Battle of Breitenfeld • German Paratroopers

Number 235

The Cold War: South Africa vs. Cuba

U.S. $22.99
With Complete historiCal G ame
strategy & tactics 1

LighTning SerieS
a Fast & easy playinG Group oF Card Games
War on Terror
This is the third game in the Lightning series. Fight the war on terror with America’s cutting edge weapon systems! You have been charged with hunting down terrorists aiding regions around the world and toppling their corrupt governments. To accomplish this, you have been given command of the latest weapons and best personnel America has to offer. You get to command elements of the Air Force, Army, Navy, Marines, Special Forces and Propaganda Warfare. War on Terror is an ultra-low complexity card game for all ages. The focus is on fast card play, strategy, and fun interactive game play for 2-4 players. Includes 110 full color playing cards and one sheet of rules.

D-Day

June 6, 1944, the day that decided the fate of World War II in Europe. Now you command the Allied and Axis armies as each struggles to control the five key beaches along the Normandy coastline. If the Allied troops seize the beaches, Germany is doomed. But if the assault fails, Germany will have the time it needs to build its ultimate weapons. You get to make vital command decisions that send troops into battle, assault enemy positions, and create heroic sacrifices so others can advance to victory!

MiDWay

From June 4th to June 6th of 1942, a massive battle raged around the tiny Pacific island of Midway that changed the course of World War II. The victorious Imperial Japanese Navy was poised to capture the airfield on the island of Midway and thus threaten Hawaii and the United States. The only obstacle in their path was an outnumbered US fleet itching for payback for Pearl Harbor. You get to command the US and Japanese fleets and their squadrons of fighter planes, torpedo bombers and dive bombers in this epic battle!
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Lightning War on Terror Lightning midway Lightning D-Day

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Easy to Play Games
Leningrad
This great introductory game covers Army Group North’s drive to Leningrad during the summer of 1941. It features hidden values for the Soviet units that only become known when they are involved in combat. Surprise attacks are essential to the success of either side, and the arrival of reinforcements can dramatically shift the course of battle. Leningrad features enough surprises to ensure that each game will be different and exciting. Components: 100 counters, 11” x 17” mapsheet, 8-page rule book. $14.00

Across Suez

On 6 October 1973, troops of the Egyptian Third Army performed a masterful surprise crossing of the Suez Canal, overwhelmed the emplaced Israeli defenders along the Bar Lev line, and established themselves in force in the Sinai. The Battle of Chinese Farm is an operational level game that simulates the great battle between the Egyptian Second and Third Armies and the Israeli Defense Force as they battle for Suez canal. Included are special rules for commandos, Egyptian Marines and paratroopers. Components: 80 counters, 1 mapsheet, 8-page rule book.

$30.00

Captivation

Be the first player to move all your cones around the board and into your home. Captivation plays like bacammon, only better. Unlike bacammon, everyone moves in the same direction. Two cones of the same color on one space are safe, however a single cone can be captured. When you land on a space with only one cone of another player on it, you stack your cone on top of it and capture it. Until you move that cone again, his or her cone can’t move! A captivating family game for two to four players that can be played in 30-60 minutes. Components: mounted board, rules sheet, dice and 40 cones.
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Leningrad Across Suez Captivation

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S. P. bank and made payable to Strategy & Tactics (Please no Canadian checks). PO Box 21598.97/1 year. Canada surface mail rates are $36/1 year and Overseas surface mail rates are $42/1 year. NON U. F E AT U R E S 6 cold War campaign: South Africa in Angola In the depths of Africa. Bakersfield CA 93390.decisiongames. Periodical Class postage paid at Bakersfield. Jay Cookingham. International rates are subject to change as postal rates change. CA and additional mailing offices.O.O. Bakersfield CA 93390. 4 #235 .S. by Kelly Bell 16 South African order of Battle Organizing to fight a never-ending insurgency and turning some of the tables.O. and David Lentini. South African and Cuban forces fight one of the largest mechanized campaigns of the Cold War. SUBSCRIBERS PLEASE NOTE: Surface mail to foreign addresses may take six to ten weeks for delivery. 1649 Elzworth St. All orders should be sent to Decision Games. SUBSCRIPTION RATES are: Seven issues per year— the United States is $139/1 year. Map Graphics: Meridian Mapping Publisher: Christopher Cummins Advertising: Rates and specifications available on request. Checks and money orders or VISA/MasterCard accepted (with a minimum charge of $40). All payments must be in U. #1. Nothing may be reproduced from it in whole or in part without prior permission from the publisher. Address Corrections: Address change forms to Strategy & Tactics. Bakersfield CA 93390 or call 661/587-9633 (best hours to call are 9am-12pm PDT.conTEnTS Editor-in-Chief: Joseph Miranda FYI Editor: Ty Bomba Design • Graphics • Layout: Callie Cummins Copy Editors: Ty Bomba. to P. M-F) or use our 24-hour fax 661/587-5031 or e-mail us from our website www. Inquiries should be sent to Decision Games after this time. by Joseph Miranda STRATEGY & TACTICS (ISSN 1040-886X) is published bi-monthly by Decision Games. Bakersfield CA 93390. Write P. STRATEGY & TACTICS® is a registered trademark for Decision Games’ military history magazine. Box 21598.O. funds drawn on a U. Bakersfield CA 93312. Bakersfield CA 93390. Box 21598. Strategy & Tactics (©2006) reserves all rights on the contents of this publication. Seven issues per year-Newsstand (magazine only)-the United States is $29. Box 21598. Box 21598. All correspondence should be sent to decision Games.com. P.S. Canada surface mail rates are $149/1 year and Overseas surface mail rates are $169/1 year. All rights reserved.

conTEnTS number 235 June 2006 F E AT U R E S 34 Tactical File—Breitenfeld: Regiment vs. gliders and airlanding forces leading the way. with paratroopers. dEpARTmEnTS 23 for your information a first in Biological Warfare by John Brown by Dave Higgins Silver Dollar accuracy with a musket by Robert Malcomson first Black regiment of the Civil War by Mark Lardas aerial firsts over China by Kelly Bell the redstone rocket by Bruce Costello 29 ThE long TRAdiTion 31 WoRkS in pRogRESS 44 A Brief history of the german Airborne in WWii The Germans pioneer airborne warfare in World War II. by William Welsh RUlES R1 cold War Battles: Budapest 56 & Angola 87 by Joseph Miranda strategy & tactics 5 .Tercio Swedish regiments take on Imperial tercios in a battle that opened Europe to modern warfare.

Cold War Campaign: South Africa in Angola by Kelly Bell 6 #235 .

there was little the administrations of presidents Ford and Carter could do to openly check the communists from expanding their influence. newly independent countries became embroiled in conflicts as their new governments took power over what had been European colonies. Mozambique. There was also the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) led by Jonas Savimbi. Mozambique and Guinea. The Portuguese had been involved in Africa since their 15th century explorations of the coasts and establishment of oceanic trade routes to the Indies. the largest in Angola. Three separate insurgent movements took up arms in Angola. (Movimento Popular de Libertaçao de Angola MPLA). From the east. Armed factions struck out at the remnants of European power—and at each other. By the 1960s. from its Portuguese acronym). And it would be in Angola that one of the greatest conflicts of the Cold War would be fought. and so Africa became a “hot” Cold War battleground. The MPLA espoused a radical. With the United States demoralized by the collapse of its allies in Indochina in 1975.A s the mid-1970s broke in post-colonial Africa. weapons and. there seemed to be little hope of intervention from the Western superpower. By the end of 1975. hoping to draw it into the communist sphere of influence. if not outright control. The FNLA recruited mainly from the Bakongo tribes. Madagascar. That faction was mainly drawn from the Ovimbundu tribe. but as part of the 19th century “scramble for Africa” had expanded inland. Roberto Holden commanded the National Front for the Liberation of Angola (FNLA. Somalia. and Angola was unstable. through Fidel Castro’s Cuba. throughout central and southern Africa. the European powers had largely withdrawn from Africa. But Portugal still hung on grimly to its African empire. Ethiopia and Tanzania had allied themselves with the Warsaw Pact. and drew its membership mainly from city-dwellers living in coastal areas. There was also the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola. manpower into the region. Faced with a voting public that was 80% opposed to American involvement in new foreign wars. with insurgent movements that controlled much of the countryside. the Soviet Union channeled military advisors. left intellectualism. Some of the new forces embraced Marxism (at least in their rhetoric). Guinea. Portuguese influence for several centuries was confined to the coastal regions of what are today Angola. the Congo. strategy & tactics 7 Scramble for Africa .

In the late 1960s Portuguese authorities had severely weakened the MPLA through mass arrests. Caught up in the dragnet was the party’s leader, Dr. Agostino Neto. Because Neto was (or claimed to be) a hard-core communist, the Soviets threw their full support behind him. The insurgency proved to be an endless if bloody stalemate and, in April 1974, the economic and political pressures of maintaining an overseas empire caused the collapse of the Portuguese government. Lisbon declared an end to its African empire. The Eastern Bloc responded by shipping large amounts of arms and ammunition to the MPLA. In May 1975, as the Portuguese were commencing their final withdrawal, 250 Cuban technicians and military advisors arrived to work with the MPLA. Just before departing the Portuguese advised the insurgent factions to form a coalition government, but none of the movements were willing to share power. A new scramble was on. While the European powers themselves abandoned their African colonies, there were two states that maintained white rule. One was in Rhodesia, where Ian Smith’s government, fearing the civil strife that had enveloped much of de-colonialized Africa, a “Unilateral Declaration of Independence” from Britain in 1965. The other white-ruled state was, of course, the Republic of South Africa. South Africa maintained control of the territory of Southwest Africa, whose northern border directly abutted southern Angola. Concerned by the increasing instability of their northern neighbor, the South Africans began posting troops along the Angolan frontier. A Marxist victory in Angola would mean further support for the Southwest Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO), the guerrilla movement challenging South African rule in Southwest Africa (also called Namibia). Eventually, units of the South African 2nd Infantry Division crossed the border and occupied the large Ruacana Dam just in-

side Angola. And, despite the post-Vietnam malaise, the United States was also getting involved. By 1975 the West was relying heavily on oil imported from the Middle East. With the Suez Canal closed to shipping since the 1967 Six-Day War (and with most modern oil tankers too big to fit through it anyway), westward-bound petroleum shipping routes went around the Cape of Good Hope. NATO governments feared that, with several African countries in the Soviet camp, Warsaw Pact bombers could be shifted to bases in range of those sea lanes in the event of World War III. TU-95 “Bear” and TU-16 “Badger” bombers of the Red Air Force could then sever NATO’s oil jugular. Western strategists also believed the Soviets were moving to seize control of the glittering gold and diamond reserves of southern Africa, possession of which would strengthen Moscow’s financial clout to the point of being irresistible.

Big Picture

Race for Luanda

Mech war Africa: column of South African Buffel armored personnel carriers.
8 #235

With the withdrawal of the Portuguese, the FNLA, UNITA and MPLA positioned themselves to take control of the country. The Angolan capital of Luanda was the big prize. Despite MPLA strength there, it was not wholly secure for Neto and his movement. The FNLA threatened it from its bases in the north, and UNITA was strong elsewhere. In 1975 the FAPLA (Patriotic Front for the Liberation of Angola), the military wing of the MPLA, worked with the Soviets to add Pact military equipment to their arsenals and advisors to their forces. Meanwhile, the FNLA made a desperate drive on Luanda, but quickly collapsed in the face of the better armed (and probably better led) communists. [For more on the Angolan civil war, see S&T 228. ed.] Under the encouragement of US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger, the South Africans entered the Angolan fighting and, on 2 October, launched Operation SAVANNAH. A South African mechanized column made a mad dash for Luanda, but lacked the strength to fight its way through, so its drive stalled 150 kilometers short. One dilemma that was endemic to South African military operations in Angola was a reluctance to take large numbers of casualties. Domestic political sentiment was against large wars abroad. And there was also the political issue of maintaining the appearance South Africa’s new UNITA allies were not simply Pretoria’s puppets. Still, the South African Defense Forces (SADF) proved effective in the field, owing to high levels of training and military leaders with combat experience from World War II and elsewhere. Among other things, the SADF used French-made Entac anti-tank missiles to hurl back three separate MPLA armored columns between Nova Lisboa and Lobito. While that was a temporary setback for Luanda, UNITA-Cuban forces still held a numerical edge; so the South Af-

ricans pulled back across the frontier into Southwest Africa. In late 1975 the Organization of African Unity (OAU) recognized the MPLA as the legitimate government of Angola, which then became the 27th member of the OAU. For Neto that was a major political victory; he could now openly embrace Soviet and Cuban assistance. UNITA withdrew to southeastern Angola, where South Africa provided them with support that enabled them to slowly recover. UNITA took on a proWestern political line and made fighting communism one of its major propaganda points. By 1977 SWAPO was becoming militarily active, prompting the SADF to launch Operation REINDEER, in which more than 1,000 SWAPO insurgents were killed for the loss of just 19 South Africans. In retaliation, SWAPO and Zambian soldiers launched a mortar and rocket attack on South African positions in the Caprivi Strip, a narrow stretch of Southwest African territory that ran along the southeastern Angolan border. Ten South Africans died in the attack, but retaliatory air and artillery strikes into Zambia killed dozens of guerrillas and destroyed tons of military equipment. Border raiding became a way of life, short-circuiting UN sponsored peace talks. SWAPO concentrated on small-scale guerrilla and terrorist attacks, much of which were directed against the black civilian populace. In response, the SADF became adept at counterinsurgency operations, combining mechanized, light infantry, special forces and airmobile units in the field. One effective unit was the 32nd “Buffalo” Battalion, made up largely of refugees from MPLA rule. SADF also controlled the Southwest Africa Territorial Force (SWATF). SWATF included an array of units composed of both white and black territorial troops, as well as police counterinsurgency units. Both the SADF and SWATF emphasized intelligence operations, utilizing special units of trackers to hunt guerrilla bands and then fix them for elimination by larger units. The South Africans also employed specialized vehicles that could operate freely on the savannah. They included purpose-built armored fighting vehicles, motorcycles, and even horses. Essentially, South African strategy was to combine a forward offensive policy with a defense in depth. SWATF units would provide security for frontier regions, defending the civilian populace and tracking SWAPO infiltrators who made it across the border. Meanwhile, SADF and SWATF “external” operations would target SWAPO bases within Angola to disrupt their training, logistics and command control. Extensive use was made of special operations forces to spot SWAPO units heading towards the border. Guerillas would be attacked by reaction forces before reaching populated areas.

In the Bush

The Ratel-90 fire support vehicle.
strategy & tactics 9

In response SWAPO operated in smaller groups in order to avoid detection, but that in turn reduced the insurgency’s combat effectiveness. So SWAPO turned to terrorism in order to demoralize pro-government forces. That backfired, and made the South Africans appear to many to be the lesser of the two evils. In any event, the SWAPO insurgency never gained military control of any significant part of Southwest Africa. In 1979 South African forces carried out Operations SAFRAAN and REKSTOK, disrupting SWAPO plans to secure control of the Angolan city of Caprivi and, from there, all of southwest Angola. Subsequent peace talks between South Africa and the warring Angolan factions went nowhere. In the spring of 1980 the SADF struck deep into Angola in Operation SCEPTIC. The South Africans killed 1,147 guerrillas at a cost of about 100 of their own men. Another incursion the following year, Operation PROTEA, was more involved. Under an umbrella of Mirage fighters, the South Africans routed Angolan forces in a four-day battle, then advanced deeper into the country. One SADF weapon that proved effective was the 90mm recoilless rifle mounted on Eland armored cars. The Elands were mobile in the “bush;” so they could outmaneuver the MPLA and Cuban Sovietmade tanks, while the 90mm gun could pierce any armor, at least with a flank shot. In July 1980, South Africa continued the pressure with Operation KLIPKOP. Bolstered by UNITA forces, the SADF reached the Marxist supply points of Xagongo and Ongiva, where they blew up more than 2,000 tons of ammunition. A third attack, Operation DAISY, further decimated SWAPO, which by the end of 1981 had lost approximately 3,000 men. As a result, SWAPO could not operate units of battalion or larger size. Most of its actions were carried out by small units that SADF/SWATF could track and neutralize. SWAPO terrorism in Southwest Africa fell from 1,052 incidents in 1981 to 156 in 1982.

SWAPO launched two counterattacks into Southwest Africa early in 1982. One was through the Kaokaland Desert, and the other through the Tsumeb mining region. But SWAPO simply lacked the strength or logistics to carry through with a major offensive. When the South Africans hurled back both thrusts, secret peace negotiations commenced but again went nowhere.

The International Front

Externals: SADF troops returning from an operation.
10 #235

Pressure was building against South Africa from another direction. An international movement to end white minority rule there utilized boycotts, UN sanctions and support for the anti-apartheid resistance, which was led by the African National Congress (ANC). Pretoria offered to withdraw its forces from Southwest Africa if the Cubans would pull out of Angola. Luanda rejected that proposal. Communist nations supplied the MPLA with SAM-3 and SAM-6 anti-aircraft missiles, useful for neutralizing the South African Air Force’s incursions. And the situation within Angola was still uncertain. By August 1983, UNITA forces occupied more than a quarter of the country, and the Reagan administration was increasing its support for anti-Marxist insurgents. It was a tricky situation, with Washington claiming to be fighting against communism while Luanda claimed to be fighting against apartheid. With its new and powerful allies, UNITA fought on with increasing confidence. Concerned about their Angolan ally the Soviets stepped up shipments of military hardware, while the Cubans provided even more troops. Rushing to act before the MPLA and SWAPO could rebuild, South Africa launched Operation ASKARI in December, and raked SWAPO, FAPLA and Cuban units in January 1984, killing 324 communists for five dead South Africans. That prompted renewed peace negoiations, but as the talks dragged on fruitlessly the fighting in the bush continued. By year’s end 584 SWAPO insurgents had been killed; the South Africans had lost 39 troops. Nevertheless, by the end of 1984 SWAPO still had 8,500 trained guerillas under arms. SWAPO returned in force in 1985. Soviet Gen. Konstantin Shagnovich was given overall command of a massive assault that kicked off on 15 August 1985, in hopes of capturing UNITA’s capital of Jamba. Attacking out of the towns of Luena and Moxico, the two-pronged offensive ran into difficulties when Savimbi and his commanders prudently fell back into thick brush, where the soft, sandy ground hampered the movement of Soviet T-34, T-55 and T-62 tanks. The pincer’s right prong was especially hindered, and quickly came under attack by UNITA forces. When the left element tried to come to the right’s assistance, it fell under murderous UNITA artillery and mortar fire and strafing by South African Air Force

strategy & tactics 11 .

In a lengthy campaign the invaders slowly advanced to the town of Cangombe. MODULAR. worried Pretoria because. The South Africans kept up the pressure but did not permanently occupy territory they overran.000 men. thwarted a FAPLA attempt to ford the Lomba River on 9-10 September. The Marxists expected any SADF/UNITA counterattack to come from the east. often just a few kilometers a day. backed up with the firepower of 127mm mobile rocket launchers and 120mm mortars. giving the SADF time to act. MPLA and SWAPO forces would assault UNITA and SADF positions during the monsoons. 2. more than 150 other vehicles. Fidel Castro. the fighting stalemated. an SADF assault on SWAPO’s Central Front forward headquarters. By 1986 there were 1. spearheaded by the Cuban 50th Division and its T-60 tanks.000 Soviet troops serving in MPLA headquarters. That effectively stopped the invasion. He also hoped to re-open the Benguela railway to increase commerce and improve Angola’s economy. killed another 150 Marxist guerrillas on 31 October. SWAPO and ANC troops. MiG pilots were mystified at their inability to locate the South African artillery. 11-16 September. That two-pronged attack. Harried by Savimbi’s guerrillas and South African mechanized and artillery forces. however. codenamed Operation MODULAR. driving UNITA forces back along the Lomba River. seeing his Angolan strategy facing ruin. Shagnovich.000 Cuban soldiers supporting almost 25. That set the pattern for the next three years. and surviving FAPLA units began withdrawing to what they hoped was a safe distance at the headwaters of the Cuzizi and Cunzumbia rivers. The 32nd.000 East Germans handling signals and communications. The combined South African/UNITA attacks on the retreating Marxist forces were codenamed Operation HOOPER. that attack reduced terrorist activity in the Ovambo region.” FAPLA counter-battery radar could determine the bearings from which the South African shells were coming. The South Africans had 17 men killed while losing three Ratels and a few support vehicles. Savimbi transferred his forces guarding Cazombo to link up with the defenders of Mavinga—the gateway to Jamba.000 FAPLA. destroying tanks and killing more than 800 MPLA troops along a 10 mile wide front. On 3 October the South African 61st Mechanized Battalion pulverized the Angolan 47th Brigade as it attempted to cross the Lomba and link up with the 59th Brigade on the north bank. With their armor slowed by sandy terrain. With that united force he launched a counteroffensive on 26 September that hurled back the communist attack. For a time in early 1988 the front stalemated. and killed more than 1. Early in 1987. if successful. the Marxists had lost 525 men killed. it would have laid bare 650 kilometers of South Africa’s northern border to SWAPO as well as inflicting a defeat on its UNITA ally. 33 tanks and three anti-aircraft systems destroyed. and then be thrown back. the Marxists’ advance was leisurely. Though poorly armored. the 12 #235 HOOPER.jets. with four brigades moving south from Lucusse and four brigades and two tactical groups driving westward out of Cuito Cuanavale. Moscow initiated an airlift to support that crucial offensive. Operation FIREWOOD. never dreaming they were searching thousands of meters short of the emplacements’ actual positions. out of UNITA-controlled territory around the town of Cunjamba and the Lomba River. Shagnovich again set his forces against UNITA in a three-pronged attack out of his Cuito Cuanavale and Luena bases. the MPLA were further decimated as it withdrew. Carried out 35 kilometers north of Cassinga. When they launched their attack in August. Elsewhere. UNITA and SADF troops destroyed some 20 enemy tanks. in September the South Africans launched a series of assaults on the Cuban-dominated FAPLA spearheads from the unanticipated direction of the south. hastily deployed reinforcements to Angola. But those units were laid waste by South African artillery when they reached the front. By month’s end the threat to Jamba had passed. still hoping to take Mavinga and Jamba. the Marxists achieved some initial success. By mid-October the SADF had advanced so far their G-5 artillery was in range of FAPLA’s Cuito Cuanavale airbase. the Ratel-90’s mobility made it a difficult targets for FAPLA’s Soviet-made T-55 battle tanks to engage. Little changed militarily for the rest of the year. The SADF’s 32nd Light Infantry Battalion spearheaded that counteroffensive. and 15. where UNITA and SADF units counterattacked and drove them back toward Cuito. During the operation’s heaviest fighting. Before the counterthrust reached there. but the G-5 guns were always too far away for the radar to determine their distance. PACKER South Africans used their superlative 155mm G-5 artillery to shell FAPLA positions throughout the theater of operations. fire from South African Ratel-90 infantry fighting vehicles and Valkyrie rocket launchers caused numerous Marxist casualties. stepped up his southward probes. The G-5 artillery system outranged the FAPLA/Cuban guns and proved an effective “force multiplier. As the fighting spread throughout the Angola-South Africa border region. forcing it to end aerial support operations. The South Africans launched a 9 November assault on FAPLA forces in the Chambinga River area. A UNITA attack . By the time this last phase of MODULAR wound down in mid-December. On 27 May 1986. In July. Instead.

Newly arrived Cuban Gen. As usual. A joint UNITA/SADF attack on 13 January drove FAPLA from those positions. Artillery did the job. In late February FAPLA and its allies were again forced back as UNITA and South African forces continued HOOPER. killing 230 troops and destroying nine tanks. Despite having forced the Marxists into a small perimeter around the Cuito Cuanavale bridge.on 2 January 1988 failed to dislodge FAPLA forces from their positions adjacent to the Cuatir II River. SADF/UNITA forces were too bedeviled by accurate shellfire to finish off their foes. That effectively cleared FAPLA forces from the Chambinga highlands. chasing all but one enemy battalion across the stream and to its west bank. with its objective being the driving of FAPLA/Cuban forces across the Cuito River. the political ramifications at home and abroad had their impact. but the Marxists rallied and retook them the next day. strategy & tactics 13 . On 14 February a joint South African/UNITA attack mauled the FAPLA 21st and 59th Brigades. That led to a pattern in major South African offensives in which well trained and equipped SADF forces would sweep through enemy The new cavalry: mounted recon trooper. Too many South African casualties would have led to domestic opposition to the war. Cintras Frias expertly deployed his artillery behind high ground that shielded the big guns from counter-fire. At that moment SADF launched Operation PACKER.

Marxist propaganda had it that the FAPLA/Cuban army had stopped a South African drive to bring down the Angolan government. On 20 July 1988.Waiting: troops assemble at a forward staging airfield. Mike Muller’s task force to the town of Calueque. With an eye toward scaling down the conflict. caused operations to grind to a halt. At least part of the problem was the SADF lacked the manpower to occupy the territory it captured. formations. Moscow no longer had time to devote to faraway sub-Saharan Africa. but Havana trumpeted it as a major victory. achieved at some cost. and destroyed 94 tanks. distracted by the new majority rule government taking hold in their own country. and the South African military contingent was henceforth limited to 1. Operation PACKER compressed FAPLA forces into an even smaller enclave around Cuito Cuanavale bridge. A new assault launched on 23 March. Both sides claimed victory. Pretoria implemented containment tactics. It was a modest battlefield success. The SADF lost 43 men in operations MODULAR and HOOPER. A new era was beginning for Africa. Marxist forces pushed South African Maj. . Then South African refusal to take casualties. South African forces. since the appearance of the SADF gaining too much ground might have led to more UN intervention.000 well-armed combat troops in Angola. All that reflected back upon the political situation. and 82nd Brigade started planting an extensive minefield to pin down the enemy during the following campaign season. PACKER was South Africa’s last major sweep through Angola. and dozens of armored personnel carriers. 12 MiG jets. The South African Citizen Force 82nd Brigade was brought in to relieve other SADF units that were exhausted from the fighting or whose tours of duty were up. With the communist system on the brink of collapse back home. South African veterans would later point out they had stopped the Marxist offensive in its tracks and rolled back the FAPLA/Cuban force to Cuito Cuanavale.500 troops.768 Cubans. were glad to go home as United Nations Resolution 435 went into effect 1 August 1989. Castro still had more than 40. All remaining Cuban forces were restricted to the area above the 13th parallel. Neatly re14 #235 versing the history of the campaign. combined with increasing Marxist resistance. while they killed (or claimed to have killed) 4. Castro was then able to withdraw his forces without losing face internationally. often leaving units at the end of perilous lines of communications. Stalemate would follow.

at least in the international arena. strategy & tactics 15 . Both sides bled in the brush. only four South African soldiers had been confirmed as killed by Angolan air attacks. the fighting in Angola lost any semblance of strategic importance it once had. There was only one definite case of a South African plane being shot down. South Africa lost 715 men in the long years of warfare. the South Africans killed more than 150 Cuban and Angolan troops. fought in the depths of “darkest Africa. proving that not only communists were capable of insurgent warfare. the South Africans waited until the crash site was thick with enemy soldiers and then fired 96 rockets onto the coordinates. but essential to the successful prosecution of the campaign. Luanda soon opened negotiations with Washington. With the Cold War over. The South African/UNITA partnership had not only been effective. FAPLA claims of destroying 40 Mirages were exaggerated. The military imbalance would have otherwise made it impossible for UNITA alone to withstand the FAPLA/Cuban onslaught. that was by anti-aircraft fire on 19 February 1988. though givent he nature of insurgent warfare. Still. Even bolstered by an additional 3. Operations MODULAR. The South African Air Force was loathe to commit its expensive Mirage jets unless absolutely necessary. which only came to something of an end when Savimbi was killed in action in February 2002. air and artillery support.000 Cuban and FAPLA troops. Yet.” proved together to be one of the biggest mobile campaigns of the Cold War—and perhaps one of the most decisive.000 South African soldiers and 8. Though the South African Air Force’s reluctance to appreciably deploy its machines enabled the Angolans to generally have more warplanes in the air. they cut deeply into their targets. they were ineffectual. Angola paid with 11. By using their lost aircraft as bait. conventional military force that ideally complemented UNITA’s irregular tactics.Endgame In MODULAR-HOOPER-PACKER about 3. HOOPER and PACKER. The Angolans claimed many more civilians killed. Airpower was another factor figuring significantly in the conflict. UNITA and FAPLA continued their internecine conflict.000 killed in action. the UNITA contingent fought with determination and skill. it was often difficult to distinguish combatants from non-combatants.000 or so Soviet and East German combat advisors. By the time the fighting ended. The SADF provided the highly mobile. An uncertain number of Soviets and Cubans also died far from home. On at least six occasions Angolan jets bombed their own troops. The South Africans’ high mobility. Also. the Marxists could not overcome the lethal South African-UNITA collaboration. After the outsiders left. Correctly assuming FAPLA troops would swarm over the Mirage’s wreckage searching for documents.000 UNITA irregulars had decisively beaten a Soviet-commanded army of 50. and superior combat training were too much for their enemies. and it is the capitalist West that now dominates Africa economically. when those warplanes were used.

other units would fight forward within Angola itself with major operations organized under ad hoc task groups. HOOPER and PACKER can be reconstructed from a number of sources. Those units were organized into brigade-sized formations referred to as Task Group A and Task Group B. each with its own artillery group.” home defense units. For MODULAR. the 1st. The modular battalions were each responsible for a specific sector of the frontier.000 men and women). It consisted of sub-units rotated in from South Africa itself. as well as the May River Reconaissance Company and some artillery. the Root Caroo Mechanized Battalion. Also involved were elements from the SADF Recon Commandos (special forces) and 1st Parachute Battalion/44th Airborne Brigade. Instead. 3rd Parachute Battalions. and then calling in reaction force units who would move in by helicopter or cross-country vehicles for the kill. though it was loathe to risk much in the face of MiG interceptors and Soviet-supplied surface-to-air missiles. Both battalions had considerable experience in fighting SWAPO insurgents and in “bush” warfare. The SADF created five modular battalions (51 to 55) for service on the frontiers. 1 x independent motorized infantry brigade 16 x independent infantry battalions 2 x armored reconaissance regiments 5 x artillery regiments 2 x air defense regiments 3 x engineer regiments 1 x reconaissance (special operations) company Deployment of forces for combat dispensed with the paper organization. There’s also some indication the SWATF 301st Battalion was present for MODULAR. 1 x armored recon regiment. Interestingly. In the summer of 1987. With a strength of 55. but they were not tied down in static defense. since at least one Marxist source claims the unit had 9. The 82nd included the President Stein Armor Battalion. The air force also provided helicopters which were very useful in airmobile operations. 1 x engineer regiment). the National Military Service (an annual call-up of about 32. 1st Parachute Artillery Battalion). 2 x armored regiments.South African Order of Battle by Joseph Miranda The South African Defense Force (SADF) units that participated in Operations MODULAR. 4th and 7th Infantry Battalions (all equipped with cross-country vehicles). 1 x artillery regiment. to whom the SADF added a solid cadre of leaders. They included the Armour School’s Special Service Battalion (equipped with Olifant main battle tanks). aggressive patrolling and offensive action were the orders of the day. The 61st was also stationed in northern Southwest Africa during that period. the SADF deployed the 32nd Light Infantry and 61st Mechanized Battalions into Angola. In early 1988. Tactics revolved around using tracker teams to find insurgents. They were made up of sub-units assigned from both the SADF and the SWATF. 1 x air defense regiment). the SADF 82nd Mechanized Brigade relieved units in Angola. and trackers from the Southwest African Territorial Force (SWATF) 101st Infantry Battalion. Meanwhile. many veterans of the campaign have created internet web sites detailing their experiences. 1 x air defense regiment. The SADF Air Force also contributed air support. A Marine company took over operations in Caprivi.000 officers. they used more conventional tactics. and the De La Rey Infantry Battalion. 1 x engineer regiment. Supplementing the armed forces was the South African Police. The 32nd “Buffalo Battalion” was originally recruited from FNLA veterans.000 men for two years) and the Citizen Force (reserves). SADF 16 #235 . There is also some good material coming out of modern miniature wargames. The South African Defense Force (Army. HOOPER and PACKER. 44th Airborne Brigade (2nd. the police had experience in both law enforcement and counterinsurgency. National Military Service personnel were frequently rotated through those units. They operated from base camps with all-weather airfields and supply depots. 2 x artillery regiments. As the campaign developed. Air Force) consisted of the Permanent Force (39. The Citizen Force included: 1 x corps headquarters 2 x divisions (3 x brigades. the South Africans added more units. In the 1980s. The latter included G-5 artillery pieces and multiple rocket launchers. regular units included: 1st Battalion/44th Airborne Brigade State Presidential Guard battalion 32nd Light Infantry Battalion 61st Mechanized Infantry Battalion Reconaissance Companies (special operations) Training units (9 x infantry battalions. The Buffalo Battalion must have had some impact on SWAPO and the Angolans. There were also the “Commandos.000 men. Navy.

South Africa was increasingly isolated by UN sanctions and international propaganda. There was also the Koevoet (“Crowbar”) formation. Heitman.wanadoo. 91st Composite Artillery Regiment. 1986. In the end. 201. _____Apartheid’s Army in Namibia.com/sadfbook/7sai. 202.html http://www. was on the strategic level. “Externals.htm strategy & tactics 17 . Greg. 701. Bloomington. Also in the SWATF (and apparently composed largely of white personnel) were three infantry battalions (one regular. 1993. Matthew.com/chap20. 1982. 102. 901). IL. The battalions were territorially based. Capetown: Saagman and Weber.” in Command Post Quarterly. Game Designer’s Workshop.htm http://uk.geocities. Koevoet teams used aggressive tactics to hunt down infiltrators. 2. the latter provided by cross-country vehicles. 91st Armored Reconaissance Regiment. Overall. 1991. Paul.namibweb. emphasizing timely intelligence and speed on the ground. Additionally there were Area Force units. Helmoed-Romer.com/sasolboy/abenstxt.htm http://uk. as well as having to face a restive black population at home. Forged in Battle.geocities. All of those units were mobile within their own areas of operations. Jan. Special forces included the 1st and 2nd SWA Specialist Units. Modern African Wars: South-West Africa. as well as a brigade headquarters. Johannesburg: Covos Day. There were eight infantry battalions (101. No. SWATF Sources: Breytenbach.html http://www. London: International Defense and Aid Fund.geocities.nl/rhodesia/modhoop. made up of citizen reservists for local defense. SADF and SWATF forces had both the tactical and operational ascendancy against their foes. recruited from the police and SWAPO defectors. The majority of troops were recruited from the black population and proved adept at bush warfare. Websites http://home. some support units and an air force squadron. 301. 203. Novak. The real dilemma.com/sadf_history1/dfrench. politics would once more trump the military successes in the field. London: Osprey. except the 901st which could operate throughout the entire region. and frequently provided tracking teams to SADF units operating in Angola.The South African government set up the Southwest Africa Territorial Force (SWATF) as a largely counterinsurgency army. two Citizen Force). of course. Parabat.

62mm MG Infantry combat vehicle 2. 1961 BTR-60 Armored 1 x 14. can 10.62mm MGs (max mm) Armor 90 Crew 5 Weight (kg) 32.62mm MG 17 4 36. 1 x carrier 7. 1967 BMP-1 1 x 73mm 33 gun. continually upgraded. Manufactured in huge numbers and widely used by Soviet allies.300 carry 14 troops 2.500 780 65 400 USSR.62mm MG. 1 x 1.000 750 75 400 USSR.7mm MG 14 3 45. 3 x 7. used by Soviet allies until the 1990s. 1952 PT-76 1 x 100mm 203 gun. can be air-dropped.5mm personnel MG.Model ing country USSR.1953 M-48 “Patton” M-60 180 49.62mm MG. proved to be an effective MBT. Standard Soviet MBT of 1960s and 1970s. 3 x 7.62mm MG 1 x 90mm gun (later 105mm). 23 1 x AT-3 Sagger antitank guided missile. 1 x 12.62mm MG 242 4 40.62mm MG.7mm MG 1 x 76. 1 x 12. USA. 1972 T-72 1 x 125mm 250 gun.62mm MGs 300 80 500 USSR. capable of transporting infantry to an objective and allowing them to fight from inside of it. 2 x 7. USSR. can carry 4 troops 4 6700 240 70 320 The first true IFV.000 520 48 400 3 14. Some versions equipped with infrared driving sites.ARMORED FIGHTING VEHICLES by Joseph Miranda Manufactur. 1 x 7. 1944 T-34/85 Type Tank Armament 1 x 85mm gun.500 90 80 500 Used auto-loader to reduce crew requirement. 1970 BMD-1 Airborne combat vehicle Main battle tank Main battle tank 3. 1 x 7. Wheels instead of tracks for faster level terrain movement. 1961 T-62 1 x 115mm gun. Advanced tank for the time. can carry 9 troops 13. Used with Soviet airborne units. USSR. USA. USSR. 18 #235 . 2 x 7. 1 x 12.62mm MG 200 3 42. 1 x 7.000 240 in water 45/10 280 Amphibious and recon AFV.600 750 48 500 Development of M-48.7mm MG 143 4 52. 1 x 7.62mm MG 1 x 73mm gun. late models use a laser-guided antitank round. 1 x AT-3 Sagger antitank guided missile.7mm and 1 x 7.000 750 48 500 Rushed into production during the 1950s. 1960 1 x 105mm gun. continually improved. 1966 T-64 1 x 125mm gun.000 Horsepower (bph) 500 Speed (km/h) 55 Range Notes (km) 300 World War II era tank. 1 x 7.000 580 50 450 USSR. but plagued with automotive deficiencies. 1948 T-54/55 Main battle tank Light tank Main battle tank Main battle tank Main battle tank USSR.2mm gun.

Ratel Infantry fighting vehicle 20 3. including command post and forward observation vehicles. (“elephant”) ? 4 56. later adapted by the army. USA.000 950 45 500 Intended for rapid deployment and airborne insertion.62mm MG ? 4 6.7mm personnel MG carrier Main battle tank Main battle tank Light tank Main battle tank 1 x 76mm (later 105mm).000 250 hp 60 400 Export versions used successfully by Iran against Iraq in the 1980s. main gun had numerous technical problems.Manufactur.62mm personnel MG carrier ? ? Armored 1 x 7. Unique “V” shaped hull to deflect mine blasts. can 12.62mm MG 45 2. Most widely used APC in the world. 1978 (“buffalo”) Buffel Casspir Armored 2 x 7. some versions armed with a 60mm mortar.200 212 61 480 United Kingdom. 1 x 76. 90mm or 105mm gun. 1956 M-113 Armored 1 x 12. 90mm gun used successfully in antitank role. 2 x 7. 1960 M-551 “Sheridan” Type Airborne armored reconaissance vehicle Armament 1 x 152mm “Shillelagh” gun/missile system. can 6140 carry 10 troops 125 170 96 90 1000 850 2. 1948 Centurion 127 650 35 190 World War II era design upgraded.800 300 Horsepower (bph) Speed (km/h) 72 Range Notes (km) 600 Intended as a light tank but frequently misused in other roles.000 103 85 450 Upgraded version of the British Centurion MBT. strategy & tactics 19 . Soviet made BRDM-2 aromored personnel carrier. Many variants. 1945 United Kingdom. 1974 Eland Armored car 1 x 90mm gun. many variants and armament configurations.62mm personnel MG carrier 1. 1979 Republic of South Africa. 1963 France. 1 x 12.000 750 48 500 25 3 15. 1963 Republic of South Africa. 1980 Olifant 1 x 75mm. 1 x 7. 1 x 20mm or 1 7. can 11.62mm MG ? 4 55. Later versions had laser rangefinders and additional armor. 1 x 7.62mm MGs 1 x 105mm gun.7mm MG. 3 x 7. 2 x 7. some version had 90mm gun.000 282 105 860 Republic of South Africa.Model ing country USA.62mm MGs 1 x 120mm.2mm MG 1 x 20mm gun. Chieftain AMX-13 Republic of South Africa. can carry 7 troops 19.350 carry 11 troops 4 43.580 carry 10 troops Originally used by the South African Police.62mm MG (max mm) Armor ? Crew 4 Weight (kg) 15. Republic of South Africa.

Angola and South West Africa: A Forgotten War (1975-89). We Fear Naught But God. Taurus and Co. Gordan L. 1993. 20 #235 . The Military and the Making of Modern South Africa. Death in the Desert: The Namibian Tragedy. Selous Foundation Press.B. 1998. Robert. July 1995 issue (#44. Brookings Institution. Yves. I. Debay. South African Special Forces. 2000. Ashanti Press. Paul... Fred. Norval.) Els. Inc. 1989. Seegers. War and Peace in Southern Africa. The War for Africa.Bibliography Bridgland. 1990. BHB International. Rottman. Annette. Rotberg. Raids magazine. Osprey Publishing. Morgan. 1996.

with regiments for their artillery and assault guns. There are 280 NATO-style (with some iconic) half-inch counters. There are two players in each game. when playing that special alternative history scenario. Soviet maneuver units are mostly battalions. the other controls the forces of the Warsaw Pact. The Cold War Battles game system is a grand tactical simulation of battles that were fought—or could have been fought—during the Cold War.Now you can join the fight for Africa.09 sales tax. In BUDAPEST 1956 one player controls the Hungarian Rebels and possible NATO “what-if” reinforcements. while each turn represents anywhere from one week of intensive combat to four weeks of refitting. and each game turn represents one day. Units on both sides are mainly battalions or equivalent groups of irregulars. are represented by US “Pentomic” battlegroups. Two games included in this issue are: BUDAPEST 1956. The game system is low-complexity and compares to the one used in last year’s Middle East Battles: Suez ‘56 & El Arish ‘67. and BLITZKRIEG ANGOLA. The playing pieces represent the actual units that participated or could have participated. Send to: Decision Games ATTN: S&T Game Offer PO Box 21598 Bakersfield CA 93390 strategy & tactics 21 . Playing time between two experienced opponents of roughly equal skill levels will be about three hours per game. the clashes between Cuban and South African mechanized forces in Angola in 1987 and 1988. the other the Cuban and MPLA forces. CA residents add $1. In BLITZKRIEG ANGOLA one player controls the South Africans and their UNITA allies. Hungarian rebel units are ad hoc groups. covering the ill-fated rebellion in the Hungarian capital in late 1956. and NATO intervention. this issue send your name and address along with: $23 $25 $28 US Customers Canadian Customers Overseas Customers To purchase the game that covers the battles featured in All prices include postage for first class or airmail shipping. In the Angola game each hexagon on the map represents eight kilometers across. In the Budapest game each hexagon on the map represents half a kilometer across. Designed by Joseph Miranda.

decisiongames.) 3W Gulf War Book $25 15 15 15 12 85 56 46 36 15 85 20 15 40 30 12 15 22 20 44 15 13 40 20 METGM Dragons of Underearth METGM Fire When Ready METGM Grail Quest METGM Ram Speed METGM Rivets METGM Rommel's Panzers METGM Stalins Tanks METGM Trailblazer METGM Warp War 3W 1944: Second Front 3W Aachen 3W Aces High (2nd ed) 3W American Aces 3W Ancients 3W Barbarians 3W Battle of the Alma 3W Blitzkrieg in the South 3W Campaigns of Civil War 3W Chinese Civil War 3W Crimean Shield 3W Crossbow & Cannon 2 3W Defense of Rorke's Drift 3W Duel for Kharkov $12 8 10 8 8 8 8 8 8 38 28 25 25 40 46 33 35 27 20 35 33 30 40 3W 3W 3W 3W 3W 3W 3W 3W 3W 3W 3W 3W 3W 3W 3W 3W 3W 3W 3W 3W 3W 3W 3W 3W Frederick the Great Fury on Champlain Give me Liberty Guadalcanal Ironsides Last Battles: Prussia Light Division Nap. STATE PhONE VISA/MC (ONLY)# EXPIRATION DATE SIGNATuRE EMAIL ZIP www. Mexico (Express) Europe (Express) Asia. 12/05 Shipping Charges 1st item Ziplocks count as 2 for 1 for shipping. Bakersfield CA 93390 Send To: Decision Games.com • 661/587-9633 • Fax. at Austerlitz Napoleons Later Bat. Africa. please list alternate games when possible. QTY ISS #/TITLE Price TOTAl EXCAL Alien Contact EXCAL Caen (zip) EXCAL Cassino (zip) EXCAL Crimea (zip) EXCAL Cyborg (zip) EXCAL Eastfront (zip) EXCAL Escape from Colditz EXCAL Ironclads (2nd ed) EXCAL Ironclads Exp (2nd ed) EXCAL Iron Horse EXCAL Kaiserschlact 1918 EXCAL Koniggratz (zip) EXCAL Mukden (zip) EXCAL Panzer (2nd ed) EXCAL Quazer (zip) EXCAL Quest (zip) EXCAL Sidi Rezegh (zip) EXCAL Sovereign of the Seas EXCAL Tannenburg (zip) EXCAL To the Green Fields EXCAL Total War (zip) EXCAL Trax EXCAL Wings (2nd ed.Some games are limited supply.661/587-5031 PO Box 21598. Panzerkrieg Raid on Richmond Royalists & Roundheads III Run Silent Run Deep Salvo Salvo II Scratch One Flat Top Sink the Bismarck Spitfire Spires of the Kremlin Star Force Terra Tahiti Tarawa Tide of Fortune To the Far Shore $28 33 35 36 36 30 28 28 35 33 36 30 33 40 28 32 28 36 42 20 27 28 30 36 s&h $ total order NAME ADDRESS CITY. Australia (Express) Type of Service 22 #235 . $8 15(20) 14(10) 17(25) 20(25) Adt'l items $2 4 2(7) 7(10) 9(10) uPS Ground/uS Mail Domestic Priority uPS 2nd Day Air (Metro AK & hI) Canada.

carried out by Cipher Trust. The US Marine Corps currently has one SOC MEU (Special Operations Capable Marine Expeditionary Unit. peacekeeping. They are: the Homeric and classical Greeks. At the same time. Throughout history. not enough archers could be found who were willing to make a peaceful public contest out of bow and arrow shooting.000 of those soldiers. some 2.094 reservists and 176. allows the host machine to be controlled by outsiders. From that time it remained in more or less constant use in warfare until the 16th century. Further investigation has revealed roughly 20 percent of those programs originate in the US. the 22nd) ready to deploy. is intended for combat deployments of up to six months. above all. Zombie computers are machines in which a program has clandestinely been hidden that. Across all of Europe today.260 midshipmen. the word “phalanx” means “roller. be prepared to maintain the defense of the US homeland. archery never became an event in the Olympics held by the classical Greeks.for your information Did you Know • Despite their making good use of bow-armed soldiers in warfare. no matter what diplomatic or military conditions prevailed. claims an average of roughly 170. 142. Each SOC MEU contains over 600 personnel. or at least counter aggression. NC. was considered to lack the honor and courage necessary for true heroic achievement. and that number is projected to decrease by about another 50 hulls during the next decade. however. • The latest version of the Pentagon’s overall strategic military doctrine for the US bears the title “1-4-2-1. urban combat. the warrior tribesmen of highland Papua New Guinea. and the armed forces of the United States (starting around 1964).315 personnel (54. sailors and airmen could ever be committed to hostilities outside that continent.” The first “1” refers to the idea the military must. hostage rescue.000 such programs have been identified so far. The “2” means the US must maintain the capability of thwarting two adversaries in overlapping campaigns. Inc. while another 20 percent originate in China. Chainmail armor appears to have been invented by the Celts around 300 BC. there are presently only 289 Navy vessels afloat. The research project.” Historians specializing in military history generally agree the amount of tactical innovation that took place in warfare during the 40 years between 1910 and 1950 was more than that which occurred during the entire 10 centuries of the Classical Era (500 BC – AD 500). when the increasing lethality of gunpowder weapons rendered such body armor useless.. • The US Navy currently deploys on active duty 363.5 million military personnel are serving their various countries on active duty. The last “1” stands for being able to quickly and decisively win one of those two campaigns. Accordingly. compared to the preferred Greek heavy infantry fighting. The “4” refers to the ability to deter hostilities. embassy evacuation and disaster relief. along with 3.768 civilian employees. with another two such formations soon to be organized. when put into operation.403 officers and 305.652 enlisted). in four regions of the world at one time. • • • • • • • strategy & tactics 23 . In ancient Greek. Missile combat. The 22nd is based out of Camp Lejeune. it turns out no more than a grand total of 125. When all applicable legal and constitutional restrictions are taken into account. and is trained to carry out the following types of missions: amphibious insertion. airborne raid. non-lethal riot control. no matter which side actually won a just-fought battle. A recent military research project has identified “zombie computers” as one of the biggest threats to the ongoing cyberization of the US armed forces. three combat forces have so far arisen that have made recovery of their dead from the battlefield an activity of paramount importance. and is organized as the diagram below shows.

and no European. The horrified Genoese carried the bodies through the fortress to a gate in the wall and threw them into the sea. the plague arrived in Europe from the east.” The phrase came from the medieval Latin atra mors. killing an estimated 85. Not knowing what was causing so many deaths. including Britain. but in doing so the besieged became infected. believed the terrible plague would ever reach their own homelands.” —Homer.” or boils. which infected even more people. Few of the infected survived. the Tartars used their catapults to hurl the bodies of those who’d died from the sickness over the walls into the town. he must by all means stand his ground strongly. In 1346. some or all of those sources. Cembalo (today Balaklava). the plague burned itself out. There were also two.000 people within a short time while continuing to spread. How it spread was a mystery. from where it spread. while others were auctioned to local Levantine buyers. at Tana. deciding the fortress couldn’t be taken by force. sometimes as large as an egg or apple. its common symptom was the “buboes. with hundreds of Tartars continuing to die each day from the plague. including remotest Scandinavia. Mobs of Tartars attacked the Genoese at Kaffa.” By 1348 the plague had spread through much of Europe. by fleas residing in the fur of the rats that traveled with the caravans. A chronicler of those times recorded that: “The contagious nature of the disease is indeed the most terrible of all the terrors. But by the mid-14th century.”) Russian. Circassian and Tartar a first in Biological Warfare Map showing the spread of the Black Death. and then spread to other parts of the body. it was rumored.“If one is to be preeminent in battle. through agreements made with the Mongols. or pulmonary. filthy. carried. and the great majority died agonizing deaths within five or six days. which emerged in the groin. Germany and Spain. In panic they took to their ships and sailed for Italy. —John Brown . The first was the pneumonic. A hundred years later. in which the infection entered the bloodstream and soon caused it to swarm with bacilli. but the walls withstood all attempts to scale and penetrate them. spices and other goods from China via the Silk Routes that crossed the continental landmass of Mongol-controlled Eurasia.” together with mors. In the 1300s it was all simply known as “plague. medieval cities and into the countryside. which hadn’t been infected. Syria and Armenia were covered with corpses. it became known in Europe that a terrifying plague had begun somewhere in the Mongol lands and was raging across the east. Sudak. the sturgeon were so large and plentiful in the rivers flowing into the Black Sea that caviar was commonly called the “food of the poor. It killed in two or three days. The second was septicemic plague. even more lethal. Into those places came silks. also carried by fleas. or even carry him to his grave. or visit him. the Moslem Tartars assumed it had to be something to do with the Christians living in their midst—the Genoese and Venetians. From Persia and other areas came furs. And spread it did. India. it seems. armpits or on the neck. all who see him in his sickness. It was the bubonic plague. though no one understood it at that time. It killed within hours. and Mesopotamia. variants of the bubonic plague. death. around 1346. causing them to flee for safety inside By the middle of the 13th century the hard-riding Mongol armies had extended their empire to the Crimea and the shores of the Black Sea. In 1346 the plague attacked the Tartars in the Crimea. In the following year. The Iliad slaves were shipped from Black Sea ports to Constantinople and Venice. It was history’s first recorded biological warfare attack. 24 #235 the fortress that had been built on the seashore for just such emergencies. had been depopulated. spices and caviar. then. It was devastating and incomprehensible. And so the first instance of biological warfare also remains history’s most spectacular example of it. causing the coughing of blood and the spraying of plague bacilli into the air. where atra could connote “terrible” or “dreadful” or “black. with astonishing speed through the crowded. The bug that caused it all: the flea vector that spread the plague. or do any business with him. carrying the plague with them to the seaports of Sicily and the mainland. and there is no known means of protection. By 1350 there was nowhere in Europe. It attacked the lungs. established trading posts at various points on the Black Sea and Sea of Azov. The siege of Kaffa went on. those lands were mostly unknown. Kaffa and other ports. from one. For the peoples of Europe. quickly follow him thither. Then. but the population of Europe had been reduced by a third. (In those times.” and it wasn’t until some 200 years later it became known as the “Black Death. for when anyone who is infected by it dies. the seafaring traders of Genoa and Venice had. The mob grew into an army. plague.

The weather was fine. 200 and 300 yards were 53. and possibly even at 100 yards. of course. John Mure’s company of Grenadiers of the 3d battalion of Quebec Militia.” as more than one soldier noted during that era. a soldier could expect to aim and hit a man-size target with some accuracy at 80 yards. should the American vanity be carried to the length of actual invasion. as with the other militia regiments. each firing six rounds of ball at targets at a distance of 150 yards. Col. Below is the newspaper report of that event in its entirety. 18 and 15 percent. individual accuracy was not the critical element in massed volley fire. It appears balls really did fly across the field like “handfuls of thrown gravel. were on guard against an expected invasion from the direction of Plattsburgh. He wrote that. but an enemy would have to be unlucky to be wounded at 150 yards. had been detached to form other specialty units. if a musket’s barrel was not bent out of shape. the unit was known for its unruly behavior. George Hangar presented the same case. Still.” A statistical analysis published by a W. On Thursday last a competition took place betwixt 55 of Capt. and though the 3d battalion would. New York. yet they will collectively and individually always feel proud of being second in every contest in which a regiment to which they are so much indebted for the useful instruction they have latterly received may be engaged. The accuracy rates for the trained men at 100. Portions of the 103rd Foot and 3rd Embodied were stationed together on the frontier in November. Military authorities relied on various well known sources to exemplify the situation. prefer being so. For example. Mure’s only placed 67 in theirs. standing about 750 strong. Among the British forces was the 103rd Regiment of Foot under Lt. having their soldiers take aim and using their weapons with accuracy remained a concern of officers. about 500 in strength. British regulars. and a large concourse of people attended. as is shown in the following account. The militia of Lower Canada had been well organized. so precisely aiming one’s musket. and when the day of battle comes.. such as the Frontier Light Infantry. One estimate states that. respectively. with obvious effects. In Lower Canada (Quebec). strategy & tactics 25 .000 casualties. the War of 1812 was five months old at the time. Further. but in an amusingly vivid manner. we believe. so slight distortions in the barrel further impaired their accuracy. which appeared in the 17 November 1812 issue of the Quebec Mercury. The quality of powder used could also vary. and the largely French-speaking militia. and that many of the muskets used were of indifferent quality and in bad order. during a battle in the Peninsular War. The shock effect on the enemy was more important. was not essential. and under the auspices of its worthy Commander. having placed 93 balls in the target.” the classic British smoothbore flintlock musket. when it is highly probable the 103d will be again victorious. it will not be thought surprising that the fine young men of which the 103d is generally composed should have surpassed them. There were several reasons for Brown Bess’s inaccuracy. The bore was smooth.for your information Silver Dollar accuracy With a musket Of course. Some muskets were not well made. We are informed that another trial of skill is likely to take place soon. The inaccuracy of “Old Brown Bess. it is the sincere wish. There was no rifling to give it spin and directional steadiness. as for aiming at a man 200 yards away: “You might as well fire at the moon and have the same hope of hitting your object. nearly 3. and when we mention that several of the militiamen had never before fired ball. 30 and 23 percent. and an equal number of His Majesty’s 103d regt. but not at all at 200 yards. To set the context. and one of its units was the 3rd Embodied Regiment. a reputation its men worked hard to maintain during the entire war. The 103d carried the palm. Muller in 1811 differentiated between the abilities of “well trained” and “ordinary” soldiers. is legendary. each apparently taking an interest in the contest. which was often impossible on a smokecovered battlefield anyway. Col. whilst Capt. Hangar declared. The British and Canadians had beaten US armies at Detroit (16 August) and Queenstown (13 October). of every man in the 3d battalion to be led on side by side with the 103d. so the ball was liable to glance off its sides as it emerged and follow an errant path. British tests in 1814 showed a target twice as high and twice as wide as a man was hit by aimed musket shot three times out of four at a range of 150 yards. when their officers decided to have a competition. Hercules Scott.7 million rounds were fired to produce only 8. The firing of the latter was however considered very good. while the less proficient fellows rated 40. Manned by a large number of former convicts. Parts of it.

Any dispute on the subject to be determined by the officer of the day. along with a second Native Guard infantry regiment. and its initial roll listed 33 officers and 731 men. when a combined Union Army and Navy force moved up the Mississippi toward New Orleans. but its origins actually lay in the Confederacy. most of the recruits joining after the fall of 1863. The regiment was initially raised in 23 November 1861 – by the Confederate state government of Louisiana – as the 1st Louisiana Native Guards. Afterward the officers of the 1st spent time trying to convince Union officials to accept the regiment into the Union Army. a pint to the second best. the 1st became one of the units participating in the siege of Port Hudson. Butler therefore seized on the Emancipation Proclamation as an excuse to raise new black regiments within his command area. none had a more curious history than the first such regiment formed. An effective military governor. Monroe – then commanded Union forces in Louisiana. Sadly. the sentries were allowed to discharge their weapons in a contest of accuracy. though. In the spring of 1863. a premium will be given of a quart of whiskey to the man who shall fire the first best. The contest also indicates officers took time to focus their men’s attentions on actually aiming their muskets. The unit again mustered. Should the firelock of either of the guards snap. and is not to suffer more than one shot per man to be fired. Each company fired a total of 330 shots. In many ways the unit had been created for propaganda purposes: blacks “fighting” for states’ rights made the Confederacy look better in overseas newspapers. both in Louisiana. this time as the 1st Regiment Native Guard Infantry. his talents as a combat leader were at best questionable. 26 #235 The regiment’s only combat assignment for the Confederacy came in April 1862. the prizes were enough to motivate any man to shoot as straight as possible. the 1st Native Guard was given the task of defending the French Quarter. Each day after completing their duties on guard. The issuing Commissary shall deliver the premium. The 103rd managed 93 hits for an accuracy of 28 percent. while the militia hit the target 67 times for 20 percent. Union forces in Louisiana were kept at a lower number than he found desirable. or misfire. In October 1862 the unit. As a result of his widely recognized lack of combat ability. While the city’s few white defenders retreated north. It was made up of free blacks who lived in New Orleans. When the guards are relieved they will return to the grand parade from whence they will be marched in a body by the officer of the day to some convenient spot. It underwent another reorganization when Butler was replaced by Nathaniel Banks (another political general who shared Butler’s lack of military prowess while also lacking any administrative strengths). on 27 September 1862. though. Among all the black units participating in the war. It spent all its time training and drilling. Their chance came shortly after Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on 22 September 1862. those soldiers simply went home and watched the Union troops occupy New Orleans. The regiment proved a successful experiment. The rules were as follows. The unit had a peculiar status: it was never officially mustered into the Confederate Army. and another action at George’s Landing. and the officer of the day is strictly directed to have the charge drawn. where their pieces will be discharged at a target of the size of a dollar at 100 yards distance and.for your information Though the target in question is not described. It ended the war as the 73rd United States Colored Troops Infantry Regiment. the accuracy of the two companies compares favorably with Muller’s statistics noted above. in order to create emulation among the men to fire correctly. remaining as a state militia unit. —Robert Malcomson first Black regiment of the Civil War Nearly 200. any statistics concerning the day to day accuracy rates of the sentries are lacking. Banks . The 1st Louisiana Native Guards was the first regiment to benefit from Butler’s policy. Instead. Benjamin Butler – the politically minded general who established the policy of keeping runaway slaves as “contraband of war” when he was at Ft. participated in the capture of Donaldsonville. Perhaps the winners’ claims about their precision grew in certainty as they happily consumed their prizes. and half a pint to the third best shot made by the guards. but how close they came to an object that would have been nearly invisible at 100 yards is difficult to imagine. it will be considered as a shot. Certainly.000 African-Americans fought in the American Civil War. Another example of that kind of practice was seen in a general order issued in the American camp on the Niagara frontier prior to the Battle of Queenstown Heights. Its leaders were recommissioned as Union officers – thereby becoming the first black officers in the US Army during the Civil War.

the regiment provided garrisons in occupied Louisiana until January 1866. Since there were then already seventy-two USCT infantry regiments. where it remained until September 1865. admirals and generals in London and Tokyo realized that Chinese portion of the “Fatherland” could become a troublesome base for German surface raiders and U-boats. It was 13 September 1914. The 1st Native Guard Infantry became the 1st Corps de Afrique Infantry on 6 June 1863. The 96th USCT was mustered out on 29 January 1866. but mistrusted the ability of those men to hold command positions. gained new identities. manufactured by the Rumpler Company. While the first black regiments had been state organizations. The regiment served in garrison duty at Port Hudson until March 1864. campaigning through both western Florida and Alabama. When Germany leased Tsingtau in 1898. the Army’s normal solicitude toward unit identity and regimental pride took a back seat to an orderly numbering system. Its top speed was approximately 75 mph. in June. and it strategy & tactics 27 —Mark N. When the Great War erupted 16 years later. but could see imperial warships in the distance. Constructed of sheer light blue fabric. Dropping to about 300 feet. Since their members were mostly black. the Kaiser’s men fortified their new holding with typical Prussian attention to detail. and participating in accepting the surrender of the city on 9 July 1863. After finishing its service in the Red River campaign as the 73rd USCT Infantry. He saw no evidence of a Japanese landing force on the beach. the 1st Corps de Afrique Infantry Regiment became the 73rd USCT Infantry Regiment. taking part in assaults on 24 June and 7 July. Turning for home. a unit that had also begun life as a Corps de Afrique regiment. he headed for the coast. and they opened fire on him with their rifles. E line up. The old regiments were given new numbers based on availability rather than seniority. 100-horsepower. with a new roster of white officers and sergeants. Pluschow’s flying machine was a Taube (“dove” in German) monoplane. inline. It spent the rest of that year in garrison there and in Morganza. the pilot was low enough for the men on the ground to hear his engine. of the Imperial German Navy Flying Corps. while its engine made little more noise than a sewing machine. They were among the most motivated soldiers in the Army. his fragile aircraft was almost invisible and certainly inaudible to those on the ground below. Climbing to safety. Lardas Colored troops from Co. They were struggling with wagons and caissons. In February 1865 it took part in the capture of Mobile Bay. the Army officially Federalized almost all of the state regiments.for your information appreciated the extra manpower provided by black regiments. adding them to the roster of USCT units. and he descended to take a closer look. As the 96th USCT Infantry. the regiment returned to Port Hudson in May 1864. he landed at his airfield in the Chinese port city of Tsingtau (pronounced ching-DOW). and Gunther Pluschow. the airplane blended in with the cloudless morning sky. Louisiana. water-cooled Daimler-Benz engine. The Army therefore put the new black recruits into Federal units called United States Colored Troops Regiments (USCT). the pilot noticed a line of Japanese infantry below. . Many of the pioneering black regiments – including those with proud histories such as the 1st Kansas Infantry (Colored) and the 1st South Carolina Infantry. as well as the Corps de Afrique regiments. It was then merged with the 96th USCT Infantry. He had just flown 150 miles at about 60 miles per hour. Despite the fine performance of the 1st Native Guard under its own officers. Soaring over a muddy road. had just made on of history’s first motorized military reconnaissance flights. in April 1864. generally working and training hard in camp and fighting well in combat. The Taube was powered by a six-cylinder. Finally. The British coordinated with their Japanese ally to rid both island nations of the worrisome enclave. but was transferred back to Greenville. then. It finished the war at Mobile. aerial firsts over China As the German Navy pilot flew over the Chinese countryside. that regiment – along with the other three Native Guard regiments organized by Butler – was reconstituted as part of a new Corps de Afrique (“Africa Corps”). no state – with the exceptions of abolitionist Massachusetts and Connecticut – really wanted to claim them. when it became part of the Red River campaign. By 1864 the high command of the Union Army realized black troops were a good thing. ending the career one of the most unusual regiments in the US Army. It was then involved in the final phases of the siege of Port Hudson. Both pilot and plane had arrived in Tsingtau just in time for the commencement of hostilities late in the summer of 1914.

The deadline for a response to the demand was 23 August. let him come and try to get it. “Wilhelm. and allotted just enough fuel to keep it airborne for short periods. With the deception exposed. Thanks to his eye in the sky. Gunther Pluschow out side of Tsingtau. taking notes and making sketches from 1.for your information His sighting of the Japanese column on the 13th contradicted an earlier report given to the Germans by a Chinese mercenary. Sorely outnumbered and low on ammunition. Capt. The Japanese had. Cut off from re-supply. which was anchored out of range of their guns. The warships moved closer for increased accuracy and added their firepower from the opposite direction.m. On 15 August the Japanese delivered an ultimatum to the German governor of Tsingtau. I think of you. Because of his aerial lookout. By the time of Pluschow’s aerial kill. he hadn’t realized the magnitude of the looming ground offensive. bribed that man to tell the defenders the approaching enemy forces were still nowhere near the city. Pluschow and his Taube would steal the show. October 31 was the Kaiser’s birthday. Until receiving Pluschow’s report.000 men just north of Lao Shan Bay on 18 September. he knew the rate of progress of the approaching Allies. he reconnoitered their artillery positions. the attackers opened fire with over 100 siege guns. destroyed by enemy guns. Pluschow later described how constant flying in the fragile monoplane took its toll: “My nerves began to crack. By the 21st the fighting had become intense. One of the first instances of air-toair combat took place on 28 September. German artillerymen had to be conservative with their ammunition. Then another report by Chinese agents turned out to be true. confining themselves to firing only on precisely aimed targets identified by Pluschow during his daily flights.m. As Anglo-Japanese expeditionary forces were massing against his base by land and sea. The pilot not only confirmed the informants’ account.” Pluschow immediately took to the air to keep a close eye on the Allies. The Japanese attempted to storm the defenses. carried enough fuel to stay aloft four hours. and then only briefly. Meyer-Waldeck knew the Japanese were advancing overland across Shantung Province. Meyer-Waldeck gave his Japanese and British foes no answer of any kind. He opened fire on the Farman with a 9mm Mauser “broom handle” pistol. your difficult struggle. and the defenders had to know where the besieging army was massing. Suwo and Okinoshima shelled his defenses for seven hours. again thanks to Pluschow. No longer willing to trust his spies. When the Japanese landed 28. Alfred von Meyer-Waldeck. Meyer-Waldeck pulled his forces back to the city rather than risk having them decimated on its approaches before the siege started. Triumph. Meyer-Waldeck sent Pluschow to check the report.” It was signed simply. Pluschow compensated by cutting his engine and gliding as often and as far as he could. but on the 23rd he addressed his assembled men: “If the enemy wants Tsingtau. I rarely slept. Local informers told the governor Japanese cargo vessels and warships were anchored off Lao Shan.” Henceforth he recognized the airman and his plane as integral to the defense of Tsingtau. the Germans knew of their location and presence.200 feet. the Germans couldn’t fire on the enemy fleet. but noted smoke from additional approaching freighters and warships. He will find us at our positions. to surrender by 15 September. At 6:10 a. It was the last transmission the garrison would receive from the Fatherland: “God be with you in this.” He also read his men a short dispatch from Berlin. Meyer-Waldeck had figured the main attack would take place soon when the battleships Tango. however. Meyer-Waldeck gained sudden respect for Pluschow and what he called his “motorized kite.” He could not take time to rest. Pluschow took off at 4:00 a. On the 30th the warships intensified their barrage.000 to 1. Meyer-Waldeck was dubious of the airplane’s worth. for he was the only qualified pilot Meyer-Waldeck had available. the Germans were dug in around the city limits. well prepared to meet the enemy. I could hardly eat.000 at that time) with more arriving in a steady stream. He also noted large concentrations of infantry (there were over 37. killing the pilot and sending the enemy biplane crashing to earth. 28 #235 . in fact. He soon looked down on a sobering vista of scores of heavy siege guns. When I closed my eyes I saw the maps in front of my eyes and saw the protectorate under me. rather than preparing for an amphibious invasion as he had originally expected. concentrating on the main redoubt of Fort Hweichuen. on the morning of 30 October and steered inland. As the British and Japanese constructed siege lines. When shells struck some petroleum storage Taube monoplane from 1914. with the men on the ground usually never noticing him. Therefore we look to the future with confidence. There was little doubt the Allies would be launching their main attack soon. when Pluschow closed with a French-built Farman biplane flown by a Japanese pilot. Outnumbered 13:1 on the ground. Meyer-Waldeck had to content himself with the occasional shot at the ground targets noted by Pluschow. but were beaten back the first few times they went over the top.

did a couple of tours of duty in Iraq). S&T stalwarts Al Nofi and Sid Sackson reviewed games and everything else. Year of the Rat was a groundbreaking wargame. For a week the garrison endured the bombardment. He promptly escaped again and. Project Hermes. promoted to lieutenantcommander. Alabama. Jim Dunnigan. After traveling by ship to Hawaii and San Francisco. Thus was born the Redstone Rocket. Pluschow flew to the city of Haichow. The governor surrendered Tsingtau at 6:23 on the morning of 7 November 1914. embarked on a globe-trotting odyssey in the hope of returning to Germany. On 6 November Meyer-Waldeck ordered Pluschow to take his plane and escape before it was too late. It served not only as a weapons system. During the early postwar years. where he crash landed and surrendered to American missionary Dr. Bishop trek into World War I East Africa for a cat-and-mouse (lion-andgazelle) contest between German and British Empire forces as Sideshow presents von Lettow-Vorbeck’s guerrilla campaign. But in July 1950 the new Army Ordnance Guided Missile Center recruited Von Braun together with other scientists at Redstone Arsenal. One of the few naval games ever to appear in S&T. German rocket scientists were brought to America and worked under Wehrner Von Braun in circumstances at first not directly connected to the Army. disguised himself as a dockworker on the Channel coast. he and an assistant were killed when their plane developed engine trouble and crashed into the Rio Brazzo River. The Redstone had its roots in the Second World War. After the war Pluschow remained a trailblazing pilot. Richard Berg and Dennis —Kelly Bell the redstone rocket The US Army’s first operational long range ballistic missile was the Redstone Rocket. Pluschow was amicably interned by local Chinese authorities who transferred him to Nanking. John Young and R. Finally back in Germany. Tsingtau’s streets became awash with a torrent of blazing oil. Frank Davis and R. fluent in English. as Israelis and Arabs fight it out in 1948. Ironically. Hancher and J. On 28 January 1931. he was awarded the Blue Max. which culminated in the conquest of Singapore. Chuck Kamps takes a look at the Japanese campaign in Malaya. S&t 185: first arab-israeli War. And to round out the issue are D. After burning his aircraft. Greg Smith provides an analysis of World War II’s Arracourt tank battles. The missile closely resembled the V-2. Then Greg Smith sizes up American armor versus the Iraqis (Greg. small wonder given Von Braun headed the design team. with an engine capable of 78. Kaufman exploding some of the myths of the 1940 campaign in the West. 150 issues ago. Morgan. pretending to be Swiss. E.000 pounds of thrust by burning a mix of liquid oxygen (LOX) and alcohol. Elsewhere. incidentally. Champer all contributed to the controversial issue.tanks. David Tschanz writes about biological warfare. By 1952 the Redstone’s basic design was determined and the rocket given its name. while shooting motion pictures over Patagonia in Argentina. 21. coming as it did in the midst of the Vietnam War whose 1972 campaign it simulated. S&t 85: fighting Sail. The guidance system was to be of an inertial type and utilize gyroscopic control via variable tail fins. but also was the early workhorse of the American space effort. the Long tradition: 50 issues ago. 200 issues ago. Joseph Miranda design of the first round of the Middle Eastern powder keg. G. He soon escaped and. S&t 135: Sideshow. S&t 35: year of the rat. by train cross-country to New York.8 meters long by 1. Toelke marched into Russia with Napoleon’s 1812 campaign. and Jim Simon does right by ancient armies. Design specifications called for a single stage missile. he had named his aircraft Tsingtau. John Prados. with Joe Balkoski designing a simulation covering the great age of sailing ships. and by steamer across the Atlantic. Just before Christmas he stowed away on a Dutch ship that carried him back to the continent. John Smith writes about artillery in wargaming. in both the German V-2 rocket program and in its US counterpart. helping pioneer aerial photography.8 meters wide. 100 issues ago. while Raymond Bell looks at wargaming low intensity conflict. The Army requested a study to determine the feasibility of a rocket with a 500 mile range designed to provide tactical support to battlefield operations. and given command of the naval air base in Riga for the war’s duration. he was arrested by the British at Gibraltar and sent to a POW camp outside the city of Derby. one of Germany’s highest military medals. continues next page strategy & tactics 29 . Lorenzo S.

hoisting Explorer I into orbit. There were subsequently five more launches using the Juno-I. including a harrowing overshoot for Ham the space monkey. also solid fueled. one of numerous such flights required to iron out the bugs. the Mercury Redstone combination was declared ready for flight. the US went into crash program mode to catch up. The first stage was a Redstone modified to use Hydyne (a hydrazine-base liquid rocket fuel) and LOX. Following the launch of the Soviet Sputnik in October 1957. three of which were successful. Gus Grissom’s flight. The Redstone was delivered to the Army’s 217th Field Artillery Group in 1957. Guidance was the biggest issue. a remarkable accomplishment given the technology involved. in fact. and later also went to the 40th Field Artillery Group. on 29 November 1967. PO Box 21598. WRESAT-I. called the Jupiter C. That was followed by MR-4. and the failure of the American Vanguard satellite a few weeks later. 30 #235 uS $29. That was intended to test the feasibility of using nuclear armed missiles as anti-missile interceptors. a significant technical challenge in the days before miniaturized on-board computers. In July of that same year a Redstone carried a 3. That. and that combination was called the “Mercury Redstone. Von Braun and his team were ready. On 5 May 1961. a number were sent to Australia. was located just below the bullet shaped satellite on the nose. thereby increasing its thrust to 88.” After three test flights. 24hour fax line is 661/587-5031. previously used for testing IRBM nosecones. while some three dozen more were used for testing. The fourth stage. Such a “circular error” rate was.The Redstone’s first test flight was in August 1953.000 pounds. was still not the end of the Redstones’ service. and on 31 January 1958 a modified four-stage rocket renamed Juno-I took off at night from Cape Canaveral. given the plan was to eventually arm Redstones with tactical nuclear warheads.8 megaton W-39 thermonuclear warhead to 200. The second and third stages consisted of clustered solid fuel rockets in a spinning drum assembly. .97 $49. Still. Eighty-five Redstone rockets were built and delivered for operational deployment. Alan Shepard traveled 115 miles high and approximately 300 miles down range in the MR-3. The Redstone was next selected to carry the first American astronauts into space.97 Canada Overseas $36 $62 $42 $74 One Year (7) State Zip Two years (14) Phone # Fill out (please print legibly) the order form and send it with your check payable to Strategy & Tactics (please no Canadian Checks) to: Decision Games. and the Redstones became officially operational in June with deployment to US forces in NATO. —Bruce Costello Newsstand Issue Issues Name: Address: City Country V/MC # Signature Exp. The missile was in the Army’s inventory until 1964. This was pretty much the end of the line for Redstones.8 percent success rate. Tests were considered successful if the missile landed within a kilometer of the target. where the last flight of a Redstone was the launch of that country’s first satellite. Bakersfield CA 93390-1598 or call (661) 587-9633 (9:00am-4:00pm PST) to place your credit card order. Florida. was selected as the launcher for the first American satellite. The first successful unit-fired missile test occurred in May 1958. The Redstone ultimately managed to attain an 81. on 21 July. however. when it was replaced by the Pershing 1A. A variant of the Redstone. That wasn’t really inefficient. The nosecone was replaced with the Mercury space capsule and its escape tower.000 feet above the Pacific for detonation.

to the winning side. including the French conquest of Egypt. Leaders are critical to play in the system.” For example. vol. Players have mobile supply units. All that makes Forgotten Napoleonic Campaigns a new look at a muchgamed era. then march north with the American Army in the 1775 Quebec campaign. Units are brigades for French. as S&T rides into the Little Bighorn valley in 1876. #238 Marlborough: March along with the War of the Austrian Succession. Visit www. providing enhancements to movement and combat. Elite units have a relatively higher strength when demoralized. Units recover from demoralization via rally. This game has several scenarios.Works In Progress forgotten napoleonic Campaigns Forgotten Napoleonic Campaigns covers two of the more obscure fronts of the Napoleonic era: the 1798-1801 Egyptian campaign. Both sides build up during the campaign. Joseph Miranda next issue They Died With Their Boots On 1: Saddle up with Gen. Unlike the later Napoleonic campaigns. and groupings of irregulars for Mamelukes and Arabs. and the 1808 Russo-Swedish War. Pursuing a demoralized force can utterly destroy it. winning a few engagements but ultimately losing the campaign. and most combat results cause a force to demoralize a certain percentage of its strength. which was a Swedish province at the time. The game system also includes a random events table that provides bonuses. There are two combat results tables. 1915-18. the subsequent operations in Syria. Future articles: a new look at Confederate strategy in the American S&t upcoming features #236 They Died with Their Boots On. Hot-headed leaders may also be required to march themselves and their entire force toward the nearest enemy stack. strategy & tactics 31 . Often a shattered army has little choice other than to fall back on its fortresses to regroup. but a player can risk a surprise offensive with an otherwise shattered army. And both will be included in the same issue. and medieval China’s rule of the high seas. Movement is variable. Victory is evaluated on a point basis by occupying critical objectives and winning battles. Historically a small Russian army invaded the country while the Swedes fell back and later counterattacked. Units are backprinted with their “demoralized” strengths. 1: On to Quebec 1775-76 & Custer’s Last Stand. rising general Napoleon Bonaparte lands a French army in Egypt and fights his way to the walls of Acre before being stopped by a desperate Turkish defense. sometimes saving the day. in the Egyptian campaign. #237 No Prisoners!: The Campaigns of Lawrence of Arabia. Both saw small forces accomplish great things as well as march into occasional disasters. The Swedes have several combined arms brigades. Civil War.com for previews of these issues. while low quality units evaporate with the first whiff of grapeshot. and sometimes penalties. plus fortress depots. British and Turkish regulars. which prefigured Pearl Harbor. #239 Winged Horse: US conventional and airmobile forces take on the Viet Cong & NVA across Southeast Asia. the French player can recruit Mameluke mercenary cavalry as well as a camel corps. so you have to keep up the pressure. In Egyptian Campaign. while the Russians start with three divisions. the Royal Navy’s carrier air attack on Taranto in 1940. #240 1066: Two. which can generate results ranging from a forced march to a fall back on a friendly fortress. which requires being in a supplied position. and the British counteroffensive of 1801. The game map sweeps from Alexandria east to Damascus and south to the middle reaches of the Nile. one for skirmishing and one for full-scale battles.decisiongames. players command small forces that have unique “personalities. Initial playtests have led to some lively results. Unit quality is factored into demoralization strength. sometimes walking into an ambush. determined by a March Table. where mass armies trampled across Europe. three or four-player struggle for England at the end of the Dark Ages. The Russo-Swedish War map depicts Finland in 1808. Custer.

War in the Pacific is a multi-level simulation of the Pacific theater of operations during World War II. Projected release date is April 2006. There are a number of rules and concepts that will. Africa. Representing some 30% of the globe. Ships as 10 units. rule books and assorted displays and player aid charts. But playing through smaller map sections and scenarios enables the player to become familiar with the mechanincs of the game. For the next four years. $420. the strategic maps let players move and engage in combat on all levels: air. Components: 7 full size strategic maps in full color. form the opening Japanese attack on 7 December. War in the Pacific is the most detailed board game of the Pacific Theater ever created. was attacked by Japanese aircraft.decisiongames.00 NAME ADDRESS CITY. The game enables players to recreate the entire course of the war. Hawaii. 1941 to the climatic Allied assaults in the closing days of 1945. the US naval base at Pearl Harbor. wresting from the Japanese the empire that they had expanded in every direction.Another Classic Game from Decision Games War in the Pacific On Sunday. Australia (Express) . Allied task forces engaged elements of the Imperial Japanese fleet throughout the ocean.000 counters showing all types of units from the Pacific Theater. ground and naval. Marines and army units began their program of island-hopping. new tactical maps with nearly 340 individual islands for new ground units to fight over. at first. nearly 9. 7 December 1941. be unfamiliar to a majority of players.com Shipping Charges 1st unit $8 15(20) 14(10) 17(25) 20(25) Adt’l units $2 4 2(7) 7(10) 9(10) Type of Service UPS Ground/US Mail Domestic Priority UPS 2nd Day Air (Metro AK & HI) Canada. 32 die-cut counter sheets. STATE PhONE VISA/MC (ONLY)# EXPIRATION DATE SIGNATuRE 32 #235 PO Box 21598 Bakersfield CA 93390 ZIP EMAIL 661/587-9633 • fax 661/587-5031 • www. Mexico (Express) Europe (Express) Asia.

A game so big—it’s a tsunami in a box. Tactical Map Tactical Map Strategic Map strategy & tactics 33 .

TACTICAL FILE: Breitenfeld: Regiment versus Tercio By Dave Higgins 34 #235 .

Note: Protestant-Swedish units are in italics. the Catholic warlord was optimistic. Pappenheim’s cavalry had endured two hours of Swedish cannon fire. Tilly responded by moving on Leipzig. positioned his heavy guns to the front. and so invited a Catholic incursion. Little did he know he was about to fight an action the histories would trumpet as one of the decisive battles of history. with armies living off of the land. They contain all the information you need to create a scenario for a wargame battle. . Pappenheim demanded reinforcements. attempted to spare his realm from the ravages of war by allying with Adolphus. was in a central. Gustavus’ position looked tenuous. Neusächsisch. Gustavus quickly overran Mecklenburg and Pomerania and was poised to strike south. The Västgöta regiment was moved to support Horn. and Holstein-Gottorpp regiments stood their ground until scattered when the Ortenbur charged in. Noon Each side said anxious prayers and waited. Tilly put his army into an offensive posture. fearful of “Magdeburg Quarter” (that is. the Protestant King of Sweden. Johann-Georg I. Swedish and Finnish horsemen quickly capitalized on the confusion by charging into the Imperial troopers. The Saxons received the bulk of the Imperial cannonade. The Swedes were on the Saxon’s right. They formed into distinct groups of artillery. combined arms brigades that puzzled the enemy. Leipzig quickly surrendered. The troops were restless for activity and the spoils of war. A crescendo of Jesus-Maria! erupted from the Catholic lines to be countered by their enemies’ Gott mit uns! Torstensson’s artillery opened an accurate fire. A new force was introduced when Gustavus Adolphus. “Father” Tilly’s marauding Catholic-Imperial army found itself in an increasingly hostile countryside as it solidified its gains. and ordered his heavy artillery to harass the Protestant columns crossing the Loberbach. the Swedish artillery commander. Saxony. Meanwhile. Acting on his own initiative. Imperial pickets and cuirassiers torched the village of Podelwitz then withdrew. they performed an undulating series of caracoles that crept around Banér’s apparently open right flank. Tilly then faced a united foe who outnumbered his CatholicImperial army.000 of his Black Cuirassiers. one of the leading Protestant states. Light artillery accompanied each brigade while Torstensson. he approached Podelwitz and Ramsay’s vanguard regiments. and Rheingreven took its place. infantry and cavalry. Catholic-Imperial in plain type. total devastation to cities that resisted). but the sacking of Magdeburg in May was a new extreme. Ordered not to initiate battle. not within immediate support range. and Tilly reluctantly agreed. As the veteran cavalry entered pistol range. Saxony’s fickle Elector. swinging swords and discharging pistols at point-blank range. Banér did not pursue—the concern was an uncontrolled advance would deprive the Swedish army of its cavalry in the event an emergency arose later in the battle—as it did. and this was long enough for the horsemen. strategy & tactics 35 1631 Thirteen years of warfare had devastated Central Europe and left the veteran army of the Catholic League and Holy Roman Empire the dominant force in the loose collection of states then called Germany. He did not move fast enough to catch the Swedish and Saxon armies before they concentrated. his intentions being to replenish his supplies and pile up plunder (and thereby pay the troops). Imperial second-in-command Pappenheim was given permission to reconnoiter the Loberbach River crossings with 2. The resolute Scots (fighting as mercenaries for the Swedes) rebuffed the probe. Pappenheim led his cuirassier wing in a wide arc around the Swedish right. Violence had long since become a normal part of life in war-torn Germany. With dozens of smoldering towns and years of successful campaigning behind him. 17 September 1631 Dawn Fog dispersed to reveal thousands of Imperial infantry tercios flanked by powerful cuirassier squadrons. The Imperial Strozzi. untouched location. He was uncharacteristically forced to encamp along the dominant high ground between Breitenfeld and Seehausen and wait for reinforcements— he had lost the initiative. Gustavus’ Swedes deployed in integrated. 2:00 pm By now. But Tilly missed his chance to defeat his enemies in detail. Pappenheim’s horse were caught in a crossfire. crossed the Baltic to right the religious imbalance and carve out a buffer for his country’s own emerging Baltic empire. but then Swedish reserves suddenly emerged from the smoke and dust supported by “commanded” musketeers (detached parties of musketeers who provide mobile firepower).Tactical Files are something new we are trying in S&T.

36 #235 .

The remaining Swedish horsemen charged in with devastatiing momentum. and Fürstenburg was driven off. Isolano’s screaming Croatians drove ahead to strike their green opponents’ flank and rear. Horn’s cavalry and musketeers held against repeated Imperial charges. Its infantry fired a quick salvo before fleeing. the Imperial infantry remained determined in face of that new setback. and the Swedish line once more solidified. Holstein-Gottorpp. Finnish cavalry wheeled around the Imperial infantry and quickly captured the Catholic artillery with cries of hakkaa päälle (hack on). Before Gustavus could adjust his line. Caldenbach’s regiment recaptured some of the Saxon artillery as Scottish regiments moved forward. even as their artillery was overrun. Wahl. Adolphus’ innovative linear tactics provided the firepower and flexibility he needed. commanding on the Imperial right. Again. Pappenheim and Wangler detached their regiments under the cover of the smoke and dust enveloping the battlefield. compressed mob that was being slowly pinned from three sides. Tilly was severely wounded. so they withdrew haphazardly. caught between attacks from two directions. Västergötland. An attack by Swedish pikemen finished the job. ordered a charge. and Baldiron-Dietrichstein regiments formed a desperate rear-guard. Fürstenburg’s cuirassiers careened into the Saxons. Two thousand refugees from the Arnim. Tilly sought to exploit the situation. Then Västgöta attacked his flank. Comargo-Reinach. In response. Tilly’s army was turning into a disorganized. Ramsay. Bindauf and Sachsen-Altenburg halted Baumgarten’s tercio. with the Swedes hot in pursuit. Chiesa. 4:00 pm Even though the battle had started erratically. also believing the battle had started.Into the fray: 30 Years War cavalry deploys. 6:00 pm Scottish drums pounded to regroup. Still. and a new champion. 3:30 pm Fürstenburg. The Imperial guns were soon in action against their former owners. Taube and Schaumberg regiments emerged from the chaos and ran for the safety of the Swedes’ open left flank. Thurn. and his army faced being cut off. strategy & tactics 37 . unexpected reserves solidified the apparently thin Swedish front line. By that time. and positioned themselves for new orders. The Protestant left was wide open so he ordered his infantry to advance forward obliquely towards their right. The Saxon left. and Scots brigades to help Horn stem Fürstenburg. a revitalized cause. and Hamilton devastated the staggering yet still disciplined ranks. Fürstenburg’s horse had not completely regrouped after the Saxon rout. The Blankhardt. The Protestants had their first major victory. Tilly’s dense infantry tercios made excellent targets for the Swedes’ unrelenting fire. but the flower of the Catholic army under Schönburg and Cronberg proved overwhelming. collapsed. and a new way of fighting battles hd been born. JohannGeorge preceded his routed army as Imperial troops fired the captured guns against them. and alternating Swedish musket fire and cavalry countercharges kept them in disorder. The Saxons initially held steady. the Imperial tercios were uncoordinated and the volume of fire they produced via countermarch was inferior to the Swedes’ volleys. Aftermath The next day the Imperial army abandoned Leipzig. Gustavus ordered the Green.

38 #235 21. 37. flat.000) (German). 35.000) (German). F. de Caffarelli (950) (Walloon). 12. von Wahl (2. 13. • Rigid. von Schönburg (German).Breitenfeld Battle Date: 17 September 1631 (Thirty-Years War 1618-1648) Result: Protestant Victory Weather: Hot. Adam Philip von Cronberg (Walloon). Gallas Imperial Infantry (Veteran) (10 companies)/Gen. Colloredo Imperial Arquebusier (10 companies)/Col. Johann Ludwig Hektor Isolano (Croatian). Caffarelli Imperial Arquebusier (5 companies)/Col. • Better for defense than offense. Jean de Merode-Waroux (Walloon).B. Hareaucourt Imperial Arquebusier Squadron (5 companies)/ Col. Grotta Imperial Infantry (1. 29. 6. J. Wilhelm von Bernstein (German) (under-strength). Neusächsisch Imperial Cuirassier (10 companies)/Col. Dietriech Otmar von Erwitte (1.900 Casualties: 13.000) (German). • Nearly impervious to cavalry charges. Philipp von Pappenheim (1. Late (“Wide Extension”.600 KIA/wounded.000 Horse) Gen. Gottfried Heinrich von Pappenheim (2nd in command) (Catholic League Commander). Octavio Piccolomini (German). Frederico von Savelli (2.900 Infantry) Gen. 16. Schönburg League Cuirassier (Veteran) (10 companies)/Gen.000) (German) (fatigued).600 (6. Rangoni Imperial Cuirassier (10 companies)/Col. Rangoni (German). Wengersky (German). 20. freshly-ploughed fields and occasional hills Holy Roman Empire: Catholic Total Force: 36. Pappenheim Imperial Infantry (10 companies)/Col. Adolf von Holstein-Gottorpp (1.Alonso Guillén de Contreras (1. windy (from the west) Terrain: Wide.000 captured/deserted) Overall Commander: Johann Tserclaes von Tilly Front Line: Left (6. Merode-Waroux Imperial Cuirassier (10 companies)/Col. 9. dry.Double League size).000) (German). von Lichtenstein (1. Theodor Comargo-Reinach (two combined under strength regiments) (2. 10.000) (German) (under-strength). Comargo-Reinach League Infantry (10 companies)/Col. 30. Gottfried Huyn von Geleen (2. 15. 32. Wengersky Imperial Cuirassier (10 companies + small dragoon detachment)/Col. Baldiron-Dietrichstein Imperial Infantry (10 companies)/Col.000) (German). • 55-90m wide frontage . Front Line: Right (3. Front Line: Center (27. von Baumgarten (Italian). Wahl League Infantry (10 companies)/Col. Chiesa Imperial Infantry (10 companies)/Col. Count Egon von Fürstenburg (Imperialist Commander) 31. 2. traditional. 7. 26. Coronini von Cronberg (1. Altsächsisch Imperial Cuirassier (10 companies)/Col. Holstein-Gottorpp Imperial Infantry (Veteran) (10 companies)/ Col.000) (German). Isolano Irregular Light Horse (10 companies)/Col. 14. pike contact was now uncommon (firepower wore one side down before the other advanced). J. H. Matthias von Gallas (1. Contreras Imperial Infantry (10 companies)/Gen. Hannibal M. Johann P. 11. Strozzi Imperial Cuirassier (Veteran) (10 companies)/Col. 18. Julius Heinrich von Sachsen-Lauenburg (German). von Schönburg 8. • Battled independently and not with the army as a whole • Pike vs. 27. 3.000) (German).000)/Col. 17. 5.000) (German) (fatigued). 19. Erwitte League Cuirassier (10 companies)/Gen. 34. 23. • Separate unit type groupings designed more for deliberate/ siege warfare.000) (German). Strozzi (German). Hans Ludwig von Grotta (1. 7. M. Bernstein Imperial Cuirassier (Veteran) (10 companies)/Col.000) (German). Tilly League Infantry (Veteran) (10 companies) /Johann Tserclaes von Tilly (2.000) (German). Geleen League Infantry (Veteran) (10 companies)/Col. von Blankhardt (2. Wangler Imperial Infantry (Veteran) (10 companies)/Colonel J. Savelli League Infantry (Veteran) (10 companies)/Col. Piccolomini Imperial Cuirassier (Veteran) (10 companies)/Gen. Infantry Tercio. Baumgarten League Cuirassier (10 companies)/Col.000) (German). 4. Antoni von Baldiron-Dietrichstein (German). Hareaucourt von Faulquemont (950) (Walloon).000) (German). 25. “weight of numbers” mentality. dusty. Chiesa (German). von Gonzaga (1.000) (German).057(on paper) for Imperial. Wangler (1.Rudolf von Colloredo (1.000 Horse) Gen. Blankhardt League Infantry (10 companies)/Col. Independent Dragoon companies Artillery Siege Pieces 10 x Demi-Cannon Field Pieces 16 x Quarter-Cannon 7 x (Saxon) Quarter-Cannon (Captured at Prague) Organization/Tactics • Predominantly German mercenary. Trèka Imperial Cuirassier (10 companies)/Col. Montecuccoli Imperial Arquebusier (Veteran) (10 companies)/Col.000) (German).Egon von Fürstenburg-Heiligenberg (1. J. Gonzaga Imperial Infantry (10 companies)/Col. Coronini Imperial Arquebusier (10 companies)/Col. Franz Albrecht von Sachsen-Lauenburg (German). 24. 22. 33.000) (German). 1. Skirmishers 36. Göss Imperial Infantry (10 companies)/Col.000) (German). 28.Adam Erdmann Trèka von Lippa (German). Ernestus von Montecuccoli (1.Prolongado de Gran Frente) (1. Cronberg League Cuirassier (Veteran) (10 companies)/Col. Fürstenburg Imperial Infantry (10 companies)/Col.

back. • Generally from eastern Europe/Balkans.6-8 rows (6-12 rows for Germans). • Useful in difficult terrain. pistols.000+ withdrew) Overall Commander: Prince Johann-Georg I of Saxony Front Line: Left Gen. Cuirassier • Dense formations • 10 rows x 100 deep • Heavily armored (plate up to 70). Pflugk “Feudal Levy” Cuirassier Squadron (Raw) (6 companies)/Col. Light Cavalry • Loose formations to exploit a flank or disorganized enemy. • Employed the nearly obsolete caracole (Snail). Hans Rudolf von Bindauf (Saxon). • Used to disrupt an enemy before the main attack. Sachsen-Altenburg Cuirassier Regiment (Raw) (8 companies)/Johann Philipp von Sachsen-Altenburg (Saxon). 4. a. Bernhard von Pflugk (Saxon). and sword.225 Horse) Casualties: 15. Ernst von Anhalt (Saxon). Saxony: Protestant “Leipziger Bund” 17. • Would often rush past opposition to shoot into their rear. • Arquebusiers. • Musketeers. 3. • Unable to stand against “established” troops. Hofkirchen Cuirassier Squadron (5 companies) (Raw)/Col. Imperial (Garnison) (Foot) (2x60). Arnim Infantry Regiment (Militia) (10 companies)/Marshal Hans George von Arnim (Saxon).Forward (or reserve) (1x81). • Countermarch. • Musketeers. Hans Rudolf von Bindauf (2.325 (12. • Squadron. Independent Free (Detached Musketeer) Companies (3 companies)/ (Saxon). Imperial. Löser “Feudal Levy” Cuirassier Squadron (Raw) (6 companies)/Col. • Moderately armored (<15). arquebus. a. Bindauf Cuirassier Regiment (Raw) (8 companies)/Gen. and sword.Uninterrupted fire from lead row which retired and was replaced by another (Difficult to sustain in combat and not always continuous). 6. Arquebusier (Mounted) • Minor skirmishing. the remainder added momentum. Arquebus. and sword. • Charges executed at a trot • Fought like infantry on horseback (always remained mounted). and sword. • Units stayed intact and always veered away to the left. pistols. “playing chicken” pistol fire and withdraw at 1015m.100) Friedrich Wilhelm I von Sachsen-Altenburg Regiments 7. Cavalry • Employed from the flanks to support friendly infantry and pin the enemy for artillery or overrunning. 12. • Lightly or un-armored. and helmet). pistols. • Moderately armored (breastplate. • Flanking support to the cuirassiers.500+) Regiments 1. • Undulating. Imperial (30-34 rows x 12-15 ranks) (1x370) Generally. Hofkirchen (Saxon). the first 4 or 5 rows interacted with the enemy.100 KIA/wounded. • Precision over volume fire. Imperial.Flanking (Manga) (2x243). Kurfürstin Hovfanna Independent Cuirassier Company (Raw)/(Saxon) 2. 5. strategy & tactics 39 .100 Infantry/5.000+ (2. pike. Anhalt Cuirassier Squadron (5 companies) (Raw)/Col.• • Pikemen. Hans von Löser (Saxon). Front Line: Center (12.

18. von Schwalbach (Saxon). • Artillery. Pforte Household Foot Regiment (8 companies)/Col. 15. Arnim Leibgarde Cuirassier Regiment (Veteran)(2 companies)/ Marshal Hans George von Arnim (Saxon). Moritz Dietrich von Starschedel (Saxon).Weapon Pistol (Wheel-lock) Range. Hans von Löser (Saxon). Kalckstein Cuirassier Regiment (Militia) (10 companies)/ Col.400m Quarter-Cannon “Culverined” (12-pounder) <380m 1. Wilhelm Leib Cuirassier Squadron (Militia) (5 companies)/ Col.Weak against musketeers and artillery/Good against cavalry.600m Solid Shot Grazing Fire) 8.270lbs. Effective <10m Range. erratic aiming.Weak against pikemen/Good against artillery and musketeers. Wolf Adam von Steinau (Saxon). prone to overheating Demi-Cannon (24-pounder) <340m 1.Weak against cavalry/Good against pikemen • Cavalry.500+) Regiments 17. Artillery (as reported captured) Siege Pieces 12 x Quarter-Cannon Organization/Tactics Traditional (similar to the Imperialists) General tactics: • Pikemen. Steinau Cuirassier Regiment (Militia) (3 companies)/Col. Sachsen-Altenburg Cuirassier Regiment (Militia) (10 companies)/Friedrich Wilhelm I von Sachsen-Altenburg (Saxon).360 lbs 10/hr (Swedencombined charge and projectile increased ROF) 6/hr (Imperial) 8/hr 2. von Bose (Saxon). reduced charges used Musket (Matchlock) Minion (3-pounder) Arquebus (Matchlock) <25m <50m <280m 1. Dam Vitzthum Household Foot Regiment (8 companies)/Dam Vitzthum (Saxon). 16.Weak against cavalry/Good against pikemen. 19. von Kalckstein (Saxon).800m Solid Shot (Grazing Fire) Grazing Fire (Solid Shot). von Pforte (Saxon). could penetrate armor 6-7 lbs. 12. 20. 40 #235 . Maximum 20m 100m 300m Round Ball Ball Ball Rate of Fire 2/min 2/min 3/min (Skirmishers) Stats Prone to misfire. von Wolfersdorf (Saxon). 9. Wolfersdorf Household Foot Regiment (10 companies)/Col. Klitzing Infantry Regiment (Militia) (10 companies)/Col. 21. Löser Infantry Regiment (Militia) (10 companies)/Col. 10. 22. Kurfürstin Cuirassier Regiment (Militia) (5 companies)/Col. Bose Household Foot Regiment (8 companies)/Col. Starschedel Infantry Regiment (Raw)/Col. 11. Moved with Regiment 1. 13. • Musketeers. Wilhelm Leib (Saxon). Front Line: Right Marshal Hans George von Arnim (2. Close Range (“Hail Shot”) 1/6 mins 1/2 mins 1/min (Sweden) 1/½ min (Skirmishers) 7–10 lbs. 14. Schwalbach Infantry Regiment (Raw) (10 companies)/Col. poor penetrating power 225-340 lbs. Kurfürst Infantry (Detached Musketeer) Companies (3 companies)/Colonel Hannß Casimir von Schaumberg (Saxon). Hans Kaspar von Klitzing (Saxon). von Taube (Saxon).

Åke Gustafsson Oxenstierna (591 Pikemen/1. Erik Hand (Swedish). Giesebrecht von Hegendorf (German). 3. Finland (Light) Horsemen (Veteran) (12 companies)/Gen. Reinhold Wunsch (Finnish). Erik Hand Brigade: Gen. 11. b. 2. b. Klas Hastfehr (Finnish). Erik Hand (636 Pikemen/1.800 (19. 5. b. Colonel Torsten Torstensson Stålhandske (Finnish).100 (700 KIA.062 Musketeers). Horn Cuirassier Regiment (8 companies)/Marshal Gustav Horn (German). strategy & tactics 41 . 8. 9.100 inf/7.700 horse) Casualties: 2. 13. Col. Västgöta Horsemen (Veteran) (8 companies)/Col. Östergötland Infantry Regiment (8 companies)/Gen. Finns Infantry Regiment (Veteran) (8 companies)/Col. Dalarna (Dalregementet) Infantry Regiment (Veteran) (7 companies)/Gen. Åke Gustafsson Oxenstierna (Swedish). “Yellow” Brigade: Gen. “Yellow” (Gula) Infantry Regiment (12 companies)/Gen. and Värmland Infantry Regiment (Veteran) (8 companies)/Lt. Hans Georg aus dem Winckel (German).Wilhelm von Salzburg (Swedish). “Blue” Infantry Regiment (12 companies)/Gen. Karl Hård (Swedish). Baudissin Cuirassier Regiment (12 companies)/General Wulf Heinrich von Baudissin (German). Västergötland Infantry Regiment (8 companies)/Col. 4. Johann Banér (German) Front Line: Center Gen. Maximilian Teuffel 1. c. “Blue” Brigade: Gen. Chemnitz Infantry Squadron (4 companies)/Col. Närke. 12. a. c. a. Uppland.140 Musketeers). Småland Horsemen (Veteran) (8 companies)/Fredrik Stenbock (Swedish). 6. 1st Squadron (Veteran) (4 companies)/Lt. “Red” Infantry Regiment (12 companies)/Col. Sir Johann Banér (2nd in command) “Commanded” Musketeer Reserve (8 companies)/Gen. Moritz Pensen von Caldenbach (German). 7.022 Musketeers). Åke Henriksson Tott (Finnish). Maximilian Teuffel (604 Pikemen/870 Musketeers). a. Niklas von Chemnitz (German). Erik Soop (Swedish). Claus Dietrich “Sperreuter” (Swedish).125 (Sweden: 26.Sweden: Protestant Total Force: 44. 2nd Squadron (Veteran) (4 companies)/Col. 1.400 wounded/missing) Overall Commander: King Gustavus Adolphus Vasa of Sweden and Finland Front Line: Left Marshal Gustav Karlsson Horn Front Line: Right Gen. Axel Gustavsson Lillie (Swedish). b. Östgöta Horsemen (Veteran) (4 companies)/Col. Dalsland Infantry Squadron (4 companies)/Col. 10. a. Maximilian Teuffel (German). Caldenbach Cuirassier Regiment (8 companies)/Col. Åke Oxenstierna Brigade: Gen. Hans Georg aus dem Winckel (573 Pikemen/1.

29. 28. • Integrated. Sigfrid von Dämitz (German). • Liners distribution was better in defense than offense as units could dislocate (1/2 Regiments could be positioned to help overcome this). James Lumsdaine (Scottish). facing outward). • Disciplined for maneuver. Taupadel Dragoon Squadron (4 companies)/Col. “Regimental” Pieces 42 x Minion (6/brigade. Kochtitzky Horse (4 companies)/Col. Rosen Infantry Regiment (12 companies)/Col. c.627 Musketeers). 17. Sir John Hamilton (Scottish). James Lumsdaine (504 Pikemen/1.Hall (German). 20.14. Sir James Ramsay (Scottish). 15. 16. Jürgen Aderkas (Latvian). Mitschefall Infantry Squadron (5 companies)/Col. • Effective if formation is retained. Sigfrid von Dämitz (German). • “Surplus” Musketeers in rear. Col. 19. e. c.3 on each flank) Organization/Tactics • Native conscript and foreign (German/Scottish) mercenary. “Black” Infantry Regiment (Veteran) (8 companies)/Gen. a. Schaffman Cuirassier Squadron (4 companies)/Col.215 Musketeers). 42 #235 . Lumsdaine Infantry Regiment (Veteran) (8 companies)/Col. Johann Philip von Ortenburg (Latvian). b. Dämitz Cuirassier Regiment (4 companies)/Col. Artillery (“Fixed” Ammunition enabled a high Rate of Fire) Field Pieces (under Colonel Lennart Torstensson) 12 x Quarter-Cannon (3 ahead of each front-line Brigade). Adolf Theodor von Efferen. Adam Schaffman (Czech/Silesian). Waldstein Infantry Regiment (8 companies)/Col. 21. Hamilton Infantry Regiment (Veteran) (8 companies)/Col. Bock Musketeer Regiment (8 companies)/Col. a. Livonia Cuirassier Regiment (5 companies)/Lt. • Squadron/Regiment (2 and 3) Pikemen at right angle from Squadron (1) with musketeers at flanks. Heinrich Mathias von Thurn (German). Col. John Hepburn (460 Pikemen/1. Hall Cuirassier Regiment (12 companies)/Col. “Black” Infantry Regiment (8 companies)/Col. von Bock (German). 25. John Ruthwenn (German). Donald Mackay (Scottish). “Green” Brigade: Gen. “Green” (Grona) Infantry Regiment (8 companies)/Gen. 18. Georg Christof von Taupadel (German). mutually-supporting unit.Adolf Theodor von Efferen. Melchior von Dargitz (German). John Hepburn (German). “White” Infantry Regiment (12 companies)/Col. Scots Brigade: Col. d. Rheingreven Cuirassier Regiment (Veteran)(15 companies)/ Otto Ludwig von Salm-Kyrburgh (German). Wilhelm Kasper von Mitschefall (German). Infantry Brigade • 3 Squadrons/weak regiments. 26. Courville Cuirassier Squadron (5 companies)/Col. Robert Monro of Foulis (German). Structure • Squadron/Regiment (1) Pikemen in front with musketeers behind (split. Andreas Kochtitzky ‘the Younger’ (Slav/Pomeranian). 24.too easily disrupted in combat. Berthold von Waldstein (German). Von Thurn Brigade: General Heinrich Mathias von Thurn (697 Pikemen/1. 22. Col. Mackay/Monro Infantry Regiment (Veteran) (8 companies)/ Col. b. 27. Ernst Dönhoff (Latvian).585 Musketeers). b. Foulis Infantry Regiment (8 companies)/Lt. “Orange” Infantry Regiment (8 companies)/Col.Hall (German). Reinhold von Rosen (German). Ramsey Infantry Regiment (Veteran) (8 companies)/Col. Nicholas de Courville (German). d. Ortenburg Cuirassier Regiment (The King’s “Life Regiment of Horse”) (10 companies)/Col. Johann Vitzthum von Eckstådt (German). d. a. 23. John Ruthwenn Infantry Regiment (8 companies)/Lt. • T” formation with 1 forward and 2 in support (musketeers interspaced with pikemen). c. Courland Cuirassier Squadron (4 companies)/Col. “Brown” Infantry Regiment (8 companies)/Col.

Närkes militärhistoria. Arméns regementen. • Trotter tactics. Stockholm: Probus Parker. The Thirty Years War. 2003 Brzezinski. Regensburg October 1993 Nafziger.Light Armor. Dragoons: Scouting. London: Osprey Publishing Ltd. Ballistics in the Seventeenth Century: A Study in the Relations of Science and War with Reference Principally to England.Double-frontage volley fire (difficult to undo). The Army of Gustavus Adolphus (1): Infantry (235). 1961 Närkingar in wars and peace. pike. Stockholm: Expeditionen af Nordisk familjebok. Shock value • Point-blank salvos designed to break up enemy formations. Gustav Adolf: Schwedens Aufstieg zur Großmacht. Musketeers • Trained to advance to either side of the pikemen or divide to support both flanks. but not dismounting. R. 30 Years War series. (1876-1899). Online version at Projekt Runeberg R. • Often organized in combat as 2 squadrons of 4 companies each.Attacked in 3 squadron lines.org/nf/) Nordisk Familjebok: första utgåvan. field engineering References: Arnold. Thomas F. Christian. MHQ. Foundation Nerekies regementen 1989 (www. 1997 Wedgwood. part In. • Fire by Retrograde.The warlords: Wallenstein and Tilly. • 2nd and 3rd lines pushed into the enemy with pistols (3 – 4m) and swords. Markus. Bertil (1993). The Thirty Years War. • Doubling the Ranks. 1952. Björn (1993). • Muskets protected by pikes. • 96 “Surplus” Musketeers in rear (16 rows x 6 deep/20m frontage). 1994 Evans. • Volley Fire. 122 From Breitenfeld to Baghdad Perspectives on Combined Arms Warfare. Michael and Ryan. • 1st line rode in as a screen and fired pistols (3 – 4m). Dr.runeberg. Ward. skolor och staber: en sammanställning. • Fought like infantry on horseback. C.. Pikemen. 1991 The Army of Gustavus Adolphus (2): Cavalry (262).trot to 50-60m of the enemy then gallop to within 12m.Advancing of successive firing ranks (generally with accompanying pikemen). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Galloping advance with no firing. Nelsson. autumn 1995 Braunstein. Regiment • 8 companies (mercenary regiments had 12 or 16 companies). Structure • 216 Pikemen in front (36 rows x 6 deep/34m frontage) • 192 Musketeers 16m back (32 rows x 6 deep/40m frontage). London: Anchor Books. Friedrich Pustet. Från Brunkeberg till Nordanvind: 500 år med svenskt infanteri. A.Withdrawing by successive firing ranks (generally with accompanying pikemen). Holmberg. London: Routledge.V. • Galloper tactics. • Fire by Introduction. Richard.. Alan ed.6 rows deep (3 ranks (knelt/stooped/stood) fired at a time. Richard and Hook. Sveriges arméförband under 1900-talet. Animadversions of Warre: London 1639 Swedish General Staff history Sveriges Krig strategy & tactics 43 . Stockholm: Statens Försvarshistoriska Museer. The Nafziger Collection. George. Geoffrey. sword Horsemen • Deployed in 2-3 rows (Shallow). July 2003 Hall. Land Warfare Studies Centre Working Paper No. Arvidsjaur: Svenskt Militärhistoriskt Bibliotek Junkelmann. London: Osprey Publishing Ltd. • Difficult to control after the attack.

Shortly afterward. Since the paratroopers were to be inserted via aircraft. an hour’s drive from Berlin. 44 #235 A The elite airborne forces that were an integral part of the Third Reich’s blitzkrieg attacks against Scandinavia. The Luftwaffe leaned toward . The workhorse of the Luftwaffe airborne operations was the Ju-52 transport.m. The army’s 22nd Infantry Division. the Wehrmacht began training soldiers at the Luftwaffe Parachute Training School at Stendal Airfield. Goering observed the Soviet Army stage a demonstration paratroop attack. The capture of the bridges was deemed a vital part of the plan to seal off the Dutch “Fortress Holland” during the German invasion of the Low Countries that brisk spring morning. The location of the bridges in a built-up area precluded the use of parachutes or gliders. When he came to power in 1933. meanwhile. In 1936. Welsh t 5:00 a. and was immediately convinced Germany must create its own paratroop and air landing units. The decision to use seaplanes in the vicinity of the bridges was a conscious one by Gen. became the 22nd Airlanding Division. Their mission was to secure four bridges over the urban river. The air force and army debated the role those troops would play in offensive operations. They rushed to link up at the bridges.A Brief History of the German Airborne in World War II By William E. The primary glider was the Gotha DFS-230. the Germans decided to put them under the direct control of the Luftwaffe rather than the army (Heer). the airborne troops from Student’s 7th Air Division were parachuting a short distance away into the stadium on the south bank of the river. 120 soldiers from the German 22nd Airlanding Division climbed into the assault rafts they brought with them and paddled furiously for the shore. and together the two groups held on in the face of determined counterattacks by Dutch infantry.-Lt. to be inserted by flying transport aircraft onto captured airfields. the Low Countries and the Balkans in 1940 and 1941were the brainchild of Hermann Goering. While the airlanding soldiers fought their way ashore. From those seaplanes. So the paratrooper and glider troops were formed into the 7th Air Division. on 10 May 1940. who commanded the German airborne forces during the invasion. Kurt Student. and forced Student and his staff to think up creative methods to achieve their objectives. Hitler appointed the former World War I flying ace and loyal Nazi party member to serve as air minister. a dozen seaplanes coasted to a landing on the choppy waters of the River Maas in the heart of downtown Rotterdam.

while the army favored using them as big units to attack the enemy rear. The Prussian-born Student served first as director of the Luftwaffe’s technical training schools and then as the commander of the Test Center for Flying Equipment before being promoted to command the 7th Air Division in 1938.using the airborne troops to conduct commando-like raids on special targets. both approaches would be used successfully. In 1940. the fledgling 7th Air Division participated in exercises with the Wehrmacht forces sent to occupy the Sudetenland. the mountainous border region of Czechoslovakia that Hitler seized in a bloodless coup for his Greater Germany. After the paratroopers and glider-borne troops had seized airfields behind enemy lines. some airborne units were specially trained to land directly on enemy fortifications and destroy them using hollow-charge demolitions. airlanding troops would be brought in by transport planes to reinforce and expand the airborne troop positions. At the same time. Overseeing the establishment of the German airborne forces was a former World War I aviator and flight squadron commander by the name of Kurt Stu- dent. Always short of equipment and troops. The airborne troops were ferried in by a fleet of 250 Ju-52s. Student would work miracles over the next three years preparing his nascent airborne forces for the pivotal role they would play in the early blitzkrieg. An assault would begin with paratroopers and glider troops seizing key objectives. such as bridges and airfields. As part strategy & tactics 45 Flight to Conquest . In the autumn of 1938.

Both objectives were captured with scant resistance. And the first paratrooper to die in battle fell when a small detachment from the 7th participated in the fighting at Wola-Gulowska. they assigned its capture to Student’s 7th Air Division. Ju-52 pilots transporting a company of paratroopers boldly tried to land on the airfield itself. The Ju-52s landed safely. On 14 April the Germans tried another airdrop to block an allied column advancing on Oslo from the North Sea port of Andalsnes. they could be isolated and destroyed. actually landed on it. That was done to secure the Reich’s northern flank for the coming offensive against France as well as to protect the iron ore that flowed from Sweden to Germany through Norwegian ports. Many paratroopers perished in the drop. That action demonstrated paratroopers needed to be supported by heavier follow-on forces. Steel Group would attack the bridge at Veldwezelt. After Poland capitulated.500 troops for the attack on the Netherlands and the rest to Belgium. but were driven off by heavy flak. The primary objectives in Belgium were three sets of bridges over the Albert Canal and the seemingly impregnable fortress of Eban Emael. Blitzkrieg in the West Student’s airborne attack on the Low Countries in May was a resounding success. in advance of the German blitzkrieg that was unleashed in the west on May 10. At Fornebu on the western outskirts of Oslo. Sturmabteilung Koch. bridges and airfields. and Granite Group would attack Eban Emael. The Norwegians fought hard at Sola airfield outside Stavanger. The survivors fought on for five days. the airborne practiced assault tactics on fortifications that had been abandoned by the Czechs—which would be good training for their later assault on the Belgian Eban Emael fort in 1940. Student assigned 4. was to make the assault. The following April the Germans launched invasions of both Denmark and Norway. Concrete Group would attack the bridge at Vroenhoven. but the rapid success of the panzers precluded their involvement. Iron Group would attack the bridge at Canne. If not. A company of paratroopers was dropped in Denmark to secure the Stoerstrom Bridge leading to the island of Seeland where Copenhagen was located. Parachute-borne troops might be dispersed by wind. and used their machineguns to suppress the defenders. But the Allies quickly reacted. Meanwhile. but were forced to surrender when they ran out of ammunition. The airborne task force was divided into four groups dubbed Concrete.000 troops at its disposal to secure a string of objectives including fortifications. Since the Germans believed a ground assault against the fortress would result in heavy casualties. The low cloud ceiling forced the paratroopers make a low altitude insertion. Iron. Eban Emael contained guns that covered the bridges over the canal. The most stunning attack occurred in Belgian fortress known as Eban Emael. The paratroopers’ were dropped to secure airfields to fly in reinforcements. The airborne forces were on alert and prepared to assist in the capture of key bridges and river crossings. Neither the 7th Air Division nor the 22nd Airlanding Division were given the chance to carry out an airborne assault during the German invasion of Poland in September 1939.of the occupying force. sending in British and French reinforcements. Granite and Steel. a platoon of paratroopers seized Aalborg airfield in northern Denmark. Then German fighters strafed the airfield. The 7th Air Division had about 5. for Luftwaffe bombers to use in the concurrent invasion of Norway. A specially trained unit. The 7th Air Division’s two initial Norwegian objectives were the airfields adjacent to Stavanger on the North Sea and the capital city of Oslo. When the Germans grabbed the remainder of Czechoslovakia in March 1939. elements of the 7th Air Division were dropped onto Prague’s main airfield. while gliders could be steered to the target. airborne units were landed at key points to prevent Polish Army officers from escaping to Allied countries. The capture of the fortress was deemed so crucial to the panzers’ advance through Belgium that the ground attack was not to be launched until the gliders had landed. but the paratroopers subdued them after a one-hour battle. 46 #235 . Student surmised a glider attack had a greater chance of delivering the troops on target than a paratroop drop.

(2) Fallschirmjaeger division (“Parachute light infantry division”). Germany 1945 West 1944. 1942-43 Battle of the Bulge. Later redesignated 600th SS Airborne Battalion. strategy & tactics 47 . 1945 East Front. Germany 1945 West 1944. July 1943. Originally trained for planned invasion of Malta. Germany 1945 West 1944. 501st SS Airborne Battalion Herman Goering Parachute Panzer Division Herman Goering Parachute Panzergrenadier Div. no airborne capability. 22nd Airlanding Division 91st Airlanding Div. Regiment-sized battlegroup. 1944 (A) Yugoslavia 1944 (A). Tunisia 1942-43. last of the parachute trained airborne divisions.Major German Airborne Units Unit th 7 Air Division (1) 1st Airborne Division (2) Year formed Campaigns pre-1939 1943 1943 1944 Sicily (A). USSR 1941-43 Notes Used as cadre for 1st and 2nd Airborne Divisions in 1943. Lufwaffe mechanized division. West 1944-45 Italy 1944-45 West 1944. Eastern Front 1944-45 Eastern Front 1944-45 1944 1944 1944 Understrength battlegroup. no airborne capability. Italy 1943-45 Scandinavia. Germany 1945 East Front. 2nd Airborne Division 3rd Airborne Division 4 Airborne Division th Italy 1943. later designated 1st Airborne Brigade. Army unit. 9 Airborne Division Sturm Regiment 10 Airborne Division 1940 1942 Regiment-sized battlegroup. Elements made airborne landing on Leros. USSR 1944. Attached to the 7th Air Division for the Crete assault. Crete 1941 (A). Balkans. Holland 1940 (A). 1945 Crete 1941 (A) 7 Airborne Division 8th Airborne Division th th Good combat record in last months of war. Ardennes 1944. November 1943. Germany 1945 Airborne landing on Sicily. 1944 1944 1944 1944 1944 1945 1945 5th Airborne Division 6 Airborne Division th th West 1944. Ramcke Brigade von der Heydte Regiment North Africa. East Front 1945 Tunisia. 1944 pre-1939 1944 Poland 1939. Cadre from the Sturmregiment and former Italian airborne units. Lufwaffe armored division. Balkans 1944-45 West 1944 (1) Flieger division (“Air division”—Luftwaffe designation for a mid-level command echelon). Army unit. Low Countries 1940 (A). (A) Denotes airborne operation. Italy 1943.

10 May. Student flew into Waalhaven after its capture. The 200 or so defenders of Eban Emael were taken completely by surprise when the remaining gliders scraped to a landing amid them at 5:20 am. The troops taking the bridges were to concentrate on removing any demolition charges placed by the defenders. He would not return to active duty for four months. on a clear spring day. Of the gliders bound for Eban Emael. The airborne assaults also had another effect: rumors of airborne attacks spread through the Allied rear area.Granite comprised about 85 men who would fly in 11 gliders and attempt to land within the fortress itself. The brilliant episode almost turned tragic when he was struck in the head by a sniper’s bullet on the same day. rivers and flooded areas. The Luftwaffe softened up the objectives by attacking the defenders’ positions. Student took personal charge of the air assault on “Fortress Holland. they were able to overrun the remaining resistance. the Netherlands would be split in two and it was unlikely Allied reinforcements would reach Fortress Holland before it was occupied by the Germans. Dordrecht and Rotterdam as well as key airfields. bordered the North Sea and was well protected by a intricate network of estuaries. In Holland the paratroopers met the stiffest resistance to date. The plan did not go as well at Dordecht however. including Waalhaven. The gliders took off from airfields outside Cologne at 4:00 am. The Rotterdam assault succeeded because the Dutch were unprepared there. which included four major cities and the seat of government. The capture of the two bridges at Moerdijk was crucial. including flamethrowers. They were released from their tow cables inside Germany and left to glide silently to their targets. If the Germans could hold those bridges. The airborne troops inside the gliders were armed with a variety of weapons and assault equipment. explosives and scaling ladders. surrendered. and on 14 May accepted the Dutch surrender. while those assaulting the airfields were to silence antiaircraft positions so reinforcements could be landed.” That area. Advancing German panzers then linked up with the jubilant paratroopers. Student’s plan called for the 7th Air Division to capture bridges at Moerdyk. But the fighting to the south of Rotterdam for the bridges at Dordecht and Moerdijk was fierce. When the paratroopers landed. The troops who landed by seaplane and those who landed in the football stadium quickly secured four sets of bridges in downtown Rotterdam. The Belgian garrison. where a counterattack by the Dutch recaptured the bridges before German ground troops could arrive and relieve the airborne. two went off course when their cables snapped prematurely. not prepared for unconventional attack. leading to not a little panic among the defenders. The Germans systematically blew up each gun emplacement using hollow charge explosive demolitions until all the fortress’ guns were silenced or abandoned. 48 #235 .

they not only had a full complement of heavy weapons and artillery. such as seizing airfields on which follow-on airlanding units would land. Often. had no real reason to deploy armored divisions. only given the honorific “parachute. the tendency was for the parachute divisions to pick up more weapons.The 7th Air Division was originally organized to conduct “commando” style operations. of course. they were recruited from Luftwaffe ground personnel with a small cadre of veteran airborne soldiers. but those formations were valuable in the struggle for prestige among the Reich’s leaders. Consequently. Throughout the war. By mid-war.” The air force. however. The Luftwaffe’s Herman Goering Panzer and Panzergrenadier Divisions were conventional mechanized units. as can be seen from the diagram. Its units tended to fight as individual battalions or companies. but were generally motorized. The later waves of airborne divisions had limited parachute/glider training. they proved themselves to be hard fighters. if any. it had little in the way of divisional artillery or services. strategy & tactics 49 . That made them some of the strongest of the Wehrmacht’s divisions. The 22nd Airlanding Division was organized along more conventional infantry lines.

The 11th would play an important role in Hitler’s invasion of the Balkans in 1941. reinforced by the Sturm Regiment. They secured the demolition charges. As the Germans drove the British before them in a headlong retreat through Greece. Initially the mountain troops were to arrive by ship. and the 50 #235 . Assault pioneers raced from them and onto the bridge while under fire. the airborne would be supported by the crack 5th Mountain Division. and Heraklon as well as the well as the port at Suda Bay. Their mission was to prevent Allied forces from escaping into the Peloponnesian peninsula and evacuating from its ports. six gliders swept down from the skies near the canal. Lt. Julius Ringel. The Reich’s war machine ran on petroleum. commanded by Gen. Instead. At 5:00 am on 26 April. necessary to prevent the British from using its airfields to bomb the oilfields and refineries at Ploesti.The paratrooper assaults in Belgium and Holland served to validate Student’s approach. Retimo. To the Balkans and Crete Hitler deemed the invasion of Crete. and in January 1941 he was appointed commander of the 11th Air Corps. The 22 Airlanding Division was not available. but the British turned back three separate convoys. Student’s plan called for three separate invasion groups that would capture the airfields near Canea. named Operation Mercury. Leading the assault would be the 7th Airborne Division. and Hitler was obsessed with protecting his sources. Rumania. being tasked for duties elsewhere. The invasion of the 160-mile long Mediterranean island was significant because it marked the first time airborne forces won a major battle without the assistance of the conventional ground or naval forces. they piled them up on the bridge itself where they accidentally exploded. but rather than tossing them into the canal. the paratroopers were dropped on both sides of the Corinth Canal in an attempt to capture its only bridge. That caused the bridge to collapse and delayed German armor and infantry moving south.

and were trained to fight independently and in difficult situations. and could only desperately hold their positions. but things went wrong from the beginning. the British weren’t much better off.000 British and Commonwealth forces. the German paratroopers failed to take either the airfield at Retimo or the one at Heraklon. To make matters worse. They had left most of their heavy weapons behind during the evacuation from Greece. so the main attack was launched in two separate waves. and perhaps as many as 14. it would be too dangerous for the Luftwaffe to land reinforcements on the airfield. They did manage to get a toehold on the airfield. but were met with fierce resistance in the form of machinegun. They were equipped with easily transportable equipment. At 7:15 am the Sturm Regiment of the 11th Air Corps landed in 75 gliders on western Crete. Without control of that hill. The paratroopers were suffering such heavy casualties many units were unable to launch attack operations. The only place they could land was at Maleme. The one thing giving an edge to the Germans was the Luftwaffe.000 Greeks. The Sturm Regiment was supposed to take Hill 107 overlooking the airfield by mid-day. the mountain troops were well suited for their role. Actually. But Allied morale was good and there was the Royal Navy backing up the island. Opposing the Germans were roughly 25. The situation by nightfall on the first day looked bleak for the Germans. The attack would kick off on 20 May. Elsewhere on the island.reinforcements were ferried across by transport aircraft while the battle raged. somewhat redressing the balance of forces on the island. The Germans did not have enough aircraft to transport Student’s 11. the Sturm Regiment’s 3rd Battalion landed amid the 23rd New Zealand Battalion and suffered staggering casualties. German aircraft mercilessly pounded Allied positions. strategy & tactics 51 . Though the Germans would fight without the assistance of heavy artillery and tanks. mortar and artillery fire from New Zealand troops. The paratroopers launched a full-scale attack on Maleme airfield. and the handful of tanks and few aircraft they possessed were barely serviceable. Groups West and Center would arrive in the first wave. while Group East and reinforcements for Center would arrive in the afternoon of the invasion day.000-man division in a single operation. But the paratroopers failed to meet the timetable.

With the Reich on the defensive. By 1944 most of the troopers were not even parachute qualified.Fortune soon began to smile on the Wehrmacht. a disproportionate number of the casualties were in the infantry. End of an era: German paratroopers fight as infantry during the Battle of the Bulge. In 1943 the new 1st Airborne Division was dropped onto Sicily to delay the invading Allied armies. ordered his men to retreat. By 28 May. Groups West and Center linked with each other. Two days later. infantry. the opportunities for airborne operations were less available. Bitter fighting continued for several days. A German attack at dawn seized the hill. Airborne units were flown to Tunisia in late 1942 in response to the Allied landings in North Africa. where its regiments fought as conventional infantry. but after a hard fought delaying campaign. The 11th Air Corps went to Crete with 22. The commander of the 22nd New Zealand Battalion on Hill 107. they fought mainly as conventional. the Royal Navy had begun to evacuate Allied troops back to Egypt. The capture of Hill 107 marked the turning point of the battle.000 men from the 7th Air and 5th Mountain Divisions. unable to make contact with some of his companies and unsure of reinforcements. as usual. but with the Luftwaffe’s loss of air superiority mid-war. 52 #235 . as the Germans moved east capturing more objectives and relieving isolated units. the troops mainly ended up in Allied PW camps. if sometimes elite. While Germany would raise several more airborne divisions. The 7th Flying Division was sent to the eastern front to take part in the invasion of the Soviet Union. the Germans captured Canea and Suda Bay.650 casualties. Additional paratroopers were dropped around the island and mountain troops airlanded at captured airfields. The Reich’s great days of mass airborne assaults were over. It suffered 6. It was a sobering statistic that fostered a reluctance in Hitler to launch another airborne attack of such magnitude. The idea was they would become “fire brigades” to counterattack against any Allied invasion forces before they could get a foothold on the continent. On 26 May. airborne units were reorganized as airmobile rapid reaction forces to meet Allied attacks around the periphery of Hitler’s Fortress Europe. Aftermath The years 1942 and 1943 would see a change in the Wehrmacht airborne’s mission. and elements of Ringel’s mountain division began arriving at Maleme shortly thereafter. They joined a massive German airlift that finally reinforced Rommel with a sizable German force. which amounted to more than 25 percent of the total force involved—and.

The Brandenburgers were originally involved in unconventional warfare under the aegis of Abwehr (military intelligence).Other Wehrmacht Airborne Aside from the airborne and airlanding divisions. The 501st took part in the attack on partisan leader Tito’s headquarters on 25 May 1944. the Wehrmacht also had several other airborne organizations. That operation was led by the well-publicized German commando leader Otto Skorzeny. Bakersfield CA 93390-1598 or call (661) 587-9633 (9:00am-4:00pm PST) to place your credit card order. 24hour fax line is 661/587-5031. They also organized a “parachute engineer” battalion for missions in North Africa. During the 1940 campaign. Incidentally. One of the more famous German airborne operations was the rescue of Mussolini from an Italian fortress-prison on 12 September 1943. elements of the 501st took part in the Ardennes Offensive (the Battle of the Bulge) as part of Skorzeny’s 150th Panzer Brigade. others that it was an elite force from the beginning. uS $79 $139 $269 Canada Overseas $85 $149 $289 $95 $169 $329 *Note: 4 regular issues (or 2 regular plus a double-issue) 6 regular issues plus a double-issue (one year) 12 regular issues plus 2 double-issues (two years) State Zip Phone # Fill out (please print legibly) the order form and send it with your check payable to Strategy & Tactics (please no Canadian Checks) to: Decision Games. Later in the year. though most of the paratroopers involved were from Student’s command. One was the Brandenburgers. A complete game in every issue! Issues 4 or 2 + 1D* 6 + 1D* 12 + 2D* Name: Address: City Country V/MC # Signature Exp. there is some controversy about the origins of the SS airborne: some sources claim they were recruited from personnel consigned to penal units. for example. PO Box 21598. The Waffen SS organized its 501st Airborne Battalion. the battalion proved itself to be a hard-fighting outfit. Brandenburger detachments were flown in on light aircraft ahead of the panzers to seize critical road junctions. strategy & tactics 53 . While Tito narrowly escaped capture.

The forces available to you are the same as those commanded by the historic participants.decisiongames. In endless offensives. The forces available to you are the same ones commanded by the historic participants. feels the time is right to strike a blow against Italy. standard and scenario books. contains six scenarios. standard and scenario rule books. the threat along the Isonzo is checked. June 1918: Albrecht & Radetzky $39. 1. 661/587-9633 Fax. This is a division/brigade level WW1 game that covers the campaign in East Prussia and southern Poland in 1914.” “February 1916: Verdun. 95 Der Weltkrieg series #3. and her citizens rally. 560 die-cut counters and one die. but Italy is not fully defeated. May 1916: Strafexpedition The SchLIeFFeN PLAN $69. Conrad’s attacks across the Piave are initially successful. the Austro-Hungarian armies fall back. German and Austrian units pour through the mountain passes and into the Italian rear areas. He ignores the advice of German Chief of staff von Falkenhayn. rushes reinforcements to the front. Bakersfield CA 93390 www. player aid cards. Components: one 22” x 34” mapsheet. and can be linked with East Front (and later West Front) games of the series for duration games. standard and scenario books. valiant Italian infantry go over the top and into the maelstrom of the Isonzo.” “March 1918: The Kaiser’s Battle. $39. Conrad von Hotzendorff. You assume the role of the commander of either the German or Allied armies. The Western Front: 1914-1918. puts the Italian army in peril.” Components: one 22” x 34” mapsheet. In the end. but his divisions then bog down. Components: one 22 x 34 inch mapsheet. player aid cards. The Italians have become weary of the war. they break through the Italian lines along the headwaters of the Isonzo. but the Italian lines hold. You assume the role of commander of either the German or Allied armies. It is a dicey affair. That. but the Austrians believe one more effort on the Isonzo can break through. 95 Der Weltkrieg series #5. one 11x17” mapsheet. its commanding general. 560 die-cut counters. Don’t forget to pledge for the next two games: Grand Campaign (#13) and middle east Campaigns (#17). Caporreto is an overwhelming victory for Germany and Austria. Each battle differs from the last only by its increasing intensity and skyrocketing casualty list. Cadorna. but it is up to you to make your own strategic decisions and execute your own plans as you see fit. two 22x 34” mapsheets. May 1915: 1st Isonzo The first battles along the Isonzo are a futile foreshadowing of what is to come. Covers the World War I campaigns in Serbia and Romania with links between the two campaigns as well as to the previous volumes. information on the Pledge page on the Decision Games website.com click on WWI Games or use the order form on page 55 54 #235 Send To: Decision Games. 95 $39. SeRbIA & ROmANIA Components: two 22x 34” mapsheets.” “April 1917: Nivelle’s Offensive. and the fury of the Austro-Hungarian attack. Components: 560 counters. The Chief of Staff of the Austro Hungarian army. who sees the main threat coming from the Russian front.661/587-5031 . The Austrians are unable to push their bridgeheads far enough forward to keep their pontoon bridges out of range of Italian artillery. 95 May 1917: 10th Isonzo TANNeNbeRg & gALIcIA $39. Unable to reinforce their spearheads or maintain viable supply lines. The Italians in the southern Tyrol have neglected their rear area defenses. a rule book and player aid cards. This game covers the fluid warfare of the western front from 1 August to 15 November 1914.” “July 1916: The Somme. player aid cards.Der Weltkrieg SerieS The Western Front: 1914-1918 ITALIAN FRONT: 1915-1918 Der Weltkrieg series #6. standard and scenario rule books. and player aid cards. or linked with other games in the series into a grandcampaign covering all the European fronts. 560 die-cut counters. 95 October 1917: Caporreto When the Central Powers strike. Der Weltkrieg series #2. both armies are exhausted. PO Box 21598. each covering a major WWI campaign fought in France or Belgium.680 die-cut counters. awaiting the inevitable Italian counterattack. It can also be played as a start-to-finish simulation of the entire western front.” “May 1915: Ypres. corps displays. Der Weltkrieg series #1. The scenarios are: “August 1914: The Schlieffen Plan. This wargame contains five separate scenarios.

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GERMAN ARMY ORGANIZATION 1942-45 by Joseph Miranda We continue our series on the organization of armed forces on the Eastern Front. and reconaissance. The panzer division that the Germans took into BARBAROSSA on 22 June 1941 consisted of a panzer regiment of two or three tank battalions. By late 1943 the Germans had adopted the “1944” panzer division organization. #235 56 . plus divisional services. and reconaissance. combat engineer. This reorganization reflected increased losses (leading to smaller units) and increased firepower (due to heavier weapons). consisting of the Heer (army). The German panzer (armored) division went through several reorganizations in 1942-45. antiaircraft and signal battalions. antitank and signal battalions. a motorized infantry brigade of two regiments (two battalions each). antitank. a motorcycle battalion. German Mobile Divisions The Wehrmacht was the overall term for the German armed forces. Standard practice was for the component battalions to be task organized into battlegroups for tactical operations. Luftwaffe (air force). 1942-45. and. two panzergrenadier (armored infantry) regiments (two battalions each). The 1944 panzer division had a two tank battalion panzer regiment. as the war developed. the Waffen SS (military branch of the SS). an artillery regiment. combat engineer. Kriegsmarine (navy).

The panzergrenadier regiments also had their own batteries of assault guns. plus divisional services. the other three being motorized in trucks). The casualties inflicted on the Eastern front forced a reduction in strength. not a maneuver unit. including the 120mm mortar and captured 76mm antitank guns. Assault gun brigades were frequently used to support infantry and panzergrenadier units. with heavier infantry weapons and assault guns being assigned at all levels. antiaircraft and signal battalions. which went from three battalions each to two. The reduction in manpower was partially offset by an increase in firepower. plus fusilier (sometimes termed “recon”).) The assault gun brigade was actually an assault gun battalion reinforced with an infantry escort. It was intended to be a territorial defense formation. German infantry divisions went into a decline in late 1943. Because the guns were mounted in the hull. another reorganization of the infantry was attempted. replacing the mediocre Panzer IIs and IIIs which had been the mainstay of German armored units up until late 1942. strategy & tactics 57 . or from the Luftwaffe. By that time in the war. including early versions of the assault rifle. the addition of a flak battalion gave the panzer division organic 88mm guns that were effective against both aerial and ground targets. the assault gun units were part of the artillery branch. though those built around a cadre of veterans often performed well. In late 1944. Finally. The tank regiment consisted of a battalion each of panzer IVs and Vs. plus a flak battalion. reconaissance. The title meant “People’s Grenadier” and was supposed to imply a combination of national socialist fervor and traditional militarism. and motorcycle. The Germans employed their assault guns as a form of direct fire artillery and in the antitank role—in fact. an artillery regiment. and a battalion of howitzers in the artillery regiment were now self-propelled. there were also heavy armored fighting vehicles (AFVs) in the antitank battalion. the Germans lacked the training and equipment to make those units effective. It had one each tank. though some units might maintain motorcycle companies in their recon battalions. the panzer divisions had to obtain 88mm guns from corps and army level. assault gun. There was also an artillery regiment. The most drastic change was in the infantry regiments. the motorcycle battalion was dropped from the panzer and panzergrenadier divisions. German motorized infantry divisions received a substantial upgrading in 1942. Aside from the panzer regiment. Infantry consisted of two non-motorized regiments and an “assault grenadier” battalion. combat engineer and signal battalions. they were variants of the Panzer V or VI tank/assault gun. Divisional support consisted of a four battalion artillery regiment. they consisted of two infantry regiments of three battalions each. engineer. The Germans adopted a couple Soviet weapons. antitank. the latter equipped with half-tracks. In 1942. much like the Soviet Army practice. armored self -propelled antitank guns. There were additional halftrack vehicles (one infantry battalion in the division was supposed to be equipped with halftracks. recon. This was the Volksgrenadier division.The 1944 panzer division organization benefited from an up-gunning all around. Along the way. The Germans also began arming their infantry with more automatic weapons in late 1944. There was also an increase of flak batteries at regimental and battalion echelons to deal with growing Allied air superiority. Until the end of 1941. The Germans maintained a number of non-divisional heavy tank and assault gun units. combat engineer. or specialized self-propelled 88mm pieces such as the Nashorn. larger caliber pieces could be carried and thicker armor could be provided to the vehicles. the motorized divisions were redesignated as “panzergrenadier” and assigned a tank or assault gun battalion. Previously. (Assault guns were essentially turretless tanks. Usually. The 1945 panzer division reorganization was implemented during the last weeks of the Reich. antitank and signal battalions.

One was in the Waffen SS. 58 #235 . 82mm and lower (including light guns in divisional artillery). they were not enough to change the course of the war.400 70/24/72 Non-motorized div. 650 33 MT 45 -/-/- AFVs = total armored fighting vehicles. 82mm and greater (except those in divisional artillery).000 15. Infantry ‘39-43 Infantry ‘44 Mountain Volksgrenadier Light Infantry 15. plus one each recon. German Unit Strengths Motorized divisions Panzer ‘42-43 Panzer ‘44 Panzer ‘45 SS Panzer Panzergrenadier ‘42-43 Panzergrenadier ‘44 Airborne 15. Similarly. such as the Herman Goering Panzer Parachute Division and the Gross Deutschland Division.600 13.300 10. While they frequently served well in the fire brigade role.140 Guns (lt/hvy/div. Herman Goering. It had been cut up badly in its air assault on Crete in May of 1941.330 2.hvy) 165 150 231 82 92 76 115/24/36 61/28/42 67/26/42 2. second number is heavy guns. including tube. especially in light of the concern that the regular army would not turn over its non-divisional units to SS control. flak. Those field divisions consisted of two infantry regiments of three battalion each.900 2. The original German airborne division was the 7th Flieger Division (“flying” or “air division. the Waffen SS lacked dedicated army level support formations such as nondivisional artillery. One reason for the reinforced strength was. three tube artillery. Regiments of the division were temporarily assigned to the eastern front afterward.” German airborne divisions were part of the air force. antitank.800 119/10/36 Men AFVs 14 3 165/36/42 166/75/36 2.170 3. MT = total motor transport. Guns (lt/hvy/div. not the army).800 14 - 153/6/48 87/34/48 122/24/36 152/42/12 116/40/36 74/40/24 -/-/- 940 MT 14 615 430 850 540 100 60 1.650 2. but did not perform parachute drops.640 MT 16. when first organized.640 2.400 17. plus antitank. The Luftwaffe divisions lacked the training and leadership to stand up to sustained ground combat and most of them ended up shattered in combat. and rocket launcher artillery. First number is light guns.hvy) Notes: Men = total unit manpower. They were originally intended to be an air transportable strategic reserve.hvy) = guns (all weapons 45mm and greater.000 Non-divisional Luftwaffe Field 14. a five battalion artillery contingent (one self-propelled. antiaircraft and engineer battalions.hvy) 12. SS motorized infantry divisions were sometimes assigned extra units.700 11. The Luftwaffe had another category of ground troops: field divisions.500 9. the Luftwaffe began organizing a new wave of airborne divisions. six motorized infantry battalions (two of which were supposed to be equipped with halftracks).980 17. In 1942-43. and a recon company. third number is heavy guns (82mm and greater) in divisional artillery.800 Assault gun brigade Panzer VI battalion 640 Men AFVs Guns (lt/hvy/div. assault gun. Those units had reinforced tables of organization and the pick of manpower. The additional battalions assigned to the Waffen SS divisions were supposed to make up for that shortfall.200 Men AFVs Guns (lt/hvy/div.200 13. combat units organized from Heinrich Himmler’s growing SS empire. engineer and signal battalions. self-propelled. These got started when the army requested that the air force provide surplus personnel as replacements to depleted combat units. Waffen SS panzer divisions had two reinforced tank battalions. was loathe to surrender manpower to the army so he instead ordered the organization of infantry divisions from air force ground personnel. and one rocket launcher battalion). and were set up as elite motorized formations. the chief of the Luftwaffe.For Special Purposes The Germans had some special categories of units. except 50mm mortars). a light artillery regiment. The Germans also maintained a few other elite units.

plus security divisions which were committed to the front line. Hungarian. Italian. 4 Includes units from Balkan front which had now linked up with eastern front. light and cavalry. Separate Axis allied brigades are counted as one half division.Axis Total Divisional Strength. “Infantry” includes airborne. East Front 1942-45 Number is total divisions of type listed. Spanish. 3 “Other Axis” includes Rumanian. strategy & tactics 59 . Slovakian. mountain. June 1942 July 1943 Panzer 20 20 Motorized1 16 14 9 Infantry2 135 139 Finns Other Axis3 27 51 November 1942 December 1943 June 1944 November 1944 4 16 16 29 13 9 150 16 18 140 16 March 1945 Notes 1 2 32 21 15 11 133 17 - 17 ? 132 107 17 - 20 17 11 Germans usually also maintained several independent motorized regiments/brigades on the eastern front.

60 #235 .

Trajan: Ancient Wars Series Expansion includes special rules to combine all four maps into campaigns covering the entire Roman Empire. over 500 die cut counters. artillery. Septimus Severus versus everyone. Game components include four original style maps. rail nets. ziplock. After the surrender of Russia. air superiority. tanks. plus assorted foes such as Spartacus and Boadicea. This requires the player to have the original map/counter sets that appeared in S&T. Germany massed its elite assault Stoss (shock) divisions in the west in order to seek a final. trenches. Africa. ziplock. Marcus Aurelius versus the Germans. new standards rules Prepare to march with a special edition of the Ancient Wars series: Trajan. ziplock. (Enhanced Kit in a box $50) SUB ToTal Shipping Charges 1st item $8 15(20) 14(10) 17(25) 20(25) Ziplocks count as 2 for 1 for shipping. $40 TRAjAN: ANcIeNT WARS SeRIeS exPANSION XX 6 XX 23 XX 25 The Enhanced Expansion Kit includes all of the above plus PriCe TOTAl • Boxes are $15. supply. Bakersfield CA 93390 www. The question therefore became: could the Allies hold until fresh American units and the new tank weapon turned the tide in their favor? The game includes the campaign scenario along with three shorter ones. decisive victory. New scenarios include the Crisis of the Republic. cavalry. & scenario booklets. a rules book and player aid card. Special rules cover morale. Roman Civil War. Year of the Four Emperors. and “what if” Julius Caesar had not been assassinated? The game includes the campaign scenario along with three shorter ones.com click on Excalibre banner strategy & tactics 61 Send To: Decision Games. $85 3 XX 4 1 2 6 1 4 2 XX 5 1 2 XX 5A 15 6 0 XX 3 XX 10 6 1 2 15Co 1 6 2 6 2 QTY TiTle XX 77 1 5 1 4 2 3 2 4 1 4 2 5 2 6 2 4 2 6 2 The Basic Kit includes 180 new counters. Caesar in Gallia and Germania. which appeared in various issues of Strategy & Tactics over the years. $30 additional Player Aid Cards that are cardstock reprints of the original Player Aid Cards plus choice of one map/counter set (Gallia or Germania). RES. replacement pools and much more. $ ToTal oRDER 661/587-9633 Fax. Australia (Express) $ S&H PO Box 21598.661/587-5031 $ . and was designed by Richard Spence.) Adt’l items Type of Service $2 UPS Ground/US Mail Domestic Priority 4 UPS 2nd Day Air (Metro AK & HI) 2(7) Canada. Mexico (Express) 7(10) Europe (Express) 9(10) Asia.Kaiserschlacht 1918 This classic game covers the climactic campaigns of 1918 on World War I’s western front. Ships in its own mailing envelope. There is also a set of additional counters which provides every legion of the early Empire. and 20 assorted player aid cards. TaX (Ca.decisiongames.

Rebels & Redcoats. Components: 560 counters. and each game turn represents five minutes.A Place to Start rebels & redcoats. RES. engage vast hordes of “natives. morale. player aid card. with each deck representing roughly two years of the war. In the game. Components: 440 counters.200 Mexican soldiers against a garrison of 183 frontiersmen inside the Alamo mission in what is now San Antonio.00 SUB ToTal Shipping Charges 1st item $8 15(20) 14(10) 17(25) 20(25) #235 TaX (Ca.6 8 2 with units (regiment/battalion/battery) rated for strength. Vol. The game ends when the Texas player has eliminated a decisive number of Mexican troops or when the Mexicans have eliminated the entire Texan force. $80. 16-page rule book. A hexagon represents 10 yards from hexside to hexside. 16-page rule book. Kitchener.95 Rebels & Redcoats. 16-page rule book. Africa. 2 and 3 Battle Cry of freedom This two-player card game represents the American Civil War. Texas. In the game. each player will go through his Play Deck twice. 1861-65. artillery. (2) 22" x 34" mapsheets. Each Fire Strength Point of a Texas unit represents one man. the players take turn moving their forces and conducting attacks. Brandywine. Components: 300 full color playing cards. morale and march capabilities. Components: 100 counters. Bakersfield CA 93390-1598 • (661) 587-9633 •fax 661/587-5031 www.00 $15. from the New Jersey campaign: Trenton. Wolseley. Harlem Heights and White Plains. (2) 22" x 34" mapsheets. Zulu War and Sudan: The River War. $39. 2 player aid cards. light infantry and dragoons. Vol. The game emphasizes leader1/CC HUNAN V l l ship. and each Mexican battalion represents between 45 and 55 men.00 QTY TiTle Price TOTAl The Sun Never Sets covers the campaigns of March to Peking. with commanders having a major role 1F.” 2 10 0 10 (4)n . by 2. 22" x 34" mapsheet. (2) 22" x 34" mapsheets. type of weapon and elan. 16-page rule book. 6 March 1836. Additional rules cover command control. Hobkirk’s Hill and Eutaw Springs. American Revolutionary battles. II Battles of Bennington. There are rules 5Sfor relief forces being dispatched. Command Points in the game represent the economic. The game system simply but accurately recreates the battlefield conditions with a move-fight-rally play sequence to simulate the grand tactics of the American Revolution. the alamo Rebels & Redcoats.) $ 62 Adt’l units $2 4 2(7) 7(10) 9(10) Type of Service UPS Ground/US Mail Domestic Priority UPS 2nd Day Air (Metro AK & HI) Canada.com . military. player aid cards. Guilford Courthouse. the Sun never Sets $40. Camdn. rule book.decisiongames. This two-player tactical game simulates the assault made at dawn. Peking C and Ulundi. Princeton plus two bonus scenarios. in the theaters of war east of the Mississippi River.4 and plant the British flag in Khartoum. I Battles of Bunker Hill. political and social factors that influenced the campaigns of the war. Components: 360 counters. Freeman’s Farm. Units are generally regiments rated for combat strength. and player aid cards. Battles ANSAR USMC CETSHWAYO l F 1 are resolved through a multi-phase system 3R-6 10 S . Mexico (Express) Europe (Express) Asia. Each battle is represented by its own units and map along with exclusive rules to recreate the unique conditions of each battle. III Battles from the New York Campaign: Brooklyn. Vol. Complete Set of vol.6 1 F -10 4 m -6 in marches and battles (Gordon. Stony Point and King's Mountain. Germantown and Monmouth. (2) 22" x 34" mapsheets. Australia (Express) S&H $ ToTal oRDER $ PO Box 21598. Cowpens. Bemis Heights. 2 player aid cards. riverine gunboats and the8building of railroads. and the Mahdi are included). Each player has his own Play Deck that he will use to draw from in order to play cards. 8-page rule book. Players can EMPEROR HSIEN KHARTOUM march to the far flung frontiers of British WOLSELEY FENG 0 3 R civilization. Components: 620 counters. Leader NGWEKWE V counters will influence tactical and strategic situations. 1.

player aid card. fog of war. and functional differences between infantry. Their movement. 16-page rule book. and La Belle Alliance. Napoleon is outnumbered and virtually surrounded. positioning and engagement for battle are regulated by a superimposed hexagonal grid. infantry and artillery. (2) 34" x 22" mapsheets. the German attempt to conquer Stalingrad and the Caucasus area of the southwest Soviet Union in 1942. Napoleon’s First Battles covers four of Napoleon’s earliest battles—Montenotte. (2) 22" x 34" mapsheets. emperor’s first Battles & napoleon’s first Battles Pacific Battles is a wargame series covering the great land 2 (3) 6 battles of the Pacific theater in WWII. (2) 22" x 34" mapsheets. Quatre Bras. Units are regiments and brigades. 16-page rule book. 1918) from the First World 5 (4) 12 ii War. command control. cavalry. 25 (4) 6 20 2 (6) 7 1 18 5th Air Grp uSAAF over the top! Over The Top! includes four great battles 1(Brusilov Offensive. These counters also represent march modes. but beleaguered Napoleon again on the throne. $38. These four games (St.00 Includes Austerlitz and Jena-Auerstadt. Each hex represents approximately 16 miles and units are primarily division along with Soviet tank and mechanized corps.00 Battles for the Ardennes $40. Components EFB: 480 counters. Rules account for 1 mar command control. player aid card. volume 1: 1 3 (3) 0 the rising Sun XX 2 00 $38. 1918 and Damascus. mAW Pacific Battles.Components: 600 counters. air support. There are three new scenarios in addition to the four scenarios and the campaign game published in the SPI original. Components: 560 counters.00 63 . Most games in the series have ii 92 players commanding anywhere from a division to a corps worth CA of forces. won smashing victories against the armies of the old regime of Europe. with companies and regiments. Games in this 37 (4) 12 volume include: The Fall of Singapore. improved positions. Components: 420 counters. Friction. (2) 22" x 34" mapsheets. Clervaux. storage bags and 1 die. Arcola. with cavalry. rules booklet. (2) 22" x 34" mapsheets. with historical leaders. The game also includes updated cavalry rules. allowing it to perform historical screening functions. Colorful cardboard playing pieces accurately reflect the size and strength of military units actually involved in these battles. blown bridges. 460 die cut counters. The game system uses leaders and brigade level units. 00 NAme AddReSS cITy.S. artillery and field engineers. his only chance to maintain the throne and the position of France is to gain a significant military victory. The Pyramids. 21 21 $48. Mihiel. Advanced rules include Command. and much more. The games include Ligny. Napoleon Bonaparte. St. and Fog of War.22 ii An Evening of Fun! napoleon’s Last Battles June 1815 finds a triumphant. 1 player aid card. Units are regimental2 (3) 10 brigade level with corps level headquarters and support. fire coordination. (4) 17" x 22" mapsheets. die and storage bags. STATe PhONe VISA/mc (ONLy)# exPIRATION dATe SIgNATuRe ZIP emAIL Drive on Stalingrad This two-player strategic-level simulation of Fall Blau (Operation Blue). Wavre. or linked together to re-enact the entire campaigns of 1940 to 1944. 32-page rule book.12 2 iii $35. Struggle for Bataan and Guadalcanal. Components: 2 22 x 34 inch mapsheet. poison gas. Components NFB: 400 counters. rule book. HQ Riga 1917. airpower. Napoleon boldly decides on an offensive designed to destroy two of his opponents and drive the English from the continent. Emperor’s First Battles game system is based on the Decision Games’ release Napoleon’s First Battles which is now included in this special combo pack. It includes rules for elan. player aid cards. Components: 340 counters. To succeed against these overwhelming odds. used separately for individual battles. Vith. and infiltration tactics. tank assaults. Units are battalions. 16-page rule book 3 and player aid cards. The system shows the evolution of tactical doctrine XX HQ 21 in both the Japanese and Allied armies with Banzai charges. and engineer operations. and Marengo. These battles simulate WW1 warfare from attritional trench fighting 1A 1 to maneuver. and employment of combined arms tactics becomes 38 (3) 8 critical. SPA i i 2 (2) 6 B amphibious landings. superior U. in which the French Emperor. Celles and Sedan 1940) can be played individually or as two campaign games (1940 Blitzkrieg to the Meuse and 1944 Battle of the Bulge). 24-page rule book. 1916. Each game turn represents one week. strategy & tactics $48. air power and supply.00 Battles for the Ardennes simulates the campaigns that marked the first breath and last gasp of the Nazi war machine in the west on four comprehensively illustrated maps. naval bombardment.

64 #235 .