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Definition of Fluid

A fluid is a substance which deforms continuously when subjected to external shearing forces. It has no definite shape of its own, but conforms to the shape of the containing vessel. Even a small amount of shear force exerted on a fluid will cause it to undergo a deformation which continues as long as the force continues to be applied. It is interesting to note that a solid suffers strain when subjected to shear forces whereas a fluid suffers Rate of Strain i.e. it flows under similar circumstances Viscosity Viscosity is the property of a fluid which determines its resistance to shearing stresses. Viscosity is due cohesion and molecular momentum exchange between fluid layers. Newton’s Law of Viscosity: According to this law that the shear stress (τ) on a fluid element layer is directly proportional to the rate of shear strain. The constant of proportionality is called the co-efficient of viscosity.

Where µ = coefficient or constant of proportionality and known as Coefficient dynamic viscosity Unit of dynamic viscosity S. I system = N.sec/m2 C.G.S system = dyne-sec/cm2 1 poise = 0.1 N.sec/m2

Kinematic Viscosity:

υ = (dynamic viscosity/ Density) = (µ/ρ)

Unit of kinematic Viscosity S.I system = m2/sec C.G.S system = cm2/sec 1 stoke = 10-4 m2/sec Note- Viscosity of liquid decrease with increase of temperature while viscosity of gases increases with increase in temperature Classification of fluid: fluid may be classified as below Newtonian fluid: - fluid which obeys Newton law of viscosity is known as Newtonian fluid, in this type of fluid viscosity does not change with deformation rate. Non Newtonian fluid: - fluid which do not obeys Newton law of viscosity is known as non –Newtonian fluid,these may be classified as given below :

because decrease in cohesive force.Surface tension: The tensile force acting on the surface of a liquid in contact with a gas or on the surface between two immiscible liquids such that the contact surface behaves like a membrane under tension. Unit of surface tension is N/m. Pressure inside a Water droplet due to surface tension: P = 4σ/d (where σ = surface tension) Pressure inside a soap bubble due to surface tension: P = 8σ/d Pressure inside a liquid droplet due to surface tension P = 2σ/d . If temperature of liquid increases then surface temperature would decrease. Surface tension basically due to cohesion force.

tube manometer (c) differential manometere Piezometer : Piezometer is a type of manometer which is used to measure gauge pressure of fluid U-tube manometer: is used to measure both gauge as well as vaccum pressure of fluid by the help of a u tube which is filled by some heavy liquid then filled in vessel. Gauge pressure: when the pressure is measured with the help of measuring instrument in which atmospheric pressure is taken as datum is known as gauge pressure. known as Asolute pressure.G. Other liquid which is used for this purpose is mercury .S System = dyne /cm2 Pascal’s law: According to this law for a static fluid pressure remain equal in all direction.e Px = Py = Pz Hydrostatic law: according to this law increase of pressure in vertical direction equal to weight density of fluid at that point i.I system = N/m2 = 1 Pascal C. Vacuum pressure: pressure below the atmospheric pressure is known as Vacuum pressure. Pab = Patm + Pgauge Pvaccum = Patm – Pabsolute Manometers: Manometers are defined as the device used for the measuring the pressure of fluid at a point by balancing the coloum of fluid by another coloum of same coloum. i.Capillarity: The rise or depression of liquids in narrow tubes is known as capillarity effect.e P = ρgh or ωh (where ω = ρg) Absolute pressure: when the pressure is measured with respect to absolute vacuum pressure. Capillarity is due to both cohesion and adhesion. Capillary rise and depression phenomenon depends upon the surface tension of the liquid as well as the material of the tube. General formula for Capillarity h = 4σcos/ρgd For water and glass = 00 For mercury and glass = 1380 Note-: when adhesion is more than cohesion then wetting tendency is more and the angle of contact is smaller Pressure of fluid at a point : if fluid is in rest then forced exerted on the fluid on surrounding area will be perpendicular to area and expression for the ratio of force to cross sectional area is known as intensity of pressure P = F/A Unit of pressure S. Simple manometer can be classified as (a) Piezometer (b) u.

where they collapsed .this phenomenon is known as cavitation. Horizontal plane surface 3. And point about which buoyancy force acted is known a buoyancy centre. 1. Vapour pressure: change of liquid state to gaseous state is known as vaporization. When the pressure of liquid below the atmospheric pressure the liquid start to boil and pressure coreesponding that boiling condition is known as vapour pressure. Cavitation : Due to vapour pressure liquid state of fluid start to change into gasous state i. Can be classified (a) Diaphagram pressure gauge (b) bourden pressure gauge (b) Dead –weight pressure gauge (d) Bellow pressure gauge Note: Mechanical gauges are used to measure gauge pressure and some mechanical gauges are also used to measure outside pressure (atmospheric pressure) for example Android gauge.e fluid starts to vapourize and these vaporized molecules taken into high pressure region. Centre of pressure: it is defined as point of application of total pressure on the surface. can be classified as differential manometer and inverted manometer. There are four types of submerged surface on which total pressure force and centre of pressure is to be determined. . Pressure force for first 3 surface is equal to P = ωAy Where P = pressure force A = Area of the submerged surface Y = distance of C. Mechanical gauges: These are the pressure measuring device which measured the pressure of coloum by balancing the coloum by the the spring weight or dead weight.Differential manometer: is used to measure pressure difference between two points of fluid in a pipe or in a two different pipe.and pressure increases rapidly due to this material of vessel get eroded and cavities are formed on them .G of submerged body from surface of liquid ω = specific or weight density of liquid. PH = ωAy And Vertical component Pv = weight of the liquid column Position of centre of pressure: Position of centre of pressure for horizontal and vertical submerged surface h = (Ig/Ay) + y Where h = centre of pressure Ig = moment of inertia of submerged body A = area of submerged body Y= distance of c. For curved surface pressure force has two components Horizontal component. Inclined plane surface 4 curved surface.g of submerged body from liquid surface Position of centre of pressure of inclined surface h = (Igsin2/Ay) + y Buoyancy force :force exerted by fluid on submerged or floating body which is equals to weight of fluid diplaced by the body is called buoyancy force. Vertical plane surface 2.

or metacentre is defined as the point where line of action buoyancy force meet with normal axis of body when it is tilted. Condition of equilibrium for a floating body: When metacentre lies above centre of gravity then body will be stable When metacentre lies below centre of gravity then body will be un stable When metacentre and centre of gravity coincides then body will be neutral. Metacentric Height: distance between Meta centre and centre of gravity of the body is known as metacentre height in above figure it is shown by MG General formula to find out the Metacentric height GM = (I/V) – BG Where I = moment of interia of body V= volume of the body BG= distance between buoyancy centre and centre of gravity Condition of equilibrium for a submerged body: When W = FB and centre of buoyancy lies above centre of gravity then body will be stable When W = FB and centre of buoyancy lies below centre of gravity then body will be un stable When W = FB and centre of buoyancy and centre of gravity coincides then body will be neutral. Time of oscillation of a floating body: T = 2πK2/GM.Meta centre : it is the point about which body starts oscillating when titled by a small angle.g Where T = time period K = Radius of gyration GM = metacentric height g = gravitational constant Dynamics of fluid flow : According to newtons law of motion for a moving fluid net force acting on the body is equal to product of mass of the body and acceleration Force acting on the fluid comprises following forces (1) Gravity forces (2) Viscous forces (3) Turbulence forces (4) Compressible force .

98 . Value of divergence angle should be in between 50 to 70 other separation problem can be happens Value of discharge coefficient Cd is less than 1 generally it is taken in between . imcompressible and frictionless flow total energy is constant at every point Assumption in Bernoullies theorem: Flow should be steady Flow should be incompressible Flow should be friction less Flow should be irrorational Application of Bernoullies theorem Venturimeter ( used to measure discharge of fluid ) Orifice meter ( used to measure discharge of fluid) Pitot tube (used to measure stagnant pressure ) Hot wire anemometer (used to measure velocity of gases) Flow nozzle ( used to measure discharge of fluid) Veturimetere : It is used to measure the flow rate of flowing fluid and has three parts as described below (1) Converging section (2) throat (3) diverging section Points to remember Venturimeter works on the principle of pressure difference.95 to .(5) Pressure force Bernoullies theorem: according to this theorem for a steady.

a0 = area of orifice h = height of column Pitot tube: It is used to measure stagnant pressure at a point in a flowing fluid with the use of piezometer velocity of a flowing fluid can be measured.62 to .Where a1 = area of converging section a2 = area of throat h = height of liquid rise in u-tube manometer when manometer contain heavier liquid then flowing When manometer contain lighter liquid then flowing where Sh= specific gravity of liquid in manometer S0 = specific gravity of flowing fluid Orifice meter: it is used to measure flow rate of flowing fluid.97 Value of coffieicent of discharge Cd is taken as .5 times of pipe diameter Vena contract is the area where discharge is maximum and area is minimum Coffieicent of contraction Cc is the ration of area of vena contract to area of orifice Value of coffieicent of velocity Cv is taken as . . it is cheaper than venturimeter but accuracy of discharge measured by orifice meter is less then venturimeter.64 Where a1 = area at inlet. works on same principle as of venturimeter Points to remember Diameter of orifice taken as 0.96 to .

h = height between centre of orifice and surface of fluid 2 flow through large rectangular orifice 3 flow through partially submerged orifice .Points to remember: Its works on principle of conversion of kinetic energy in to pressure energy when a flowing fluid is stopped Coffieicient of velocity Cv is taken as . Formula for rate of flow for some standard cases 1 flow through sharp edged orifice (orifice) Qactual = Cd a2gh Where a = area of orifice.97 Hydraulic coefficient: there are three main hydraulic coefficients namely Orifice: small opening on the side or bottom of the tank which is used to measure the rate of flow .95 to .

. but if liquid jet comes out of mouthpiece with touching its sides then it is called internal mouthpiece running full.4 flow through fully submerged orifice Time of emptying a tank through an orifice at its bottom Time of emptying a hemispherical tank through an orfice at its bottom Mouth piece: it is a short length of pipe which is 2 or 3 times in length of its diameter and used to measure the flow rate Cofficient of discharge for mouth piece Note : in case of internal mouthpiece if jet of liquid comes out of mouthpiece without touching its sides then it is called internal mouthpiece running free.

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