139th  Pennsylvania  Infantry  



Regimental  Casualty  Analysis    






    Regimental  History  of  the  139th  PA    
One Hundred and Thirty-ninth Infantry. - Col., Frederick H. Collier ; Lieut.-Cols., James D. Owens, William H. Moody, James L. McKean, John G. Parr; Majs., William H. Moody, A. H. Snyder, John G. Parr, Robert Munroe, James McGregor. This regiment, composed of men from the counties of Allegheny, Armstrong, Mercer and Beaver, rendezvoused at Camp Howe, Pittsburg, and was there mustered into the U. S. service for three years on Sept. 1, 1862. The second Bull Run battle had just been fought, and there was an urgent demand for more troops at the front. The 139th, therefore, departed on the evening of the 1st and arrived at Washington on the 3d. It was immediately sent to the Bull Run battlefield to bury the Union dead, and after this sad duty was performed joined the army at Antietam on the day of the battle, but was not engaged. It was assigned to the 3d brigade, 3d division, 6th corps, and was exposed to a severe artillery fire while in reserve at the battle of Fredericksburg. During the battle of Chancellorsville, the 6th corps, under Gen. Sedgwick, was engaged at Fredericksburg, Salem Church and Marye's heights, and Wheaton's brigade, to which the 139th belonged, was hotly engaged on May 3-4. The whole brigade suffered severely, the loss of the 139th being 123 in killed, wounded and missing. Wheaton's brigade arrived on the field of Gettysburg on the afternoon of the second day of the battle, and at 5 o'clock went into position in support of the 3d and 5th corps, being posted in front of Little Round Top, a short distance to the right of the road leading to the Peach Orchard, where it charged the enemy and drove him in disorder. That night and the 3d day of the battle it was in the second line, supporting the Pennsylvania reserves. On the evening of the 3d, it aided in advancing the left, drove the enemy, and a brass piece and 3 caissons belonging to the 9th Mass. battery were recaptured by the 139th. Its losses were 1 killed and l9 wounded. It shared in the pursuit of Lee's army and in the fall campaigns in Virginia, being active at Rappahannock Station, and in the Mine Run campaign. On the close of the offensive operations it encamped at Brandy Station and at the end of the year was ordered to Harper's Ferry with its brigade. In March, 1864, it rejoined its corps at Brandy Station and was transferred to the 2nd division. Meanwhile a number of recruits had been received and the command was restored to nearly its original strength. It next entered on the bloody series of battles of the spring campaign, losing 196 at the Wilderness, including nearly all its commissioned officers. It was almost constantly engaged at Spottsylvania, again losing heavily; was only lightly engaged at the North Anna river, but was in the fierce assaults on the fortified lines of the enemy at Cold Harbor. Maj. Snyder was among the killed at the Wilderness, and Lieut.-Col Moody, at Cold Harbor. Crossing the James, it shared in the first assaults on Petersburg and in the movement on the Weldon railroad in June. In July it moved to Washington with the 6th corps to confront Gen. Early, and after Gen. Sheridan assumed command of the forces, it took an honorable part in the victories achieved at the Opequan, Fisher's

hill, and Cedar creek. On Dec. 1 it again took its place in the lines before Petersburg, where it shared in the advance of the 2nd and 6th corps in March, 1865, and was active in the final successful assault which led to the evacuation of Petersburg and the fall of Richmond. Color-Sergt. David W. Young of Co. E was designated by Gens. Wright and Grant as one of the three soldiers most conspicuous for gallantry, in the final assault, receiving an autograph letter from the commanding general warmly praising his heroism. It engaged in the final pursuit of the enemy and was active in the fight at Sailor's creek. After the surrender it moved to the support of Sherman, but on the surrender of Johnston, returned to Washington, where it was finally mustered out on June 21, 1865. Source: The Union Army, vol. 1


After-­‐battle  Reports    
Chancellorsville, VA after battle report: No. 238. Report of Col. Frederick H. Collier, One hundred and thirty-ninth Pennsylvania Infantry.
CAMP NEAR WHITE OAK CHURCH, VA., May 7, 1863. SIR: I have the honor to report, agreeably to orders, the operations of my regiment from May 2 to May 5, instant. On the evening of May 2, I crossed the Rappahannock at Bernard's house with the remainder of the brigade, and about midnight took up the line of march, and at dawn arrived at Fredericksburg, immediately in front of the enemy's works. The enemy having opened a heavy fire, I was ordered by the general commanding the brigade to support with my regiment the battery commanded by Lieut. Butler. As soon as the heights of the enemy were taken, I was ordered forward to the support of the troops who had taken them. Having reached the summit of the first height, I immediately formed line of battle, and was ordered to the support of Col. Shaler in his attack on one of the enemy's works on the next heights. After an hour's rest, my regiment again joined the column in its advance toward Chancellorsville. In a short time I again formed line of battle, which accordance with your orders, and advanced to join in the battle, which had already begun. I was assigned a position to the right and front of Hooe's house, in support of our troops in the woods. The enemy's fire from his ambush in these woods proving too heavy, two of our regiments fell back in confusion. At this juncture I was ordered to move my regiment under cover of a little crest some 20 yards to the rear, so that our artillery might assist in checking the enemy, who was pursuing. While executing this order, my line was somewhat disordered by the retreating column breaking through it, but it was quickly reformed on the ground and took the position directed. The enemy still advanced, and was within some 30 yards of my command when he was checked, and, it is only just for me to add, in great measure by the well-directed fire of my own men. I then swing around the left of my line, and formed on the edge of the woods on the right of the semicircle (the shape of the battle-ground), to support our troops in these woods, who had been outflanked by the enemy a moment before, and were in imminent danger of capture. These regiments retired from the woods, and my command was ready to receive the enemy, but, it being dusk, he did not renew the attack. By our orders I then reported to Gen. Russell, commanding Third Brigade, First Division, and was ordered by him to remain in the front line of battle during the night. I remained in this position and under the command of Gen. Russell until the afternoon of Monday, 4th instant, when, another engagement being apprehended, and my regiment occupying a position in front of the brigade of Col. Eustis, of Gen. Newton's division, I was ordered under his command; but no attack took place on the front of our line, it being confined to the left and rear. At dusk our withdrawal commenced, and, by command of Col. Eustis, my regiment formed part of the rear guard in the march to Banks' Ford, where I again rejoined my brigade, and, after the corps

had crossed the Rappahannock, my regiment was detailed to remove one of the pontoon bridges. The conduct of my regiment in the operations just detailed was highly gratifying to me. All the officers and men present did their duty courageously. One of the officers, First Lieut. James T. Harrison, of Company D, while gallantly encouraging his men, received a bullet through the brain. An official list of casualties, with name and character, has already been furnished you.

The aggregate los in my command is as follows: Officers and men. Killed. Missing. Total. Officers.................................... 1 .. 4 Enlisted men................................ 10 34 100 Total ................................. 11 34 104 I am, sir, your obedient servant, F. H. COLLIER, Col., Cmdg. Regt. Capt. GEORGE R. CLENDENIN, Jr., A. A. G., Their Brig., Third Div., Sixth Army Corps. Source: No. 39 Official Records Series I. Vol. 25. Part I, Reports. Serial Wounded. 3 56 59

Gettysburg after battle report:
Report of Lieut. Col. William H. Moody, One hundred and thirty-ninth Pennsylvania Infantry. Hdqrs. 139th Pennsylvania Volunteers, August 3, 1863. Sir: I have the honor to report the operations of my command from July 1 to July 17, inclusive. On the evening of July 1, we left our bivouac near Manchester, Md.; marched all night, and reached the battle-field of Gettysburg, Pa., about 3 o'clock on the afternoon of the 2d, having traversed a distance of 36 miles. About 5 o'clock in the evening the regiment, together with the rest of the brigade, was ordered into action on our left, which was seriously threatened. Gen. Sykes' regulars, unable to withstand the fierce onslaught of the enemy, broke through our line in confusion. We delivered two volleys, and then charged on the enemy, driving him back in disorder. We lay that night and during the day of the 3d in the second line of battle, supporting the Pennsylvania Reserves. Early on the morning of the 3d, Col. F. H. Collier accidentally shot himself through the foot with a pistol-ball, and was compelled to leave his command. In the evening of the same day, the regiment took a prominent part in advancing our left, driving the enemy and recapturing one brass piece and three caissons belonging to the Ninth Massachusetts Battery. Our casualties in the battle of the 2d and the affair of the 3d (which have already been officially reported) were as follows: Three officers wounded, 1--Capt. Jeremiah M. Sample--mortally; enlisted men, 17 wounded, two of whom have since died. Word of the death of Capt. Sample has also been received. During the 4th, we remained at the front, and, on the afternoon of the 5th, joined in the pursuit of the enemy; came up with his rear guard near Fairfield. Remained in bivouac there until the evening of the 6th; then made a night march to Emmitsburg, Md. On the 7th, crossed Catoctin Mountains. On the 8th, marched to Middletown. On the 9th, to Boonsborough. On the 10th, lay in line of battle near Antietam battle-field. On the 11th, the regiment was ordered on picket near Funkstown. On the morning of the 12th, advanced my picket line on the south side of Antietam Creek as far as Funkstown, which was then evacuated by the enemy. Advanced through Funkstown, and went into line of battle a mile the other side, assisting during the night to erect breastworks. Remained there till the morning of the 14th, when it was ascertained that the enemy had left during the night and crossed the Potomac; marched to Williamsport. On the 15th, marched back to Boonsborough, and, on the 16th, to

within a short distance of Berlin, where we bivouacked on the 17th. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, WM. H. MOODY, Lieut. Col., Comdg. 139th Pennsylvania Vols. Capt. Clendenin, Jr., Assistant Adjutant-Gen. Series I. Vol. 27. Part I. Reports. Serial No. 43

The monument to the 139th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment on Sickles Road showing its advance in the evening of July 3

Monument to the 139th Pennsylvania in its main position on the James Weickert farm

From the front of the monument at the Weickert Farm: 139th Pennsylvania Infantry, 3rd Brigade, 3rd Division, 6th Corps. From the left side:
Left Manchester, Md. at 9 p.m. July 1st and arrived at Rock Creek on the Baltimore Pike at 2 p.m. of the 2nd. Towards evening the Brigade moved rapidly to the front to support the Union left, this Regiment deploying on the right of Little Round Top, and advanced with the 1st Brigade Penna. Reserves, driving the enemy into the Wheatfield. Retired to and held this position until the evening of the 3rd when the Regiment moved with the Penna. Reserve and advanced about 900 yards to the position indicated by a Greek cross tablet, and assisted in forcing the enemy back. Subsequently returned to this position. Present at Gettysburg 511. Killed and mortally wounded 4, wounded 16.

From the left side:
Recruited in the counties of Allegheny Armstrong Mercer and Beaver. Mustered in Sept. 1, 1862. Mustered out June 21, 1865. Total enrollment 1070 Killed and died of wounds, 10 officers, 424 men. Died of disease &c. 5 officers, 29 men. Captured or missing, 1 officer, 54 men. Total 750

From the rear:
Antietam Totopotomoy Fredericksburg Cold Harbor Marye's Heights Petersburg Salem Heights Fort Stevens Gettysburg Opequon Rappahannock Station Fisher's Hill Mine Run Cedar Creek Wilderness Petersburg (Fort Fisher) Spotsylvania Petersburg (assault) North Anna Sailor's Creek Appomattox

Report of Maj. Robert Munroe, One hundred and thirty-ninth Pennsylvania Infantry. HDQRS. 139TH REGT. PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEERS, September 4, 1864. SIR: In accordance with orders from corps headquarters, I have the honor to submit the following report of casualties and operations of my command from the 4th of May to the 9th of July, 1864: Commissioned officers: Killed, 2; wounded, 12; died of wounds, 2; died of disease, 1. Enlisted men: Killed, 49; wounded, 303; missing in action, 9; died of wounds. 46. FIRST EPOCH. On the afternoon of May 4, 1864, crossed the Rapidan at Germanna Ford, and halted for the night. On the morning of May 5 moved on the Old Furnace road, and, the regiment being in advance of the division, was ordered into line at the junction of the plank and mud roads, and was engaged with the enemy from that line until evening. On the morning of May 6 was ordered forward on the right of the plank road, crossed to the left, and engaged the enemy. Was compelled to fall back on account of the Second Corps (Hancock's) breaking on our left; formed on the plank road, about 1 mile from the cross-road; moved up to the cross-road and supported the Second Corps. At 8 p. m. moved to the right, near the Old Furnace, and bivouacked for the night. On the morning of the 7th threw up a rifle-pit; at 1 p. m. moved about 1 1/2 miles to the extreme right, and built another rifle-pit. SECOND EPOCH. On the evening of May 7, 8.30 p. m., moved on the Chancellorsville plank road toward Spotsylvania Court-House; was formed in line of battle on the evening of the 8th, but was not engaged. May 9, built a rifle-pit, and remained in the pit until 12 m. On the 11th moved to the left to support a charge, which, for some reason, was not made; at dark fell back to the rear and remained all night. Daybreak may 12 we moved to the left, and, at an early hour, engaged the enemy. The regiment lost very heavily in enlisted men. At dark moved to the right, and bivouacked for the night. 3.30 p. m. May 13 took up a position on the left, near where we fought yesterday. May 14, at daybreak moved to the Anderson farm, and rested here for the night. May 15, 1 p. m., the regiment moved to support a reconnaissance to the Ny River, and rested for the night. 16th, all quiet; at dark a detail of 2 officers and 60 men went on picket across the river. 17th, the regiment crossed the River Ny, and remained there until 10 p. m., and recrossed the river and moved to the right. May 18, at daybreak the regiment was formed in the front line; suffered considerably from shells. 11 a. m., fell back. 2 p. m., moved to our old position near the Ny River. May 19, moved at daybreak; halted at 7 a. m. and intrenched; moved again at 10 p. m. toward the right. May 20, 2 a. m., halted near the point where the enemy charged on our wagons on the Fredericksburg road; moved at 11 a. m. to the front, and remained for the night. May 21, 10 a. m., moved across the Ny River. 1 p. m., was thrown in line of battle, and completed a rifle-pit; the enemy charged our skirmish line, but was repulsed. 10 p. m., moved in a southerly direction. THIRD EPOCH. May 22, 9 a. m., halted near Guiney's Station, on the Fredericksburg railroad. 3 p. m., took up line of march and halted at 10 p. m. for the night. This regiment, with the Sixty-second New York Volunteers, was sent forward to the front with orders to hold a road. May 23, moved at

9 a. m. After crossing a stream we halted and formed line of battle; moved at 4.30 p. m.; marched very fast until dark, when we halted near the North Anna, and restaff for the night. May 24, moved at daybreak, crossed the river at Ox Ford Mill 4.30 a. m.; laid near the river until 6.30 p. m.; moved forward to second line of battle in a rifle-pit. May 25, moved at 8 a. m. about 2 miles in front of the rifle-pits, near Little River; remained here all night. May 26, laid all day in the pits; at 8 p. m. fell back and crossed the North Anna; had a very hard march through the mud; marched all night. FOURTH EPOCH. May 27, halted for breakfast near Chesterfield Station. 5 a. m., moved in direction of the Pamunkey River; halted at dark near the river for the night. May 28, moved at 4 a. m., crossed the Pamunkey at 8.30 a. m., and intrenched; remained here all night. May 29, six companies of the regiment went on picket. 4.30 p. m., moved to the eight about 5 miles; joined the First Division near Peake's Turnout, at 2 a. m. May 30, moved at an early hour to the station; started back about 3 p. m., and marched about 7 miles, and formed in line to support a battery. May 31, laid all day at this place until 4 p. m.; moved forward about half a mile and rested for the night. June 1, moved at 3 a. m.; halted at 4 a. m. for break-fast near Overton's Cross-Roads; moved at 5 a. m., got lost, and marched some miles out of the way; halted at 7 p. m. near Cold Harbor; the regiment was deployed around the wagon train. At 9 p. m. was drawn in and marched to the front and threw up a rifle-pit. June 2, 10 a. m., moved to the right and relieved the One hundred and sixty-ninth New York Volunteers on the skirmish line. Loss very heavy in officers and men. June 3, at 5 a. m., advance on the enemy's works; was relieved by the Fourth Vermont Volunteers. Loss heavy in officers and men. Laid all night and next day in the rifle-pit. In the evening was relieved and marched to the rear. June 5 and 6, had a good day's rest. Only 1 man wounded by stray bullets. June 7, 2 a. m., moved to the front line of pits. Capt. Dyer wounded. Remained all day in front. Flag of truce was granted from 4 to 6 p. m., to bury the dead. June 8, 2 a. m., was relieved; fell back to the rear; remained all day. 9th, sent out 70 men for picket. 10th, sent out 70 men for picket. 10th, sent out 70 men for picket. 11th, sent out 50 men for fatigue, to build a breast-work in the rear, and 70 men for the picket-line. 12th, about 7 p. m., moved to the rear on the road to Bottom's Bridge; marched all night.* Very respectfully, your obedient servant, R. MUNROE, Maj., Cmdg. Regt. Capt. GEORGE CLENDENIN, Jr., Assistant Adjutant-Gen. Source: Official Records PAGE 693-67 OPERATIONS IN SE. VA. AND N. C. [CHAP. XLVIII. [Series I. Vol. 36. Part I, Reports. Serial No. 67.]

Report of Maj. Robert Monroe, One hundred and thirty-ninth Pennsylvania Infantry, of operations September 19. HDQRS. 139TH PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEERS, September 21, 1864. SIR: I have the honor to forward the following report of the operations of my regiment on the 19th instant: At 1.30 a.m. of the morning of the 19th instant we broke camp near Clifton, and, after a short delay, started off toward the Winchester pike, my regiment being the advance of the brigade. After reaching the pike direction of the march was changed toward Winchester. After having advanced about two miles beyond the Opequon Creek we formed line of battle to the left of the pike, One hundred and thirty-ninth on the extreme left of the brigade, the left of the regiment resting on the side of a small hill, a ravine between us and the Third Brigade, and a dense growth of small timber in our front. The rebels had two guns but a short distance from our front, with which they annoyed us considerably, but did not do a great deal of damage. Having received orders, I advanced a skirmish line through the woods to the field in front. In the charge of Lieut. Crawford, of Company E, they held the position until the line of battle advanced, when they rejoined the regiment. About noon the whole line advanced. It was very difficult for us to get through the woods on account of its density, but after we were clear of the timber the line was formed in good order and advanced on the double-quick under a very heavy fire of shell and musketry from the enemy. The enemy gave way precipitately before us and fell back to the second woods. Here they endeavored to make a stand, but only for a moment, as I threw some skirmishers into the woods from the left of the regiment, and with the balance advanced on the right of the woods to a road in the ravine, which runs in an oblique direction with our line of battle. Down this road the rebels were fleeing in the greatest confusion to a field beyond our left flank. Part of the regiment pursued, capturing a good many prisoners, until I ordered them to return, fearing that they would be separated to a great distance from the balance of the line and in turn be captured themselves. Although the men were very much exhausted with the heat and fatigue, yet still the line advanced; the rebels retreating, very much disorganized. We continued our charge for a distance of at least 800 yards, and halted on a by-road running nearly parallel with our line of battle; here we commenced firing on the rebels, who were forming in our front and had already established batteries which commanded our line. Soon we ascertained that the troops on our right had fallen back, and under the direction of Capt. Lyon, of Gen. Wheaton's staff, we changed the direction of our line more to the right, and made preparations to give the rebels a brisk reception. However, as we now had but few troops on our right and no connection on our left, it was deemed more prudent to fall back, which we did after receiving orders from Capt. Lyon and Capt. Eckman, of the brigade staff, and formed on the left of the Ninety-third Regiment, which, with the other regiments of the brigade, were in line on a road running parallel with the road which we had just vacated. The regiment remained in line on said road for about two hours or more, apparently waiting for the Nineteenth Corps to re-establish their lines, which had been somewhat confused in the charge. At last the order was given to forward, which the regiment and brigade did with alacrity and in good order. We had advanced but a short distance when we encountered the fire of the enemy, and several of the regiment were wounded. The regiment was particularly annoyed by a battery of the enemy posted on their left flank and also by the rebel infantry, who were posted in a point of woods on their left. We advanced to the house on the right of the pike, where we halted and commenced firing. After a short time the right of our lines advanced, the enemy retiring, when we again advanced and halted at the toll-gate, where we remained until we were ordered to bivouac.

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, ROBERT MONROE, Maj., Cmdg. Regt. Capt. GEORGE CLENDENIN, Jr., Assistant Adjutant-Gen. ----------   Report of Capt. James McGregor, One hundred and thirty-ninth Pennsylvania Infantry, of operations September 21-22. HDQRS. 139TH PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEERS, September 26, 1864. SIR: In compliance with orders received, I have the honor to forward the following report of operations of my command during the 21st and 22d instant: About 1 o'clock of the afternoon of the 21st instant Maj. Monroe, commanding the regiment, received orders to move, and, with brigade, moved forward, and was placed in position in the second line of battle. After a time the major was ordered to the right and deployed two companies as skirmishers to connect with the cavalry on our right, while the remainder of the regiment was held in reserve. While in this position the major received orders to charge on a house in front and drive away the sharpshooters from it, which was done. The major discovered a crest a short distance in front, which appeared to be a more favorable position, and ordered the men forward. Halted at this point and became engaged with the enemy. Maj. Monroe was ordered to charge on the enemy's lines, which the regiment did. The enemy was in force, and the regiment under a heavy fire, and not supported or either flank protected fell back. During the five minutes this movement was being made the right companies which were engaged lost twenty officers and men, the regiment at one time being in great confusion. Maj. Monroe at this time was wounded and went to the near, when the command devolved on myself. I rallied the men, and under orders from a staff officer moved to a crest on the right of our original position, where I remained until night came on and the Third Division came and occupied the line. I then rejoined the brigade and threw up a line of works. On the 22d instant I received orders to move forward, and the regiment was deployed as skirmishers and advanced to within a short musket-range of the enemy's line, where we remained until our right advanced, driving the enemy, and I changed direction to the left. As the line advanced I received orders to charge, which was done, and we entered the enemy's pits and captured some prisoners, and pushed on the skirmish line until the confusion of the various troops coming together I halted and rejoined the brigade. During the advance of the skirmish line the acting adjutant and four of the men were wounded. A report of the casualties has been furnished. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES McGREGOR, Capt., Cmdg. Regt. Capt. CLENDENIN, Jr., Assistant Adjutant-Gen. -----------

Report of Lieut. Col. G. Parr, One hundred and thirty-ninth Pennsylvania Infantry, of operations October 19. HDQRS. 139TH PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEERS, October 20, 1864. SIR: In compliance with orders, I have the honor to forward the following report of the operations of my command during the battles of the 19th instant: About 6 a.m. I received orders to pack up and move, which was done, the regiment moving left in front. After marching about half a mile was halted, and formed line of battle, the Sixty-second New York on my left, and connecting with the First Division, Sixth Corps, on the right; advanced and crossed a creek, but was almost immediately ordered to recross the stream and change direction to the right. While I was engaged in doing this remainder of the brigade moved back, and I retired to the point where the line was originally formed. Battery C, First Rhode Island, was at this point. At the request of its commanding officer I formed line to cover the withdrawal of the guns, but the officer unlimbered and began firing. The enemy continued advancing, and he was compelled to retire. I remained, engaging the enemy, until he came up on my left and rear and opened fire upon us, completely flanking us. I then ordered the regiment to fall back, contesting the ground gallantly until the troops on our right moved back, when I retired by the flank until I reached a line formed by First Division, Sixth Army Corps, where I halted and reported to Gen. Wheaton. He told me to remain with his command until the whereabouts of the brigade could be ascertained. About 1 p.m. I rejoined the brigade, and was placed in line on the left of the Sixty-second New York, and advanced, at 3 p.m., about half a mile, where a halt was made, and opened fire on the enemy. On discovering the lines on my right and left retiring, I ordered a withdrawal, but again advanced with the line until we reached a point which the enemy had been driven from. Here the line halted, and a brisk fire was opened on the enemy. We remained at this point a half four, engaging the enemy, and then advanced, the enemy falling back in great disorder. The pursuit was continued until the works of the Nineteenth Corps were reached, where we halted. My regimental colors were the first ones to reach the works. Of the officers and men I cannot say too much, all doing their duty nobly. At one time in the morning the command was in great danger of being captured, but by stubbornly contesting the ground we escaped. I arrived at my former camp at about 6.30 p.m. and bivouacked. The list of casualties are forwarded.* Very respectfully, your obedient servant, JOHN G. PARR, Lieut.-Col., Cmdg. Regt. Capt. GEORGE CLENDENIN, Jr., Assistant Adjutant-Gen. Source: Official Records CHAP. LV.] THE SHENANDOAH VALLEY CAMPAIGN. PAGE 204-90 [Series I. Vol. 43. Part I, Reports, Correspondence, Etc. Serial No. 90.]

Report of Lieut. Col. John G. Parr, One hundred and thirty-ninth Pennsylvania Infantry, of operations March 25. HDQRS. 139TH PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEERS, March 25, 1865. SIR: In compliance with orders I have the honor to forward the following report of the operations of the One hundred and thirty-ninth: About daylight of the 25th I received orders to pack up and be ready to move at a moment's notice. Soon after another order came to fall in and move off, which was done, the regiment moving right in front in the direction of Fort Stedman, when we then moved by the left flank until we reached Fort Keene, where we were halted and remained until 2 p.m., when the brigade moved to the left of Fort Fisher, where we halted, my regiment being on the right and the One hundred and second Pennsylvania Volunteers on my left. At 3 p.m. according to orders, I followed the One hundred and second, and marched left in front, passing through the line of works, and advanced by the flank about 300 yards, and formed a line of battle connecting left with the One hundred and second, where we remained until 4 p.m. when we moved 500 or 600 yards to the right by the right flank, and again halted, resting my left near the white house, opposite Fort Fisher, where we soon after charged the enemy's picket-works, carrying them. My right connected with the First Maine Veteran Volunteers. The line, after a short rest, advanced to the crest of the hill; here halted a short time, engaging the enemy, and after a short rest advanced and drove the enemy into the main works, afterward falling back to the crest of the hill, and then threw up works. About 12 o'clock at night my command was marched back to camp, leaving pickets to cover the front of my right and over it, driving the enemy into their main works. There being no connection on the right or left, the regiment was compelled to fall back to this side of the hill, where they halted, and after a short rest threw up works, and remained in that position until ordered back to camp, where the regiment arrived between 12 and 1 o'clock that night; the regiment being in command of Lieut. Col. John G. Parr until near dark, when he was wounded and left the field and I then took command.* I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JOHN G. PARR, Lieut.-Col., Cmdg. Regt. Capt. E. A. TODD, Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen. Source: Official Records PAGE 303-95 N. AND SE. VA., N. C., W. VA., MD., AND PA. [Series I. Vol. 46. Part I, Reports. Serial No. 95.]



Report of Maj. James McGregor, One hundred and thirty-ninth Pennsylvania Infantry. HDQRS. 139TH PENNSYLVANIA VOLUNTEERS, April 16, 1865 SIR: Agreeably to orders I have the honor to forward the following report of the part taken by the One hundred and thirty-ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers during the operations against Petersburg on the morning and during the day of April 2, 1865: About 9 o'clock April 1 orders were received from brigade headquarters to have the regiment in readiness to move at 12 o'clock that night. At [that] hour orders were received to move out on the parade ground, and soon afterward the regiment, with the brigade, moved to the left and near Fort Welch, where arms were stacked and knapsacks were unsung and piled up and left in charge of a small guard. The regiment was then moved outside the works and massed with he brigade, preparatory to the assault which was to be made upon the enemy's works at 4 o'clock that morning, the One hundred and thirty-ninth Regt. being in the second line, the first line being held by the One hundred and second Pennsylvania Volunteers. At the signal gun the One hundred and second advanced to the assault, and after it had advanced about 75 to 100 paces, the One hundred and thirty-ninth was put in motion and soon reached the main body of the One hundred and second, which appeared to be in some confusion, although it did not appear that they had been repulsed. Perceiving the situation, and fearing that the One hundred and thirty-ninth would become so mixed up in the confusion that it would be impossible to preserve its organization, I ordered the color-sergeants forward with the colors and pushed on over the first works of the enemy and up to the abatis immediately in front of their main works, and finding that the abatis did not present the impediment that was anticipated, in fact, it did not require any more time to go through than it did to cross their first works, the colors, closely followed by those of the regiment who had not been lost in the confusion soon gained the enemy's main works, behind which were discovered many rebels, who appeared only too glad of the opportunity of going to our lines. I may here state that there was scarcely a shot fired by the enemy after the regiment had reached the abatis. A short halt was made on the enemy's works for the purpose of permitting the prisoners to pass over the works, and as soon as all were over the regiment moved forward through their camp, and proceeded about half a mile, where the regiment was halted and, according to orders, skirmishers were thrown out a distance of 400 or 500 yards, but were not permitted to remain long, as the First Division of the Sixth Corps coming on the right, they pushed on and ahead of the skirmishers line. I then called in the skirmishers and advanced the regiment to the edge of the woods and sent out vedettes, and remained in that position until the brigade advanced in line for a considerable and then moved by the left flank toward Hatcher's Run, where a short halt was made, and then the regiment, with the brigade, moved in the direction of Petersburg, and were for awhile considerably annoyed by the enemy's batteries; but I am happy to state that no loss was sustained in the regiment until the attack was made upon the batteries near the white house, where they received about as heavy a fire as ever the regiment was under from artillery. Nearly all the loss sustained by the regiment was at this time. The regiment, with the brigade, afterward advanced, and as there did not appear to be any connection on the right, orders were received to fall back, which was done. The regiment was not engaged at any time during the day, but were permitted to enjoy that rest which they so much needed. I can say without boasting that the colors of the One hundred and thirty-ninth Regt. were the first of the division upon the main works of the enemy; at least no colors were to be seen for a considerable distance on either the right or the left of the colors of the One hundred

and thirty-ninth. I add the above remarks in justice to the two color-sergeants of the One hundred and thirty-ninth, both of whom were wounded that day. I am deeply indebted to the following-named officers of the One hundred and thirty-ninth Pennsylvania Volunteers for their assistance during that day; Capt. J. C. Sample, who was wounded late in the day; Capt. Samuel Crawford, Lieut. Black, acting adjutant; Lieut. Bartley, Lieut. Boggs, Lieut. Schwimle, and also Capt. Williams, who, although not for duty, acted with the regiment during the early part of the day. Hoping that the above will prove acceptable, I am, sir, your most obedient servant, JAMES McGREGOR, Maj., Cmdg. Regt. during operations of April 2. Capt. E. A. TODD, Acting Assistant Adjutant-Gen. Source: Official Records CHAP. LVIII.] THE APPOMATTOX CAMPAIGN. PAGE 965-95 [Series I. Vol. 46. Part I, Reports. Serial No. 95.]

Pictures and Images related to the 139th Pennsylvania Infantry

Corporal Thomas Tanner of the 139th Pennsylvania Infantry, Company A. May 15, 1863 Tanner letter 4pp. letter from Corporal Thomas Tanner of the 139th Pennsylvania Infantry, Company A. Accompanied by cover. Datelined ' 'Camp Near White Oak Va / May 15th 1863,'' about two weeks after the regiment's fierce engagement at the Battle of Chancellorsville. Excerpt: ''This is the third letter that I have wrote to you since the fight. I know that you are normally anxious to hear from me and more so now than before the battle. My health is still very good Moore did not get his furlough approved as he expected on account of the late battle We have no picketing We have been a week in our present camp We expected to cross the river long before this time, but we may remain as the two years and nine months are going home, some of them having already been mustered out some of the boys have got the idea that we are a nine months regiment. The Col. soon put that notion out of their heads Although I would like to go home on a furlough, I don't think that I would be contented to stay at home while this war lasts. One of our Comp. died very suddenly on day before yesterday The cause was some disease of the heart His name is Thomas Cunningham of Pine Grove I am glad to hear that Bro. Will is well. I sent him a letter containing a description of the battle in the rear of Fredericksburg. In this letter, I send you two Rebel Post Stamps, which one of our boys got off of a dead Reb'' The 139th Pennsylvania was engaged at Fredericksburg, Salem Church and Marye's Heights. Tanner mustered into Company A on 1 September 1862 and was discharged as a Sergeant on 19 May 1865. He was wounded in the regiment's engagement at Cold Harbor on 2 June 1864.

Thomas Tanner of the 139th Infantry Regiment PA Volunteers. New Warrenton, VA
August 16, 1863

Partial letter reads:

Near Warrenton, VA Sunday, August 16th {18}63 ....Dear Mother, .....Early this morning we were marched over to Gen Howe's Headquarters where we were reviewed by Gen Howe himself. For the present at least we are in Hoe's division (2nd) and we are the second (2nd) Brigade in the division...don't know when we will move although I don't think that we will do anything unless Lee compels us to make a move....I sent you Fifteen dollars...to give you some idea of the destruction of the people of this country I only need tell you that I have seen women come down to our commissary and gather up the rock salt which was thrown out after the meat was taken from the barrel and they are glad to take it after we have trapsed over it and beat it almost into the ground...

Another letter by Tanner
139th Infantry Reg PA Volunteers Fort Sumter Charleston
Sulpher Springs, Sunday, August 30th {18}63 ....

Partial letter reads: Near Sulpher Springs, Sunday, August 30th {18}63 ....Dear Mother, .....Got the new of Mr. Krofts (sp?) last night..I tell you it pleases me very well, I would like to see some of those men out here carrying a musket and doing something for Mercer County which the profess to love so well. The news from the South is very encouraging. Fort Sumter faltered down and fire opened on Charleston. It seems as though that proud defiant Rebel city is soo not be ours and to be forced to drink of the cup of bitterness that she prepared for others. How we soldiers will rejoice when this proud city is humbled and forced to acknowledge the power of the U.S.... Our division commander Gen Howe....Please send a New Testament..leather bound...my bible got wet and is ruined...Your Son Thomas....

Peter Nelson 139th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers Company K (Allegheny County)

Vintage 1864-66 carte de visite CDV card mounted tintype photograph of Corporal Peter Nelson of the 139th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry Regiment, taken after his release from Finley General Hospital Washington D.C. where he had his right arm amputated due to injuries suffered in the Battle of the Wilderness. The card-mounted tintype was composed to obscure his injury, presenting a head and shoulders portrait through the oval opening of the card mount. The tintype plate is cleanly detached from the original mount without paper loss, due to the natural corrosion of the mounting tissue, allowing examination of the entire plate. Card mount is inscribed, possibly by the soldier himself. At the top, in ink, "Peter Nelson Co. K" and below that in pencil, "Peter Nelson Co. K 139 P. Vol." It was taken at the Philadelphia photography studio of J.C. Harmon, and bears a U.S. Internal Revenue revenue tax stamp with the manuscript initials of the photographer. These stamps were required by the federal government of the United States on all photographs sold between August 1, 1864 and July 30, 1866 to raise money for the Civil War. The medical case of this soldier is fully documented in "The Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion" and his arm was contributed as a specimen to the U.S. Army Medical Museum. See information below.

This photograph is being offered here for the first time correctly identified and with its significance properly described. SERVICE DATA FOR THIS SOLDIER Peter Nelson 139th Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteers Company K (Allegheny County) Date of Muster Into Service: September 1, 1862 Promoted to corporal, May 17, 1863; wounded, with loss of arm, at Wilderness, Va., May 5, 1864; absent, in hospital, at muster out. He probably had a brother who served with him in the same company, because there is a Pvt John Nelson listed on the same Co. K muster rolls, same muster in date.

“Sharpshooters Made a Grand Record This Day” Combat on the Skirmish Line at Gettysburg on July 3 Timothy J. Orr
Excerpt (p 69)

For the soldiers who participated in the ensuing gun battle, the morning and afternoon nd proved exasperating. A soldier in the 2 Pennsylvania Reserve Infantry remarked that the noise of the skirmish fighting around the Wheatfield “almost resemble[ed] that of a 60 regular battle.” The Confederates who opened fire belonged to Brigadier General William Wofford’s brigade and Brigadier General Henry Benning’s Georgia brigade. rd Certainly, a great many of those on the skirmish line came from the talented 3 Battalion rd Georgia Sharpshooters. Like their comrades on Culp’s Hill, the marksmen of the 3 Georgia “tree frogged,” that is, climbed into high branches in Rose Woods and sniped at their foes from above. Throughout the morning and afternoon, they killed or wounded a number of bluecoats and ended the life of one officer, Captain Jeremiah Sample of th Company E, 139 Pennsylvania Infantry, “robbing us,” wrote one Pennsylvanian, “of 61 one of our bravest and best.” The exchange of fire across the Wheatfield became th severe. Private Samuel C. Shroyer, of the 139 Pennsylvania noted, We were compelled to lie prone on the ground to escape the balls of the annoying sharpshooters of the enemy, who were perched in every corner and nook of that rocky Devil’s Den yonder to the left and in the high trees that stood in our front. A number of our best marksmen went out cautiously to good positions and returned the compliments as best they could. . . . I remember lying behind that stone wall with the bullets coming across it like sheets of hail. The man beside me put his head up for a quick look and 62 instantly fell back dead. Private R. W. McKee of the same regiment went into the Wheatfield on skirmish duty that afternoon. That evening, he jotted his experiences in his diary: We then went to the regiment which we found lying in the same position as we left it. I then went out on the skirmish line and was out all day. To the right of our line, H. M. Strawick of our company was out too. I fired about forty rounds of ammunition during the day. . . . Skirmishing was kept up all day, sometimes the musketry was heavy enough for a battle. Dreadful cannonading. Our skirmish line was shelled a couple of times. Today we lost Sergeant J. B. Parks and Valentine Ren, wounded. The former by a shell, 63 the other by a ball. A religious man, McKee looked to God to deliver him from the frightening situation. Huddled beneath some wheat stalks, McKee read the Psalms, finding solace in the “Song of the Ascents”: The scepter of the wicked will not remain over the land allotted to the righteous,

for then the righteous might use their hands to do evil. Do good, O Lord, to those who are good, to those who are upright in heart. 69 But those who turn to crooked ways the Lord will banish with the evildoers.
Source: http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/gett/gettys burg_seminars/12/essay3.pdf Also see references to the 139th on pp 74, 76,


William H. Dight
Residence Mercer County PA; Enlisted on 9/1/1862 as a Private. On 9/1/1862 he mustered into "A" Co. PA 139th Infantry He was transferred out on 4/1/1865 On 4/1/1865 he transferred into Veteran Reserve Corps (date and method of discharge not given) He was listed as: Wounded 6/2/1864 Cold Harbor, VA

Promotions: Corpl 3/1/1864 Other Information: born in 1839 in Cool Spring Twp, Mercer Co, PA Member of GAR Post # 305 (O. G. Bingham) in Slippery Rock, PA died in 1917 Buried: N. Liberty Cemty, Mercer County, PA
(Parents: Richard Dight, Matilda Downs. Wife: Sarah A. Shearer)

1860 Census

1870 Census

139th Pennsylvania Infantry, Mathew B. Brady (American, Warren County, New York 1823–1896 New York City)

139th Pennsylvania Infantry – Pennsylvania Memorial at Gettysburg (web site)

139 Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment Papers, The Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield Park archives.
The collection contains copies of thirty-three documents consisting of ordnance papers, muster rolls, circulars, pay slips, and others. Mentioned in: Slay, David H., Georgia Civil War Manuscript Collections: An Annotated Bibliography.


Ballard, Ted. Staff Ride Guide, Battle of Antietam. http://www.history.army.mil/StaffRide/Antietam/Antietam_2010.pdf Bartlett, Samuel P. The crack regiment of Pittsburg : the men and the community of the 139 Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1860-1865. Chadwick, James D., Student as Soldier : The Civil War Letters of James D. Chadwick. Meadville, Pa.: Allegheny College, 2011. And at http://sites.allegheny.edu/civilwarletters/

Ferguson, Ernest B. Not War But Murder: Cold Harbor 1864. Random House, 2007. George, Harold C., Collection, 1862-1910. Ca. 50 items. Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress
Contains notes from manuscripts and printed resources on the participation of the VI Corps, Army of the th Potomac (particularly the 139 PA Volunteers), in the Wilderness and Spotsylvania Campaigns.

Guyton, Robert, 139 Pennsylvania. Letters. Guyton-Heaslet Papers. Duke University. Harold George C. Papers. Anonymous 139 Pennsylvania Infantry memoir. Library of Congress, Francis C. Barlow, “The Capture of the Salient, May 12, 1864,” PMHSM 4:256, 246248. Hieber, John H., The Civil War Diary of John H. Dieber : Hospital Steward, 139 Regiment Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry. McConnell, Edward N., “A Brief History of Company A, 139 Pennsylvania Volunteers,” WPHM 55 (1972): 307-318. Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. In Memoriam William Perry Herbert Captain, 139 Pennsylvania Infantry.
th th th


Murdoch, David A., Nathan Divvens and The 139 Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers. Parkhurst, E.A. Our soldiers’ last march. New York (481 Broadway, New York) : Horace Waters, 1865. Rhea, Gordon C., Cold Harbor: Grant and Lee, May 26-June 3, 1864 Schoyer, William T. ed., The Road to Cold Harbor: Field Diary, January 1 – June 12, 1864 of th Samuel L. Schoyer, Captain, Company G, 139 Pennsylvania Volunteer Regiment, (Pittsburg, 1986) ppm 91-92. Smith, Conrad. My Early Life and the Civil War. S.I. 1920.


Table  of  Contents     Regimental  background     139th  PA  Infantry,  Regimental  Overview    .  .  .  p  1     Regimental  Casualty  Analysis  .  .  .  p  2-­‐3     Regimental  History  of  the  139th  PA  .  .  .  p  4-­‐5     After-­‐battle  reports:     May  7th  1863,  Chancellorsville  .  .  .  p  6-­‐7     August  3rd  1863,  Gettysburg  .  .  .    p  8-­‐9        139th  PA  Monument  at  Gettysburg,  Sickle’s  Road  .  .  .  p  9      139th  Monument  at  Gettysburg,  Weickart  Farm  .  .  .  p  10-­‐11      139th  Marker  tablet  at  Gettysburg  .  .  .  p  12     th  1864  report  (4th  of  May  to  9th  of  July)  .  .  .  p  13-­‐14   Sept  4   Sept  21st  1864  report  (Sept  19th  action)  .  .  .  p  15     Sept  26th  1864  report  (Sept  21-­‐22nd  action)    .  .  .  p  16     Oct  20th  1864  report  (Oct  19th  action)  .  .  .  p  17     March  25th  1865  report  .  .  .  p  18     April  16th  1865  report  .  .  .  p  19-­‐20     Images  and  pictures     Officers  of  the  139th  PA  Infantry,  National  Archives    .  .  .  p  21       The  139th  Pennsylvania  Infantry  (in  the  field)  .  .  .  p  22     Pittsburg  Post-­‐Gazette,  Friday,  October  4,  1929  .  .  .    p  23     Letters  and  manuscripts     Corporal  Thomas  Tanner  of  the  139th  Pennsylvania  Infantry,  Company  A.     May  15,  1863  :  White  Oak,  VA      .  .  .  p  24-­‐25    

August  16,  1863  :  New  Warrenton,  VA    .  .  .  p  26-­‐28     August  30,  1863  :  Sulphur  Springs  .  .  .  p  29-­‐31     Peter  Nelson  139th  Regiment  Pennsylvania  Volunteers,  Company  K   (Allegheny  County),  includes  a  tin-­‐type  of  image  .  .  .  p  32-­‐33     “Sharpshooters  Made  a  Grand  Record  This  Day”.      Combat  on  the  Skirmish   Line  at  Gettysburg  on  July  3.      Timothy  J.  Orr.      .  .  .  .  p  34-­‐35   Soldier  profiles   William  Henry  Dight,  Company  A    .  .  .  p  36     Sources  (pp  39-­‐40)                              

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