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scott moliver

Reproductive system: anatomical structures, gametogenesis, histology, and info about STDs Male reproductive anatomical structures Structure (in order) Function State of spermatozoa Seminiferous tubules Produce spermatozoa Immature Epididymis Store sperm to maturation Mature but inactive Vas deferens Pass sperm from epididymis to ejaculatory duct Mature but inactive Ejaculatory duct Junction of vas deferens and seminal vesicle Pushes semen into the urethra Prostate gland Injects sperm activating liquid into the urethra Active Urethra Exit point of spermprostate gland joins with urethra FINAL Female reproductive anatomical structures Structure (in order) Ovaries Oviduct Uterus Cervix Vagina Vulva Gametogenesis Spermatogensis Product in male Process # of chromosomes Oogenesis Product in female Process Stop process Period to resume # of chromosomes STD Info Bacterial 1) Chlamydia 2) Gonorrhea 3) Syphilis Diploid2n Oogonia Move to the ovary 1 Primary oocyte Meiosis I Prophase I 1 oocyte every 28 days Diploid2n 1 Secondary oocyte Meiosis I + II Metaphase II After fertilization Haploidn Diploid 46 1 Zygote 2 Polar body Produced by the second cells from 1) the primary oocytes division 2) fertilized cells division

Function Egg storage Carry the egg to the uterus Egg is stored as it grows Opening of the uterus leads to vagina Point of passage for the baby Opening of the female reproductive system

1 Spermatogonium Mitosis Diploid2n

1 Primary spermatocyte Meiosis I Diploid2n

2 Secondary spermatocyte Meiosis II Haploidn

4 Spermatids Differentiation Haploidn

4 Spermatozoa Fertilization Haploidn

1 Zygote Diploid 2n

Viral 1) Hepatitis A, B, C 2) Genital Herpes 3) HIV/AIDS 4) HPVmost common

Parasitic Trichomoniasis

scott moliver
Oogonium Primary Oocyte

Secondary Oocyte

Polar body

Leydig cells Seminiferous tubules

scott moliver
Genetics/Gel electrophoresis: understanding restriction enzymes and what they do, and interpreting DNA fragments on a gel how fragment patterns relate to alleles, and fragment/gene size estimation from the gel. Restriction enzymeis an enzyme that cuts DNA at a specific recognition point in a nucleotide sequence, restriction sites. Hot spotsare locations where mutation is highly likely, area between is the point of mutation

scott moliver
Nervous system: brain and eye structures, and histology. Brain structures Structure Description Longitudinal Top full, vertical line down the middle fissure Transverse fissure Top full, horizontal line separating cerebrum and cerebellum Cerebrum All, front half of the brain Cerebellum All, back bulby half of the brain Sulcus Top, indentations in the cerebrum cortex Gyri Top, raised folding in the cerebrum cortex Spinal cord All, extends off the medulla oblongata Medulla All, from spinal cord to the first bump in the brain stem oblongata Pons Bottom and half, bulb-like bump after the medulla oblongata Mammillary body Bottom and half, bulb-like bump 1/4th inch after the pons, bottom left of the triangle Optic chiasma Bottom and half, last bulb-like bump follows the mammillary body, bottom right of the triangle Thalamus Half, circle in the brain about half-way between the mammillary body and optic chiasma, top of the triangle Hypothalamus Half, area of the brain inside of the triangle Pineal body Half, bulb inside the middle of the brain Lateral ventricle Half, fissure in the middle of the brain Corpus callosum Half, meets with the fornix (on top) to form the lateral ventricle Fornix Half, meets with corpus callosum (on bottom) to form the lateral ventricle)

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Eye Structure Sclera Choroid Retina Blind spot/ Optic disc Optic nerve Vitreous humor Aqueous humor Lens Ciliary body Suspensory ligaments Pupil Iris Cornea White covering of the eyeball Black, reflective, blood vessel containing layer inside the sclera Brown loose tissue inside the choroid Point where retina joins the optic nerve Tube leaving the eye from the back Sac containing liquid that fills the majority of the eye Liquid filling the front chamber of the eye Hard circle in the front of the eye, behind the pupil Muscle that controls the size of the lens Attached to the ciliary body and connects to the lens Opening of the eye Behind the cornea and surrounds the pupil Clear portion of the front of the eye

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Histology Spinal cordwhite circle with a grey butterfly inside White matter Grey matter Dorsal side, horn, sulcus Ventricle side, horn, sulcus Meninges Cerebrumlooks like an eye or brown neuron filled circle White matter Grey matter Motor neuron smear Dendrite Cell body Axon hillock Axon Myelin sheath Synaptic terminal Outside Inside Sideupper half, hornpoint, sulcusarea between Sidebottom half, hornpoint, sulcusarea between Outer cells

Inside Outside

Finger-like extensions off the cell body Contains the nucleus Cone-shaped extension of the cell body that starts the axon Travels from the cell body to the synaptic terminal Only in white mattercovers the axon Finger-like extensions off the axon

Eyeclear distinguishable layers Sclera Choroid Retina Optic nerve (9) Ganglion cells (8) Bipolar cells (6) Cone (4) Rod (2)

Pink muscle layer Mostly dark black dots Interchanging dark purple n Top pink layer Large purple circles, low concentration Smaller purple circle, high concentration Super-small purple circles, very high concentration Vertical structures at the bottom

scott moliver
Muscle-skeletal systems: histology for both systems, and bone identification on a skeleton. Skeletal Musclestriated, multi-nucleated, long un-branched tubes Cardiac Musclestriated, intercalated disks, lightly branched tubes Smooth Musclenot striated, woven, circular smooth muscle is horizontally oriented, longitudinal smooth muscle is vertically oriented

Bonelooks like a tree Central Dark circle in the middle Canal Lacuna Dark stripes that are arranged in concentric circles around the central canal Lamellae Layers between lacuna circles Canaliculi Vertical lines off of the lacuna Dense fibrous connective tissuepink running lines Collagenous fibers Fibroblasts

Weaving pink fibers Dark ovals

Hyaline cartilagepurple homogenous mixture with floating cells Matrix Purple mixture Lacuna Floating cell Cartilage cell White and red portion in the lacuna FibrocartilageStarry Night cells Collagen fibers Chondrocyte in lacuna

Horizontal blue and purple lines in the matrix Circles suspended by collagen fibers

scott moliver
Population genetics: Understanding the basic concepts from the computer simulation - how sickle cell anemia and malaria relate, and the difference between the alleles. Also, you should know the Hardy-Weinberg equation and how to use it. NO CALCULATORS will be allowed - any calculations will be 'simple math.' The higher malaria death rates are, the more common sick cell anemia is. HbAStandard blood allele HbBSickle cell mutated allele Hardy-Weinberg Equation p + q =1 p= dominant allele frequency q= recessive allele frequency At equilibrium; p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1 p2 = frequency of homozygous dominant 2pq= frequency of heterozygous q2 = frequency of homozygous recessive This requires: 1) Random mating 2) Large population size 3) No genetic drift 4) A set population (no mutation and new or loss of persons)