PREDISPOSING FACTORS  Age: Occurs mainly in children  Sex: Common in both sexes Etiology: a mainly carbohydrate diet

PRECIPITATING FACTORS  Diet: inadequate in calories and grossly deficient in protein  Disease: common if already having parasitic diseases or infectious diarrhea


inadequate in calories and grossly deficient in protein

decreased protein levels

Decreased number of immunoglobulins

decreased lean muscle mass


Decreased level of apolipoproteins

decreased resistance against infection

Muscle wasting

sodium and glucose will not be enough to hold plasma inside blood vessel

Decreased lev transport lipids (cholesterol) from the liver to body tissues

Decreased erythropoietin production

Decreased oncotic pressure

Fatty liver


Increased capillary permeability

Enlarged liver (hepatomegaly)

Swollen abdomen Fluid shifts from intravascular and intracellular space to interstitial space

change in hair color or texture Loss of appetite lethargy (fatigue)


General apathy changes in skin pigment failure to gain weight

irritability (excessive response to a stimulus)