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**Two Stage Op-Amp: DC Solution (Part 1)
**

Objectives in this segment of the course are to: 1. Review necessary CMOS technology and device characteristics 2. Understand the internal configuration of a two-stage CMOS op-amp. 3. Perform analysis and determine the DC solution for the two-stage CMOS op-amp Figure 1 shows a basic two-stage CMOS op-amp configuration. The resistance R provides biasing for the entire operational amplifier. M1 and M2 form a differential pair and thus the input of the first gain stage of the op amp. The current mirror formed by M8 and M5 supplies the differential pair with bias current IB1. The input differential pair is actively loaded with the current mirror formed by M3 and M4. Node 1 forms the output of the first stage of the op amp. The second stage consists of M6 which is a commonsource amplifier actively loaded with the transistor M7. It should be noted that M7 does not provide biasing for M6, and that M6 is biased from the gate side.

Figure 1: Two-stage CMOS op-amp. The inputs are set to zero to determine the nominal DC bias operating point.

and therefore the following conditions are met: 1. VGS8 ≥ VTN 2. In order to solve for VGS8. (3) (4) For the values in the numerical example. The value of the gate voltage VG8 can be found as: . VGS 8 = I R / K 8 + Vtn . Supply voltages: VDD = +5V and –VSS = −5V Device aspect ratios: (W/L)8 = 1. IB2=100µA DC Solution The first step in finding the DC solution is to determine the value of the resistance R so that the bias current IR equals the specified value (1µA in the numerical example): VDD = R*IR + VGS8 – VSS. (W/L)3 = (W/L)4 = 20.VTN ) 2 which can be solved for VGS8. VSS. IB1=10µA.Numerical Example: Given: Process parameters: µnCox = 60 µA/V2 and µpCox = 20 µA/V2.2 V The value of VGS8 is then substituted into (2) and the value of R is determined to be 8. Vtn (The threshold voltage of NMOS devices) = +1V and Vtp (The threshold voltage of PMOS devices) = −1V.8 MΩ. Dc bias specifications: IR=1µA. and IR are known. VGS8 = 1. we have ID8 = IR = (µnCox/2)(W/L)8(VGS8 . where K8 = 1/2* µnCox*(W/L)8. we observe that the device M8 operates in the active/saturation region since the gate of M8 is shorted to the drain of M8. (W/L)1 = (W/L)2 = 100. which yields R = (VDD + VSS – VGS8)/IR (2) (1) While the values of VDD. the voltage VGS8 is not. VTN ≥ VGD8 Since M8 is in the active/saturation region.

VG8 = −VSS + VGS8 = −5 + 1.n + ID1 / K 1 ). the specifications for the DC currents IB1 and IB2.2 = −3.e.8V (5) Assuming that M5 and M7 are in the active/saturation region.16V (9) (10) For the numerical example. M3 is in saturation as its gate and drain terminals are connected together. the bias current IB1 divides equally between M1 and M2. the negative of the gate to source voltages of M1 and M2.. ID1 + ID2 = IB1. where K1= 1/2* µnCox*(W/L)1 (8) The drain voltage of M5 is calculated to be -1. the source to gate voltage of M3 can be calculated as VSG3 = |Vtp| + ID 3 / K 3 where K3= 1/2* µpCox*(W/L)3 = 200µA/V2 VSG3 = 1. assuming that M1 and M2 are in the active/saturation region. which is much larger than its gate voltage −3. (7) At this point we can check whether the device M5 is in the active/saturation region. i. Thus. we get: The drain voltage of M1 is VD1 = VDD – VSG3 = 3. (W / L)8 IR (W / L)8 IR (6) The gates of M1 and M2 are grounded to obtain the nominal DC solution. Thus. The calculation of the drain voltage of M4 is done in the next lecture. thus VGS1 = VGS2.8V.84V which shows that M1 is easily in active/saturation region. Also. VD5 = −VGS1 = −VGS2 = −(Vt.04V. . The drain voltage of M5 is the source voltage of M1 and M2. Now continuing with the PMOS devices M3 and M4. Since M1 and M2 are identical NMOS devices having the same VGS voltages. M5 is indeed in the active/saturation region. ID1 = ID2 = 5µA. together with the property of the current mirror can be used to find the aspect ratios of M5 and M8: (W / L) 5 IB1 (W / L) 7 IB 2 = = = 10 and = 100.

. and if the drain-to-gate voltage is less than the absolute value of the threshold voltage. Single supply voltages (VSS = 0) are also in common use. which are ±5V in the numerical example. • An NMOS transistor operates in the active/saturation region if the gate-to-source voltage is greater than the threshold voltage Vtn and if the gate-to-drain voltage is less than the threshold voltage.5V or even lower supply voltages are also typical. In other words. the effects of the drain to source voltage on the current of the device is neglected in the analysis so far. • A PMOS transistor operates in the active/saturation region if the source-to-gate voltage is greater than the absolute value of the threshold voltage |Vtp|. The active/saturation region of operation is most commonly utilized in analog circuits.Comments: • The circuit utilizes two power supplies. • In the active/saturation region. the effect of channel length modulation is not considered. with VDD as low as 2. The values of ±2.5 V in batterypowered electronic systems.

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