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Petroleum Reservoir Engineering ----Basic Concepts

Pennsylvania 1859

S.K.Pant

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Outline
Introduction Reservoir Properties

Porosity Permeability Capillary Pressures Wettability Relative Permeability Reservoir Pressure

Basic PVT data Reservoir fluid type Drive Mechanism Numerical simulation
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Is the Party over ??


I should stress that we are not facing a re-run of the Oil Shocks of the 1970s. They were like the tremors before an earthquake. We now face the earthquake itself. This shock is very different. It is driven by resource constraints,
(Dr Colin. J. Campbell)

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The law of Diminishing return

50 Hyperbolic Creaming Curve-North sea 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 Actual Hyperbolic Model 5 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 Cum Wildcat wells

Cum Discovery, Gb

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The Hydrocarbon.
Hydrocarbons are the simplest of the organic compounds. As the name suggests, hydrocarbons are made from hydrogen and carbon. The basic building block is one carbon with two hydrogens attached, except at the ends where three hydrogens are attached.
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The Hydrocarbons
When the chain is between 5 and 9 carbons, the hydrocarbon is gasoline. About a dozen carbons and it is diesel. Around 20 carbons is motor oil. A chain of hundreds to thousands of carbon and hydrogens make plastic. This particular plastic is polyethylene.
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Definition-Reservoir Engineering
Application of scientific principles to the drainage problems arising during the development and production of oil and gas reservoirs The art of developing and producing oil and gas fluids in such a manner as to obtain a high economic recovery.
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Broad Functions

Reservoir Simulation

Therefore the Ultimate goal is.. Hydrocarbon in place Recoverable hydrocarbons reserves Rate of exploitation

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Data Type
Data that pertains to the reservoir rock and its extent
Geologic & seismic data Well Log data Well test data Core data

Data that pertains to the properties of reservoir fluids


Composition of HC PVT
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The Traps

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Porosity
Porosity of rock is the ratio of pore volume to bulk volume and is usually expressed as percentage
Vp is pore volume Vb is bulbk volume Vg is grain volume
Interconnected pores Isolated pores

Total or Absolute Porosity: It is the ratio of the volume of all the pores to the bulk volume of the material, Effective porosity

It is the ratio of the interconnected pore volume to the bulk volume

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A Pore
Elements of Pore Throat
Size & freq distribution-uncorrelated, correlated Connectivity of pores and throat-No of pore throat connecting to pores Spatial arrangement-Arrangement of pores of different sizes w.r.t each other

The texture of a rock consists of it's grain or mineral crystal size, the arrangement of the grains or crystals, and the degree of uniformity of the grains or crystals.

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The role of Rock Texture


Soi=(1-Swi) high

Soi=(1-Swi) low

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Pore Network-Reconstructed using thin section IMAGE Analysis

Porosity intergranular- 0.23 Porosity total0.28 Absolute Permeability- 426md

Porosity intergranular- 0.37 Porosity total0.39 Absolute Permeability- 5600md


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Saturation
Saturation of a phase is the fraction of the pore volume occupied by the phase
So+Sg+Sw=1
Connate water saturation (Swc) Critical Oil Saturation (Soc) Critical gas Saturation (Sgc)

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Permeability

Permeability is a measure of ease of flow or the capacity of formation to transmit fluids. Its unit is Darcy named after a French scientist Henry Darcy in 1856.

Absolute Permeability: When only one fluid is present in the rock. It is a property of the rock and is independent of the fluid used in the measurement. This assumes that the fluid does not interact with the rock.(K) Effective Permeability: Effective permeability occurs when more than one fluid is present & is a function of the fluid saturation & the wetting characteristics of the rock. (Ko,Kw,Kg)
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Permeability
The permeability is measured by flowing a fluid of known viscosity through a core plug of measured dimensions (A and L) and then measuring flow rate and pressure drop. Darcy equation becomes

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Permeability
Establishing a perfect -K transform still remains a major challenge specially in ref to carbonates

The carbonates

The clastics

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Improved Permeability estimation


Phi Group - RQI Plot
10.000

Porosity - Permeability Plot


1000.00
Core Permeability, mD

HU7, 100.00 HU6, 10.00

y = 8081.6x 2.5518

1.000

HU 7 HU 6 HU 5 HU 4

RQI, micron

HU 3 HU 2

y = 1648.1x2.3492 y = 355.42x 2.0499 HU5, y = 245.68x 2.212 HU4,

0.100
HU 1

1.00

HU3,

y = 37.476x1.8785 y = 30.796x 2.1428 HU2, y = 18.846x 2.4585

0.010

0.10 HU1, 0.01 0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20

0.25

0.30

0.35

0.40

0.001 0.010 0.100 Phi Group 1.000

Core Porosity

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Capillary pressure
Combined effect of surface and

IFT of the rock and fluid, pore size and geometry & wettability of the system.

Major effect of Cap pres is the creation of Transition Zone

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Capillary pressure
Drainage Process:
Non Wetting phase

displacing Wetting phase


Imbibition Process:
Wetting phase

displacing Non wetting phase

Determination of Connate water Establish Saturation height relation Mar-2010 Rock Typing

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Wettability
The tendency of a fluid to spread or adhere to a solid surface in

presence of another immiscible fluid

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Relative Permeability
When two or more phases flow simultaneously the ratio of

effective to absolute permeability is termed Relative permeability

Kro= ko/k Kre= kw/k Krg= kg/k

Swc NwP WP

Soc

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Relative Permeability-Rock typing


The variation in Rock Texture imparts significant changes in Rel perm estimates in core plugs of same formation

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Relative Permeability-Core Condition


Comparison of Relperms of cores with natural reservoir wettability preserved against a plug cleaned, dried and resaturated. Relative Permeability

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Relative Permeability-wettability
Type
No Nw Krw

Water Wet Mixed Wet Oil Wet

2-3

4-6

0.1-0.4

3-5

2-4

0.5-0.9

6-8

1.5-3

0.8-1.0

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Reservoir Pressure
Reservoir Pressure The fluids confined in the pores of the reservoir rock occur

under certain degree of pressure, generally called reservoir pressure


The maximum pressure is called the static bottom hole

pressure, the shut in pressure or static formation pressure

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Well testing
The response of the reservoir to change in production/

injection rates in a well is monitored


The reservoir response is measured in terms of pressure

response & is usually dependent on K, Skin, Well bore storage, boundaries, fractures, dual porosity et.c
Evaluation: Deliverability, Properties, Size Management: Refining forecast, Front movement Description: Faults, barriers

P Res K,s,C qo t P Model K,s,C T

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Radial Flow in a porous media :


For a single phase fluid flow (radial) in a constant permeability and porosity for a fluid of small and constant compressibility, the eauation is :

Pws= Pi-162.6qB/kh*log((T+t)/ t) K= 162.6qB mh S= 1.151[ P1hr-Pwf] log (K / m uCtrw2 )+3.23]


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Pressure Build-up analysis


Log-log Plot(Diagnostic plot):

Log

t Vs Log t)/

P
Horner Plot

Horner Plot or MDH Plot :

Log [(tp+

t] Vs Pwf

Pskin=

0.87mS q q P*-Pwf. .
Pskin

Jactual = Jideal =

P*- Pwf

Flow Efficiency = Jactual/ Jideal D(distance of fault)= (0.00105K


Where

t/

uCt)1/2

t = point at the time of intersection between two straight lines

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Field Example
XYZ 2222-2250.5m (B2) 3 distinct slopes K:588md, kh:17105 mdft Nearest distance to heterogeneity: 130ft

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Field Example
XYZ 2222-2250.5m (B2) 3 distinct slopes K:588md, kh:17105 mdft Nearest distance to heterogeneity: 130ft

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More data More Refinement


L-II RFT Pressure Data
Fig-4

920

1983-84
940 960
tvds s (m )

1993-94 1997-98

980 1000 1020 1040 900

1000

1100

1200

1300

1400

1500

1600

1700

1800

1900

2000

Normalised pressures ( psi)

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Differing Aquifer Support


I4 P3

I5

MDT pressure of layer-II


well P3-2/06 well P2-3/06 well P4-4/06 well I5-9/06

I4

P2
I2 I5

MDT pressure of layer-IV

2150

2260

2160

well I2-10/06 well I1-06/08 Well I6-07/08

2270
31%

2170

D1-14-10/07 wELL p5-9/08 well p6-11/08 well p1-12/08


15%

2280

well P3-2/06 well I5-9/06 well I2-10/06 well I1-06/08 Well I6-07/08 D1-14-10/07 Well P5-9/08 well p6 11/08

2180

2290

2190

2300

2200

2310

2210

2320

2220

2330

2230

2340

2240

2350

2250
2920 2940 2960 2980 3000 3020 3040 3060 3080 3100 3120 3140 3160 3180 3200 3220 3240 3260 3280 3300 3320 3340 3360 3380 3400 3420 3440

2360
3160 3180 3200 3220 3240 3260 3280 3300 3320 3340 3360 3380 3400 3420 3440 3460 3480 3500 3520 3540 3560

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Data - Fluid Properties


Expressing HC in place in surface conditions Estimation of Pb,FVF,Rs,Bg, Viscosity Laboratory or empirical relations
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Basic PVT Properties


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Reservoir Fluid Types


Tr<Tc
Black oil Low shrinkage oil Volatile oil

Tc<Tr<Tct
Retrograde

Tr>Tct
Wet gas Dry gas

condensate
Near Critical Cond

gas

Mole Comp. C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7+

Black Oil 48.83 2.75 1.93 1.6 1.15 1.59 42.15

Volatile Oil 64.36 7.52 4.74 4.12 2.97 1.38 14.91

Gas. Cond 87.07 4.39 2.29 1.74 0.83 0.60 3.80

Dry gas 95.85 2.67 0.34 0.52 0.08 0.12 0.42


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The Role of Heavy Components.

After Mccain,W.D

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Phase Envelop-Black Oil

Bo v/rv GOR-v/v API Colour

1.2-1.3 35-125 15-40 BrownD.Green

GOR

API

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Phase Envelop-Low shrinkage Oil

Bo v/rv GOR-v/v API Colour

<1.2 35 <35 Black

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Phase Envelop-Volatile Oil

Bo v/rv GOR-v/v API Colour

< 2.0 350-550 45-55 GreenishOrange

GOR

API

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Phase Envelop-Near Critical Crude

Bo v/rv GOR-v/v API Colour

> 2.0 > 550 45-55 Light

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Phase Envelop-Retrograde Gas Condensate

GOR-v/v API Colour

1400-16000 > 50 Light

GOR

API

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Phase Envelop-Wet Gas

GOR-v/v API Colour

1100018000 60 Light

GOR

API

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Phase Envelop- Dry Gas

GOR-v/v API Colour

>18000 > Light

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Drive mechanism
Depletion drive:

Expansion of gas evolved from solution


No free gas cap and no active water drive Rapid pressure decline Water free production Rapidly increasing GOR Low ultimate oil recovery (5-20%)

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Drive mechanism
Gas Cap drive: Expansion of Gas cap gas
Gas cap and no or small

active water drive Less rapid pressure decline Water free production Rapidly increasing GOR in structurally high wells Moderate ultimate oil recovery (25-40%)
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Drive mechanism
Water Drive: Production of oil by water displacing process is & usually most efficient process
Very gradual pressure decline Little change in producing GOR Early water production from structurally lower wells High ultimate recovery

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Drive mechanism
Gravity Drainage: As a result of difference in reservoir fluid densities
Low GOR in structurally low wells Formation of Secondary GCG High GOR in structurally high wells Little or no water production High ultimate recovery Variable rate of pressure decline

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Asphaltene The problem

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Scales for reservoir heterogeneity


MICRO Thin sections MACRO Core

MEGA Well logging Well test 3D seismic GIGA Seismic Basin studies

RSIN3

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Reservoir simulation
The dictionary meaning of the word simulate is to give an appearance of

Forms an integral part of Reservoir Management Functions (RMF)

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Reservoir simulation
Mimics the behavior of a real system through a model (physical, analog, electrical or numerical) based on realistic assumptions Simulation can be close to reality but it is never the reality ( should approach reality with time)

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Disciplinary contributions to reservoir modeling


Seismic Interpretation Petrophysics Fluid Properties

Geological Model

NUMERICAL SIMULATION MODEL

Surface Facilities

Model Grid Effects

W ells
Vertical Horizontal Multilateral

Economics

RSIN1

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Numerical Model
Mathematical models System of equations describing the physical behavior
These are complicated nonlinear partial differential equations relating pressure and saturation changes with time Analytical solutions-generally impossible Numerical solutions generally the only way
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Numerical Models
Basic equations for fluid flow
Conservation of mass Conservation of momentum Conservation of energy Rate Equation EOS

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Numerical Models
Numerical solution produces answer at discrete points within the system Use of finite difference for transforming the continuous differential equation to discrete form-both space and time are discretized (grid, timesteps) Common solution procedures
IMPES, Newton-Raphson
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Stochastic Modeling
Measures statistical variation in data

points-maps similar statistical properties Better describes the heterogeneity of the reservoir- (variograms-trends, direction) Integrates independent measurements Uncertainty in measured values-assessed Algorithm-Kriging, Conditional simulation,co-kriging

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MICRO Thin sections

Scales for reservoir heterogeneity


MACRO Core
100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 Fine layers of 'a' parasequence <1 1 to 10 10 to 100 >100

Grouping of fine layers for upscaling


1 2 3 4

MEGA Well logging Well test 3D seismic

RSIN3

GIGA Seismic Basin studies


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History Match-First Realization

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History Match -Final Realization

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Layer-9(c)

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Parallel Simulation

10 million cell

1 billion cell

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Role & Impact


Corporate impact-cash flow predictions Insight to the various physical process Sensitivity Comparing different exploitation scenarios Optimize project design to maximize economic

recovery Real Time monitoring

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Thanks for patient hearing

Mar-2010