INDEX

Abrahall, Chandos H., 158–60, 162, 168
acceptability, 14, 37–8, 43, 53–4, 58, 67,
130, 138
adventurers, 7, 28, 31, 111, 129, 168, 168,
174, 179
Akaitcho, 97, 105–6
Alaska, 3
Aleutian Islands, 62
alter egos, 15, 42, 57
Anderson, Charles, 73–4, 76
Anglicanism, 36, 140
animality, 47, 71–2
animals, 9, 21, 49, 53–4, 59, 64, 71, 81, 103,
110–11, 113, 115, 127, 150, 161
anonymity, 32, 49, 79, 83–4, 91, 118,
145–6, 173
anthropology, 7, 106
appropriation, 119
Armstrong, Alexander, 51
Armstrong, Walter, 177
Art Journal, 174, 177
Arthur, King, 27
Arundel, Lord, 24
Athenaeum, 126, 131–2, 173
‘Attic Chest’, 82, 84, 89, 103
Augustus, 95, 107–9
Aupilaarjuk, Mariono, 149
Austin, Henry, 61, 159
authority, 15, 24, 38, 43–4, 46–7, 119, 123

Banks Island, 62
Baptiste, 106
barbarity, 72
Barentsz, Willem, 21–2, 85
Barren Grounds, 25, 40, 105
Barrow, John, 1–2, 9, 14–5, 19, 37, 67, 81,
84–7, 91, 93, 95, 97–8, 138–9, 141,
158
Barrow Strait, 41
Barrow’s Bay, 46
Bathurst, Henry, 98–9
Beaufort Bay, 104
Beechey, William, 95, 97, 104–5
Beechey Island, 115–16, 120
Belcher, Edward, 61, 63–4, 121–2, 131
beliefs, 5, 20, 33, 43, 94, 140–1, 148
Bering Strait, 44, 62, 95, 127
Bible, 34, 142
Blackmore, R. D., 156
Blake, Robert, 159, 164–5
Blake, William, 159, 164–5
blood, 71–2, 104, 145, 161, 167
bodies, 64, 68, 72, 76, 109, 132, 135, 145,
161, 164
Bolckow, H. W. F., 173
Booth, Felix, 8–10, 33, 38, 48
Boothia Peninsula, 33, 131
Bourne, William Oland, 93
Boyle, Robert, 22
British Museum, 49
Britishness, 39, 177
Brodie, Erasmus, 158, 160, 168
Brown, Capability, 105
Buchan, David, 8, 28, 31, 39, 84–5
burials, 13, 68, 92, 139, 161, 163
Burke, Edmund, 145

Copyright

Back, George, 30, 95–6, 99, 105, 108
Bacon, Francis, 160
Baffin, William, 1, 44
Baffin Bay, 8, 28, 30, 38, 41, 43–6, 60, 115,
143
Baffin Island, 6, 137

– 217 –

218

Arctic Exploration in the Nineteenth Century

Canadians, 71–3, 101, 105
cannibalism, 14, 16, 30, 33–5, 42, 72, 113,
133–5
canoes, 54, 110
Cape Byat Martin, 59
Cape Farewell, 22
Cape Horn, 104
Cape Melville, 42
Cape Swinburne, 156
Cape York, 149
capital, 45, 107
capitalism, 5–7, 11
caricature, 2, 49, 54, 58–9, 171
censorship, 15, 47, 67, 76–7
Charles I (king of England), 24
Charles II (king of England), 7
Charlton Island, 23–4
charting, 8, 29, 42, 44, 46, 49, 59–60, 95,
111, 119, 137, 159, 163, 166, 175
China, 31, 77, 183
Chipewyans, 105
Christianity, 27, 36, 52, 98, 124, 138, 140–3,
153
civilization, 5, 39, 52, 54–6, 72–5, 86, 104,
111, 133, 148, 152, 181
Clarence, Duke of, 109
class, 47, 60, 70, 83, 87, 101
climate, 24, 84–5
cold, 23–4, 27, 29, 71, 76, 95, 97, 100, 113,
142, 145–7, 159, 163, 167, 176
Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, 85, 157, 164, 166
Collier, John, 172
Collinson, Richard, 61–3, 67
colonialism, 1, 7, 53, 101, 113
Columbus, Christopher, 39, 46
comic, 54, 58, 73, 146–7
commerce, 1, 3, 7, 12, 31, 56, 83, 86, 172
common seamen, 15, 32, 41, 44–5, 61, 70,
101, 147
communication, 51, 73, 90
condescension, 53, 56, 60, 71
conquest, 7, 148, 182
Conrad, Joseph, 111
Conybeare (Mount), 111
Cook, James, 12, 20, 22–3, 47, 67, 109, 141,
143, 147
cooking, 81–2, 105
copper, 25

Copper Indians, 105, 150
Coppermine River, 25–6, 30, 95, 98, 112
correspondence, 98, 115, 174
costs, 3–4, 8–11, 13, 44, 47–8, 65, 67, 84,
116–17, 120
courage, 21, 27, 30–1, 36, 41, 71, 99, 104,
108, 118, 138–9
Cracroft, Sophia, 92, 128–30
Craik, Dinah Mulock, 93
Crantz, David, 85–6
credibility, 37–8, 47, 50
Crimea, 30, 66, 115
criticism, 3, 9, 11, 26, 31, 33, 43, 45–6,
68–9, 75, 181
Croker, John Wilson, 9, 46, 81, 84
Croker’s Mountains, 30, 32, 36
Cruikshank, George, 49, 58
culture, 2–5, 16–7, 25, 52–3, 57–8, 72, 109,
119–20, 148, 152–3, 181, 183
Cumberland Strait, 45, 59
cupidity, 39
curiosity, 14, 19, 21

Copyright

dancing, 4–5, 52–3, 56, 76, 106–7
Danes, 51–2, 54, 85
Davis, John, 21, 85
Davis Strait, 37, 41
Dealy Island, 63, 66
De Fuca, Juan, 22, 24
De la Sizeranne, Robert, 177
desolation, 105, 142, 148, 151
dialects, 44–5
Dickens, Charles, 35, 72
Dickinson, Emily, 93
diplomacy, 14, 19, 109
Disco, 45
divine providence, 20–1, 28, 32, 69, 112,
140
Dodd, Charles R., 51
Dog-Ribs (Indians), 105–6
dogs, 52, 77, 100, 111, 183
domination, 37
Domville, Dr., 65–6, 75
Donat, Robert, 178
Donne, John, 145
Doten, Lizzie, 93
Douglas, John (Bishop), 22
Drake, Francis, 7, 13, 164–5

Index

219

Dryden, John, 58
Duranty, Edmond, 176

Frankenstein, 1, 31, 87
Franklin, Jane, 16, 79, 90, 101, 104
Franklin, John, 1–3, 8, 10, 12, 15–16, 19, 26,
election, 146, 153
31, 61–4, 72, 79, 155, 162, 165, 182
electricity, 31, 102
Friedrich, Caspar David, 3
elegy, 3, 16, 113, 132, 162, 164, 165
Frobisher, Martin, 6–7, 21, 30, 85
Elizabeth I (queen of England), 6–7, 20,
frustration, 2, 15, 120, 173, 182
31–2, 40, 146, 156, 159–60
Fry, Roger, 180
Empire, 1–2, 29, 30–1, 35, 39, 49, 59, 80–1, Fun (magazine), 171
103, 109, 111, 119, 138, 141, 153, 163, funerals, 91, 158, 160, 174
173, 181
fur trade, 25–6, 31, 42, 109
encounters, 9–10, 15–16, 51–6, 86, 96–7,
Fury Beach, 9, 34, 46–8, 76, 103, 116–17,
106, 131, 137–9, 153
137
endurance, 20–1, 30, 74, 85, 108, 137, 157,
162
‘gallantry’, 21, 28, 40–1, 69, 71, 91, 129,
Enlightenment, 25, 141, 149
158, 161
entertainments, 44–5, 82, 84, 106, 143,
Gell, Eleanor, 120
147, 151
Gell, John Phillip, 128
epic, 3, 28, 63, 84–8, 90, 93, 96, 102, 108,
Gellibrand, Henry, 23
112, 157–8, 160, 162, 165, 173
gender, 80, 83, 87, 90, 97, 102–3, 119
Ervick, 56
genre, 14, 23, 38–41, 43, 45, 55, 57, 59, 158
‘Esquimaux’, 15, 37, 39, 41–3, 45, 47, 49,
genre painting, 172, 177, 179, 183
51–7, 59–60, 72, 108–9, 138, 143,
geography, 1, 9, 20, 21, 25, 28, 29, 35, 37, 44,
149–52
67, 88, 102, 117, 121, 123, 143
ethnicity, 60, 70
gifts (presents), 55, 79, 87, 104, 105, 107,
ethnography, 143, 152
143, 159, 169
Eurocentrism, 150, 153
God, 5, 11, 19–24, 30, 36, 58, 65, 74, 76, 97,
evil, 63, 76, 146
113, 122, 127, 138–45, 152–3, 165
Ewerat, 152
Graham, James, 115–16, 121–2, 130
‘Exposition Universelle’, Paris (1878), 176
Great Bear Lake, 99, 106
Great Fish River, 132
failure, 3, 6, 9–10, 22, 27–8, 38, 42, 44,
Great Slave Lake, 99
48–51, 112, 121, 124–7, 157–8, 162,
Green Stockings, 101
173
Greene, Henry, 22
faith, 5, 19–21, 23, 130, 140, 146, 148, 153
Greenland, 51–3, 60, 85–6, 149–50
fame, 6, 14, 20, 38, 44, 47, 85, 89, 101, 118
Griffith, Jane, see Franklin, Jane
femininity, 16, 80, 93, 96, 102–4, 112,
Grosvenor Gallery, 171, 174
118–19, 161–2
Grosvenor, Lord, 82, 88
Fildes, Luke, 171
grotesque, 51, 54, 57, 59, 73, 106
flags, see Union Jacks
Flaxman, John, 83, 89
Hakluyt, Richard, 20
Flaxman Island, 111
happiness, 144–5, 151–2
flogging, 76–7
Hare (Indians), 105–6
fog, 16, 25, 27, 62, 74, 111–13, 173
Harrison, Edwin, 168
Foggy Island, 111–12
Harrison, John, 23
Fort Enterprise, 98–9, 105
health, 32, 62, 66, 68, 71, 80, 90–1, 103,
Fort Franklin, 105
116, 123, 127, 143, 147
Fort Providence, 42
Hearne, Samuel, 25–7, 30

Copyright

220

Arctic Exploration in the Nineteenth Century

hegemony, 75, 104, 109
hell, 111, 145
Hepburn, John, 101
heroism, 2, 6, 27–8, 32–4, 36, 38, 40–1,
43–4, 48, 50–1, 58–60, 74, 77, 79–81,
83, 86, 90–1, 93, 95–7, 102, 111–12,
116, 118–19, 121, 126, 129, 133–5,
138–9, 142, 155–60, 163–3, 166,
171–4, 181–2
Herschel, John, 32
Herschel Island, 111
hierarchy, 15, 103
Highlanders, 15, 55–8, 60, 105, 149
Homer, 155, 158, 160, 162
honesty, 100, 150–1
honours, 41, 48, 50–1, 77, 93, 102, 107, 129,
139–40
Hood, Robert, 95–6, 98, 100–1, 110
Hope, George, 32, 37, 41, 46
Hopkins, Gerard Manley, 17, 174–5, 183
Hoppner, Henry Parkyns, 46–8, 52
House, Humphry, 180
hubris, 2–3, 14, 19, 32, 36, 182
Hudson, Henry, 12, 39, 172
Hudson’s Bay Company, 1, 7, 24, 26, 99,
106, 131–2
Hudson’s Strait, 151
humanism, 20–1
Humboldt, Alexander von, 24
humility, 6, 81, 97, 125–7
hunger, 71, 76, 95, 97, 100, 113, 149
hybridity, 52–4, 71

interaction, 105, 151
interpreters, 15, 51–4, 61, 76, 95, 100,
106–7, 109, 113
intertextuality, 58, 164–5
Inughuit, 8, 55–7, 58
Inuit, 9, 15–6, 29, 51–7, 60–2, 68, 72–3, 95,
113, 119, 131, 143, 148–53
Iroquois (Indians), 9
Jack (nickname), 53, 70–1
Jackson, John, 189
James, Henry, 173
Jopling, Louise, 182
journals, 43, 49, 61, 64, 73, 76–7, 106, 110
Kallie, 52
Kay, Henrietta, 82–3
Kellett, Henry, 62–7, 70, 75
Kendall, Edward Nicholas, 95–6, 99, 107,
110
Kennedy, J. F. (US President), 10–11
Keskarrah, 105
King William Island, 2
knightliness, 9–11, 13, 41, 50–1, 77, 83, 92
Knox, Robert, 72

Copyright
identity, 1, 109
ideology, 11, 20, 43, 69, 81, 141, 181
Igloolik, 143, 150
Iligliuk, 151–2
illustrations, 42, 46, 49, 52, 56–8, 81–2, 96,
98, 105, 108–9, 111, 112, 171, 173–4
imitation, 53–9, 75, 139, 168
imposture, 22, 41, 51, 153
Indians, 15, 51, 62, 96–100, 105–7, 143
indolence, 100
industriousness, 77, 118–19
inscape (and instress), 17, 173–5, 183
instructions (official), 16, 25, 31, 44, 51,
98–9, 102, 116–17, 124, 131, 143
instruments, 20, 22–3, 25, 27–9, 34, 108

Lake Huron, 103
Lancaster Sound, 2, 30, 32, 34, 38, 40, 42,
45–9, 59
landscapes, 1, 3, 17, 82, 95, 103, 105, 111,
142, 145, 156, 172, 175, 183
Landseer, Edwin, 113
language, 15, 37, 52, 54, 60–1, 73, 75, 87,
105, 118–19, 122, 152
Leopold’s Islands, 46
literacy, 34, 65, 147
logbooks, 45, 49, 61, 64, 66–7, 75
loss, 3, 7–9, 12–13, 16, 30, 64, 66, 108, 132,
134, 148, 157–9, 162, 173
Loucheux (Indians), 96
Lough Swilly, 30
Lowlanders, 15, 60
Lyon, George Francis, 146–7, 151
Macaulay, James, 138, 140
Mackenzie, Alexander, 26–7, 30
Mackenzie River, 30, 62, 95, 110, 112
madness, 77, 163
Magnetic Pole, 9, 22, 33, 48

Index
magnetism, 102–3, 113, 143
Malaurie, Jean, 143, 149, 152
manuscripts, 70, 74, 76
mapping, 10, 41, 44, 47, 50, 63, 98, 102,
104, 107, 111, 173
Marshuick, 56
masculinity, 2, 16, 29, 35, 40, 43–4, 80, 83,
87, 96, 101–2, 161, 172, 178, 181–2
McClintock, Leopold Francis, 2, 10, 17, 93,
127, 134–5, 156–7, 160
McClure, Robert Le Mesurier, 2, 15, 61,
121, 123, 132–3
Meigack, 56
Mercy Bay, 62, 69
Melville, Lord, 49
Melville Island, 62–3, 68, 121
memory, 22, 66, 93, 98, 101, 134
mentalities, 180
metaphor, 48, 145, 166
‘metaphysical poetry’, 145
Mickle, William, 86
Miertsching, Johann, 61, 64, 74–7
Millais, John Everett, 2–3, 17, 171
Millais, John Guille, 181
Millington, John, 85
Milton, John, 141, 146, 152, 165
missionaries, 52, 85
Mitford, Mary Russell, 88, 90
mobility (social), 15, 75
modernism, 158, 173, 177
Montezuma, 58
Moravians, 61, 85
mosquitoes, 111
mourning, 2–3, 22, 130–2, 159
Murray, John, 9, 26, 32, 34, 38, 40–1, 43, 45,
81, 83–4, 138
mutineers, 22–3, 39
myth, 1–2, 6–7, 15–17, 41, 43, 67, 74, 77,
86, 100, 102, 104, 109, 157–8, 160–1,
171–3, 182–3

221

National Portrait Gallery, 180
nationalism, 10–11, 17, 158, 168
natural sciences, 7, 25, 31, 54, 96, 99, 101,
143, 147, 161, 164, 175
Nelson, Admiral, 11, 156, 150, 164–5
Nelson, James, 15, 61, 65–7, 69–70, 74–6
Netsilik, 9
Niagara Falls, 101
North Georgia Gazette, 28, 144, 146
North West Company, 99
Northeast Passage, 19
Observation Island, 149
obsession, 24, 33, 63, 117, 133, 167
Obstruction Rapids, 100–1
Olympic Peninsula, 22
Oolingbuck, 95
optical illusions, 42, 55, 102, 111
Orient, 6, 31
Osborn, Sherard, 15, 61, 159
oxymorons, 53, 156, 163

Copyright

naming, 46–7, 59
Nansen, Fritjhof, 174
Napoleon, 1, 14, 19, 28–9, 38–9, 155
Nares, George, 10
narrativization, 43, 45, 62, 183
NASA, 11–13
Nash, Richard ‘Beau’, 52–3

Pacific Ocean, 6, 22, 29, 38, 40–1, 61, 143
paradise, 141, 146, 152
parody, 49, 59
Parry, the Rev. E., 139
Parry, William Edward, 3, 8–9, 15–16, 21,
28, 34, 67, 96–7, 104–5, 109, 137
pastoral zeal, 16, 153
paternalism, 16, 77, 150, 153
patience, 104, 108, 139, 140, 157, 167
patriotism, 3, 71, 80–1, 85, 87, 97, 102, 141,
146, 148, 156, 158–9, 171–3, 176,
179, 181
Peary, Robert, 10, 84
picturesque, 103, 110, 145, 183
piety, 21, 69, 89, 140–1
Pillage Point, 108
Pim, Bedford, 63, 75, 77
poems, 16–17, 23, 65, 83–8, 93, 96, 101–2,
144–5, 150, 155
Point Anxiety, 112
Point Back, 68
Point Griffin, 104
Point Turnagain, 100
Point Warren, 71
Porden, Eleanor, 15, 79, 96–7, 101–4, 112,
129

222

Arctic Exploration in the Nineteenth Century

Porden, William, 88–9
portraits, 52–3, 56, 168, 174
Portugal, 86
postcolonialism, 119, 181
postmodernism, 180
precariousness, 37, 46
Pre-Raphaelites, 162, 180
Prince Regent’s Bay, 55–6
Prince Regent’s Inlet, 9, 46, 137
private ventures, 8–10, 33, 39, 48, 126–8,
179
privateering, 7
Protestantism, 16, 86, 140–1
Punch, 179–80
Purchas, Samuel, 20, 27, 41, 44
Quakers, 143
Quarterly Review, 31–2, 35, 49, 84–5
quotations, 20–1, 26, 32–3, 35, 41–2, 47,
57, 65, 74, 91, 143, 160–1
race, 39, 52–3, 60, 70, 72–4, 176, 181
Rae, John, 2, 35, 63, 72–3, 131–5
Ralegh, Walter, 7, 180–1
Rasmussen, Knud, 150
readership, 19, 22–31, 36, 41, 45, 50, 55,
67, 84–5, 87, 95, 99, 100–2, 110, 148,
151, 160
Reagan, Ronald (US President), 12–13
religion, 5, 22, 27, 79, 89, 97, 139–40, 147,
152–3, 175
representation, 2, 13–14, 21, 38, 42–4, 53,
90–1, 113, 118–19, 173–4
reputation, 15, 33, 38, 43, 49, 82–3, 101,
118, 152
rewards, 50, 63, 75–6, 132–3, 137
rhetoric, 11–12, 14–16, 19, 23, 30, 31, 33,
35, 37–8, 42–3, 45, 50–1, 59–60, 75,
97, 106, 117, 119, 122, 126, 138, 142,
146, 148, 156, 160, 162, 175
Richardson, John, 51, 89, 95, 104, 107, 110,
112
risk, 3, 24, 29, 75, 83, 98, 109–10, 117, 120,
122–3, 126, 131
rivalries, 50, 99, 171
Robinson, Henry Crabb, 89
romance, 38, 45, 83, 85, 95, 103, 110
Romanzoff Chain, 109–10

Ross, James Clark, 8–9, 37, 48, 61, 125, 159
Ross, John, 1–3, 8–10, 14–15, 27–8, 30–4,
37, 139, 149, 153
Royal Academy, 17, 171
Royal Geographical Society, 93
Royal Institution, 82, 84–5, 101
Royal Society, 22, 34, 140–1
Rupert, Prince, 24
Rushdie, Salman, 180
Ruskin, John, 179
Russia, 85, 109–10, 120, 148
Sabine, Edward, 37, 43, 49, 56–7, 144, 146
Sacheuse, John, 51–7
sacredness, 5, 7, 9, 13, 129
sacrifice, 1, 38, 41, 43, 80, 97, 103–4, 116,
123, 126–9, 158, 182
satire, 49, 58, 118–19, 171, 179
science, 7–9, 13, 20, 40, 84–6, 96, 101–3,
110, 139, 141, 143–4, 160
Scoresby, William ( Jr.), 125, 127
scorn, 20, 83, 125, 128
Scots, 15, 37, 48, 52–4, 58–60, 66, 72, 99,
105, 149
Scott, Walter, 81
Scott-Heron, Gil, 11
Shakespeare, William, 159–60, 178
shamanism, 152
Shaw, George Bernard, 178–9
Shelley, Mary, 1–2, 31, 36, 87, 102
Shelley, Percy Bisshe, 162, 164, 168, 174
Swinburne, Algernon Charles, 1, 3, 16–17,
155, 174
Sickert, Walter, 178
Sir George Hope’s Monument, 46
Somerset Island, 47, 62
Southampton Island, 137
Southey, Robert, 81
South-East Bay, 52
space, 10, 37, 107, 111, 163, 166
Spain, 24, 58
spectacle, 59, 72, 97, 100–11, 119, 126, 172
spheres, 80–1, 90, 93, 96, 119
spirituality, 21, 27, 46, 127, 144, 147–8,
152–3
St Germain, 100
status, 5, 37, 52, 58, 97, 134, 139, 172–3
stealing, 49, 56, 73, 77

Copyright

Index
steam, 7–8, 38, 127, 153
stereotypes, 118, 148, 178
Stevenson, Robert Louis, 182
Strait of Juan de Fuca, 22
style, 17, 35, 40, 48, 49–50, 53–4, 70, 87, 97,
141–3, 102, 172, 175–7, 180
sublime, 2–3, 43, 95, 101–3, 142, 144–5,
148, 153, 156–7, 163
superiority, 11, 39, 57, 70, 73, 106, 148,
150–3, 176, 179, 181
Tate, Henry, 179
Tate Gallery, 174, 179
Taylor, Lieutenant, 76–7
Taylor, Tom, 174
technology, 4, 12–13, 23–4, 36, 54, 100
telescopes, 55, 113
Tennyson, Alfred, 158
theatre, 58, 144, 146
Times, the, 121, 133
topoi, 163, 166
trading, 25–6, 31, 42, 52, 98, 109–10, 152
translations, 52, 54, 69, 86, 162
Trelawny, Edward John, 168, 174–5, 182–3

223

values, 17, 34, 118, 140–1, 145, 172, 179,
181, 183
Vancouver Island, 22
Vardill, Anna Jane, 87
Vidal, Owen, 155, 160, 162, 168
viewpoint, 74
violence, 14, 27, 38, 107–8, 176, 181
virtues, 20–2, 30, 39, 56, 92, 120, 126, 135,
144–5, 148
visual culture, 57, 172, 177
voyageurs, 71, 95, 97, 99, 100
Walker Art Gallery, 180
walking, 71, 99, 105, 112, 142
Watts, William, 23–5
Wellington Channel, 50, 116, 132
Wentworth, Thomas, 24
Wentzel, Willard, 98
Whale Island, 26
Wiebe, Rudy, 101
wilderness, 3, 120, 145, 181
William IV (king), 33, 109
Winter Harbour, 142
wintering, 21, 24, 51, 63, 105, 137, 141–3,
151
women, 15–16, 52, 56, 65, 73, 79–81, 83–4,
87, 101–6, 109, 116, 118–20, 126–9,
133–4, 150–1, 158, 161–2, 178, 182
Woolf, Virginia, 177
Woon, John, 74
‘worthies’, 27–8, 33, 41, 46–7, 50, 58–9, 138

Copyright

Union Jacks (flags), 57, 71, 90, 92, 101, 173,
181
Unknown Island, 52
usefulness, 3, 7, 10, 14, 22, 31, 35, 40, 43–5,
121, 141, 143
utilitarianism, 9–10, 31, 36

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