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Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer Chapter 3 0HT123 The Secondary Loop: A Thermodynamic Cycle

Table of Contents Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Thermodynamic Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SONGS Secondary Loop Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Steam Turbine Work/Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Turbine Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Isentropic Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Energy Conversions in a Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Turbine Nozzles and Blading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SONGS HP and LP Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steam Pressure in the Main Condenser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressure Drop Across the Main Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 15 19 21 23

Main Condenser Steam Jet Air Ejectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Feedwater Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Thermal Efficiency of the Secondary Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Plant Heat Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 The Temperature-Entropy (T-s) Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 The Ideal Thermodynamic Cycle: Carnot Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Carnot Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Carnot Cycle Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 SONGS Secondary Cycle on the T-s Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

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Factors Affecting Cycle Efficiency and Plant Heat Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steam Generator Effects on Cycle Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shell Side Temperature/Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tube Plugging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Main Condenser Effects on Cycle Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shell Side Temperature/Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shell Side Air/Non-Condensible Gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tube Side Circ Water Flow Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tube Side Circ Water Inlet Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tube Fouling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tube Plugging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Entrained Air in Circ Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Condensate Depression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Feedwater Heaters Effects on Cycle Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Shell Side Liquid Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tube Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tube Leaks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tube Fouling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Moisture Separator Reheaters Effects on Cycle Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Throttling: Isenthalpic Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Steam Throttling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Liquid Water Throttling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Throttling Process Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

49 50 50 52 54 54 56 56 56 57 57 57 57 59 59 60 60 60 61 63 63 68 70

Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Exercise Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

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Objectives
1. Solve problems and qualitatively describe the energy conversion processes which occur in the Main Turbine, including: C C 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. work extracted from the secondary side steam flow power produced by the secondary side steam flow

Given steam turbine inlet and outlet conditions, calculate steam turbine efficiency. Describe the purpose and principle of operation of two-stage Steam Jet Air Ejectors used in the Main Condenser. State the purpose of Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) in the SONGS Secondary Loop. State the purpose of Feedwater Heaters in the SONGS Secondary Loop. Given selected Secondary Loop parameters, calculate Secondary Loop cycle efficiency. Calculate Heat Rate. Calculate Carnot Cycle efficiency. Explain the effects of each of the following Steam Generator characteristics on Secondary Loop cycle efficiency: pressure temperature tube plugging

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10. Explain the effects of each of the following Main Condenser characteristics on Secondary Loop cycle efficiency: pressure (absolute or vacuum) temperature shell side air/non-condensible gas content (air in-leakage) tube side Circulating Water flow rate tube side Circulating Water inlet temperature tube fouling tube plugging Air/gas entrainment in Circulating Water

11. Define condensate depression and state its effects on Secondary Cycle thermal efficiency and Condensate Pump net positive suction head. 12. Explain the effects of each of the following Feedwater Heater characteristics on Secondary Loop cycle efficiency: C C C Shell side liquid level tube corrosion tube leaks tube fouling

13. Solve problems and describe thermodynamic property changes that occur in a throttling process, including: Determine the general state of the water at the outlet of the process Determine the temperature, pressure, quality, moisture content, or degrees of superheat at the outlet of the process

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Introduction
A thermodynamic cycle is defined as any cyclic process which converts a heat input to a work output on a continuous basis. The Secondary Loops of SONGS Units 2/3 are examples of thermodynamic cycles, because heat is added to the loop via the Steam Generators, and this heat input is converted to a work output in the Units' Main Turbines. A heat input and work output are requirements for any thermodynamic cycle. This chapter will examine the SONGS Secondary Loop as a thermodynamic cycle. This Chapter will have numerous examples and exercises that will require the use of the Steam Tables. Because you do not have the Steam Tables available to you, any exam question that might appear on your SONGS pre-employment exam which requires Steam Tables data will have the data already provided for you. The Exercises at the end of this Chapter are typical of how the concepts might be tested.

Thermodynamic Cycle
There are four basic processes in any thermodynamic cycle (see Figure 1): Supply of energy from a source (steam generator). Conversion of some of the energy to work in a turbine. Rejection of most of the remaining steam energy to a heat sink (condenser). Condensed steam (liquid water) is pumped back to the source to start the cycle again.

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Figure 1 Basic Thermodynamic Cycle

SONGS Secondary Loop Components


The SONGS Secondary Loop is the basic thermodynamic cycle shown above, with additional components that assist in the accomplishment of the purpose of the thermodynamic cycle (see Figure 2): At 100% power conditions, 3,458 Mw of thermal power is transferred from the Reactor Coolant System through the Steam Generator tubes to the Secondary Loop flow passing through the shell side of the (two) Steam Generators. Steam flow from the (two) Steam Generators passes through the High Pressure (HP) Turbine, and steam enthalpy (energy) is converted to rotational energy of the HP Turbine shaft.

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Steam exiting the HP Turbine is wet steam; this steam is directed through the Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) tube side. Steam extracted from the Main Steam line and the HP Turbine enters the MSRs shell side, drying and superheating tube side steam prior to its entering the (three) Low Pressure (LP) Turbines. (Superheated) steam passes through the (three) LP Turbines in parallel, and steam enthalpy (energy) is converted to rotational energy of the LP Turbine shaft. NOTE: The HP and LP Turbines share a common shaft. LP Turbines exhaust wet steam to the Main Condenser, which condenses the steam to saturated liquid (latent heat removed from steam is transferred to Circ Water passing through Main Condenser tubes and rejected to the ocean). (Four) Condensate Pumps increase flow energy, driving Condensate through Feedwater Heaters 6, 5, 4, 3, and 2. Wet steam extracted from the HP and LP Turbines steam flow, as well as from the shell side of the MSRs, is used to increase the temperature of the Feedwater Heaters tube side water. (Two) Feedwater Pumps increase flow energy, driving Feedwater through Feedwater Heater 1. Wet steam extracted from the HP Turbines steam flow is used to increase the temperature of Feedwater Heater 1's tube side water. Feedwater enters the Steam Generators to begin the loop again.

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Figure 2 The SONGS Secondary Loop (A Thermodynamic Cycle) Figure 2 also shows the relative Secondary Loop flow percentages from the point at which Main Steam leaves the Steam Generators (100%) until the flow ultimately returns to the Steam Generators as Feedwater. The thermodynamic issues associated with HP/LP Turbine operation, Moisture Separator Reheater operation, and Feedwater Heater operation will now be discussed.

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Steam Turbine Work/Power


A steam turbine (Figure 3) is designed to convert steam energy into useful mechanical work. As steam passes through the turbine, steam pressure and temperature decrease as the steam expands to exhaust conditions. The steam forces applied to turbine blading while the blading rotates (i.e., moves through a distance) does work on the turbine rotor, which is realized as turbine shaft mechanical work output.

Figure 3 Because steam temperature and steam pressure decrease as the steam performs work on the turbine blading, both the steams internal energy and its flow energy decrease. Therefore, because enthalpy is the sum of internal and flow energy, the specific work done by steam as it passes through a turbine is equal to the enthalpy change of the steam: wturbine ' hSTM & hEXH where: wturbine hSTM hEXH = work done by the steam (providing turbine shaft rotation); BTU/lbm = enthalpy of steam entering the turbine; BTU/lbm = enthalpy of steam exiting the turbine; BTU/lbm

NOTE: Since work is normally expressed in mechanical energy units (ft@lbf), the conversion factor 1 BTU = 778 ft@lbf will be required to express the specific work done by the steam in ft@lbf/lbm units.

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The power (W-dotturbine) delivered by the steam to the turbine shaft is equal to the specific work done by the steam (hSTM - hEXH) multiplied by the mass flow rate of the steam (m-dotSTM): 0 0 0 Wturbine ' mSTM x wturbine ' mSTM hSTM & hEXH where BTU 0 Wturbine ' Power delivered to turbine shaft, hr mSTM ' Steam flow rate through the turbine, 0 wturbine ' Specific work done by the steam, hSTM ' Turbine inlet steam enthalpy, hEXH ' Turbine outlet steam enthalpy lbm hr

BTU lbm

BTU lbm

Example A
At 100% power, saturated steam (100% quality) is supplied to the Unit 2 High Pressure Turbine at 800 psia. The turbine exhausts 88% quality steam at 180 psia. Determine the High Pressure Turbine work output in units of: a) BTU/lbm, and b) ft@lbf/lbm.

Solution
Turbine work is given by the formula: wturbine ' hSTM & hEXH

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Steam enthalpy at turbine inlet: Steam Table 2 shows that 800 psia, 100% quality steam has enthalpy hSTM = 1199.4 BTU/lbm. Steam enthalpy at turbine outlet: From Steam Table 2, hEXH = hf, 180 psia + xhfg, 180 psia = 346.2 + 0.88(850.7) = 1094.8 BTU/lbm. a) Therefore, wturbine ' hSTM & hEXH ' 1199.4 wout ' 104.6 b) BTU lbm BTU BTU & 1094.8 lbm lbm

Converting to mechanical energy (ft@lbf/lbm) units: wout ' 104.6 BTU 778 ft@lbf lbm 1 BTU ' 81,379 ft@lbf lbm

Physical interpretations of the results of Example A: Each pound of steam gives up 104.6 BTU (81,379 ft@lbf) of its energy as it passes through the turbine. Each pound of steam does 104.6 BTU (81,379 ft@lbf) of work on the turbine blading. Since the turbine blading is attached to the turbine shaft, 104.6 BTU (81,379 ft@lbf) of energy is supplied to the turbine shaft by each pound of steam that passes through it.

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Example B
If 100% power steam flow rate through the Unit 2 High Pressure Turbine (Example A) is 12.5 x 106 lbm/hr, calculate the power delivered to the turbine shaft, in Mw units.

Solution
0 0 WHP Turbine ' m STM x wturbine ' 12.5 x 106 lbm hr 104.6 BTU lbm 1 Mw 3.41 x 106 BTU hr

' 383 Mw NOTE: The actual 100% power steam flow rate entering the HP Turbine is higher than the 12.5 x 106 lbm/hr used in this example. Because some of the flow entering the turbine is extracted before it can pass completely through the turbine, an effective HP Turbine steam flow rate was used in this calculation. More details on turbine steam flow extraction will be presented later. A similar calculation can be performed to determine the shaft power delivered in Units 2/3 Low Pressure (LP) Turbines under 100% power conditions. Shaft power delivered in the LP Turbines is about 812 Mw. Therefore, total shaft power delivered in Units 2/3 Main Turbines (HP and LP turbine power combined output) is approximately: Main Turbine Output (Mech Pwr): 383 Mwmech % 812 Mwmech ' 1,195 Mwmech Because the Main Generator cannot convert ALL of the the mechanical power supplied by the Main Turbine shaft to electrical power (Mwe), i.e., some of the shaft power is lost to frictional effects/heating, the 100% power electrical output of either Unit is in fact about 1,130 Mwe to 1,150 Mwe .

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Turbine Efficiency
In Chapter 1, it was stated that not all of the energy possessed by a working fluid (such as steam) can be converted into useful work. As discussed in Chapter 1, the thermodynamic property which quantitatively describes the unavailability of energy for the performance of work is called entropy. As shown in Example A, the energy of steam (i.e., its enthalpy) continuously decreases as the steam does work on the turbine blading (performs turbine shaft work). While the enthalpy of the steam is decreasing, the entropy of the steam is continuously increasing. The significance of this entropy increase is explained in Example C below.

Example C
Given the following High Pressure Turbine inlet and outlet steam states: Inlet: Saturated steam (100% quality) at 800 psia Outlet: 88% quality steam at 180 psia. Determine the change in steam entropy as it passes through the turbine.

Solution
Inlet conditions: 800 psia, 100% quality steam. From Steam Table 2, 800 psia, 100% quality steam has entropy sSTM = sg = 1.4163 BTU/lbmEF. Outlet conditions: 180 psia, 88% quality steam. From Steam Table 2, = sf, 180 psia + xsfg, 180 psia = 0.5328 + 0.88(1.0215) = 1.4317 BTU/lbmEF. Therefore, the change in steam entropy as it passes through the turbine is: s = sfinal - sinitial = 1.4317 BTU/lbmEF - 1.4163 BTU/lbmEF = 0.0154 BTU/lbmEF That is, the entropy of the steam increases by 0.0154 BTU/lbmER as the steam does work in the turbine. In fact, in any steam expansion process though a turbine, the entropy of the steam increases. sEXH

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If the turbine process were an ideal process, then the steam entropy would not change as it passed through the turbine. Such a process, though it cannot happen, is examined because it gives us a way to determine turbine efficiency, a comparison of actual work obtained during the turbine steam expansion process to the maximum work which would could be obtained in the ideal case.

Isentropic Processes
An ideal thermodynamic process is one in which there is no degradation of energy as a result of friction or similar thermodynamic losses. From the definition of entropy, this means that entropy does not increase during the process. Constant entropy processes are called isentropic processes: Isentropic process - a ideal thermodynamic process; a thermodynamic process during which there is no change in entropy. For example, if high pressure steam expands ideally, that is, without turbulence or friction while producing useful mechanical work, then the process is isentropic and maximum work is achieved. An equivalent statement: if the high pressure steam expands ideally, the entropy change is zero and the enthalpy change of the steam as it passes through the turbine is maximized. There are two methods that can be used to analyze an isentropic process: 1. Steam Tables: Because there is no change in entropy during the process, Process inlet entropy = Process exit entropy = soutlet sinlet This fact, along with the known inlet and outlet thermodynamic data, can be used to analyze the process. 2. Mollier Diagram: The horizontal axis of the Mollier Diagram is the entropy axis. Because there is no change in entropy during the process, any isentropic process is represented as a vertical line on the Mollier, starting at the inlet state and ending at the outlet state. This fact, along with the known inlet and outlet thermodynamic data, can be used to analyze the process.

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Example D illustrates an ideal steam expansion process in a turbine.

Example D
Saturated steam (100% quality) is supplied to the Unit 2 High Pressure Turbine at 800 psia. The turbine exhaust pressure is 180 psia. Assuming the steam expands isentropically through the turbine (ideal turbine work), determine a) steam turbine outlet enthalpy hEXH and quality xEXH, and b) HP Turbine work

Solution
a) Using the Mollier Diagram (modeled in Figure 4), the inlet state of the steam (saturated, dry steam at 800 psia) is identified. The enthalpy of the steam associated with this state is hSTM = 1199 BTU/lbm. Because the ideal process is isentropic, the process moves vertically downward until the 180 psia pressure line is reached. The Mollier shows that hEXH = 1082 BTU/lbm and xEXH = 13.5%.

Figure 4 Ideal Steam Expansion Through the HP Turbine 0HT123 11 Rev 1-2, 10/15/04

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b) The ideal turbine work can now be determined: wturbine, ideal ' hSTM & hEXH, ideal ' 1199 BTU BTU BTU & 1082 ' 117 lbm lbm lbm

The calculation above determined the maximum work output from the HP Turbine; it assumed no entropy change (i.e., s = 0). In Example A, the actual HP Turbine work was determined to be 104.6 BTU/lbm; From Example C, actual s = 0.0154 BTU/lbmEF (s > 0) in the real steam expansion processes. Examples A and C show that because the entropy of the steam increases during the real expansion process, the work obtained from the steam (104.6 BTU/lbm) is less than the ideal work (117 BTU/lbm). The results of Examples A and D can be used to determine turbine efficiency: Turbine Efficiency, t: the ratio of the actual work performed by a turbine to the ideal work which would be performed if the entropy change is zero. It is a comparison of the actual work to the maximum work that could be achieved under ideal conditions: t ' h & hEXH, actual Actual turbine work ' STM hSTM & hEXH, ideal Ideal turbine work

Example E will calculate the turbine efficiency.

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Example E
Using the results of Examples A and D, calculate the High Pressure Turbine efficiency under 100% power conditions.

Solution
t ' Actual Turbine Work ' Ideal Turbine Work hSTM & hEXH, ideal hSTM & hEXH, actual BTU lbm ' ' 0.89, or 89% BTU 117 lbm 104.6

Physical interpretation of the results of Example E: The expansion of steam through the High Pressure Turbine results in work done by the steam that is 89% of the maximum work achievable under ideal conditions. It is important to realize that the larger the enthalpy change of the steam across the turbine is, the more work (power) that is generated by the turbine. However, the steam entropy increase as it passes through the turbine will be larger. This means that even though more turbine work is achieved (which is the goal of the thermodynamic cycle), the efficiency of the turbine actually decreases. The more work we get out of the turbine, the less efficient the turbine is.

Energy Conversions in a Turbine


As shown earlier, steam turbines are devices used to convert the enthalpy contained in steam into turbine shaft rotational work. In this section, the energy conversions that occur within the turbine will be examined in more detail. The essential components of a turbine are (1) the casing (or shell), containing a stationary blade system and a moving blade system; (2) the shaft, to which moving blades are attached; and (3) the governor and control valve system for speed and load control, as shown in Figure 5.

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Figure 5 Fundamental Turbine Components For the study of thermodynamic processes occurring in a steam turbine, the most important parts of the turbine are the nozzles, the stationary blades, and the moving blades. Basic nozzle theory is discussed in the next section.

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Turbine Nozzles and Blading


In a steam turbine, nozzles (Figure 6) increase steam kinetic energy: 1. Steam initially in the steam chest enters turbine nozzles at relatively low velocity; this velocity is determined by the steam flow rate and the cross-sectional area for steam flow: 0 v Vsteam ' A 2. Y v ' 0 V A

As the steam flows through the continuously decreasing cross-sectional flow area of the nozzle (i.e., as A 9), it experiences an increase velocity, thus, an increase in kinetic energy. The static pressure of the steam decreases as the velocity of the steam increases. The larger the steam pressure drop across the nozzle is, the greater the increase in steam velocity will be. Therefore, a nozzle forces a pressure drop and a consequent kinetic energy increase in the steam that passes through it.

3.

Figure 6 Typical Nozzle

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4.

The high-velocity steam that leaves nozzle is directed into the first stage of moving blades of the turbine. There are two basic designs of turbine blading: impulse blading and reaction blading. See Figure 7.

Figure 7 Impulse and Reaction Blading Figure 8 illustrates the pressure and velocity changes that occur across moving impulse and reaction blading.

Figure 8 Pressure and Velocity Changes Across Rotating Impulse and Reaction Blades

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Impulse Blades (Figures 7 and 8): For a rotating impulse blade, the momentum change of the steam imparts an impulse to the blade; the associated force does work as the kinetic energy of the steam decreases (steam speed decreases). Because of the constant cross-sectional flow area through the impulse blade, essentially no pressure drop occurs across this type of blade (except for minor head losses). Reaction Blades (Figures 7 and 8): For a rotating reaction blade, forces imparted by the steam propel the blade much like expanding gases propel a rocket. The term reaction is used because the reactive kick of the steam to the blade causes it to rotate. Since a significant portion of the steam's kinetic energy is transferred to the blade, the steam's velocity is lower than its velocity before entering the blade. A pressure drop occurs across this type of blade, primarily because of the decreasing cross-sectional flow area through the blade. Fixed (non-rotating) impulse blades are found between each successive stage of rotating blades. Fixed impulse blades redirect steam flow to another set of moving blades. Steam speed and pressure remain essentially constant across fixed impulse blading (Figure 9).

Figure 9 Fixed Impulse Blading: Steam Pressure and Velocity Profiles

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Fixed (non-rotating) reaction blades may also be found between successive stages of rotating blades. Fixed reaction blades increase steam velocity as cross-sectional flow area decreases, and steam pressure is reduced. See Figure 10.

Figure 10 Fixed Reaction Blading: Steam Pressure and Velocity Profiles Blading area and radius of revolution: Turbine blading cross-sectional area and turbine blading distance from the shaft both increase with each successive turbine stage. There are two fundamental reasons for this: 1. Torque must be equalized along the length of the shaft. Shaft torque is equal to the product of the force applied by the steam to the blading and the length of the radius of rotation of the blade. Since steam pressure is equal to force per unit area (P = F/A), and pressure decreases with each successive stage, an increase in the area of the blading is required to maintain the appropriate force exerted on the blade. The blading in the latter stages is also further from the turbine shaft, i.e., the radius of rotation of the blade increases. The combination of force maintenance due to increasing blading area and increasing radius of rotation with each successive turbine stage keeps torque constant along the entire shaft. The increasing radius of rotation of successive turbine stages also results in an increasing turbine shell volume that accommodates steam expansion (pressure drop) as it moves through the turbine.

2.

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Summarizing the method of work production in turbines: Steam is directed through a set of turbine nozzles. Steam pressure decreases, causing kinetic energy (steam velocity) to increase. High-velocity steam enters moving turbine blading. As the steam flow changes direction while passing through the blading, steam momentum is changed. The rate of change of momentum produces a force on the blading. Forces are also exerted due to the vibrational molecular energy (the internal energy of the steam), reducing its internal energy and consequently the enthalpy of the steam. The sum of the forces exerted (due to velocity changes and internal energy changes) cause the turbine shaft to turn; mechanical work is produced. Steam enters another nozzle (i.e, fixed blading). If the fixed blading is impulse blading, it simply redirects the steam into the next stage of moving blades; pressure and velocity do not change. If the fixed blading is reaction blading, it not only redirects the steam into the next set of moving blades; it also decreases steam pressure again and steam kinetic energy (steam velocity) increases again. The forces imparted on the next set of moving blades are again produced by steam momentum changes and steam internal energy (therefore, enthalpy) decreases. Turbine shaft torque is equalized along the entire length of the turbine shaft by increasing surface area of the moving blades and increased radius of revolution of these blades with each successive turbine stage.

SONGS HP and LP Turbines


The Units 2/3 High Pressure Turbines have seven stages. Each stage consists of a set of fixed blades and a set of moving blades. The steam chest sends steam through nozzles into the first stage, which is an impulse stage. The remaining six stages of fixed/moving blades are combinations of impulse and reaction stages. Units 2/3 Low Pressure Turbines have eight stages. The eight stages of fixed/moving blades are both impulse and reaction stages.

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Before the Main Generator is synchronized to the grid, the speed of the TurbineGenerator shaft is controlled by the Operator. The Operator throttles the steam flow to the turbine steam chest. As more steam is admitted to the turbine, more force is transferred to the turbine blades. The force on the blades produces an unbalanced torque on the turbine shaft that increases the speed of rotation (the turbine shaft is accelerating). Frictional forces (and their associated torques) oppose shaft acceleration. As long as the torque on the turbine from the force of the steam acting on the blades exceeds the torque from frictional forces, the turbine shaft is accelerating. By admitting an appropriate amount of steam, the Operator increases turbine speed from 0 -1800 rpm. During the turbine "roll-up" to 1800 rpm, there are specific turbine speeds, called resonance speeds, at which abnormal vibrations occur (theory of resonance speeds is beyond the scope of the course). Startup Procedures provide guidance in minimizing extended stay in the resonant speed ranges to preclude blade damage. When the turbine reaches 1800 rpm, the steam flow through the turbine is reduced until the torque produced by the steam is balanced by the the frictional torque; rotational velocity is now constant. The Main Generator is then connected to the electrical power distribution system (i.e., the grid). Because electrical power on the grid is stable at 60 hertz (60 cycles/second), the Turbine-Generator shaft will rotate at 1800 rpm, regardless of electrical demand. As a result, when the Generator is synchronized to the grid, additional power requirements from the grid produce increased electromagnetic forces (EMF) in the Generator. This increases the torque on the Turbine-Generator (turbine "load" increases). In the automatic operations mode, a governor opens the Main Steam control valves, admitting more steam to the turbine. Since more steam is flowing through the turbine, torques are balanced, and more turbine work is being performed by the steam. The increased power of the Turbine provides the required increased electrical output of the Main Generator. The HP Turbine first stage impulse pressure is the turbine parameter used by the automatic control system to control steam flow to the turbine. As power increases and more steam is throttled into the High Pressure turbine steam chest, the pressure inside the HP steam chest increases. Consequently, the steam pressure after the nozzle in the first impulse stage of the High Pressure turbine also increases with power. 0HT123 20 Rev 1-2, 10/15/04

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Figure 11 displays the linear relationship between first stage impulse pressure (Pimp) and turbine power. By comparing actual Pimp to the predetermined or programmed Pimp for a given electrical power output, the Turbine Control System either opens or closes the Main Control Valves. If actual Pimp is greater than programmed Pimp, the control valves are throttled toward the shut position. If actual Pimp is less than programmed Pimp, control valves are throttled in the open direction.

Figure 11 HP Turbine First Impulse Stage Pressure Versus Turbine Power

Steam Pressure in the Main Condenser


In Chapter 2, Basic Heat Transfer, the principle of operation of the Main Condenser was discussed. In particular, it was discussed that low pressure wet steam exiting the last stage of the LP Turbines enters the shell side of the Condenser where latent heat is removed from the steam by cool Circ Water (Pacific Ocean water) flowing though Condenser tubes. The shell side steam condenses to liquid water, and collects in the Condenser Hotwell.

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The steam condensation process on the Condenser shell side results in a Condenser shell side pressure that is significantly less than atmospheric pressure. The Condenser shell side vacuum pressure results from the dramatic decrease in the volume of the steam as it converts from wet steam to liquid water. Example F quantifies this.

Example F
At 100% power conditions, steam with a quality of 88% and a pressure of 1 psia enters the Main Condenser where it is condensed to saturated liquid water. By what factor does the volume of each pound of this wet steam decrease as it is condensed to saturated liquid? In other words, what percent of the volume occupied by the entering steam is essentially voided as the steam condenses?

Solution
For wet steam (x = 0.88) at 1 psia, the Steam Tables show that: v = vf + xvfg = 0.016136 + 0.88(333.60) = 293.584136 ft3/lbm For the saturated liquid water (1 psia) that results, the Steam Tables show that: v = vf = 0.016136 ft3/lbm Therefore the factor by which steam volume is reduced as it condenses is: 0.016136 ' 0.000055 293.584136 This means that the condensation process reduces the volume of the steam to only 0.0055% of the space it was occupying when it entered the Condenser! 99.9945% of the space occupied by the steam when it entered the Condenser now has nothing in it. This dramatic decrease in steam volume explains why the Condenser pressure is significantly below atmospheric pressure under normal operating conditions.

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Pressure Drop Across the Main Turbine


Ultimately, it is the total pressure drop across the Main Turbine that determines the individual pressure drops across turbine nozzles, fixed blades, and moving blades. This total pressure drop is the difference between the Main Steam pressure at the inlet of the HP Turbine and the LP Turbine exhaust pressure at the inlet to the Main Condenser. As just shown in Example F the rate at which the Main Condenser is capable of condensing LP Turbine exhaust steam is the primary reason for the Condensers shell side pressure, typically about 1 psia under normal 100% power conditions. As shown in Figure 11, HP Turbine first stage impulse pressure at 100% power conditions is about 774 psia. Therefore, the driving force for steam flow across the Main Turbine is 773 psi. As shown in Fluid Mechanics, Chapter 2, the steam mass flow rate through the Main Turbine is directly proportional to the square root of the pressure difference from Turbine inlet to Turbine outlet. As shown earlier in this Chapter, Main Turbine power is given by the formula: 0 Wturbine ' mSTM hSTM & hEXH 0 That is, Main Turbine power is directly proportional to the mass flow rate through the Turbine. Therefore, since steam mass flow rate through the Main Turbine is directly proportional to the square root of the pressure difference across the Turbine, Main Turbine power output is maximized by maintaining the pressure difference across the Turbine as LARGE as possible. The Main Turbine first stage impulse pressure is primarily determined by the T-cold temperature program for the Primary Loop. As discussed in Chapter 2, the programmed T-cold value combined with the amount of thermal power added to the coolant flowing through the reactor determines the T-avg value as a function of reactor power level. The power transferred across the steam generators then determines the pressure (and temperature) of the steam leaving the steam generators. Figure 12 is the same graph used in Chapter 2 to show how RCS program temperatures and reactor power output determine steam pressure (and temperature) as a function of power level.

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Figure 12 RCS T-avg and Steam Generator Pressure Versus % Power In particular, Figure 12 shows that because we operate the Primary Side with T-avg ramping up from 545EF to 566.5EF as power increases from 0% to 100%, the steam leaving the steam generators is FORCED to have a pressure of about 806 psia. In other words, the only way we could increase steam generator outlet steam pressure would be to change our RCS T-cold program so that T-avg ramped up to greater than 566.5EF as power climbed to 100%. We can do this, and we DID do this during previous cycles; T-avg at 100% power at that time was 580.5EF, making T-stm equal to 532EF, making steam pressure equal to 900 psia. We deliberately LOWERED the RCS operating temperatures because the steam generator shell side operating temperature of 532EF was causing an unacceptably high corrosion rate of steam generator tubes. Lowering the temperature on the shell side slows the tube degradation rate and extends the life of the plant. Because protecting the steam generator tubes by lowering steam temperature resulted in almost a 100 psi steam outlet pressure difference (900 psia down to 806 psia), the Main Turbine now does not have as large of a pressure difference across it as it did before; we are not getting as much turbine power from the 3,438 Mw of reactor power input as we once did.

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Even though on a daily basis the plant is not converting steam generator power input to turbine power output as efficiently as it once was, the added gain of extended life for the steam generators by slowing tube degradation will make more money for the company in the long run. The bottom line of this discussion is that increasing the temperature and therefore pressure of the steam in order to get more power out of the Main Turbine is no longer an option. So what about the other end of the Turbine, i.e., the pressure in the Main Condenser? If we can lower this pressure at the outlet of the Turbine we will have increased the pressure difference across the Turbine. This means that we will get more power out of the Turbine for the 3,458 Mw we are putting in from the Primary Loop. Methods that enhance Main Condenser vacuum (i.e., lower Main Condenser absolute pressure) will be discussed in detail later in this Chapter.

Main Condenser Steam Jet Air Ejectors


The Main Condenser shell side pressure is not totally described strictly in terms of the steam condensation process. Any gas that exists in the shell side, steam, air, or any other gas, contributes to the shell side pressure. Main Condenser vacuum would be enhanced if there were no gases in the Condenser other than steam from the LP Turbine outlet, but the Condenser shell is not air-tight; some air leaks into the Condenser from the outside. Steam Jet Air Ejectors are devices used to remove air and other non-condensible gases from Main Condenser. These devices are essentially pumps which pull gases (and some steam) out of the Condenser shell side, thereby assisting in the maintaining Condenser vacuum as high as possible. Without the continuous removal of air and noncondensible gases from the Condenser, gases would accumulate with time in the shell side space, gradually decreasing Condenser vacuum. As previously discussed, decreased Condenser vacuum (increased Condenser absolute pressure) reduces the amount of Main Turbine power, and undesirable effect. A basic steam jet air ejector is shown in Figure 13. Discussion of its principle of operation follows.

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Figure 13 Steam Jet Air Ejector Basic principle of operation: 1. 2. 3. Main Steam is supplied to the inlet of the steam nozzle in the air ejector. As is the case for any nozzle, the nozzle increases the velocity of the steam which reduces steam pressure at the nozzle outlet. The high velocity, low pressure steam is then directed into the mouth of the diffuser, also called the mixing chamber.

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4.

The low pressure area surrounding the nozzle exit (at the diffuser mouth) causes air and non-condensable gases to be "pulled" from the Main Condenser shell space into the mixing chamber or the air ejector. As more air/gas is removed from the Condenser shell side space, the mixing chamber pressure decreases. As the mixing chamber pressure decreases, the velocity of the steam jet increases, because its outlet pressure is now lower (larger P through nozzle increases steam flow). The higher velocity of the steam flow lowers the steam outlet pressure further. Mixing chamber pressure is low enough to continuously draw gases from the Condenser shell side, and Condenser vacuum is maximized.

5. 6.

7. 8.

The Main Condenser Steam Jet Air Ejectors employ a two stage system. The first stage was described above. Continuing with the principle of operation (see Figure 14): 9. 10. The steam/air/gas mixture leaves the diffuser (exits the first stage) and flows into a small condenser, called the intercondenser. The steam and other condensable gases are condensed on the cold tubes of the intercondenser. The intercondenser cooling medium is Condensate flowing through its tubes. The intercondenser drains to the Main Condenser via drain traps. The second stage air ejector removes condensable and non-condensable gases from the intercondenser shell and discharges them to the shell side of the aftercondenser. Again, Main Steam through a nozzle is used to pull these gases into the aftercondenser. The aftercondenser condenses and cools any remaining condensable gases. The cooling medium is Condensate flowing through the tubes. The aftercondenser also drains to the Main Condenser. Noncondensable gases from the aftercondenser then are directed to the vent stack. Rev 1-2, 10/15/04 27

11.

13.

14.

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Figure 14 Two Stage Steam Jet Air Ejector

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Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs)


Between the HP Turbine outlet and the LP Turbines inlets are the Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs). MSRs (1) remove moisture from HP Turbine exhaust steam and (2) superheat this steam before it enters the LP Turbines. This process is accomplished in three steps: 1. The HP Turbine exhaust is first directed to the MSR's moisture separator stage. Chevron-type moisture separators force HP Turbine exhaust flow through a tortuous path that results in mechanical separation of the moisture from the steam flow. Essentially dry steam (quality = 99.3%) leaves the process. This now "dry" steam then flows into the MSR's first reheater stage. Higher enthalpy, higher temperature steam extracted from the latter stages of the HP Turbine transfers heat across the tubes of the reheater, increasing the temperature of the steam. Because the steam is now at a temperature higher than saturation temperature for the pressure it is at, the steam leaving the reheater is now superheated. This now superheated steam is directed to the MSR's second reheater stage. Higher enthalpy, higher temperature steam extracted from the Main Steam line prior to the HP Turbine inlet transfers heat across the tubes of the reheater, further increasing the temperature of the steam (increases the steams degrees of superheat). The steam now exists the MSRs and flows to the LP Turbines inlets.

2.

3.

Because the LP Turbine inlet steam is superheated, its enthalpy is greater than the enthalpy of saturated dry steam enthalpy (h > hg) for the pressure of the steam. Therefore, when this high energy steam begins to do work in the LP Turbines it remains dry through the first few stages of the LP Turbines. Eventually the work done by the steam results in its enthalpy decreasing to the point where it is now wet steam, and the moisture content of the steam continues to increase until it leaves at the LP Turbines outlets.

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When moisture (water droplets) is entrained in steam passing through any turbine, the high velocity liquid water droplets can cause physical damage to the turbine blading if the moisture content is excessive. Because of the superheating that occurred in the MSRs, the moisture content of the steam passing through the LP Turbines never reaches a value high enough to cause mechanical damage to the latter stages of the LP Turbine. In fact, this is the reason for MSRs in the Secondary Loop: The main purpose of the MSRs is to protect the LP Turbine internals from the damage that would occur from excessive water droplets moving at high speed and impinging on latter stage turbine blading (excessive moisture content) that would be present in the LP Turbines if MSRs were not used in the cycle. NOTE: MSRs also have a minor effect on the thermal efficiency of the Secondary Loop. The effects of MSRs on efficiency will be discussed later in this Chapter.

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Feedwater Heaters
The purpose of Feedwater Heaters is to preheat Condensate/Feedwater flow prior to its reaching the Steam Generators. As Figure 2 shows, there are six Feedwater Heaters in series along the flowpath from the Main Condenser to the Steam Generators. Extraction steam taken from various stages of the HP and LP Turbines, as well as wet steam from the MSRs, is used to increase the temperature of the Condensate/Feedwater flow. Without Feedwater Heaters, water pumped from the Main Condenser to the Steam Generators would enter the Steam Generators at essentially the same temperature with which it left the Main Condenser, i.e., 102EF (TSAT for Condenser pressure of 1 psia) . Because Feedwater Heaters are used in the Secondary Cycle, Feedwater enters the Steam Generators at a temperature (about 440EF) closer to the saturation temperature (Tsat = 519EF) for the 100% power program Steam Generator pressure (P = 806 psia) than would be the case if the water had not been not preheated. If the water had entered the Steam Generators at 102EF, the 3,458 Mw added to the shell side water by RCS tube side flow would result in a significantly LOWER Steam Generator outlet steam pressure and temperature. If low pressure, low temperature steam is then introduced to the Main Turbine, the amount of turbine power would be significantly reduced, as discussed earlier. The Secondary Loop, therefore, would produce a lot less useful turbine power for the 3,458 Mw of thermal power that was added to it than it could have produced. Since turbine power is what we want and RCS thermal power transfer (3,458 Mw) is what it takes to get it, this means that the Secondary Loop would not be efficiently converting the thermal power input from the RCS into turbine power output. Therefore, the primary purpose of the SONGS Feedwater heaters is to increase Steam Generator inlet enthalpy so that high energy, high pressure steam will be produced to drive the Main Turbine. More turbine power will be the result, and the Secondary Loop will be more efficient. Secondary Loop cycle efficiency will now be discussed in detail.

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Thermal Efficiency of the Secondary Cycle


From an economic standpoint, it is clearly desirable to obtain as much turbine work as possible from the energy that is transferred to the Secondary flow through the Steam Generators. The thermal (cycle) efficiency (nth) of a thermodynamic cycle such as the Secondary Loop is defined as the ratio of net work done by the turbine to the energy (heat) supplied to the loop. Therefore, for Units 2/3: th ' Wturbine Qin ' Main Turbine Work Steam Generator Heat Input

Since power is work per unit time, thermal efficiency can also be defined in terms of power: th ' 0 W turbine 0 Q in ' Turbine Power (Shaft Power) Power Supplied in Steam Generators

The cycle efficiency defined above is not the same thing as the turbine efficiency discussed earlier! Cycle efficiency is a measure of the fraction of the total power supplied to the loop that is realized as turbine shaft power. Turbine efficiency is a measure of the fraction of the maximum (ideal) turbine power that is realized in the real steam expansion process through the turbine.

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Example G
Under 100% power conditions, 3458 Mw of thermal power is transferred to Secondary flow in Units 2/3 Steam Generators. 1195 Mw of mechanical power is produced by the Main Turbine. What is the cycle efficiency?

Solution
th ' 0 W turbine 0 Q in ' 1195 Mw ' 0.346 ' 34.6% 3458 Mw

Note: Not all of the mechanical power generated in the Main Turbine (shaft power) is converted to electrical power output from the Main Generator; there are frictional losses. The electrical power output under 100% power conditions is about 1160 Mwelec. Strictly speaking, the thermal efficiency of the cycle is 34.6%. If the ratio of electrical power produced to thermal power input is determined, this ratio is 33.5%. Example G shows that approximately 65% of the energy added to the Secondary flow does NOT produce useful work. Some of this energy input is lost through ambient heat losses through Secondary System piping, but the overwhelming majority of the loss occurs in the Main Condenser as the LP Turbine exhaust is condensed to liquid. This loss is a necessary consequence of any thermodynamic cycle because the turbine exhaust steam MUST be condensed to liquid or the Condensate and Feedwater Pumps CANNOT pump the water back to the Steam Generators to continue the cycle (they cant pump steam).

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Plant Heat Rate


The concept of Plant Heat Rate provides a method by which the plant efficiency can be analyzed. Heat Rate is defined as the power which must be supplied by the reactor to the Secondary Loop per unit of electrical power achieved. It is the ratio of Reactor Power to Main Generator power: BTU hr BTU Heat Rate ' ' Main Generator Power kW kW@hr Reactor Power

Example H
What is the Plant Heat Rate if the core is producing 3,438 Mwth and Main Generator output is 1160 Mwe?

Solution
3.412 x 106 Reactor Power Heat Rate ' ' Main Generator Power BTU kW@hr 3438 MW BTU hr

1 MW 1000 kW 1160 MW 1 MW

Heat Rate ' 10,171

The result determined above shows that 10,171 BTU of thermal energy must be supplied by the reactor core for each kW@hr of electrical energy that is generated. Clearly, it is desirable to keep secondary cycle efficiency as high as possible, and the Plant Heat Rate as low as possible. The smaller the number of core BTUs that are required to produce 1 kW@hr of electrical energy is, the more efficient the plant is.

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The Temperature-Entropy (T-s) Diagram


A temperature-entropy (T-s) diagram is the type of diagram most frequently used for energy analysis of the heat engine cycle. Figure 15 is the T-s diagram for water.

Figure 15 T-s Diagram for Water Characteristics of the T-s Diagram: 1. The critical point is the state of water at T = 705.47EF (and P = 3208.2 psia). This is the state of water where its liquid and vapor properties are identical (hf = hg, sf = sg, etc.).

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2. 3. 4. 5.

The left side of the solid dome curve represents saturated liquid states of water. The right side of this curve represents saturated, dry steam states of water. All points to the left of the saturated liquid state curve and below the critical point represent subcooled liquid water states. All points to the right of the saturated, dry steam curve and above the critical point represent superheated steam states. All points under the dome represent wet steam states (liquid-vapor coexisting at Tsat/Psat conditions). Therefore, any horizontal line segment such as the one between points B and C represents saturation conditions (constant Tsat and Psat), from saturated liquid (point B) to saturated vapor (point C). In particular, point A represents a wet steam state with quality equal to 50%. Typical constant quality, constant pressure, and constant specific volume lines are shown.

6.

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Isothermal and isentropic processes are easily displayed on a T-s diagram; they are horizontal lines and vertical lines, respectively. See Figure 16.

Figure 16 Isothermal and Isentropic Processes on a T-s Diagram Process 1: Latent heat addition to the Secondary flow in a steam generator; isothermal (and isobaric) For example, heat added to 806 psia saturated liquid water at 979ER (519EF) until it becomes saturated steam at 806 psia, as it happens at 100% power in our steam generators. Process 2: Steam expansion as work is done in an ideal turbine; isentropic For example, superheated steam entering our LP Turbines and exiting the Turbines as wet steam in an ideal steam expansion process.

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Process 3:

Pressurization of water in an ideal pump; isentropic For example, an increase in Feedwater pressure and temperature as a Feedwater Pump does work ideally on the water.

Process 4:

Latent heat removal from the LP Turbine exhaust steam in Main Condenser; isothermal (and isobaric) For example, wet steam from LP Turbines is condensed to saturated liquid water in the Main Condenser.

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The Ideal Thermodynamic Cycle: Carnot Efficiency


Example G showed that the Secondary Loop cycle efficiency, under typical 100% power operation conditions, is 35%. It was explained that a necessary consequence of operating in a thermodynamic cycle is the rejection of heat from that cycle to return turbine exhaust to liquid water so that it can be pumped back to the heat source (steam generators) to begin the cycle again. And since only 35% of the total power added in the steam generators is realized as turbine shaft power, this means that 65% of the steam generator power is ultimately rejected to the ocean during the turbine exhaust condensation process. Even though a cycle efficiency of 35% may seem low, it can be shown that even if the Secondary Loop operated as a perfect (ideal) thermodynamic cycle, the resulting cycle efficiency will still be far less than the desired 100%. The concept of Carnot Cycle Efficiency will be introduced here to examine the best possible efficiency obtainable for a given set of operating conditions.

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Carnot Cycle
A Carnot Cycle is, by definition, is a perfect (ideal) thermodynamic cycle. A Carnot cycle is illustrated on the T-s Diagram of Figure 17:

Figure 17 An Ideal (Carnot) Cycle 1) Process b - c: Latent heat is added to the working fluid at a constant source temperature TH; an isothermal process. The fluid is taken from a saturated liquid state (b) to a saturated steam state (c). Process c - d: Steam expands through an (ideal) turbine to produce a work output. The steam temperature decreases from TH to TC; the process is isentropic. The steam condition at (d) is wet steam at Psat/Tsat conditions.

2)

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3)

Process d - a: Latent heat is removed at constant temperature TC from turbine exhaust steam; an isothermal process. The final condition of the steam at (a) is wet steam with the same entropy value as the saturated liquid of condition (b). Process a - b: The wet steam (a) at temperature TC is (ideally) compressed to produce a saturated liquid (b) at a temperature TH; process a-b is an isentropic process.

4)

The ideal cycle described above is clearly different from the real cycle experienced in the Secondary Loop: It assumes that the turbine has 100% efficiency (process c to d), so it overestimates the work (Wturbine) obtained from a real cycle. It assumes that the exhaust steam condensation process stops before all of the steam has been returned to the liquid state (process d to a), so it underestimates the heat that is rejected from the real cycle. It assumes that simply compressing low temperature wet steam (point a), with no heat added, will simultaneously increase its temperature to TH and lower its quality to zero, producing saturated liquid (process a to b). Thus, it underestimates the heat that is added to the working fluid by the Steam Generators (Qin) in the real cycle because it ignores the sensible heat addition necessary to raise Feedwater to boiling temperature. Since Wturbine is overestimated, and Qin is underestimated, the efficiency of this ideal steam cycle will clearly be greater than that of a real cycle. We will now determine the efficiency of this ideal cycle, and show (as stated earlier) that even this "best case" cycle has an upper limit on its efficiency value.

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Carnot Cycle Efficiency


Consider the following rectangular areas shown on Figure 17: 1. Rectangle bcd*a* has a height equal to the temperature at which heat is added in the cycle, ER, by the heat source. The base of the rectangle represents the increase in water entropy as it changes from saturated liquid to saturated steam (s = s2 - s1), BTU/lbm@ER. Therefore the area of the rectangle is:

Area ' TH x s:

ER x

BTU ' lbm@ER

BTU lbm

Since the physical unit for the area is BTU/lbm, i.e., energy per pound mass, and it describes the process of heat addition to the cycle, this means that the area of this rectangle represents the heat added to the cycle by the heat source. 2. Rectangle daa*d* has a height equal to the temperature at which heat is removed from the cycle, ER, by the heat sink (condenser). The base of the rectangle represents the decrease in water entropy as it changes from wet steam to saturated liquid (s = s2 - s1), BTU/lbm@ER. Therefore the area of the rectangle is: Area ' TC x s: ER x BTU ' lbm@ER BTU lbm

Since the physical unit for the area is BTU/lbm, i.e., energy per pound mass, and it describes the process of heat removal the cycle, this means that the area of this rectangle represents the heat removed from the cycle by the heat sink.

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The area of rectangle bcda is the difference between the area of rectangle bcd*a* and rectangle daa*d*. Since the area of bcd*a* represents the heat added to the cycle, and the area of daa*d* represents the heat removed from the cycle, the difference between these areas represents the work done by the turbine in the cycle: Turbine Work = Heat Added - Heat Removed Turbine Work = THs TCs

As stated earlier in this Chapter, the efficiency of any thermodynamic cycle is the ratio of the work done by its turbine(s) to the heat input received from its heat source. Therefore, for this ideal, Carnot cycle, the efficiency of the cycle is:

CARNOT '

turbine work ' heat input s TH & TC TH s TC TH '

THs & TCs TH s TH & TC TH

CARNOT '

CARNOT ' 1 &

The efficiency formula just derived represents the maximum possible efficiency for a heat engine cycle. This maximum possible efficiency is called the Carnot Efficiency.

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Therefore, if a thermodynamic cycle such as the SONGS Secondary Loop could operate as a Carnot Cycle, the efficiency of the Loop can be shown to be: TC TH

CARNOT ' 1 &

where: CARNOT ' Carnot Efficiency of the Loop; MAXIMUM possible cycle efficiency TH ' Temperature at which heat is added to the Loop; ER TC ' Temperature at which heat is removed the Loop; ER The Carnot efficiency formula shows that the efficiency of the perfect thermodynamic cycle is determined solely by the heat source temperature and the heat sink temperature. Because the SONGS Secondary Loop heat source is the Steam Generators and its heat sink is the Main Condenser, TH ' Steam Generator outlet steam temperature; ER TC ' Main Condenser steam inlet temperature; ER

In Example G, the actual SONGS Secondary Loop cycle efficiency was shown to be 35%. Example I will use the Carnot Efficiency formula above to determine the maximum possible efficiency achievable for the operational parameters of Example G.

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Example I
At 100% power conditions, 800 psia saturated steam is produced by the Steam Generators, and Low Pressure Turbine exhaust steam enters the Main Condenser at 1 psia. What is the maximum possible cycle efficiency (Carnot efficiency) for these conditions?

Solution
First, determine the absolute temperatures of the heat source and the heat sink: Since saturated steam is produced in the Steam Generators (heat source) at 800 psia, its temperature TH is Tsat, 800 psia = 518.21EF from the steam tables. Since TR = TF + 460E, TH = 518.21E + 460E = 978.21ER. Since wet steam is exhausted into the Main Condenser (heat sink) at 1 psia, its temperature TC is Tsat, 1 psia = 101.74EF. Since TR = TF + 460E, TC = 101.74E + 460E = 561.74ER. Therefore, Carnot ' 1 & TC TH ' 1 & 561.74ER 978.21ER

Carnot ' 0.43, or 43% The value calculated above is the "upper limit" for the thermal efficiency of Units 2/3, given the temperatures of its heat source and heat sink at 100% power conditions. The actual cycle efficiency calculated in Example G (35%) doesn't look so bad, now!

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SONGS Secondary Cycle on the T-s Diagram


Because the SONGS Secondary Loop is NOT an ideal thermodynamic cycle and because it has more components than the simple Carnot Cycle, a plot of its processes on a T-s diagram will be different from that of the Carnot (ideal) cycle of Figure 17. The thermodynamic processes that occur in actual thermodynamic cycle such as the SONGS Secondary Loop are referred to as a Rankine cycle. Figure 18 displays the SONGS Rankine cycle. An explanation of the processes follows.

11 10 9 8 3

7 6

Figure 18 SONGS Secondary Loop (Rankine Cycle) on a T-s Diagram

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Processes in the SONG Secondary Loop:


1-2: Saturated, dry steam enters the HP Turbine (1) and does work in the HP Turbine. It leaves the HP as wet steam (2). Because it is a real process, entropy increased during the process. 2-3: Wet steam enters the moisture separator stage of the MSRs (2). After the moisture is mechanically removed, it leaves this stage as saturated steam (3). 3-4: Saturated steam enters the first reheater (3). As it moves through this reheater and the second stage reheater, the steam is superheated. Steam leaves the MSRs as superheated steam (4). 4-5: Superheated steam enters the LP Turbines (4) and does work in the LP Turbines. It leaves the LPs as wet steam (5). Because it is a real process, entropy increased during the process. 5-6: Wet steam enters the Main Condenser (5) and latent heat is removed, returning it to saturated liquid in the Hotwell (6). 6-7: Water enters the Condensate Pumps suctions (6) and is pumped to a higher pressure at the Pumps discharges (7). 7-8: Water enters the 6th point Feedwater Heater (7). It passes through this Heater as well as the 5th, 4th, 3rd, and 2nd point Feedwater Heaters, through which its temperature is increased. It leaves at the outlet of the 2nd point Heater (10). 8-9: Water enters the Feedwater Pumps suctions (10) and is pumped to a higher pressure at the Pumps discharges (11). 9-10: Water enters the 1st point Feedwater Heater (9), through which its temperature is increased. It leaves at the outlet of the 1st point Heedwater (10). 10-11: Feedwater enters the Steam Generators through the J-tubes and falls into the downcomer (10). Heat transferred from the Steam Generators riser regions heats the downcomer water prior to its entering the riser region through the tube sheet. A short distance of upward travel through the riser region cause the water to reach saturation temperature (11). 11-1: As the water (11) continues to move upward through the riser region, latent heat is added. The wet steam then passes through the Steam Generator moisture separators, then leaves the Steam Generators (1) as dry, saturated steam.

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Factors Affecting Cycle Efficiency and Plant Heat Rate


San Onofre Units 2/3 were designed to be most efficient at 100% power conditions. Parameters associated with component construction and operation presuppose particular working fluid conditions as the fluid passes through the components. Therefore, it is important to realize that theoretical analysis of how cycle efficiency can be maximized may be only that - theoretical, because design factors may preclude these options. Most of the factors (variables) that have significant impact on Secondary Cycle efficiency and Plant Heat Rate deal with the various heat exchangers on the Secondary Side (Steam Generators, Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs), Main Condenser, Feedwater Heaters, etc.). For the Secondary Cycle, any action taken that results in an increase in the energy available to do work and/or a decrease in the energy unavailable to do work will increase the Cycle efficiency. The key factor in maintaining Cycle efficiency as high as possible is to maximize the amount of the energy added to the Cycle that remains in the Cycle, or equivalently, to minimize the amount of the energy that is rejected from the Cycle.

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Steam Generator Effects on Cycle Efficiency Shell Side Temperature/Pressure


The Carnot efficiency formula for a thermodynamic cycle (the maximum attainable thermal efficiency) shows that ideal cycle efficiency will increase if the temperature of the heat source increases; it will decrease if the temperature of the heat source decreases: Carnot ' 1 & TC TH

If TH increases, then Carnot increases If TH decreases, then Carnot decreases The actual efficiency of a heat engine such as the SONGS Secondary Cycle will respond in the same manner as does the Carnot efficiency. Therefore: If TSTM increases, thermal efficiency of the Secondary Cycle increases. If TSTM decreases, the efficiency of the Secondary Cycle decreases.

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Therefore, from an efficiency perspective, it is desirable to operate the Steam Generators at as high a temperature as possible. However, design factors must be considered: Steam Generators operate at saturation temperature/pressure conditions. Therefore, any change in Steam Generator shell side temperature is coupled with a change in shell side pressure. In particular, a higher shell side temperature would result in a higher shell side pressure. Design limitations preclude significant pressure increases in this component. If 100% power conditions Steam Generator temperature/pressure are increased, TAVG of the Primary Loop would have to be higher in order to transfer 3,458 Mw of thermal power across the Steam Generator Tubes. (Look at Figure 12 again; it shows that TAVG must be 47.5EF above the steam temperature when 3,458 Mw is being transferred to the Secondary Loop.) A higher TAVG in the Primary Loop means a higher THOT would exist in the Hot Legs. The pressurizer is maintaining 2,250 psia, so the Hot Leg temperature would be much closer to saturation temperature (TSAT = 653EF) for the Loop pressure; in other words, the RCS subcooling margin (SCM = TSAT - THOT) would be reduced. Adequate subcooling margin must be maintained at all times; reducing its present value would cause the reactor core to be closer to operational conditions that could damage the core (more on this in Chapter 5). The hotter the Steam Generator shell-side water is, the greater is the rate at which Steam Generator tubes degrade due to chemical corrosion. In the interest of protecting the integrity of the Steam Generator tubes for the design life of the plant, corrosion considerations preclude significant temperature increases above the present operational temperature program in this component.

Therefore, relative to the Steam Generators, whereas improving cycle efficiency by increasing steam temperature/pressure is theoretically a wise move, it is not a viable option. This does not mean, however, that the NRC wont ask about this on the GFES Examination, so know the effects of Steam Generator, pressure/temperature increase on cycle efficiency!

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Tube Plugging
Any plant condition which results in a decrease in Steam Generator pressure below the present operational programmed values results in a decrease in the temperature at which heat is being added (Secondary Side TSAT decreases). Cycle efficiency decreases, and the plant is not realizing as much financial return from electrical power generation for the cost of 100% power production (3,438 Mw) on the Primary Side. An unavoidable consequence of Steam Generator operation is the fact that tube degradation with continuous operation eventually requires some tubes to be plugged to prevent Primary Side to Secondary Side leaks. Steam Generator tube plugging causes a lower Steam Generator pressure, and consequently lowers cycle efficiency. Example J illustrates.

Example J
During an outage, 5% of the Steam Generators' tubes were required to be plugged (reducing heat transfer surface area by 5%). Assuming 100% power PSTM = 800 psia prior to the outage, how much change in full power steam pressure will occur as a result of the tube plugging?

Solution
If A1 represents Steam Generator tube heat transfer area before the outage, then heat transfer area after the outage is 0.95A1. RCS TAVG = 566.5EF before and after the outage, because this is the programmed TAVG for 100% power. QS/G is the same after the outage (3,458 Mw) as it was before the outage (3,458 Mw).
C

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Therefore, 0 0 Qbefore ' Qafter U A1 TAVE & TSTM ' U A2 TAVE & TSTM
1 2

A1 (566.5EF & 518.21EF) ' 0.95 A1 566.5EF & TSTM 48.29EF ' 0.95 566.5EF & TSTM 48.29EF ' 566.5 & TSTM 2 0.95 50.8EF ' 566.5 & TSTM TSTM ' 515.7EF
2 2 2

From Steam Table 1 (interpolating), Psat = 783 psia. Therefore, because 5% of the Steam Generators' tubes were plugged, steam pressure dropped by 17 psi and steam temperature dropped by 2.51EF. Because tube plugging results in LOWER steam temperature and pressure, tube plugging results in LOWER Secondary Cycle thermal efficiency.

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Main Condenser Effects on Cycle Efficiency


Shell Side Temperature/Pressure
The Carnot Efficiency formula also shows that the Carnot efficiency of a thermodynamic cycle (the maximum attainable thermal efficiency) will increase if the temperature of the heat sink decreases; it will decrease if the temperature of the heat sink increases: Carnot ' 1 & TC TH

If TC decreases, then Carnot increases If TC increases, then Carnot decreases The actual efficiency of a thermodynamic cycle such as the SONGS Secondary Cycle will respond in the same manner as does the Carnot efficiency. Therefore: If Condenser Hotwell Condensate temperature (TCOND) increases, thermal efficiency of the Secondary Cycle decreases. If Condenser Hotwell Condensate temperature (TCOND) decreases, the efficiency of the Secondary Cycle increases. Therefore, from an efficiency perspective, it is desirable to operate the Main Condenser at as low of a temperature as possible. Since the Main Condenser operates at saturation temperature/pressure conditions, any decrease in Condenser shell side temperature means that shell side pressure has decreased. Therefore, Any change that results in a lower Main Condenser shell side pressure (i.e., the change INCREASES shell side vacuum pressure) will lower shell side temperature and consequently increase cycle efficiency. Any change that results in a higher Main Condenser shell side pressure (i.e., the change DECREASES shell side vacuum pressure) will raise shell side temperature and consequently decrease cycle efficiency. Rev 1-2, 10/15/04 54

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Earlier in this Chapter it was discussed that Main Turbine power is maximized by maintaining the P across the turbine as high as possible. The effect of a Main Condenser vacuum decrease (Main Condenser pressure and temperature increase) would result in a smaller Main Turbine P, less Main Turbine power, and therefore lower cycle efficiency. The effect of Condenser lower vacuum/higher Condenser absolute pressure on Secondary Cycle efficiency can also be confirmed by analyzing its effect on Main Turbine outlet enthalpy: Because Main Condenser pressure is also LP Turbine outlet pressure, an increase in Main Condenser pressure results in an increase in LP Turbine outlet pressure. A higher LP Turbine outlet pressure means the LP Turbine outlet steam enthalpy (hexhaust) will be greater. Since an increase in hexhaust results in a decrease in the steam enthalpy change across the turbine (i.e., hin - hexhaust is now smaller), turbine power will decrease: 0 Wturbine ' mSTM (hin & hexhaust) 0 hexhaust increase causes hin & hexhaust decrease; 0 hin & hexhaust decrease causes Wturbine decrease This reduction in Turbine power reduces Secondary Cycle efficiency: 0 Wturbine 0 Qin, SGs

th '

0 Wturbine decrease causes th decrease Operation at low Main Condenser vacuum not only decreases cycle efficiency, but also can impose severe and, in some cases, excessive duties on Turbine parts. It is, therefore, necessary to procedurally limit Turbine operation as a function of Main Condenser pressure. If unexpected plant conditions result in Main Condenser pressures above procedural limits, a reduction in Turbine load is required.

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Shell Side Air/Non-Condensible Gases


As discussed earleir, Condenser vacuum pressure results from combined effects of the rate at which steam is condensing on the shell side and the operation of Condenser steam jet air ejectors. If air or non-condensible gases exist in the Main Condenser shell, these gases will tend to hold shell-side pressure higher (hold shell-side vacuum lower). The Condenser Air Removal System (the air ejectors) continuously removes air and non-condensible gases from the shell-side. Removal of air/non-condensible gas reduces Condenser pressure (increases Condenser vacuum) and thus increases the cycle efficiency. Conversely, if the Condenser Air Removal System is out of service, cycle efficiency decreases because of the higher shell side pressure (and therefore temperature).

Tube Side Circ Water Flow Rate


The mass flow rate of the Circulating Water System (cooling water) will also affect Condenser vacuum, and thus affect cycle efficiency. An increase in the mass flow rate forces more cooling water per unit time through the Condenser tubes. The effective T across Condenser tubes will be increased because the average cooling water temperature is lower at it moves through the Condenser at the increased flow rate. The resulting increase in the heat transfer rate condenses steam more efficiently, increasing Condenser vacuum and consequently increasing cycle efficiency. A reduction in Circ Water mass flow rate would, of course, have the opposite effect. In particular, if a Circ Water Pump tripped, lowering Circ Water flow through the Condenser, the Condenser pressure would increase and cycle efficiency therefore would decrease.

Tube Side Circ Water Inlet Temperature


The temperature of the Circulating Water entering the Condenser will also affect the Condenser vacuum and cycle efficiency. Since the heat transfer rate is proportional to the effective difference in temperature between the Circulating Water and the condensing steam temperature on the shell side, a decrease in inlet Circ Water inlet temperature will increase the heat transfer rate. Consequently, Condenser vacuum increases and cycle efficiency increases. Obviously the Operator cannot control ocean water temperature, but if the ocean cools, the cycle is more efficient and if it heats up, cycle efficiency goes down.

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Tube Fouling
Over the life of a Plant Cycle, marine life growth occurs on the inside of the Main Condenser tubes. This scale buildup process, referred to as tube fouling, reduces the Main Condenser Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (U) because it lowers the tubes' effective conductive heat transfer coefficient and increases the effective thickness of the C C tubes. Since Q = UAT, this decrease in U decreases Q. Less steam per unit time is condensed, Main Condenser pressure increases (vacuum decreases), decreasing cycle efficiency.

Tube Plugging
Main Condenser tube plugging reduces heat transfer area. Q decreases due to the reduced tube heat transfer area. Therefore, Main Condenser pressure increases (vacuum decreases), and cycle efficiency is reduced.
C

Entrained Air in Circ Water


Entrained air in the Circulating Water can build up in the upper portions of the Main Condenser inlet and outlet plenums over time, preventing the uppermost tubes from being completely filled with Circulating Water. This reduces both heat transfer area and the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient; cycle efficiency decreases.

Condensate Depression
In Chapter 2, Example I, the Condensate leaving the Main Condenser was a saturated liquid. In other words, the wet LP Turbine exhaust steam had "just enough" heat removed from it to return it to a saturated liquid (92EF) at 1.514 in Hg abs (0.743 psia). Condensers can be designed/operated to remove more than just the latent heat of vaporization from turbine exhaust steam. When this is the case, the condensed water enters the condenser hotwell at a temperature below saturation temperature for the condenser pressure; the water is subcooled. The term used to describe the amount of subcooling that occurs in a condenser is condensate depression.

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When Unit 1 was in operation, its Main Condenser produced Condensate that was approximately 6EF below saturation temperature for its operating pressure. The condensate depression, therefore, was 6EF. Condenser design/operation that produces subcooled Condensate has advantages and disadvantages relative to plant operation: The major advantage of operation with condensate depression deals with Condensate Pump operation. If the Condensate is subcooled, the lower temperature of the water entering the Condensate Pumps means that these pumps are operating further from cavitation conditions; the available Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) is greater (see Fluid Mechanics, Chapter 3). For Unit 1, it was necessary to subcool Condensate to minimize the possibility of Condensate Pump cavitation. The major disadvantage associated with condenser operation with condensate depression is the fact that more heat must be removed from the LP Turbine exhaust steam to achieve subcooled water at the condenser outlet than would be the case if the condenser liquid leaves at saturated liquid conditions. Cooler water returning to the Steam Generators combined with the fact that the Steam Generators continue to add the same 3,458 Mw results in lower pressure/temperature steam leaving the Steam Generators and entering the Main Turbine. Lower pressure/temperature steam means lower cycle efficiency. Another disadvantage associated with condenser operation with condensate depression is the fact that gases are more soluble in lower temperature water (see the Chemistry module for details). In particular, as condensate depression increases (colder water), the amount of air absorbed by Condensate in the condenser hotwell increases. This accelerates oxygen corrosion of Secondary Side materials.

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Units 2/3 operate with essentially no condensate depression, that is, Condensate produced is at saturation temperature for the Main Condenser pressure. The increased potential for cavitation in the Condensate Pumps caused by the fact that the water is saturated in the Main Condenser hotwell is negated by the fact that Condensate Pump suction is about 20 feet below the hotwell. The hydrostatic head provided by this water column holds Condensate Pump suction pressure higher than Main Condenser pressure. The suction head is high enough to ensure the available NPSH exceeds the minimum required NPSH, and the pumps do not cavitate. Therefore, from the SONGS impact perspective, condensate depression is not an issue. It has been discussed here, however, because it is a concept tested on the NRC Generic Fundamentals Examination. Be prepared to answer that condensate depression decreases cycle efficiency but increases available NPSH to Condensate Pumps.

Feedwater Heaters Effects on Cycle Efficiency


As stated earlier, Feedwater Heaters use liquid and vapor extraction from the MSRs and HP/LP Turbines to heat the Condensate/Feedwater before it enters the Steam Generators. This action improves cycle efficiency, because 3,458 Mw added to higher temperature Feedwater results in higher temperature/pressure steam from the Steam Generators which then results in more Main Turbine power. Any malfunction which reduces the amount the heat transferred from the shell side of the Feedwater Heaters across Feedwater Heater tubes to the Feedwater flow will reduce the amount of Feedwater preheating and thus reduce cycle efficiency. Less heat transferred to the Feedwater results in lower Steam Generator inlet temperatures, resulting in lower temperature/pressure steam entering the Main Turbine, resulting in less Turbine power for the same Steam Generator power input of 3,458 Mw.

Shell Side Liquid Level


Shell side liquid level affects heat transfer rate. Each Feedwater Heaters shell side has a condensing section and a drain cooling section. Feedwater is heated in the condensing section by latent heat transfer as shell side steam condenses; condensation of this steam results in effective heat transfer. The drain cooling section subcools the now condensed extraction steam, also heating the tube side liquid. 0HT123 59 Rev 1-2, 10/15/04

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If liquid level rises too high in the shell, active steam condensing section surface area is decreased. Less heat transfer occurs, and Feedwater leaves the Heater at a lower temperature than desired. This effect carries through all the way to the Steam Generators; Feedwater entering the Steam Generators will be at a lower temperature than desired, so lower pressure/temperature steam will be produced. Cycle efficiency goes down. If liquid level is too low in the shell, the amount of condensed steam subcooling decreases. Less thermal power is transferred to the Feedwater; the Feedwater leaves the Heater at a lower than desired temperature; cycle efficiency decreases.

Tube Corrosion
Corrosion on tubes increases effective tube thickness and creates oxides through which heat must be transferred. Since the oxides have lower thermal conductivities (lower kvalues) and the heat transfer rate varies inversely with tube thickness, the Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient is reduced, reducing heater efficiency and consequently reducing cycle efficiency.

Tube Leaks
Tubes which leak must be repaired or plugged. Plugged tubes represent a reduction in heat transfer surface area. This decreases heat transfer rate and consequently reduces cycle efficiency.

Tube Fouling
Foreign matter which flows in the tube side fluid can become trapped on the inlet tube sheet. This blocks flow (or reduces flow) in some tubes, reducing heat transfer and consequently reducing Cycle efficiency.

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Moisture Separator Reheaters Effects on Cycle Efficiency


As stated earlier in this Chapter, the main purpose of the MSRs is to protect the latter stages of the Low Pressure Turbines from the damage they would sustain due to high moisture content that would be present in their exhausting steam if the MSRs are not used. Because the MSRs superheat steam prior to entry into the Low Pressure Turbines, the steam energy consumed as turbine work is done results in acceptable exhaust steam moisture content; there is not enough moisture in this steam to damage the turbines. The use of Moisture Separator Reheaters also has an impact on the efficiency of the Secondary Loop; with operating MSRs, the cycle is (slightly) more efficient. The discussion which follows explains why this is the case. Example A of this Chapter showed that the High Pressure Turbines exhaust wet steam with approximately 12% moisture content (88% quality) at approximately 180 psia. The enthalpy of this exhaust steam is 1094.8 BTU/lbm, and its temperature is 373EF. Because of the moisture separation and superheating that this HP Turbine exhaust steam experiences as it passes through the MSRs, the MSRs produce superheated steam at approximately 477EF. Head losses through the MSRs lower this steams pressure to about 170 psia, whose saturation temperature is 368.42EF. The steam exiting the MSRs, therefore, has 477EF - 368.42EF = 108.58E of superheat. Steam Table 3 (interpolating) shows that the enthalpy of this steam is about 1260 BTU/lbm. The MSRs, therefore increase the enthalpy of the HP Turbine exhaust steam prior to its entry to the Low Pressure Turbines by 1260 - 1094.8 = 165.2 BTU/lbm. As stated earlier in this Chapter, the work done per pound mass of steam flowing through a turbine is given by the formula: wturbine (BTU/lbm) = hinlet steam - houtlet steam Since the MSRs increased hinlet steam to the LP Turbines by 165.2 BTU/lbm, it appears that the LP Turbine work has clearly been increased. This is in fact the case: LP Turbine work, therefore, total Main Turbine work, is increased because of the use of MSRs between the HP and LP Turbines.

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However, because steam leaves the LP Turbines with less moisture content than would be the case if MSRs were not used, this means that the LP Turbine exhaust enthalpy is higher than it would be if MSRs were not used. Therefore, Use of MSRs causes LP Turbine inlet enthalpy hinlet steam to be HIGHER than is the case with no MSRs and Use of MSRs causes LP Turbine exhaust enthalpy houtlet steam to be HIGHER than is the case with no MSRs FACT: As shown by Figure 19 (below): Even though LP Turbine hinlet steam and houtlet steam are both HIGHER due to MSR operation, the increase in inlet steam enthalpy is GREATER than the increase in outlet steam enthalpy, i.e., the work done by the turbine (work = h = hinlet steam - houtlet steam) INCREASES when MSRs are in operation. This fact, alone, tends to increase cycle efficiency. Figure 19 LP Turbine Work (h), With and Without MSRs in Operation

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There is also a negative impact on cycle efficiency that results from MSR operation. As stated earlier in this Chapter, the energy rejected to the ocean by the steam exhausting the LP Turbine as the Main Condenser condenses it is given by the formula: qout, condenser (BTU/lbm) = hLP outlet steam - hcondensate Since hLP outlet steam is higher because of MSR operation (shown on Figure 19), the formula above shows that MORE HEAT is rejected to the ocean due to MSR operation. This fact, alone, tends to decrease cycle efficiency. The following conclusion is stated (without calculational proof): With MSRs in operation, the fractional increase in turbine work achieved (positive effect on cycle efficiency) is GREATER than the fractional increase in Main Condenser heat rejection to the ocean (negative effect on cycle efficiency); MSRs IMPROVE CYCLE EFFICIENCY.

Throttling: Isenthalpic Processes Steam Throttling


A throttling process is a process in which fluid flows from a high pressure region to a low pressure region without doing work between these locations. For example, if a working fluid (water or steam) flows through an orifice, a pressure drop occurs and no useful work is done. Figure 20 is an example of a throttling process.

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It has been shown earlier in this chapter that when steam moves from the high pressure inlet to the low pressure outlet of a turbine, the enthalpy of the steam decreases. The enthalpy of the steam decreases because the steam does work on the turbine blading. The change in enthalpy of the steam across the turbine is equal to the work done by the steam. Since, by definition, fluid flow in a throttling process results in NO work done, this means that the enthalpy change of the fluid is equal to zero; throttling processes are constant enthalpy processes: In a throttling process, the enthalpy of the fluid as it enters the process is the same as the enthalpy of the fluid as it leaves the process: hin = hout Recall that enthalpy is the sum of the flow energy and the internal energy of the fluid, and its defining formula is: h = P + u 1. Because steam is compressible, any throttling process that results in a lower pressure at the outlet (P decreases) simultaneously results in an increase in the specific volume of the steam ( increases). The factor by which specific volume increases is always greater than the factor by which pressure decreases. This means that the product of the two, P, always increases in a throttling process. Since (1) h = P + u, (2) h remains constant in a throttling process, and (3) P always increases in a throttling process, this means that internal energy always decreases in a throttling process (u decreases). Since internal energy is directly related to temperature, a decrease in internal energy means that the temperature of the fluid decreases.

2.

3.

4.

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Therefore, in any steam throttling process: enthalpy is CONSTANT pressure DECREASES specific volume INCREASES temperature DECREASES Because enthalpy is constant in any throttling process, the Mollier Diagram is the easiest available tool for determining the final condition of the throttled steam. Constant enthalpy processes (i.e., isenthalpic processes) on the Mollier Diagram move horizontally from the initial state of the steam to the final state of the steam. Steam Tables 1, 2, and/or 3 can also be used to analyze throttling processes. The advantage of use of this tool is more precise thermodynamic data than can be read from the Mollier. The disadvantage of use of this tool is the fact that it requires mathematical calculations. Example K demonstrates both methods.

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Example K
Unit 2 is at 100% power. Main Steam header pressure is 900 psia, carrying 100% quality steam. A steam generator relief valve is leaking to atmosphere. a. b. What steam temperature would be expected immediately outside the leaking valve? What is the general state of the steam outside the leaking valve (saturated? superheated?)

Solution
Method 1: Mollier Diagram Since this is a throttling process, it will be isenthalpic. Refer to the Mollier Diagram (depicted in Figure 21). a. Starting at the 900 psia, 100% quality point, move horizontally (because enthalpy remains constant) to the 14.7 psia line. From this final condition point it can be determined that the steam escaping to atmosphere will have a temperature of approximately 300EF. Because the steam outside the leaking valve is at a pressure of 14.7 psia and a temperature of 300EF, the Mollier Diagram clearly shows that the final state of the steam is in the superheated region.

b.

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Figure 21 Method 2: Steam Tables Steam Table 2 shows that the enthalpy of 100% quality 900 psia steam is 1196.4 BTU/lbm. Therefore, the steam that has leaked out will also have an enthalpy of 1196.4 BTU/lbm. Since the leaking steam has a pressure of 14.7 psia and enthalpy of 1196.4, Steam Table 2 shows that at 14.7 psia the enthalpy of the steam is greater that hg for 14.7 psia, meaning the steam is superheated. To get its temperature, Steam Table 3 must be consulted. continued next page--

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Steam Table 3 shows that for 14.7 psia steam with an enthalpy of 1196.4 BTU/lbm, the steam temperature lies between 300EF and 350EF. To get the steam temperature, interpolation is required: enthalpy temperature 1192.6 ----------> 300EF 1196.4 ----------> ? 1216.3 ----------> 350EF 3.8 ' 23.7 x 50 Y x ' 8.0 Y T ' 300EF % 8.0EF ' 308EF

The temperature of the superheated steam is 308EF. Example K clearly demonstrated the advantages and disadvantages of each of the methods that can be used to determine final thermodynamic properties of the steam in this throttling process. The Mollier Diagram method is quick and efficient, but not very precise. The Steam Table method is quite precise, but requires tedious mathematical calculations. The method used to solve throttling process problems depends on just how important it is to get precise data about the final state of the steam.

Liquid Water Throttling


When high-temperature, high-pressure liquid water is throttled to a pressure less than saturation pressure for its temperature, the water partially flashes into steam. This is also a constant enthalpy process. This process for water results in low-quality steam, below the range plotted on the Mollier Diagram. Therefore, the thermodynamic properties of the resulting state of the water/steam mixture must be calculated using wet steam formulas. Example L illustrates.

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Example L
Unit 2 is at 100% power when a small leak to atmosphere occurs in a Feedwater line, outside Containment. If Feedwater temperature is 440EF and pressure is 936 psia, determine a) quality and b) temperature of the low pressure steam immediately downstream of the leak.

Solution
a) This is a constant enthalpy process. Thus, h1 (440EF, 936 psia liquid water) = h2 (14.7 psia wet steam) From the Steam Table 1, h1 . hf, 440EF = 419.0 BTU/lbm. Therefore, the enthalpy of the wet steam is also 419.0 BTU/lbm. The wet steam enthalpy equation can be used to determine the quality of the wet steam: hwet steam ' hf % x hfg 419.0 BTU BTU BTU ' 180.17 % x 970.3 lbm lbm lbm x ' 419.0 & 180.17 970.3

' 0.25, or 25% b) Since the wet steam is at saturation conditions, T = TSAT = 212EF. Therefore, the rupture of this high-pressure water line produces a mass that is 25% steam and 75% water. NOTE: The mixture will appear to be mostly steam because the volume of the steam is much larger than the volume of water.

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Throttling Process Summary


The final condition of high pressure, high temperature water or steam experiencing a throttling process can be either wet steam, saturated steam, or superheated steam. To determine the general downstream state of the water, the following method can be employed: (1) (2) (3) From the Steam Tables determine hf and hg for the exiting outlet pressure. Based on the initial conditions, determine the initial enthalpy of the water; h1. If hf < h1 < hg, then wet steam exits the process, and the temperature of the wet steam is TSAT for the exit pressure (most easily determined from Steam Tables), or If h1 = hg, then saturated (dry) steam exits the process, and its temperature is Tsat for the exit pressure, or If hg < h1, then superheated steam exits the process, and the temperature or degrees of superheat of the steam is most easily determined from the Mollier Diagram.

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Definitions
Carnot Efficiency - Maximum possible efficiency of a thermodynamic cycle, assuming the cycle is an ideal cycle Condensate Depression - number of degrees by which the temperature of Main Condenser condensate is below saturation temperature for the Condenser pressure Critical Point - state of water where its liquid and vapor properties are identical Cycle (thermal) Efficiency - ratio of the work (mechanical power) produced in a thermodynamic cycle to the heat (thermal power) added to the cycle Isenthalpic Process - thermodynamic process in which enthalpy remains constant Isentropic Process - thermodynamic process in which entropy remains constant (ideal process) Plant Heat Rate - ratio of the reactor power (BTU/hr) to the Main Generator power (Mw) Thermodynamic Cycle - any cyclic process that converts a heat input to a work output on a continuous basis Turbine Efficiency - ratio of the actual work performed by a turbine to the ideal turbine work that would be achieved if entropy did not increase

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Exercises
Exercise 1 Objective 1:Solve problems and qualitatively describe the energy conversion processes which occur in the Main Turbine, including:

C C

work extracted from the secondary side steam flow power produced by the secondary side steam flow

Objective 2: Given steam turbine inlet and outlet conditions, calculate steam turbine efficiency. 1. TRUE or FALSE: a. The work done by each pound mass of steam as it passes through a turbine is equal to the enthalpy of the steam entering the turbine minus the enthalpy of the steam exiting the turbine. b. The power delivered to a turbine shaft is equal to the steam mass flow rate through the turbine multiplied by its change in enthalpy. c. Maximum turbine power will be delivered when the entropy change of the steam passing through it is greater than zero. d. The main purpose of a turbine nozzle is to convert steam enthalpy to kinetic energy. e. Steam pressure and speed remain constant as the steam passes through fixed (stationary) reaction blading. f. As steam moves through moving impulse blading, its kinetic energy decreases and its pressure remains constant.

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Question 1, continued: g. As steam moves through moving reaction blading, its kinetic energy decreases and its pressure remains constant. h. Turbine torque is equalized along successive stages by the increasing crosssectional area of the blading and the increasing distance of the blading from the turbine shaft. i. 2. First stage impulse pressure decreases linearly as grid electrical power increases.

Dry saturated steam enters an operating turbine at 500 psia. Turbine exhaust pressure is 50 psia. Assuming the turbine process is ideal (i.e., maximum work was achieved), determine a) the work done by the steam (in BTU/lbm) and if steam flowrate through the turbine is 1.5 x 106 lbm/hr, b) determine ideal turbine power (Mw). Data provided because Steam Tables are not available: Turbine inlet enthalpy: 1204.7 BTU/lbm. Turbine outlet enthalpy, assuming the process is ideal: 1030 BTU/lbm.

3.

Dry saturated steam enters a turbine at 1000 psia. It leaves the turbine at 300EF and 84% quality. Determine a) actual turbine work (in BTU/lbm), and b) turbine efficiency. Data provided because Steam Tables are not available: Turbine inlet enthalpy: 1192.9 BTU/lbm. hf, 300EF = 269.7 BTU/lbm, hfg, 300EF = 910 BTU/lbm. Turbine exhaust enthalpy, if the turbine was an ideal turbine: 995 BTU/lbm.

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Exercise 2 Objective 3: State the purpose of Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) in the SONGS Secondary Loop. Objective 4: State the purpose of Feedwater Heaters in the SONGS Secondary Loop. 1. What is the main purpose of Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) in the SONGS Secondary Loop?

2.

What is the main purpose of Feedwater Heaters in the SONGS Secondary Loop?

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Exercise 3 Objective 5: Given selected Secondary Loop parameters, calculate Secondary Loop cycle efficiency. Objective 6: Calculate Heat Rate. 1. Calculate SONGS Secondary Loop thermal efficiency if: Q-dotin, steam generators = 2800 Mwth W-dotMain Trubine = 728 Mwmech

2.

Calculate SONGS Secondary Loop thermal efficiency if: Feedwater conditions 419 BTU/lbm at Steam Generator inlet: 1.5 x 107 lbm/hr 440EF, 936 psia Steam conditions at Steam Generator outlet and Main Turbine inlet: Main Turbine outlet conditions: 800 psia , quality = 100% 1199.4 BTU/lbm 1.5 x 107 lbm/hr 1 psia 1.5 x 107 lbm/hr Moisture content 14% hf, 1 psia = 69.73 BTU/lbm hfg, 1 psia = 1036.1 BTU/lbm

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3.

Calculate SONGS Heat Rate if: Reactor Power = 2200 Mwth Main Generator Power = 700 Mwe

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Exercise 4 Objective 8: Explain the effects of each of the following Steam Generator characteristics on Secondary Loop cycle efficiency: pressure temperature tube plugging

Objective 9: Explain the effects of each of the following Main Condenser characteristics on Secondary Loop cycle efficiency: 12. pressure (absolute or vacuum) temperature shell side air/non-condensible gas content (air in-leakage) tube side Circulating Water flow rate tube side Circulating Water inlet temperature tube fouling tube plugging Air/gas entrainment in Circulating Water

Explain the effects of each of the following Feedwater Heater characteristics on Secondary Loop cycle efficiency:

C C C

Shell side liquid level tube corrosion tube leaks tube fouling

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1.

If SONGS Steam Generator tubes are plugged during a maintenance outage, then: A. Reactor Coolant System TAVG at 100% power will be higher than its value before the tubes were plugged. B. Steam pressure at 100% power will be lower than its value before the tubes were plugged. C. The effective temperature difference across Steam Generator tubes will be lower than its value before the tubes were plugged. D. All of the above

2.

Which of the following will cause Secondary Loop thermal efficiency to DECREASE? A. Increasing the pressure at which steam is produced in the Steam Generators B. Decreasing the temperature at which steam is produced in the Steam Generators C. Decreasing the pressure at which steam is condensed in the Main Condenser D. Decreasing the amount of condensate depression in the Main Condenser

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3.

Which of the following will cause Secondary Loop thermal efficiency to INCREASE? A. increasing the temperature at which steam is condensed in the Main Condenser B. bypassing a Feedwater Heater during normal plant operations C. decreasing Main Condenser pressure from 2 psia to 1 psia D. decreasing the temperature of the Feedwater entering the Steam Generators

4.

To achieve maximum secondary plant efficiency, Feedwater should enter the and the pressure difference between the Steam Steam Generators as possible. Generators and the Main Condenser should be as A. close to saturation; small B. close to saturation; large C. as subcooled as practical; small D. as subcooled as practical; large

5.

Which of the following plant changes will cause an increase in thermal efficiency? A. decreasing the enthalpy of the water entering the Steam Generators B. increasing the enthalpy of the steam exiting the Low Pressure Turbine C. increasing the Circulating Water System flow rate to the Main Condenser D. increasing the temperature of the Circulating Water at its inlet to the Main Condenser

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Exercise 5 Objective 10: Describe the purpose and principle of operation of two-stage Steam Jet Air Ejectors used in the Main Condenser. Objective 11: Define condensate depression and state its effects on Secondary Cycle thermal efficiency and Condensate Pump net positive suction head. 1. What is the purpose of Steam Jet Air Ejectors used in the Main Condenser?

2.

State a positive effect and an negative effect of condensate depression.

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Exercise Solutions
Exercise 1 1a. 1c. TRUE 1b. TRUE

FALSE. Maximum turbine power would be achieved if the entropy of the steam does not change as the steam passes through the turbine, i.e., the entropy change is equal to zero (isentropic process). This is, of course, impossible to achieve in a turbine, but its value provides a method for determining how efficient the turbine is at converting steam power into useful turbine shaft power (for determining turbine efficiency). TRUE FALSE. Pressure drops and speed increases because cross-sectional flow area through this non-moving blade gets increasingly smaller. TRUE FALSE. Work is being done by the steam as it passes through this moving reaction blade. Both pressure AND speed decrease. TRUE FALSE. First stage impulse pressure increases linearly with grid electrical power requirement. As grid power requirement increases, steam flowrate must increase. With more steam per unit time introduced to the steam chest, the first stage impulse pressure will be higher.

1d. 1e. 1f. 1g. 1h. 1i.

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2a. hSTM ' hg,500 psia ' 1204.7 Mollier (isentropic): hEXH ' 1030 BTU lbm

BTU lbm BTU BTU & 1030 lbm lbm BTU , answer lbm

w out ' hSTM & hEXH ' 1204.7 w out ' 174.7 2b. 0 W out ' m STM hSTM & hEXH 0 ' 1.5 x 106 lbm BTU 174.7 hr lbm

1 Mw 3.412 x 106 BTU hr

0 W out ' 77 Mw

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3a. hSTM ' hg,1000 psia BTU ' 1192.9 lbm .

hEXH ' hf,300E % x hfg,300E ' 269.7 BTU BTU % 0.84 910 lbm lbm BTU lbm

hEXH ' 1034.1

w out ' hSTM & hEXH ' 1192.9 w out ' 158.8 3b. BTU , answer lbm

BTU BTU & 1034.1 lbm lbm

To determine turbine efficiency, ideal exhaust enthalpy is needed. Since the exhaust steam is wet steam at 300EF, its pressure is 67 psia (from Table 1). Now use the Mollier Diagram, starting at 1000 psia on the saturation line, and move vertically downward (constant entropy) to determine hideal. From the Diagram, hideal is approximately 995 BTU/lbm. Therefore, BTU BTU & 1034.1 lbm lbm BTU BTU 1192.9 & 995 lbm lbm

t '

h & hEXH,real Actual turbine work ' ' STM hSTM & hEXH,ideal Ideal turbine work

1192.9

t ' 0.80, or 80%, answer

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Exercise 2 1. The main purpose of the MSRs is to sufficiently superheat the LP Turines inlet steam so that while the steam passes through the turbines doing work the moisture content of the steam never reaches a value high enough to do physical damage to the LP Turbines blades. The main purpose of the Feedwater Heaters is to maximize Secondary Loop cycle efficiency. Because they significantly increase Feedwater temperature from the Main Condenser outlet to the SG inlets, the power added to the Feedwater flow through the SGs results in significantly higher steam pressure/temperature at the outlet, increasing the amount of work this steam does in the Main Turbine.

2.

Exercise 3 1. th ' ' Turbine Power Power Supplied By Steam Generators 728 Mw 2800 Mw

th ' 0.26, or 26%

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2. th ' Turbine Power Power Supplied in Steam Generators

0 Turbine Power ' W out ' m STM hSTM & hEXH 0 0 Power Supplied in Steam Generators ' Q in ' m hSTM & hFW 0 BTU lbm BTU lbm BTU BTU % 0.86 1036.1 lbm lbm ' 960.8 BTU lbm

hFW ' hf, 440EF ' 419.0

hSTM ' hg, 800 psia ' 1199.4

hEXH ' hf % x hfg

1 psia

' 69.73

0 0 Q in ' m hSTM & hFW ' 1.5 x 107 lbm BTU BTU 1199.4 & 419.0 hr lbm lbm ' 1.17 x 1010 BTU hr

0 0 W out ' m STM hSTM & hEXH ' 1.5 x 107 lbm BTU BTU & 960.8 1199.4 hr lbm lbm 3.6 x 109 ' 3.6 x 109 BTU hr

th '

0 W out 0 Q in

BTU hr ' ' 0.306 , or 30.6% 10 BTU 1.17 x 10 hr

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3 BTU hr Heat Rate ' Main Generator Power (kW) Reactor Power 3.412 x 106 Reactor Power ' 2200 Mw 1 Mw 1000 kW 1 Mw BTU hr
5

BTU hr

' 7.5 x 109

BTU hr

Main Generator Power ' 700 Mw 7.5 x 109 Heat Rate '

' 7.0 x 105 kW

7.0 x 10 kW

' 10,714

BTU kW&hr

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Exercise 4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. B. B C B C

Exercise 5 1. Air ejectors remove air and other noncondensable gases from the Main Condenser shell-side space. This lowers overall pressure in the Condenser, improving Secondary Loop cycle efficiency. Condensate depression increases the available NPSH to the pumps which take suction on the hotwell of the condenser in a thermodynamic cycle. Condensate depression lowers the thermal efficiency of the thermodynamic loop because it results in lower temperature water entering the heat source therby lowering the heat source steams outlet temperature and pressure.

2.

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