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Cooling Load calculations for a enclosed space

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Contents

Principle of cooling load Why cooling load & heat gains are different Design conditions Understand CLTD/CLF method An example

Cooling Load

It is the thermal energy that must be removed from the space in order to maintain the desired comfort conditions HVAC systems are used to maintain thermal conditions in comfort range

Load profile over a day Peak load (basis for equipment sizing) Operation Energy analysis HVAC Construction cost

Enclosure heat transfer characteristics

Conduction Convection radiation

Design conditions

Outdoor & indoor

Heat Gains

Internal External or Solar

Thermal capacity

Space Characteristics

orientation Size and shape Construction material Windows, doors, openings Surrounding conditions Ceiling

Space Characteristics

Occupants (activity, number, duration) Appliances (power, usage) Air leakage (infiltration or exfiltration) Lighting (W/m2)

Basic design parameters Air temperature

Typically 22-26 C

Air velocity

0.25 m/s

Relative humidity

30-70 %

Indoor air quality

Air contaminants Air cleaning

Weather data required for load calculation

Temperature & humidity Wind speed, sky clearness , ground reflectance etc

ASHRAE Fundamentals 2001

Design severity based on 0.4%, 1%, & 2% level annually (8760h) For example at 1% level, the value is exceeded in 0.01x8760h = 87.6 h in a year

Criteria: 0.4% DB and MWB

Station Cooling DB/MWB

Miri Malaysia

0.4%

DB (C ) MWB ( C ) 32.2 26.3 DB 31.8

1%

MWB 26.3 DB 31.4

2%

MWB 26.2

Terminology

Space- a volume without partition or a group

of rooms

characteristics

Heat Gain

Space Heat gain

The instantaneous rate at which heat enters into , out of, or generated within a space. The components are: Heat gains Convective Radiant (%)

Sensible gain Latent gain

(%) Solar radiation with internal shading Fluorescent lights People External wall 42 58

50 67 40

50 33 60

Heat Gain

Cooling Load

Space Cooling load

The rate at which heat must be removed from a space to maintain air temperature and humidity at the design values

delay effect of conversion of radiation energy to heat Thermal storage lag

Extraction Rate

Space Heat extraction rate

The actual heat removal rate by the cooling equipment from the space The heat extraction rate is equal to cooling load when the space conditions are constant which is rarely true.

Heat Balance

The principal terms of heat Gains/Losses are indicated below .

Coil Load

Cooling coil load

The rate at which energy is removed at the cooling coil Sum of:

Space cooling load (sensible + latent) Supply system heat gain (fan + supply air duct) Return system heat gain (return air duct) Load due to outdoor ventilation rates (or ventilation load)

External Loads

1. Heat gains from Walls and roofs

sensible

Sensible

3. Outdoor air

Sensible & latent

Internal Loads

1. People

Sensible & latent

2. Lights

sensible

3. Appliances

Sensible & latent

Space cooling load

Sizing of supply air flow rate, ducts, terminals and diffusers It is a component of coil load Bypassed infiltration is a space cooling load

Sizing of cooling coil and refrigeration system Ventilation load is a coil load

Refrigeration Load

The capacity of the refrigeration system to produce the required coil load.

Components Solar Transmission Occupants Lights Equipment % Load LQ (L) 3 3 5 10 %Load LQ (U) 4 3 5 1 8 79 100 %Load CCR 7 3 8 29 5 48 100 %Load SG/MCC 4 0 4 21 6 64 100

People: 3% Lighting: 4-8% Solar Transmission: 3-7%

Infiltration : 5-8%

Calculation Methods

1. Rule of thumb method

Least accurate eg 100 btu/ft2 for a space

CLTD/CLF method

3. Dynamic analysis

Computer modeling

CLTD/CLF Method

Cooling load is made up of

Radiation and conduction heat gain Convection heat gain

No delay Heat gain equals cooling load

Thermal delay Heat gain is not equal to cooling load Use CLTD & CLF factors

Cooling load due to solar & internal heat gains Glazing (sensible only)

Radiation & conduction Convection (instantaneous)

Conduction Convection (instantaneous)

Radiation & conduction Convection (instantaneous)

Compare Q transmission = UA (T o T i ) Q transmission = UA (CLTD) CLTD is theoretical temperature difference defined for each wall/roof to give the same heat load for exposed surfaces to account for the combined effects of radiation, conductive storage, etc

It is affected by orientation, time , latitude, etc Data published by ASHRAE

This factor applies to radiation heat gain If radiation is constant, cooling load = radiative gain If radiation heat is periodical, than Q t = Q daily max (CLF) CLF accounts for the delay before radiative gains becomes a cooling load

Glazing

Q = A (SC) (SHGF) (CLF)

A= glass area SC= shading coefficient SHGF= solar heat gain factor, tabulated by ASHRAE CLF= cooling load factor, tabulated by ASHRAE

glass Solar ray

Q = U x A x CLTD

U= surface U-factor A= surface area CLTD= cooling load temperature difference

transmitted absorbed

reflected

Opaque Surfaces

Q 2 = UA (CLTD)

U= surface U-factor A= surface area CLTD= cooling load temperature difference

Light weight Metal frame with insulation Group G wall with U-value about 0.5-1.0 W/m2 K

Use Table for wall CLTD Use Table for roof CLTD

Select wall/roof type Look up uncorrected CLTD Correct CLTD CLTD c=(CLTD+LM)+ (25.5-t r) + (t m-29.4)

LM= latitude /month correction (Table ) T r = indoor temperature (22C) T m= average temperature on the design day = (35+22)/2 = 28.5 C Eg. If CLTD=40 C, LM=-1.7 (west face) CLTD c= (40-1.7) + (25.5-22)+ (28.5-29.4) = 40.9 C

Internal loads are

People Lights Equipment or appliances

Light (mostly radiant) Electrical heat (radiant and convective) People (most convective)

Heat gain (lighting) = 1.2 x total wattage x CLF Or based on light power density ranging from 10-25 W/m2 (average density, say=20 W/m2) Where light is continuously on, CLF=1

Area Office Corridor Sleeping CCR MCC/SG Kitchen Recreation Light Power Density W/m2 25 10 10 25 25 25 20

Q people-s = No x sensible heat gain/p x CLF Q people-L = No x latent heat gain/p

Cooling of electrical equipment in MCC/SG is an important function of HVAC system offshore. The components include:

Transformers Motors Medium/high voltage switchgears Cables & trays Motor starters Inverters Battery chargers Circuit breakers Unit panel board etc

Heat dissipation from these equipments are mainly based data published by the manufacturers

Conditions Outdoor air Indoor air Difference

Dry-bulb temperature (C) % RH Moisture content, kg/kg

35 22 13

70 55

ASHRAE fundamental Handbook published data, at 0.4%, 1% and 2% design level. At 0.4% design level, Miri has only 35h (out of 8760 h a year) at 32.2 DB & 26.3 WB or higher

Load due to Ventilation air into the space

Sensible load, (W) = mass flow rate x specific heat x (T) = 1.23 x l/s x (To T i) or (1.08 x cfm x T) Where To = Outside temperature, C Ti = indoor air temperature, C

Ventilation latent load, (W) = mass flow rate x latent heat of vaporization x (humidity difference) = 3010 x l/s x () or (4840 x cfm x )

This is also call the Grand total load Sum of

Space heat gain System heat gain

Room Total Load

load due to outdoor air supplied through the air handling unit

Air bypassed the coil Air not bypassed the coil

These are sometimes external to the air conditioned space HVAC equipment also contributes to heat gain

Fan heat gain Duct heat gain

Bypass Factor

Bypass factor is an important coil characteristic on moisture removal performance . Its value depends on: Number of rows/fins per inch Velocity of air

When air streams across the cooling, portion of air may not come into contact with the coil surface BPF = un-contacted air flow total flow BPF is normally selected at 0.1 for offshore cooling and dehumidification.

Row Deep Face velocity= 2 m/s 1 2 4 0.52 0.274 0.076 0.56 0.31 0.10 0.59 0.35 0.12 14 fins/inch 2.5 m/s 3 m/s

0.022

0.03

0.04

Coil load due to outdoor air

SH= (OASH)(1-BPF) LH= (OALH)(1-BPF)

ERSH=RSH+(OASH)(BPF) ERLH=RLH + (OALH)(BPF)

Estimate the cooling load of a portal cabin shown here: Assuming that

Outdoor condition is 35C, 70% RH Indoor condition is 22C , 55 % RH U-factor=0.5 W/m2 K Occupied by 2 persons Electrical equipment heat is 3 kW 100l/s leakage due to pressurization

4x4 Platform x 3 h Lower Deck

Items Transmission- sensible Wall- West side Wall- East side Wall North Wall- South Roof Floor Total (T1) Internal load- sensible People Equipment Light Total (T2) Safety Factor (5% of T1+ T2) Fan heat & supply Duct Gain (7 % of T1+T2) RSH (Total of the above) Procedures Q = UA (CLTD)

Items Room Latent Heat (RLH) People Procedures

Items Design conditions Procedures Outdoor 35C, 70% RH Indoor 22C, 55 RH

Ventilation- sensible Bypass air (0.1 bypass factor) Sensible heat of bypass air

Items Design conditions ERSH RSH Sensible heat of air bypass Effective Room Sensible Heat ERLH People Latent heat of air bypass Effective Room Latent Heat Effective Room Total Heat (ERTH) ERSH+ESLH Procedures Outdoor 35C, 70% RH Indoor 22C, 55 RH

Items Design conditions Coil Load Sensible Effective Room Sensible Heat SH of Outdoor air not bypassed Total (Coil Sensible heat) Coil Load Latent Effective Room Latent Heat LH of Outdoor air not bypassed Total (Coil latent heat) Total coil load (GTH) Procedures Outdoor 35C, 70% RH Indoor 22C, 55 RH

SHF RSHF ESHF GSHF

Ratio of sensible to total heat

SHF = Sensible heat/ total heat

= SH/ (SH + LH) A low value of SHF indicates a high latent heat load, which is common in humid climate. In the above example,

Calculate the SHF of the room (RSHF) Calculate the effective room sensible heat factor (ESHF) Calculate the SHF of the coil (GSHF)

The necessary data required are:

GTH ( Grand total heat load) Dehumidified air quantity Apparatus dew point

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