MB 0050 Research Methadology | Sampling (Statistics) | Stratified Sampling

Master of Business Administration - MBA Semester III

MB0050 – Research Methodology - 4 Credits (Book ID: B1206) Assignment - Set- 1 (60 Marks)

Question 1

Define Research. What are the features and types of Research?.

Answer
According to Mr. Young, Research can be defined as a “scientific undertaking which, by means of logical and systematic techniques”, aims to  Discover of new facts or verify and test old facts,  Analyze their sequences, interrelationships and causal explanations,  Develop new scientific tools, concepts and theories which would facilitate reliable and valid study of human behavior.  Kerlinger defines Research as a “systematic, controlled, empirical, and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena”.

According to the intent, research may be classified as: Pure Research It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice, eg., Einstein theory of relativity, Newtons contributions, Galileo’s contribution, etc. It is also known as basic or fundamental research. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness. It is not necessarily problem-oriented. It aims at extension of knowledge. It may lead to either discovery of a new theory or refinement of an existing theory. It lays foundation for applied research. It offers solutions to many practical problems. It helps to find the critical factors in a practical problem. It develops many alternative solutions and thus enables us to choose the best solution.

Applied Research It is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. It is thus problem-oriented and action-directed. It seeks an immediate and practical result, e.g., marketing research carried on for developing a news market or for studying the post-purchase experience of customers. Though the immediate purpose of an applied research is to find solutions to a practical problem, it may incidentally contribute to the development of theoretical knowledge by leading to the discovery of new facts or testing of theory or o conceptual clarity. It can put theory to the test. It may aid in conceptual clarification. It may integrate previously existing theories. Exploratory Research

Diagnostic Study It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. Action Research . adequate methods for collecting accurate information. It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it. It contributes to the development of a young science and useful in verifying focal concepts through empirical observation. statistical analysis and test of significance. clear-cut definition of the given population. and to specify its attributes and conditions required for its success. It is concerned also with change over time. It is concerned with causal relationships and is more actively guided by hypothesis. It may also be concerned with discovering and testing whether certain variables are associated. at the second. It is ill-structured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives. At the first level is the discovery of the significant variable in the situations. Evaluation Studies It is a type of applied research. its thorough formulation. It is directed towards discovering what is happening. It aims at identifying the various characteristics of a community or institution or problem under study and also aims at a classification of the range of elements comprising the subject matter of study. This type of research requires prior knowledge of the problem. It is the simplest type of research.It is also known as formulative research. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. It can highlight important methodological aspects of data collection and interpretation. precise measurement of variables. the discovery of relationships between variables Descriptive Study It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. The information obtained may be useful for prediction about areas of social life outside the boundaries of the research. They are valuable in providing facts needed for planning social action program. why it is happening and what can be done about. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. It is more specific than an exploratory research. It is made for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of developmental projects on the development of the project area. The purpose of this Research may be to generate new ideas or to increase the researcher’s familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attempt the study. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the quality and quantity of an activity and its performance. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge.

research may be classified as: Experimental Research It is designed to assess the effects of particular variables on a phenomenon by keeping the other variables constant or controlled. Its purpose is to provide information. Analytical Study It is a system of procedures and techniques of analysis applied to quantitative data. It aims at testing hypothesis and specifying and interpreting relationships. Survey It is a fact-finding study. It includes six major steps: diagnosis. it must often depend upon inference and logical analysis or recorded data and indirect evidences rather than upon direct observation. It may consist of a system of mathematical models or statistical techniques applicable to numerical data. It is a concurrent evaluation study of an action programme launched for solving a problem for improving an existing situation. It aims at determining whether and in what manner variables are related to each other. initiation of organizational change. It is a method of research involving collection of data directly from a population or a sample thereof at particular time. planning. and post experimental evaluation. to make comparisons and concerned with cause and effect relationships can be useful for making predications. sharing of diagnostic information. It is a difficult task. Hence it is also known as the Statistical Method. Historical Research It is a study of past records and other information sources with a view to reconstructing the origin and development of an institution or a movement or a system and discovering the trends in the past. It is descriptive in nature. explain phenomena.It is a type of evaluation study. developing change programme. According to the methods of study. Question 2 . implementation of participation and communication process.

Without interest and curiosity.. To be researchable a question must be one for which observation or other data collection in the real world can provide the answer. If it is beyond his means.  Importance and urgency: Problems requiring investigation are unlimited. i. unless he gets some external financial support. which may be grouped into: Internal Criteria Internal Criteria consists of:  Researcher’s interest: The problem should interest the researcher and be a challenge to him. An important and urgent problem should be given priority over an unimportant one. outlook and sensitivity. experience.e. he will not be able to complete the work. in selecting problems for research. External Criteria  Research-ability of the problem: The problem should be researchable.  Researcher’s competence: A mere interest in a problem will not do. relevant methodology and statistical procedures. Research is a time-consuming process. hence it should be properly utilized. . The researcher must be competent to plan and carry out a study of the problem. Even a small difficulty may become an excuse for discontinuing the study. Time resource is more important than finance. consideration of his own financial resource is pertinent. He must have the ability to grasp and deal with int. Interest in a problem depends upon the researcher’s educational background.How is a research problem formulated? What are the sources from which one may be identify research problems? able to Answer The selection of one appropriate researchable problem out of the identified problems requires evaluation of those alternatives against certain criteria. Therefore. he may not develop sustained perseverance. he must possess adequate knowledge of the subjectmatter. but available research efforts are very much limited. amendable for finding answers to the questions involved in it through scientific method.  Researcher’s own resource: In the case of a research to be done by a researcher on his own. their relative importance and significance should be considered.

etc. data analysis facility. There is no use of wasting one’s time and energy on a problem already studied thoroughly by others.  Facilities: Research requires certain facilities such as well-equipped library facility. suitable and competent guidance. but if research on it is not feasible. economic reviews. Hence feasibility is a very important consideration. research groups and voluntary organizations are a constant source of information about unpublished works in their special fields. Sociological journals. In addition to these general sources. In some areas of the subject matter. Each identified problem must be evaluated in terms of the above internal and external criteria and the most appropriate one may be selected by a research scholar. the study of the problem should make significant contribution to the concerned body of knowledge or to the solution of some significant practical problem. The researcher’s task then is to review the available material with an eye on the possibilities of developing hypothesis from it. But in India and other developing countries. It should be socially relevant. Hence the availability of the facilities relevant to the problem must be considered. research has not yet become a prospective profession. hypothesis may have been stated by previous research workers.  Feasibility: A problem may be a new one and also important. directory of doctoral dissertation accepted by universities etc afford a rich store of valuable clues.  Usefulness and social relevance: Above all. Hence talent persons are not attracted to research projects. it cannot be selected. In social sciences in some cases. an exploratory study is concerned with an area of subject matter in which explicit hypothesis have not yet been formulated. The researcher has to take stock of these various hypotheses with a view to evaluating their usefulness for further research and to consider whether they suggest any new hypothesis.  Research personnel: Research undertaken by professors and by research organizations require the services of investigators and research officers. Novelty of the problem: The problem must have novelty. Professional organizations. the bulletin of abstracts of current social sciences research. Frequently. some governmental agencies and voluntary organizations publish listings of summaries of research in their special fields of service. This does not mean that replication is always needless. This consideration is particularly important in the case of higher level academic research and sponsored research. it is appropriate to replicate (repeat) a study in order to verify the validity of its findings to a different situation. .

it may be classified into  Participant observation  Non-Participant observation. . The persons who are observed should not be aware of the researcher’s purpose. the observer is a part of the phenomenon or group which is observed and he acts as both an observer and a participant. For example. Advantages The advantages of participant observation are:  The observer can understand the emotional reactions of the observed group. With reference to the rigor of the system adopted. and get a deeper insight of their experiences. With reference to investigator’s role. Then only their behavior will be ‘natural’. a study of tribal customs by an anthropologist by taking part in tribal activities like folk dance. it may be classified into  Direct observation. The concealment of research objective and researcher’s identity is justified on the ground that it makes it possible to study certain aspects of the group’s culture which are not revealed to outsiders.Question 3 What are the types of Observations? What is the utility of Observation in Business Research? Answer Observations may be classified in different ways. Observation is classified into  Controlled observation  Uncontrolled observation Participant Observation In this observation. In terms of mode of observation.

Controlled observation . Disadvantages Participant observation suffers from some demerits. Such time lag results in some inaccuracy in recording Non-participant observations In this method.  The participant observer narrows his range of observation. he comes to occupy one position within in. The observer will be able to record context which gives meaning to the observed behavior and heard statements. but it is less biasing and less erratic in recording accuracy. change the focus of the observation. resulting in the incompleteness of the observation. This method calls for skill in recording observations in an unnoticed manner. there is no emotional involvement on the part of the observer. and the recording is done by mechanical. the observer stands apart and does not participate in the phenomenon observed. Recording on the spot is not possible and it has to be postponed until the observer is alone.g. Indirect observation This does not involve the physical presence of the observer. and thus other avenues of information are closed to him.  Another limitation of this method is the dual demand made on the observer. the objectivity is lost. Direct observation This means observation of an event personally by the observer when it takes place. and participation can interfere with observation. recording customer and employee movements by a special motion picture camera mounted in a department of a large store. photographic or electronic devices. Naturally. Recording can interfere with participation. For example. He is also free to shift places.  To the extent that the participant observer participates emotionally. A limitation of this method is that the observer’s perception circuit may not be able to cover all relevant events when the latter move quickly. if there is a hierarchy of power in the group/community under study. This method is flexible and allows the observer to see and record subtle aspects of events and behavior as they occur. This method is less flexible than direct observations. It is also provides a permanent record for an analysis of different aspects of the event. e.

Participant observation is a typical uncontrolled one. factories. It is primary used for descriptive research. how and when to observe. interpersonal relations.  Flow of traffic and parking problems.  The behavior of other living creatures like birds. other behaviors and actions. Controlled observation is carried out either in the laboratory or in the field. group dynamics.: life style. leadership styles. crowd behavior. residences etc. and manner.This involves standardization of observational techniques and exercises of maximum control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables by adopting experimental design and systematically recording observations. It is typified by clear and explicit decisions on what. managerial style.  Physical characteristics of inanimate things like stores. Observation is suitable for a variety of research purposes. It may be used for studying  The behavior of human beings in purchasing goods and services.  Movement of materials and products through a plant. animals etc. customs. . Uncontrolled observation This does not involve control over extrinsic and intrinsic variables.

“A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. Deutsch and Cook). Exploratory. The plan is the overall scheme or program of research. various writers advance different classification schemes.” The different types of Research Designs are: There are a number of crucial research choices. structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions.Question 4 What is Research Design? What are the different types of Research Designs? Answer The research designer understandably cannot hold all his decisions in his head. Jahoda and Destsch and Cook describe. It provides a systematic plan of procedure for the researcher to follow elltiz. Therefore. It constitutes the blue print for the collection. descriptive and casual (Green and Tull) Experimental. Such a symbolic construction may be called the research design or model. It specifies the objectives of the study. and laboratory experiments (Festinger and Katz) Exploratory. Even if he could. It is the plan. descriptive and experimental studies (Body and Westfall) Exploratory. analyzing and interpreting observations. and expost fact (Kerlinger) Historical method. A research design is the program that guides the investigator in the process of collecting. measurement and analysis of data. and case and clinical studies (Goode and Scates) Sample surveys. some of which are: • • • • Experimental. A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study. the methodology and techniques to be adopted for achieving the objectives. he records his decisions on paper or record disc by using relevant symbols or concepts. „quasi-experimental designs‟ (Nachmias and Nachmias) • • • • . historical and inferential designs (American Marketing Association). field studies. descriptive and causal designs (Selltiz. he would have difficulty in understanding how these are inter-related. Jahoda. Experimental. experiments in field settings.

marketing surveys. Probability samples only allow such computation. depending on whether the population is homogenous or heterogeneous. Purpose of the Survey: What does the researcher aim at? If he intends to generalize the findings based on the sample survey to the population. or even rough results could serve the purpose? The desired level of precision as one of the criteria of sampling method selection. where the research objective requires statistical inference.• • True experimental. Measurability: The application of statistical inference theory requires computation of the sampling error from the sample itself. Where even crude results would serve the purpose (E. The researcher has to first identify the limiting factor or factors and must judiciously balance the conflicting factors. readership surveys etc) any convenient non-random sampling like quota sampling would be enough. there are different perspectives from which any given study can be viewed. Experimental. Degree of Precision: Should the results of the survey be very precise. The various criteria governing the choice of the sampling technique: 1. Hence. then an appropriate probability sampling method must be selected. . In fact. because „research design‟ is a complex concept. 3. probability sampling should be used. quasi-experimental and non-experimental designs (Smith). These different categorizations exist.g. They are: • The degree of formulation of the problem (the study may be exploratory or formalized) The topical scope-breadth and depth-of the study(a case or a statistical study) The research environment: field setting or laboratory (survey. The choice of a particular type of probability sampling depends on the geographical area of the survey and the size and the nature of the population under study. the sample should be drawn by applying simple random sampling method or stratified random sampling method.. Where a high degree of precision of results is desired. laboratory experiment) The time dimension(one-time or longitudinal) The mode of data collection (observational or survey) The manipulation of the variables under study (experimental or expost facto) The nature of the relationship among variables (descriptive or causal) • • • • • • Question 5 Explain the Sampling Process and briefly describe the methods of Sampling? Answer Decision process of sampling is complicated one. pre-experimental. quasi-experimental designs and Survey Research (Kidder and Judd). 2.

If the population is heterogeneous. One should use simple workable methods instead of unduly elaborate and complicated techniques. and a greater degree of accuracy of estimation of . even a simple random sampling will give a representative sample. the precision has to be sacrificed to some extent. Time Limitation: The time limit within which the research project should be completed restricts the choice of a sampling method. Where the finance is not a constraint. Information about Population: How much information is available about the population to be studied? Where no list of population and no information about its nature are available. But if the area and the size of the population are small. The Nature of the Population: In terms of the variables to be studied. 7. The above criteria frequently conflict and the researcher must balance and blend them to obtain to obtain a good sampling plan. The chosen plan thus represents an adaptation of the sampling theory to the available facilities and resources. it represents a compromise between idealism and feasibility. Financial resources: If the available finance is limited. stratified random sampling is appropriate. Then. After gaining sufficient knowledge about the population through the exploratory study. Economy: It should be another criterion in choosing the sampling method. it may become necessary to choose a less costly sampling plan like multistage cluster sampling or even quota sampling as a compromise. It means achieving the desired level of precision at minimum cost. However. It is used when generalization is the objective of study. 6. It is also known as random sampling. a researcher can choose the most appropriate method of sampling that fits the research objective and the nature of population. multi-stage cluster sampling instead of single-stage sampling of elements. multi-stage cluster sampling would be appropriate. is the population homogenous or heterogeneous? In the case of a homogenous population. appropriate probability sampling design may be adopted. Then exploratory study with non-probability sampling may be made to gain a better idea of population. It provides a known nonzero chance of selection for each population element. 8. 9. A sample is economical if the precision per unit cost is high or the cost per unit of variance is low. That is.4. single stage probability sampling methods could be used. as a compromise. if the objectives of the study and the desired level of precision cannot be attained within the stipulated budget. 5. it is difficult to apply a probability sampling method. Of course. it may become necessary to choose less time consuming methods like simple random sampling instead of stratified sampling/sampling with probability proportional to size. Sampling techniques or methods may be classified into two generic types:  Probability or Random Sampling Probability sampling is based on the theory of probability. there is no alternative than to give up the proposed survey. Geographical Area of the Study and the Size of the Population: If the area covered by a survey is very large and the size of the population is quite large.

Advantages The advantage of this is that it is one of the easiest methods.   Preparation of a List of all elements. Drawing sample numbers by using (i) lottery method. and each discipline group may again be divided into juniors and seniors. simple to understand. random sample is drawn. and from each stratum. Disadvantages It is often impractical because of non-availability of population list or of difficulty in enumerating the population. But it is greater than that in other probability samples of the same size. university students may be divided on the basis of discipline. giving them numbers in serial order 1. B. and so on. providing adequate data for analyzing the various sub-populations and applying different methods to different strata.. The procedure of drawing a simple random sample consists of enumeration of all elements in the population.population parameters is required. because it is less precise than other methods. An equal chance means equal probability of selection. Stratification process involves three major . 2. does not require prior knowledge of the true composition of the population. The following are the types of probability sampling: • Simple Random Sampling This sampling technique gives each element an equal and independent chance of being selected. all the elements in the population have an equal chance of being selected. (ii) a table of random numbers or (iii) a computer. Suitability This type of sampling is suited for a small homogeneous population. • Stratified Random Sampling This is an improved type of random or probability sampling. the population is sub-divided into homogenous groups or strata. In this method. Stratification is necessary for increasing a sample’s statistical efficiency. E. The stratified random sampling is appropriate for a large heterogeneous population. An independent chance means that the draw of one element will not affect the chances of other elements being selected. The amount of sampling error associated with any sample drawn can easily be computed. does not ensure proportionate representation and it may be expensive in time and money.g. The cost and time required is high hence the benefit derived from it should justify the costs.

This method is therefore very popular.3 0. Then the strata sample sizes would be: Strata Sample size Production Finance Marketing Rural development 30 30 30 30 x x x x 0.1 1. if the Management Faculty of a University consists of the following specialization groups: Specialization stream No.4 0.2 0.decisions.1 12 6 9 3 30 Advantages .4 0. of students Proportion of each stream Production Finance Marketing Rural development 0 40 20 30 10 10 0.0 The research wants to draw an overall sample of 30.g. number of strata and strata sample sizes. Stratified random sampling may be classified into:  Proportionate stratified sampling This sampling involves drawing a sample from each stratum in proportion to the latter’s share in the total population. It gives proper representation to each stratum and its statistical efficiency is generally higher..2 0. They are stratification base or bases. E.3 0.

The desirability of disproportionate sampling is usually determined by three factors. while others are homogeneous and when it is expected that there will be appreciable differences in the response rates of the subgroups in the population. Disadvantages The disadvantage is that it does not give each stratum proportionate representation. Suitability This method is used when the population contains some small but important subgroups. easy to carry out. .Stratified random sampling enhances the representativeness to each sample. when certain groups are quite heterogeneous. viz. and (c) sampling costs. it is very expensive in time and money and identification of the strata may lead to classification of errors. It necessarily involves giving over-representation to some strata and under-representation to others. gives higher statistical efficiency. requires prior knowledge of composition of the population. and gives a self-weighing sample. Advantages The advantages of this type is it is less time consuming and facilitates giving appropriate weighing to particular groups which are small but more important. is subject to classification errors and its practical feasibility is doubtful.  Disproportionate stratified random sampling This method does not give proportionate representation to strata. (b) internal variances among strata. (a) the sizes of strata. Disadvantages A prior knowledge of the composition of the population and the distribution of the population.

1st. each element does not have equal chance of being selected. this method of sampling is not a probability sampling. public opinion polls. houses in a street. Where the population elements are scattered over a wide area and a list of population elements is not readily available. easy to instruct. examine the nature of clusters. Disadvantages The disadvantages are it ignores all elements between two kth elements selected. and it is statistically more efficient. easy to use.. and determine the number of stages. 11th. requires less time. Suitability Systematic selection can be applied to various populations such as students in a class. and large scale surveys of political and social behavior. attitude surveys and so on. sample is spread evenly over the population. easier to check. telephone directory etc. demographic studies. Advantages The advantages are it is simpler than random sampling. It is also known as fixed interval method. socio-economic surveys. E. Advantages . It consists of taking kth item in the population after a random start with an item form 1 to k.g. it’s cheaper.• Systematic Random Sampling This method of sampling is an alternative to random selection. rural credit surveys. In such cases cluster sampling is usually adopted. 21st ……… Strictly speaking. The cluster sampling process involves: identify clusters. Suitability The application of cluster sampling is extensive in farm management surveys. ecological studies. It possesses characteristics of randomness and some non-probability traits. the use of simple or stratified random sampling method would be too expensive and time-consuming. Then from each selected sampling unit. a sample of population elements is drawn by either simple random selection or stratified random selection. and this method sometimes gives a biased sample.  Cluster Sampling It means random selection of sampling units consisting of population elements. Each such sampling unit is a cluster of population elements.

In a multi-stage sampling. The procedure continues down to the final sampling units or population elements. promotes the convenience of field work as it could be done in compact places. cost of this is much less.. If one primary cluster has twice as large a population as another. The sampling error in this method of sampling is greater and the adjacent units of study tend to have more similar characteristics than do units distantly apart.The advantages of this method is it is easier and more convenient. but forms part of cluster sampling. Sub-sampling balances the two conflicting effects of clustering i. a sample of the second stage sampling units is drawn. it is give twice the chance of being selected. The population is regarded as being composed of a number of second stage units and so forth. talluks. sampling is carried out in two or more stages. That is. at each stage. In larger field surveys cluster consisting of specific geographical areas like districts. Appropriate random sampling method is adopted at each stage. As the geographical areas are selected as sampling units in such cases. It is not a separate method of sampling. units of study can be readily substituted for other units and it is more flexible.e. It is appropriate where the population is scattered over a wider geographical area and no frame or list is available for sampling.  Area sampling This is an important form of cluster sampling. a sample of the first stage sampling units is drawn. The major disadvantage is that the procedure of estimating sampling error and cost advantage is complicated.  Random Sampling with Probability Proportional to Size The procedure of selecting clusters with probability Proportional to size (PPS) is widely used. First. Disadvantages The cluster sizes may vary and this variation could increase the bias of the resulting sample. then from each of the selected first stage sampling unit. it does not require more time. If the same number of persons is then selected from each of the selected . Sub-sampling is a part of multi-stage sampling process. the sampling in second and subsequent stage frames is called sub-sampling. their sampling is called area sampling. It is also useful when a survey has to be made within a limited time and cost budget. cost and sampling errors. villages or blocks in a city are randomly drawn.  Multi-stage and sub-sampling In multi-stage sampling method. a sampling unit is a cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage.

 Non-probability or Non Random Sampling Non-probability sampling or non-random sampling is not based on the theory of probability. Disadvantages PPS cannot be used if the sizes of the primary sampling clusters are not known. “The statistics based on the sample of ‘n’ can be improved by using ancillary information from a wide base: but this is too costly to obtain from the entire population of N elements. Disadvantages The demerits are it does not ensure a selection chance to each population unit. All the sub-samples should be drawn using the same sampling technique and each is a self-contained and adequate sample of the population. . The selection probability sample may not be a representative one. Thus PPS is a better method for securing a representative sample of population elements in multi-stage cluster sampling. PPS leads to greater precision than would a simple random sample of clusters and a constant sampling fraction at the second stage. single or multi-stage or single or multiphase sampling. Instead. The replicated samples can throw light on variable non-sampling errors. This sampling does not provide a chance of selection to each population element. It suffers from sampling bias which will distort results. convenience and low cost. When the procedure is extended to more than two phases of selection. But disadvantage is that it limits the amount of stratification that can be employed. It provides a simple means of calculating the sampling error. equal-sized samples from each selected primary cluster are convenient for field work. The selection probability is unknown. This is also known as sequential sampling. information is obtained from a larger preliminary sample nL which includes the final sample n.  Double Sampling and Multiphase Sampling Double sampling refers to the subsection of the final sample form a pre-selected larger sample that provided information for improving the final selection. called multi-phase sampling. the overall probability of any person will be the same. Advantages The advantages are clusters of various sizes get proportionate representation. It is practical. Replicated sampling can be used with any basic sampling technique: simple or stratified.  Replicated or Interpenetrating Sampling It involves selection of a certain number of sub-samples rather than one full sample from a population.clusters. Advantages The only merits of this type of sampling are simplicity. as sub-sampling is done from a main sample in phases. it is then. Double sampling or multiphase sampling is a compromise solution for a dilemma posed by undesirable extremes.

it is the least reliable sampling method and the findings cannot be generalized. when probability sampling required more time. it does not require a list of population and it does not require any statistical expertise. but the time constraints and the time limit for completing the study do not permit it.. This sampling also means selecting whatever sampling units are conveniently available. e.The reasons for usage of this sampling are when there is no other feasible alternative due to non-availability of a list of population. It may be classified into: Convenience or Accidental Sampling  It means selecting sample units in a just ‘hit and miss’ fashion E. Disadvantage The disadvantage is that it is highly biased because of researcher’s subjectivity. when the costs required for probability sampling may be too large. Advantage It is the cheapest and simplest.  Purposive (or judgment) sampling This method means deliberate selection of sample units that conform to some pre-determined criteria. Advantage .. This involves selection of cases which we judge as the most appropriate ones for the given study. This is also known as judgment sampling. Suitability Though this type of sampling has no status. a teacher may select students in his class. when the study does not aim at generalizing the findings to the population. The chance that a particular case be selected for the sample depends on the subjective judgement of the researcher. It is based on the judgement of the researcher or some expert.g. It does not aim at securing a cross section of a population. it may be used for simple purposes such as testing ideas or gaining ideas or rough impression about a subject of interest. interviewing people whom we happen to meet. This method is also known as accidental sampling because the respondents whom the researcher meets accidentally are included in the sample. Suitability This is used when what is important is the typicality and specific relevance of the sampling units to the study and not their overall representativeness to the population.g.

and field work can easily be organized. Advantage It is useful for smaller populations for which no frames are readily available. non need for a list of population. does not ensure the representativeness. It is this Non-random element that constitutes its greatest weakness.  Snow-ball sampling This is the colourful name for a technique of Building up a list or a sample of a special population by using an initial set of its members as informants. and readership surveys which do not aim at precision. This sampling technique may also be used in socio-metric studies. age. requires more prior extensive information and does not lend itself for using inferential statistics. Disadvantage It is less efficient for generalizing. informal groups in a formal organization. etc. Quota sampling  This is a form of convenient sampling involving selection of quota groups of accessible sampling units by traits such as sex. strict control if field work is difficult. and subject to a higher degree of classification. takes less time. opinion polls. social class. Advantage It is less costly. and diffusion of information among professional of various kinds. Disadvantage It is impossible to estimate sampling error. Suitability It is used in studies like marketing surveys. Suitability It is very useful in studying social groups. Disadvantage . it is a method of stratified sampling in which the selection within strata is non-random. but to get quickly some crude results.It is less costly and more convenient and guarantees inclusion of relevant elements in the sample.

Question 6 What is a Research Report? What are the contents of Research Report? Answer Research report is a means for communicating research experience to others. Contents of the Research Report The outline of a research report is given below:  Prefatory Items • • • • • • • • Title page Declaration Certificates Preface/acknowledgements Table of contents List of tables List of graphs/figures/charts Abstract or synopsis  Body of the Report • • • • • • Introduction Theoretical background of the topic Statement of the problem Review of literature The scope of the study The objectives of the study . A research report is a formal statement of the research process and it results. It does not ensure the inclusion of all the elements in the list. It narrates the problem studied. It is difficult to apply when the population is large.The disadvantage is that it does not allow the use of probability statistical methods. methods used for studying it and the findings and conclusions of the study.

. conclusions and recommendations  Reference Material • • • • • • Bibliography Appendix Copies of data collection instruments Technical details on sampling plan Complex tables Glossary of new terms used.• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Hypothesis to be tested Definition of the concepts Models if any Design of the study Methodology Method of data collection Sources of data Sampling plan Data collection instruments Field work Data processing and analysis plan Overview of the report Limitation of the study Results: findings and discussions Summary.

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