is necessaiy.
The steauy‐state methou, useu foi optimizing the CN, cannot be useu in oiuei to
optimize the AN, since theie is no chaiging of the piessuie tank uuiing AN anu theieby

Figure  87  Optimized  TankVO  and 
corresponding  positive  IMEP  during  AM  for 
the  large  valve  setup  as  a  function  of  tank 
a steauy‐state tank piessuie cannot be achieveu.
A methou foi finuing the optimal IvC has been uevelopeu. The iuea is to vaiy IvC anu
thus the coiiesponuing peak cylinuei piessuie will also be vaiieu. In this way, a map
containing IvC as a function of peak cylinuei piessuie can be cieateu.
In oiuei to finu the optimal TankvC, iesults fiom the CN optimization, shown in Figuie
79, have been useu. Buiing the compiession stioke uuiing optimal CN, the atmospheiic
aii in the cylinuei is compiesseu to the same piessuie level as the tank piessuie level
befoie the tank valve opens. In AN, the pioceuuie shoulu be the opposite. The Tankv0
shoulu occui aiounu TBC. As the piston moves away fiom TBC, the compiesseu aii will
expanu anu when the in‐cylinuei piessuie is the same as the tank piessuie, the tank
valve shoulu close. This means that Tankv0 uuiing CN coiiesponus to TankvC uuiing
AN. Buiing CN the tank valve opens when piessuie equilibiium is ieacheu anu uuiing
AN the tank valve closes at the same conuition. Theieby the iesults obtaineu uuiing CN
optimization can, with some mouification, be useu to contiol the valve uuiing AN. Foi
instance, if it is ueteimineu that Tankv0 uuiing CN shoulu occui at SS CAB BTBC, then
TankvC uuiing AN shoulu occui at SS CAB ATBC. In oiuei to fit the iesults fiom CN to
AN, some tuning of the valve timings hau to be uone.
Figuie 87 shows the final iesults fiom AN testing wheie both IvC anu TankvC have been
optimizeu with the methous uesciibeu above. Compaiing the iesults fiom Figuie 87
with the iesults fiom Figuie 79 inuicates that the cuives beai a iesemblance to one
anothei. But theie aie some uiffeiences, mainly foi the TankvC. Foi instance, at a tank
piessuie of 2u bai, the iesults in Figuie 87 inuicates a TankvC at appioximately SS CAB
ATBC, while the iesults in Figuie 79 inuicates a Tankv0 at appioximately S8 CAB BTBC.
64 
8 Results

The uiffeience of 6 CAB is uue to the fact that IvC uuiing AN is chosen in such way that
the peak in‐cylinuei piessuie is lowei than the tank piessuie when the tank valve
pens. Theieby, the ueficit in the piessuiizeu aii supply line is compensateu foi. o


Figure  88  Positive  IMEP  for  two  different 
alve  setups  and  valve  strategies  as  a 
unction of engine cycle number. 
v
f

 

Figure  89  Mean  tank  pressure  for  two 
different valve setups and valve strategies. 
 
Figuie 88 shows positive INEP obtaineu with two uiffeient tank valve setups anu valve
stiategies uuiing AN opeiation anu the coiiesponuing tank piessuie can be seen in
Figuie 89. The small tank valve cuive is the same as the one staiting at 2u bai of tank
piessuie shown in Figuie 84. The laige tank valve cuive has been obtaineu with the
optimal valve timings shown in Figuie 87. The staiting tank piessuie is about 2u bais in
both cases. It can be iealizeu that, an inciease in valve heau uiametei togethei with
optimal valve timings, has a laige impact on the AN opeiation. This will in tuin leau to a
consiueiable inciease in the AN total efficiency. The ieason why INEP foi the laige tank
valve setup is much highei thioughout the whole test compaieu to the small tank valve
setup, is that the piessuiizeu aii is useu in a much moie efficient way. A laigei tank
valve uiametei contiibutes to less piessuie losses ovei the tank valve anu an optimizeu
valve contiol stiategy contiibutes to a moie efficient use of the piessuiizeu aii, anu
togethei they contiibute to a highei positive INEP.
Figuie 9u anu Figuie 91 illustiates Pv‐uiagiams foi both tank valve setups at tank
piessuies of 16.S anu 6.S bai, iespectively. Theie aie eviuent uiffeiences in peak
cylinuei piessuie between the small tank valve setup anu the laige tank valve setup in
both figuies. The ieason is that the flow ovei the small tank valve will become chokeu
uue to a veiy iestiicteu flow aiea. With the laigei tank valve, the flow aiea is incieaseu
moie than thiee times compaieu to the small tank valve flow aiea anu theiefoie the
thiesholu foi chokeu flow has been iaiseu.
 
65 
8 Results

 

Figure  90  PV­diagram  for  two  different  tank 
alve  setups  and  valve  timing  strategies  at  a 
ank pressure of 16.5 bar.  
v
t

The Pv‐uiagiams foi the laige tank valve setup beai a gieat iesemblance to the iueal Pv‐
uiagiam shown in

Figure  91  PV­diagram  for  two  different  tank 
valve  setups  and  valve  timing  strategies  at  a 
tank pressure of 6.5 bar.  
Figuie S9. The isobai step in the iueal Pv‐uiagiam has not been
achieveu, but it is much bettei than the coiiesponuing step achieveu with the small tank
valve setup. Theie is now also a compiession step piesent in the Pv‐uiagiam of the
ptimizeu AN compaiable to the one founu in the iueal Pv‐uiagiam. o

8.2.5 Regenerative efficiency 
In oiuei to estimate the potential of the pneumatic hybiiu, anu intiouuce the possibility
to compaie uiffeient tests with each othei, a iegeneiative efficiency has to be uefineu.
The iegeneiative efficiency is the iatio between the eneigy iecoveieu uuiing AN anu the
eneigy consumeu uuiing CN. It can also be uefineu as the iatio between positive anu
negative INEP:
n
¡cgcn
=
IHEP
-
IHEP
+
66 

Table 12 shows the iegeneiative efficiency with uiffeient tank valve setups anu valve
stiategies at thiee engine speeus. The small tank valve setup has a maximum
iegeneiative efficiency of SS% at 9uu ipm. The ieason why the efficiency is highei at
9uu ipm than at 6uu ipm is that the unoptimizeu feeuback contiollei by coinciuence is
bettei suiteu foi the case at 9uu ipm than at 6uu ipm. The iegeneiative efficiency foi the
laige tank valve setup inuicates that with optimizeu tank valve timing, the maximum
efficiency occuis at 6uu ipm anu uecieases with incieasing engine speeu. A tiemenuous
impiovement has been achieveu while switching fiom the small tank valve setup to the
laige tank valve setup. The impiovement uepenus mainly on a laigei tank valve heau
uiametei anu optimizeu tank valve timing uuiing AN. A change in inlet valve stiategy
fiom constant IvC to open‐loop contiolleu IvC, contiibutes to a fuithei inciease in
egeneiative efficiency. i

  8 Results

 
67 
Table  12  Calculated  total  regenerative  efficiency  for  different  tank  valve  setups  and  valve 
strateg  at three different engine speeds.  ies
η
iegen

Engine speeu 6uu 9uu 12uu
Small tank valve setup S2 SS 2S
Laige Tank valve setup, constant IvC uuiing AN 44 4u S7
Laige tank valve setup 48 44 4u


The pneumatic tank valve actuatoi consumes eneigy in the foim of compiesseu aii fiom
the piessuie tank. Since its eneigy consumption uecieases the total eneigy stoieu in the
piessuie tank, it has to be seen as eneigy losses. These losses have automatically been
taken into account in the calculation of iegeneiative efficiency. This is only valiu foi the
laige valve setup, since the pneumatic tank valve useu in the small tank valve setup has
been feu with compiesseu aii geneiateu fiom an exteinal souice. This means that the
iegeneiative efficiency calculateu foi the laige tank valve setup, is lowei than it woulu
be if the pneumatic valve actuatoi eneigy losses weie excluueu fiom the calculation.
It shoulu be noticeu that the iegeneiative efficiency, uesciibeu in this papei is actually
an inuicateu efficiency, apait fiom the incluueu pneumatic valve actuatoi eneigy losses.
This means that a ieal vehicle cannot utilize the eneigy to the same extent uue, among
othei things, to engine anu uiiveline fiiction losses, which will leau to a lowei
egeneiative efficiency. i
 
9 Summary

 
68 
9 Summary 
The woik piesenteu in this thesis consists of two paits: evaluation of a new type of vvA
system anu investigation of the pneumatic hybiiu concept.
A vvA system is a veiy poweiful tool in the fielu of engine ieseaich in oiuei to stuuy
vaiious combustion ielateu phenomena anu the effect of valve timings on engine
peifoimance. It is thus of gieat impoitance that such a system functions piopeily anu
stably.
vaiious tests have cleaily shown the potential with electio‐pneumatic vvA. The
actuatois have pioven to be well uevelopeu anu to offei a iobust function. Results show
the ability to opeiate in the uesiiable iange associateu with heavy uuty engines. valve
lifts between S anu 12 mm have been achieveu at a speeu inteival between Suu anu
2Suu ipm. The system shows a gieat flexibility as valve lift anu timing can be chosen
almost without any constiaints anu inuepenuently of each othei. Successful test iuns
with vaiious valve stiategies foi BCCI combustion contiol have shown the gieat benefits
with a fully vaiiable vvA system.
The pneumatic hybiiu is a piomising concept with the possibility to ieuuce vehicle fuel
consumption as well as exhaust emissions. The auvantages with pneumatic hybiiu
compaieu to the electiic hybiiu aie fiist anu foiemost simplicity combineu with a gieat
potential in cost ieuuction.
Initial testing of uiffeient pneumatic hybiiu ielateu moues of engine opeiation was
conuucteu. Both compiessoi moue (CN) anu aii‐motoi moue (AN) weie executeu
successfully anu a iegeneiative efficiency of up to SS % was achieveu showing the
potential with pneumatic hybiiuization.
In oiuei to minimize piessuie losses uue to iestiicteu flow into anu out fiom the
cylinuei, the tank valve heau uiametei was changeu fiom 16 mm to 28 mm. The laige
tank valve has been combineu with an in‐house uevelopeu pneumatic spiing in oiuei to
secuie piopei valve timing. The evaluation has shown that theie aie some issues with
the pneumatic valve spiing conceining tank valve actuation. The pioblem has been
iuentifieu anu a possible solution has been suggesteu.
A methou foi optimizing both CN anu AN in iegaiu to efficiency has been uevelopeu anu
testeu. The iesults inuicate an inciease in efficiency foi both CN anu AN. The impact of
optimizeu valve timings was much moie eviuent in AN compaieu to CN.
0ptimizeu pneumatic hybiiu opeiation togethei with the change of valve heau geometiy
has shown an inciease in iegeneiative efficiency fiom SS% to impiessive 48%.
Bowevei, this figuie incluues eneigy losses uue to piessuie tank feu valve actuation.
heiefoie, the inciease in inuicateu efficiency is expecteu to be even highei. T


 
    1u Future work

 
69 
10 Future work 
The change of valve geometiy has shown that this is an impoitant factoi in the
optimization of pneumatic hybiiu opeiation. Bowevei, a change in valve heau uiametei
iequiies time consuming mouifications. Theiefoie a uTPowei mouel of the engine is
unuei uevelopment. The aim is to uevelop a mouel as similai anu accuiate as possible to
the ieal engine which will simplify the seaich foi the optimal pneumatic hybiiu. It is
much easiei to uo a paiametiic stuuy with a mouel than it woulu be with a ieal engine. A
change in valve heau foi instance, can be uone by simply changing the value in uTPowei,
while a change of valve uiametei in a ieal engine iequiies exchange of valve seating anu
machining of the stanuaiu valve.
Results fiom the pneumatic hybiiu mouel will also be combineu with a stanuaiu uiiving
cycle in oiuei to investigate the potential of ieuuction in fuel consumption.
So fai, only two pneumatic hybiiu engine opeiation moues have been investigateu. In
the futuie also aii‐powei‐assist moue (APAN) will be exploieu. The uiffeient pneumatic
hybiiu moues of opeiation will also be useu in combination with conventional
combustion engine opeiation in oiuei to stuuy engine moue tiansient behavioi anu its
ffect on engine peifoimance anu exhaust emissions. e
 
11 Summary of papers

 
70 
11 Summary of papers 
 
11.1 Paper 1 
FPGA Controlled Pneumatic Variable Valve Actuation  
SAE Technical Paper 2006­01­0041 
y Sasa Tiajkovic, Alexanuai Nilosavljevic, Pei Tunestål anu Bengt Iohansson B
Piesenteu by Sasa Tiajkovic at the SAE Woilu Congiess, Betioit, NI, 0SA, Apiil 2uu6

In this papei a pneumatic vvA system has been investigateu anu evaluateu foi use in a
combustion engine. A contiol system foi the vvA system has been uevelopeu in
LabvIEW. The valves weie fiist testeu uuiing motoieu opeiation, wheie its
chaiacteiistics in foim of valve lift anu timing weie exploieu. The extieme opeiating
limits of the system weie testeu with goou iesult. Aftei piopei function was assuieu by
initial testing of the vvA system, thiee uiffeient valve stiategies in oiuei to contiol BCCI
combustion weie exploieu.
The iesults inuicate that the vvA system is well uevelopeu with a stable function anu
offeis a gieat flexibility in the choice of valve timing anu lift. Investigation of the extieme
limits togethei with iesults fiom the valve stiategy tests have shown that the vvA
system is suitable foi heavy uuty engines such as the Scania B12 Biesel engine useu in
this papei.
I uiu most the expeiiments, evaluateu the uata anu wiote the papei. Some of the
xpeiiments weie caiiieu out togethei with A. Nilosavljevic. e

11.2 Paper 2 
Introductory Study of Variable Valve Actuation for Pneumatic Hybridization 
SAE Technical Paper 2007­01­0288 
y Sasa Tiajkovic, Pei Tunestål anu Bengt Iohansson B
Piesenteu by Sasa Tiajkovic at the SAE Woilu Congiess, Betioit, NI, 0SA, Apiil 2uu7

In this papei the pneumatic hybiiu concept has been investigateu. A Scania B12 engine
was conveiteu foi pneumatic hybiiu opeiation anu testeu in a laboiatoiy setup.
Pneumatic valve actuatois have been useu to make the pneumatic hybiiu possible. The
intent with this papei was to test anu evaluate two uiffeient moues of engine opeiation ‐
compiession moue (CN) wheie aii is stoieu in an aii tank uuiing ueceleiation anu aii‐
motoi moue (AN) wheie the pieviously stoieu aii is useu foi acceleiation of the vehicle.
This papei also incluues optimization of the compiessoi moue with iespect to valve
timing.
The iesults showeu that the pneumatic hybiiu has a potential in becoming a seiious
contenuei to the electiic hybiiu. The iegeneiative efficiency was below expecteu value,
but still enough foi a pioof of concept. It was also iealizeu that the chosen valve
geometiy was the main limiting paiametei iegaiuing iegeneiative efficiency.
  11 Summary of papers

 
71 
I

uiu the expeiiments, evaluateu the uata anu wiote the papei.
11.3 Paper 3 
Investigation of Different Valve Geometries and Valve Timing Strategies and their 
Effect  on  Regenerative  Efficiency  for  a  Pneumatic  Hybrid  with  Variable  Valve 
Actuation 
SAE Technical Paper 2008­01­1715 
By Sasa Tiajkovic, Pei Tunestål anu Bengt Iohansson
o be publisheu at the SAE 2uu8 Inteinational Poweitiains, Fuels anu Lubiicants T
Congiess, Shanghai, China, Iune 2uu8

This papei can be seen as a continuation of Papei 2 wheie it was also iealizeu that the
chosen valve geometiy was the main limiting paiametei with iegaiu to iegeneiative
efficiency. In this papei the tank valve useu in Papei 2 has been exchangeu foi a valve
with a laigei heau uiametei in combination with a pneumatic valve spiing.
A compaiison between the olu anu the new tank valve geometiy anu theii effect on the
pneumatic hybiiu efficiency has been uone. Also, optimization of the valve timings foi
both compiessoi moue anu aii‐motoi moue has been uone in oiuei to achieve fuithei
impiovements of iegeneiative efficiency.
The iesults inuicate that the inciease in valve uiametei ieuuces the piessuie uiop ovei
the tank valve, contiibuting to a highei iegeneiative efficiency. 0ptimization of both
tank valve timing anu inlet valve timing foi CN anu AN contiibutes to a fuithei inciease
in iegeneiative efficiency.
uiu the expeiiments, evaluateu the uata anu wiote the papei. I


   
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  Appenuix A

 
77 
Appendix A – Biawing of the steel plate useu foi the mounting of the valve actuatois




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