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Frequency Hopping & NOKIA MAIO Features.

Reference Number: NOK0043 Category: Informative (B.Balkis, 04 Dec, 00)

SUMMARY
This document is prepared to inform the Radio Network Planners of ORANGE company about the general Frequency Hopping Concept and NOKIA MAIO features.

DETAILS
Frequency Hopping (FH), or more accurately Slow Frequency Hopping (SFH), is a feature designed to the GSM to increase quality and capacity in urban propagation environment. This is achieved by means of frequency diversity and interference diversity. All dedicated channel types and their associated channel types (TCH/SACCH/FACCH, SDCCH/SACCH) can hop. If hopping is not used, the radio interface channel can be defined with ARFCN, Radio Time slot number and subchannel number. If hopping is used the ARFCN is replaced with MA, MAIO and HSN. The MA determines which frequencies from the Cell Allocation are used in the hopping sequence. Below is some important definitons used in FH. Hopping Group Set of RTSLs using the same MA and HSN in a cell. Cyclic Hopping One of the hopping sequences, the other sequences are pseudo-random. Frequencies are used one after another in ascending order in the hopping sequence. HSN = 0. Random Hopping Set of hopping sequences. Frequency changes according to a pseudo-random sequence. HSN = 1...63. Cyclic vs. Random Hopping Sequences In the cyclic mode the frequencies are changed sequentially from the lowest frequency to the highest as defined in the MA list. In random mode the frequency to be used for each burst is selected from the MA list by a predefined random sequence. This means that the same frequency may be used for a couple of consecutive bursts and the frequencies are not used evenly in a short time scale. Thus, the optimum frequency diversity gain is possible to achieve only if cyclic hopping is used. As the number of frequencies becomes larger the difference between the cyclic and the random mode becomes small.

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Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO) Hopping sequence starting point for each RTSL using the same MA. MAIO synchronises the RTSLs, which use the same MA, to use different frequencies at a time. There are two main options for the implementation of frequency hopping; Baseband Hopping and Radio Frequency Hopping. Baseband Hopping There are two different hopping groups used with baseband hopping in each BTS. Group 1 All radio time slots (RTSL-0), except the BCCH time slot, on the BTS belong to Group 1. Group 2 All radio time slots (RTSL-1 to 7) on the BTS belong to Group 2. If baseband hopping is used on the BTS, all radio time slots belonging to the BTS are defined as hopping. The only exception to this is the BCCH time slot, which is always defined as non-hopping. In case there are dedicated signalling channels (SDCCH, CBCH) on the BCCH time slot, they do not hop either. If baseband hopping is used in the BTS, you have to give a hopping sequence number (HSN) for all the hopping groups in the BTS. In the baseband frequency hopping the TRXs operate at fixed frequencies. Frequency hopping is generated by switching consecutive bursts in each time slot through different TRXs according to the assigned hopping sequence. The number of frequencies to hop over is determined by the number of TRXs. The biggest limitation in baseband hopping is that the number of the hopping frequencies is the same as the number of TRXs. Baseband hopping is not recommended if the number of TRXs in a cell is less than three. Since the first time slot have one hopping frequency less, a minimum of four TRXs per cell is preferable in order to guarantee sufficient hopping gain also for the first time slot when baseband hopping is used. Large TRX configurations make baseband hopping feasible. The benefit of the baseband hopping is that the TCHs located on the BCCH TRX are included in the frequency hopping sequence. The BCCH frequencies have high frequency reuse in order to guarantee successful signaling and fast decoding of the base station identification code. It is beneficial to have this interference free BCCH frequency included in the hopping sequence, because it is likely to improve the quality of reception on the hopping logical channels.

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TRX-1 B 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f1 B=BCCH TS does not hop. TRX-2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 f2 TRX3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 f3

TRX-4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 f4 Red TS. just hop on f2,f3,f4. This hopping group uses HSN-1. Blue TS hop over MA(f1,f2,f3,f4). This hopping group uses HSN-2. Downlink DTX Baseband hopping combined with downlink DTX causes problems in the mobile stations, because in the silent phase dummy frames are sent on the BCCH frequency causing malfunction in the mobile stations. ETSI has approved a solution to solve the problem and it is implemented in Nokia BSS. RF Hopping The frequencies for a hopping cell are defined by attaching the cell to one of the mobile allocation frequency lists (MA-lists) defined by the operator. The system calculates the MAIOs, and the operator gives the HSN for the cell. The BCCH transceiver cannot hop, but it transmits a continuous BCCH frequency. Note that the MA used must contain at least as many frequencies as there are unlocked hopping transceivers in the BTS. You can create up to 128 mobile allocation frequency lists (MA-lists) and use them freely with different cells. One list can contain up to 63 frequencies. However in RF hopping, the BCCH TRX is left completely out of the hopping sequence. Since the number of hopping frequencies is not dependent on the number of TRXs, RF hopping allows the implementation of frequency hopping without compromising the frequency hopping gain, even if the cell has only two TRXs installed. TRX-1 B fa B= BCCH TS. TRX does not Hop

TRX-2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 fb TRX-3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 fc

Only one hopping group. Only HSN-1 is meaningful. Non-BCCH TRXs are hopping over the MAL (f1,f2,..,fn) attached to the cell.

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Adjacent frequencies cannot be used in the mobile allocation frequency list since it would cause adjacent channel interference within the cell and also between the cells in the same BTS site. The operator is provided with two parameters for MAIO manipulation to use RF hopping more flexibly and more efficiently: User defined parameter to set the starting point for allocation of the MAIOs per cell, i.e., the lowest MAIO in a cell can be bigger than zero.(MAIO OFFSET) User defined parameter to allow discontinuous MAIO numbering to be used in a cell, for example, MAIOs 0,2,4,6. Extended Range Cell (Nokia Talk-family of base stations) Only RF hopping is supported, and only for the TRXs serving the normal coverage area. The TRXs serving the extended coverage area cannot hop.

NOKIA BSS Parameters for Frequency Hopping MAIO Offset (MO) With the MAIO Offset parameter you can set the lowest MAIO value per sector to other than 0. This makes it is possible to use the same MA list for two or more sectors in the site without collisions. However, because the sectors controlled by one BCF operate in frame synchronisation, the HSN values must be equal between the sectors in order to each frequency to be used only once during one frame period. MAIO Step (OPTIONAL FEATURE) (MS) With the MAIO Step parameter you can use successive channel numbers within a single cell. For example, with step value '2' 400kHz channel separation is achieved. When both MAIO Offset and MAIO Step parameters are used, even re-use 1/1 is possible in a 3-sector BTS site, without any co-channel collisions or detrimental interference from adjacent frequency channels. Note that you have to make sure that the MA-list is long enough.

For example, if you have a 3-sector site, 4 TRXs in each, and you want to share a single MAlist between all of those with 400 kHz minimum channel separation, you have to reserve at least 18 frequencies for the MA-list plus 3 BCCH frequencies, that is 21 frequencies altogether. (For adjacent frequencies to be used in MAL list) 4+ 4+ 4 = 12 Freqs 1+1+1 = 3 BCCH Freqs 3*2 +3*2 + 3*2 = 18 Freqs for MAL with step value '2' 400kHz channel seperation. If non-adjacent frequencies are to be used in the MAL list, list contains the same number of frequencies with Hopping TRXs.

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MAIO (n) = MAIO + MAIOstep(n 1) TRX offset

min N freqs / site = N TRX / site MAIOstep


where: min Nfreqs/site = minimum number of frequencies needed for a site NTRX/site = total number of TRXs on a site MAIOstep = the value of the MAIO step parameter MAL 0..128 Value 0 detaches the BTS from any mobile allocation frequency list. With this parameter you define the mobile allocation frequency list to which the BTS will be attached. The parameter is relevant when RF hopping is used. See chapter Mobile Allocation Frequency List (MA). The number of frequencies (MA list length) have to be at least equal to the total number of TRXs in the site. HOP BB (baseband hopping is used) RF (radio frequency hopping is used) N (hopping is not used) With this parameter you define the frequency hopping mode of the BTS. Hopping sequence number 1 (HSN1) 0 (cyclic hopping) 1...63 (random hopping) With this parameter you define whether cyclic or random hopping is used in BB hopping group 1 and in RF hopping. Hopping sequence number 1 is used in the frequency hopping sequence generation algorithm and it is located in the Frequency Hopping System 1 (time slots 0 except BCCH time slot). Note that in RF hopping, just HSN1 is used.

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The hopping sequence determines the order in which the frequencies in the MA list are to be used. The HSNs 1 - 63 are random sequences used in the random hopping while the HSN 0 is reserved for a sequential sequence used in the cyclic hopping. The hopping sequence algorithm takes HSN and FN as an input and the output of the hopping sequence generation is a Mobile Allocation Index (MAI) which is a number ranging from 0 to the number of frequencies in the MA list subtracted by one. The HSN is a cell specific parameter. The cells at one site have to use the same HSN. Otherwise, co-channel interference between cells will occur. However, the HSNs should be different in interfering sites in order to ensure interference diversity. Hopping sequence number 2 (HSN2) 0 (cyclic hopping) 1...63 (random hopping) With this parameter you define whether cyclic or random hopping is used in BB hopping group 2. Hopping sequence number 2 is used in the frequency hopping sequence generation algorithm and it is located in the Frequency Hopping System 2 (time slots 1-7). Note that in RF hopping, just HSN1 is used. In BB hopping, HSN1 & HSN2 is used.

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Some Practical Examples 2+4+3 Configuration TS0 bts-1 TRX-1 TRX-2 TRX-3 TRX-4 TRX-5 TRX-6 TRX-7 TRX-8 TRX-9 15 17 19 21 23 25 TS1 17 19 21 23 25 15 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 BCCH TRX DOES NOT HOP 19 21 23 25 BCCH TRX DOES NOT HOP 21 23 25 15 23 25 15 17 25 15 17 19 BCCH TRX DOES NOT HOP 15 17 19 21 17 19 21 23 TS6 15 17 19 21 23 25 TS7 17 19 21 23 25 15

bts-2

bts-3

Using non-adjacent frequencies in list, we have ; MAL: 15,17,19,21,23,25 (Single MAL for all cells in a Site.) 6 frequencies For each TRX, we are using MAIO STEP : 1 MAIO OFFSET : 0 to 5 (just for hopping TRXs. This parameter is set for every TRX.) 4+4+4 Configuration

TS0 TRX-1 TRX-2 TRX-3 TRX-4 TRX-5 TRX-6 TRX-7 TRX-8 TRX-9 TRX-10 TRX-11 TRX-12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30

TS1 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 14

TS2

TS3 TS4 TS5 BCCH TRX DOES NOT HOP 18 20 22 24 20 22 24 26 22 24 26 28 BCCH TRX DOES NOT HOP 24 26 28 30 26 28 30 14 28 30 14 16 BCCH TRX DOES NOT HOP 30 14 16 18 14 16 18 20 16 18 20 22

TS6 26 28 30 14 16 18 20 22 24

TS7 28 30 14 16 18 20 22 24 26

Using non-adjacent frequencies in list, we have ; MAL: 14,16,18,20,22,24,26,28,30 (Single MAL for all cells in a Site.) 9 frequencies For each TRX, we are using MAIO STEP : 1 MAIO OFFSET : 0 to 10 (just for hopping TRXs. This parameter is set for every TRX)

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In case of using adjacent frequencies in MAL; 3+3+3 Configuration TS0 TRX-1 TRX-2 TRX-3 TRX-4 TRX-5 TRX-6 TRX-7 TRX-8 TRX-9 14 16 18 20 22 24 TS1 15 17 19 21 23 25 TS2 TS3 TS4 TS5 BCCH TRX DOES NOT HOP 16 17 18 19 18 19 20 21 BCCH TRX DOES NOT HOP 20 21 22 23 22 23 24 25 BCCH TRX DOES NOT HOP 24 25 14 15 14 15 16 17 TS6 20 22 24 14 16 18 TS7 21 23 25 15 17 19

Using adjacent frequencies in list, we have ; MAL: 14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25 (Single MAL for all cells in a Site.) 12 frequencies For each TRX, we are using MAIO STEP : 2 MAIO OFFSET : 0 to 10 with 2 step size. (just for hopping TRXs. This parameter is set for every TRX) These examples can be extended and also can be adapted to any network..

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DISTRIBUTION LIST
Partner : David Shaul, Dov Tsur Nokia : Prj. Mgr, Markus Uhlirz

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