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6th Edition 2011

Introduction
351

Formula
Handbook
including
Engineering
Formulae,
Mathematics,
Statistics
and
Computer Algebra

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Introduction
This handbook was designed to provide engineering students at Aberdeen College
with the formulae required for their courses up to Higher National level (2nd year
university equivalent).
In order to use the interactive graphs you will need to have access to Geogebra
(see 25). If you are using a MS Windows operating system and you already have
Java Runtime Environment loaded then no changes will be required to the registry.
This should mean that no security issues should be encountered. For Mac and Linux
(and for MS Windows if you have problems)
see http://www.geogebra.org/cms/en/portable
It is typed in Open Office.org. Future developments will include more hyperlinks
within the handbook and to other maths sites, with all the illustrations in it
produced with Geogebra (see 25) or OOo.
Any contributions will be gratefully accepted and acknowledged in the handbook.
If you prefer, you can make changes or add to the handbook within the terms of
the Creative Commons licence
. Please send me a copy of your work and be
prepared to have it incorporated or adapted for inclusion in my version.
My overriding concern is for the handbook to live on and be continuously improved.
I hope that you find the handbook useful and that you will enjoy using it and that
that you will feel inspired to contribute material and suggest hyperlinks that could
be added.
Many thanks to my colleagues at Aberdeen College for their contributions and help
in editing the handbook. Special thanks are due to Mark Perkins at Bedford College
who adopted the handbook for his students, helped to format the contents and
contributed to the contents. Without Mark's encouragement this project would
have never taken off.
If you find any errors or have suggestions for changes please contact the editor:
Peter K Nicol. (p.nicol@abcol.ac.uk) (peterknicol@gmail.com)
Contents
6th Edition XI/MMXI
19/01/12
351

Contents
1 Recommended Books........................................................................................................... 3
1.1 Maths........................................................................................................................... 3
1.2 Mechanical and Electrical Engineering ............................................................................3
2 Useful Web Sites..................................................................................................................4
3 Evaluation............................................................................................................................ 6
3.1.1 Accuracy and Precision................................................................................................................... 6
3.1.2 Units.................................................................................................................................................... 6
3.1.3 Rounding............................................................................................................................................ 6

4 Electrical Formulae and Constants .........................................................................................7
4.1 Basic ........................................................................................................................... 7
4.2 Electrostatics................................................................................................................ 7
4.3 Electromagnetism .........................................................................................................7
4.4 AC Circuits ...................................................................................................................8
5 Mechanical Engineering.........................................................................................................9
5.1.1 Dynamics: Terms and Equations...................................................................................................9
5.1.2 Conversions...................................................................................................................................... 9

5.2 Equations of Motion.......................................................................................................9
5.3 Newton's Second Law..................................................................................................10
5.3.1 Centrifugal Force............................................................................................................................10

5.4 Work done and Power..................................................................................................10
5.5 Energy....................................................................................................................... 10
5.6 Momentum / Angular Impulse........................................................................................11
5.7 Specific force / torque values........................................................................................11
5.8 Stress and Strain......................................................................................................... 11
5.9 Fluid Mechanics.......................................................................................................... 12
5.10 Heat Transfer............................................................................................................ 12
5.11 Thermodynamics.......................................................................................................13
6 Maths for Computing........................................................................................................... 14
6.1.1 Notation for Set Theory and Boolean Laws ..............................................................................14

7 Combinational Logic............................................................................................................ 15
7.1.1 Basic Flowchart Shapes and Symbols........................................................................................15

8 Mathematical Notation – what the symbols mean....................................................................16
8.1.1 Notation for Indices and Logarithms............................................................................................17
8.1.2 Notation for Functions....................................................................................................................17

9 Laws of Mathematics........................................................................................................... 18
9.1 Algebra – sequence of operations.................................................................................19
10 Changing the subject of a Formula (Transposition)................................................................20
11 Simultaneous Equations with 2 variables.............................................................................21
12 Matrices ......................................................................................................................... 22
13 The Straight Line ............................................................................................................. 24
14 Quadratic Equations .......................................................................................................25
15 Areas and Volumes........................................................................................................... 26
16 The Circle......................................................................................................................... 27
16.1.1 Radian Measure........................................................................................................................... 27

17 Trigonometry.................................................................................................................... 28
17.1.1 Notation for Trigonometry...........................................................................................................28

17.2 Pythagoras’ Theorem.................................................................................................28
The Triangle...................................................................................................................... 29
17.2.1 Sine Rule....................................................................................................................................... 29
17.2.2 Cosine Rule................................................................................................................................... 29
17.2.3 Area formula.................................................................................................................................. 29

17.3 Trigonometric Graphs................................................................................................30
17.3.1 Degrees - Radians Conversion..................................................................................................31

17.4 Trigonometric Identities..............................................................................................32
17.5 Multiple / double angles..............................................................................................32
Contents p1

8 Notation

1

26 Computer Input

.......................................................1 Notation for Calculus........................3...............................................................3..54 22.....................................................59 23.............6 Permutations and Combinations...3........................................................................................................................................................................2..............................7 Volume of Revolution .. 69 31 THE GREEK ALPHABET................................................................6 Parametric Differentiation....................... 39 21..............................2............................................................................................................................51 22............................................. 40 21..................................................53 22.....................................................4 Partial Differentiation ....61 23..2 Differential Calculus .................................1....1 Rules of Indices: ...............10 Approximation of Definite Integrals...3 Critical Values of the t Distribution........Commonly used prefixes..........5 Hyperbolic Functions ................. 56 23..........3 Formula for the Newton-Raphson Iterative Process.......46 22.................67 28 Calibration Error..............................2 Differentiation Rules..... 66 27 Using a Spreadsheet to find the ‘best fit’ formula for a set of data.........9 Partial Fractions.........5 Implicit Differentiation............................................2.................................................................42 22.............................................................47 22.........................................................................46 22.............2.....................65 26..............................................................................................................................33 18 Complex Numbers..............1..................................................3........................................................61 24 Financial Mathematics.............2 Integration by Parts.......57 23..........................................................................................................................41 22 Calculus ............ 65 26.......................................................2........................................1 Integration by Substitution..............................................1 Regression Line ..........................................................................1 Notation for Statistics............................................................................................................................................................10..............................................................................................2..............................................1 Newton Raphson.................... 49 22......................................................................8 Centroid..........3................................................................................................................................10...................................62 25 Recommended Computer Programs............................1.................55 23 Statistics................................................................................................... 61 23..................................6 Sinusoidal Wave...............................2 Definition of logarithms............. 50 22..................5 Mean Value.........................6 Root Mean Square (RMS)......................................................2 Tables of the Normal Distribution .......................................................1.............................................................5 Binomial Theorem................................................................................ 35 20 Co-ordinate Conversion using Scientific Calculators................................. 65 26........................................3 Integral Calculus .....................4 Laplace Transforms ............. 65 26..........................................................50 22......................................................................................................1..........................................................39 21.......................... 58 23........3........3 Runge-Kutta......................5 Approximate numerical solution of differential equations..............51 22................3........................................................................................2...36 21 Indices and Logs........................1..49 22....................................2..............................1 Fourier Series .............................................................2.69 30 Electrical Tables...........................Integrals..............3.........................70 Contents p1 8 Notation 2 26 Computer Input ...............Derivatives.....2 Mathcad Input ...........................................................................................49 22....................6 Graphs of Common Functions. 64 26..............2............................3..................................................................................................... 40 21........................................................3 Rules of logarithms:................2 Statistical Formulae................................................................................................................wxMaxima method.............................4 Normal Distribution Curve....................................................6...........1.....1............................1 Maxima and Minima...................2 Trapezium Method........................1 Simpson's Rule.. 68 29 SI Units .................................17...........................52 22.....................................................................................................3.....2 Differential Equations..............................46 22.......................1......................................................................................................................................................................................................3..................................................4 Area under a Curve...............................................1.......................................3 Indefinite Integration.......6 Fourier Series......................................... 34 19 Vectors......................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 50 22.....................................................48 22......................................................4 Infinite Series....43 22....................... 39 21........................................63 26 Computer Input .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................60 23........51 22.........................................................2..................... 56 23............................ 45 22.................................................................................................................. 45 22........................................................39 21..................................... 42 22................................................................1........................................ ..................................................................................................................................................................................1 wxMaxima Input................................3..................................................................2...........46 22..........................................48 22............. 49 22..................

C Ross. ISBN 0 7487 5296 X Mechanical Engineering NC and HN Mechanical Engineering Principles. ISBN 0-7506-6266-2 Engineering Mathematics 6th Edition . K A Stroud ISBN 978-1. K Johnson. Graham and Sargent Vol. J Bird ISBN 1-8561-7767-X HN and degree: J Bird Higher Engineering Mathematics.1 Recommended Books referred to by author name in this handbook 1.com/science/engineering/singh Engineering Mathematics. K Singh www. ISBN 0-333-92224-7. 6th Edition. Kuldeep Singh. J Bird.1 Maths General pre-NC and NC : Countdown to Mathematics. J Bird ISBN 0750652284 Electrical Engineering NC and HN Basic Electrical Engineering Science Ian McKenzie Smith. 1 ISBN 0-201-13730-5. ISBN 0-582-42429-1 Contents p1 8 Notation 3 26 Computer Input .palgrave.4039-4246-3 Degree ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. S Hewett et al. 2 ISBN 0-201-13731-3 NC Foundation Maths. 4th Edition. Croft and Davison ISBN 0-131-97921-3 NC and HN and Degree: Engineering Mathematics through Applications. Vol.2 Mechanical and Electrical Engineering NC Advanced Physics for You.

uk matek.com/ Khan Academy The "free classroom of the World" Many video lectures using a blackboard http://www.co. unit conversion and more. See 26 for input syntax. Efunda A US service providing a wealth of engineering information on materials.com Mathsnet Look under Curriculum for Algebra for some excellent online exercises.mathsnet. When entering mathematical expressions the syntax MUST be correct.hu Mathcentre Try the Video Tutorials.uk The other stuff is excellent too.net BetterExplained BE It is true – maths and some other topics explained better.coventry.2 Useful Web Sites If you use any of the sites below please read the instructions first. Also see http://www. http://www.mathway.ac. http://www. Excellent calculators (like quickmath).wolframalpha.uk MC QuickMath Links you to a computer running MATHEMATICA . http://www.the most powerful mathematical software.mathtutor. http://www. http://www. http://www.khanacademy. It is well worth trying the examples first.com Freestudy Mechanical engineering notes and exercises and Maths notes and exercises. Most sites have examples as well as instructions.hu An online calculator which also does calculus and produces graphs.mathcentre.ac. (Based on Maxima).htm WolframAlpha Almost any maths problem solved! http://www.org Contents p1 8 Notation 4 26 Computer Input . See section 26 of this book. http://BetterExplained.uk/jtm/contents. If you find anything really useful in the sites below or any other site please tell us so that we can pass on the information to other students.com/ how to learn maths how to learn maths Just the Maths A complete text book – all in pdf format http://nestor.ac. Maths. processes.com Mathway Try the problem solver for algebra.quickmath.matek. http://www.freestudy.efunda. trig and calculus and it draws graphs too.

Plus Magazine Plus magazine opens a door to the world of maths.html and try the quizzes.p.The Open University There are a lot of excellent courses to study and if you want to improve your maths I suggest that you start here http://mathschoices.lamar.ac.ac. RSS.uk Contents p1 8 Notation 5 26 Computer Input . medicine. iTunes or Twitter). with all its beauty and applications. http://www.uk/routes/p6/index.waldomaths.nicol@abcol. http://plus.maths. http://www.Equations 1 and 2 in particular for transposition practice.hndengineer.open. by providing articles from the top mathematicians and science writers on topics as diverse as art.ac. cosmology and sport. listen to our podcasts and keep up-to-date by subscribing to Plus (on email.open. Facebook. browse our blog.edu/ Waldomaths Some excellent interactive tools .uk/ Read the text very carefully on all the pages and then go to http://mathschoices. Banff and Buchan College http://tutorial. You can read the latest mathematical news on the site every week.math.org/content/ Paul's Online Math Notes Recommended by June Cardno. enlighten and inspire Scottish NC/HNC/HND engineering students within the current Scottish Government drive towards renewable energy targets”.com/ HND Engineer As Alasdair Clapperton says “The aim of this website to assist.co.uk/ If you come across any Engineering or Mathematics sites that might be useful to students on your course please tell me (Peter Nicol) .

234.257×10 rounded to 4 sig fig ( A=1257 ) There should be at least 2 more significant figures in the calculation than in the answer.276 Precise and Accurate 1.1 Accuracy and Precision Example: Target = 1. 1.2 mm 2 2 s 2 1 kg×m 2 KE = ×5×12 × 2 2 s 2 kg m KE =360 2 KE =360 J s -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------  3.3 Evaluation 3.232. 2 s 2 1 12×m Standard workshop KE = ×5×kg × 2 s 2 2 1 12 ×m KE = ×5×kg × tolerance ±0.276.234.234.276. 1.231. 1. Contents p1 8 Notation 6 26 Computer Input .1. 1. 0.637061 A=1. 1.3  Rounding Do not round calculations until the last line.130.256637061×10 3 A=1. Round to significant figures preferably in engineering form 2 Example: d where d =40 A= 4 3 A=1256.276.1.1. 1.236 Precise but not Accurate 1. 1.235. 1. 1.425 Accurate but not Precise 1.234 - 4 possible student answers Not Accurate. 1.835. not Precise 1. 2.234 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3.2 Units Treat units as algebra 1 m 2 for example KE = m v where m=5 kg and v=12 .270.

CT C1 C2 C3 F Parallel Capacitors C T =C 1C 2C 3 ….3 Electromagnetism Magnetomotive Force F=I N Magnetisation H= Reluctance S= At or A IN ℓ At/m or A/m l l =  A  o r A At/Wb or A/Wb −7  0=4 ×10 Absolute Permeability H/m -------------------------------------------------------Contents p1 8 Notation 7 26 Computer Input .4 Electrical Formulae and Constants 4. F Charge Q=I t or Q=C V C Capacitance C= A  A 0r = d d F −12  0≈8. R T R1 R2 R 3  Potential Difference V =I R V Power V2 P= I V or P= I R or P= R W Energy (work done) W =P t J or kWh Frequency f= 2 1 T 8 Hz ------------------------------------------------------- 4.1 Basic Unit symbol Series Resistors R T =R1 R 2R 3 … .  Parallel Resistors 1 1 1 1 =   ….2 Electrostatics Series Capacitors 1 1 1 1 =   ….854×10 Absolute Permittivity F/m ------------------------------------------------------4.

See 17 _________________________________________________________ Thanks to Iain Smith.4 AC Circuits Unit Symbol Force on a conductor F =B I ℓ N Electromotive Force E= B ℓ v V Instantaneous emf e= E sin  V Induced emf e= N RMS Voltage V rms= Average Voltage 2 V AV = ×V peak  Angular Velocity =2  f d dt e= L di dt 1 ×V  2 peak V rms≈0.7 Transformation Ratios V s Ns I p = = V p N p Is Potential Difference V =I Z Power Factor pf =cos  Capacitive Reactance X C= 1 2 f C  Inductive Reactance X L=2 f L  Admittance Y= True Power P=V I cos  W Reactive Power Q=V I sin  VAr Apparent Power S=V I * V 1 Z S = P j Q VA Note: I * is the complex conjugate of the phasor current. Aberdeen College Contents p1 8 Notation 8 26 Computer Input .4.707 V peak V V V AV ≈0.637 V peak V rad/s 17.

1 Dynamics: Terms and Equations Linear Angular (m) s= displacement  = angular displacement (rad) 1= initial velocity (m/s) (rad/s) u= initial velocity  2= final velocity (m/s) (rad/s) v= final velocity 2 (m/s ) (rad/s2) a= acceleration  = acceleration (s) (s) t = time t= time -------------------------------------------------------5.2 Conversions Displacement s=r  Velocity v=r  Acceleration a=r  v= s t =  t o   360 o 2  radians = 1 revolution = 360 .4.e.1.2 Equations of Motion Linear Angular v=ua t  2= 1 t 1 s= uvt 2 1 = 12 t 2 1 s=ut  a t 2 2 1 =1 t t 2 2 v 2=u 22 a s  22= 212  a= v–u t =  2− 1 t ------------------------------------------------------------- Contents p1 8 Notation 9 26 Computer Input .73] 5.3 see 17.5 Mechanical Engineering [K Singh pp 2 – 98 especially 32 – 40 and 69 .1. then = rad/s 60 o -------------------------------------------------------- 5. 1 rad = ≈57. i.1 2 2 N If N = rotational speed in revolutions per minute (rpm).

1 Centrifugal Force m v2 CF= r CF=m  2 r -------------------------------------------------------- 5.5 Energy Linear Angular Kinetic Energy 1 KE= m v 2 2 1 KE= I  2 2 1 KE= m k 2  2 2 Potential Energy PE=m g h KE of a rolling wheel = KE (linear) + KE (angular) -------------------------------------------------------- Contents p1 8 Notation 10 26 Computer Input .3 Newton's Second Law Linear Angular ∑ F =ma ∑T=I  where T = F r . I =m k 2 and k = radius of gyration --------------------------------------------------------5.3.4 Work done and Power Work Done Linear Angular WD= F s WD=T  Work done Time taken Fs = t =F v P= Power P=T  -------------------------------------------------------- 5.5.

7 Specific force / torque values Force to move a load: F = m g cos m g sin m a Force to hoist a load vertically =90 o  F =m gm a=m ga Force to move a load along a horizontal surface =0 o  F = m gm a T app =T F  F r  I  Winch drum torque -------------------------------------------------------- 5. Aberdeen College Contents p1 8 Notation 11 26 Computer Input .5.6 Momentum / Angular Impulse Impulse = Change in momentum Linear Angular Ft=m2 v – m 1 u Tt= I 2  2− I 1  1 If the mass does not change: Ft=m v−mu -------------------------------------------------------- 5.8 Stress and Strain Stress   = load / area = Strain = change in length / original length = E= Stress / Strain F A l x or = l l E=   Bending of Beams M  E = = I y R 2nd Moment of Area (rectangle) b d3 I=  A h2 12 Torsion Equation T  G = = J r L 2nd Moment of Area (cylinder)  D4  d 4 J= − 32 32 -------------------------------------------------------Thanks to Frank McClean and Scott Smith.

9 Fluid Mechanics Mass continuity m= A V . or ˙ Bernoulli’s Equation p C2   z = constant g 2g or m= AC ˙ p 1 C 21 p 2 C 22   z 1=   z 2z F g 2g g 2g Q=A v Volumetric flow rate   Actual flow for a venturi-meter Qactual = A1 c d 2gh   A1 –1 A2 Efunda Calculator 2gh Actual flow for an orifice plate Q= A0 c d ρV D v 4 f l v2 . h= 2gd Re= Reynold’s number Darcy formula for head loss   m –1 f   m –1 f 4   D 1– 0 D1 VD Efunda calculator  4 f l v2 energy loss h= 2d Re= Efunda Calculator ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5.10 Heat Transfer k AT 1 – T 2 x x x ˙  T where  R= 1  2  1  1 … Q= k 1 k 2 h1 h2 R ˙ T Q= R R R ln 2 ln 3 R1 R2 1 1  R=    2 R 1 h 1 2 k 1 2 k 2 2 R 3 h 3 ˙ Q= Through a slab Through a composite Through a cylindrical pipe where     -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Contents p1 8 Notation 12 26 Computer Input .5.

Aberdeen College. Contents p1 8 Notation 13 26 Computer Input .5.11 Thermodynamics Boyle’s Law p 1 V 1= p 2 V 2 Charles’s Law V1 V2 = T1 T2 Combined Gas Law p1 V 1 p 2 V 2 = T1 T2 Perfect Gas pV =m R T Mass flow rate m= AC ˙ Polytropic Process pV n = constant Isentropic Process (reversible adiabatic) pV  = constant Gas constant R=c p −c v Enthalpy (specific) h=u p v Steady flow energy equation C2 C1 ˙ m ˙ Q= ˙ h 2 – h 1 –  g  z 2 – z 1   W 2 2 Vapours v x= x v g  where = 2 cP cV  2 u x =u f  x u g −u f  h x =h f  xh g – h f  or h x =h f  x h f g ___________________________________________________________________ Thanks to Richard Kaczkowski and Scott Smith.

b .b . b .c B⊂ A E A B is a subset of A B A∪ B A B Set theory Boolean ∪ union ∨  OR ∩ intersection ∧ ⋅ AND E A B A∩ B A⋅B E A' A complement of A A NOT A' Contents p1 8 Notation 14 26 Computer Input A .1 Notation for Set Theory and Boolean Laws 1015 [J Bird pp 377 .1.a B . c etc a∈ A a is a member of A { } the empty set ( Ø is also used) B⊂ A E A .6 Maths for Computing an a to the base n a 10 decimal.396] E universal set A={ a . denary ( a d) a2 binary ( a b) a 16 hexadecimal ( a h) a8 octal ( a o) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 3 (1000) 10 6 kilo 2 10 1024 kilobyte Mega 2 20 1024 2  megabyte Giga 2 30 1024 3 gigabyte Tera 2 40 1024 4  terabyte but 10 9 1012 5 Peta petabyte 2 50 1024  _____________________________________________________________ 6. c …} a set A with elements a .

1.... -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7..7 Combinational Logic A0= A A⋅0=0 A1=1 A⋅1= A A⋅A= A A A= A A A=0 A A=1 A= A A⋅B=B⋅A A B= B A A⋅ BC = A⋅B A⋅C  A B⋅C = A B⋅ AC  A⋅ B⋅C =C⋅ A⋅B A BC=C  AB A⋅ AB= A A A⋅B= A De Morgan's Laws A⋅B⋅C⋅..1 Basic Flowchart Shapes and Symbols Start / End Input / Output Action or Process Connector Decision Flow Line ______________________________________________________________ Contents p1 8 Notation 15 26 Computer Input .... A BC.= ABC.= A⋅B⋅C⋅.

3. Numbers represented by drawing a continuous number line.. 3.... with respect to ∗ used as a multiplication sign ( × ) (in computer algebra) ^ used as “power of” ( x y ) in computer algebra ≠ not equal to ≈ approximately equal to  greater than. x2 means x is greater than and not equal to 2 ≥ greater than or equal to.. -1.... 2.. . -2.. 2.. ℤ the set of all integers .r.. ( x∈ℝ means x is a member of ℝ ) ℕ the set of natural numbers 1. 1..  less than.t. 0. ℂ the set of complex numbers..... ℚ the set of rational numbers including ℤ and fractions p . .×1 8 Notation 16 26 Computer Input . a≤ x≤b x is greater than or equal to a and less than or equal to b ab abbreviation for a×b or a∗b or a⋅b a×10n a number in scientific (or standard) form.  therefore w. q∈ℤ q ℝ the set of all real numbers. p .. ( 3×103=3000 ) use EXP or ×10x key on a calculator n! “ n factorial” Contents p1 n×n – 1×n – 2×n−3×. a2 means a is less than and not equal to 2. ≤ less than or equal to.. Numbers represented by drawing vectors.8 Mathematical Notation – what the symbols mean ∈ is a member of.

. to the power of x ). log e x ln  x on a calculator.2 Notation for Functions f x a function of x . ex exp  x (2. The logarithm of x to the base e log 10 x log  x  on a calculator. The logarithm of x to the base 10 see 21 1 2  x= x = x 0. ∣−3∣=3=∣3∣ ∞ infinity ⇒ implies -------------------------------------------------------8. k a k th root of a number a .first f then g .1. irrespective of the sign. See 21. or g  f  x . The magnitude of the number x ... Also seen as g  x . x ▄ or ^ or x y or y x or a b on a calculator.71828. h x . y  x f −1  x the inverse of the function labelled f  x g° f the composite function .5 1 3 8=2 k a=a k .1. a the positive square root of the number a .A∝B implies A=k B where k is a constant (direct variation) ∣x∣ the modulus of x . ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Contents p1 8 Notation 17 26 Computer Input .. -------------------------------------------------------8.×a (n terms)..1 Notation for Indices and Logarithms an abbreviation for a×a×a×a .

....for addition and multiplication abc=abc a b c=a b c -------------------------------------------------------Commutative laws .6 -------------------------------------------------------Other useful facts a a 1 =a÷b= × b 1 b a – b=a−b a−−b=a−−b=ab ...... 4 a c a d ÷ = × b d b c MC FOIL -------------------------------------------------------- abcd =acad bcbd MC Contents p1 8 Notation 18 26 Computer Input ...for addition and multiplication ab=ba but a – b≠b−a a b=b a but a b ≠ b a -------------------------------------------------------Distributive laws .3...for multiplication and division bc b c =  a a a a bc=a ba c -------------------------------------------------------Arithmetical Identities x 0= x  x×0=0 x ×1=x -------------------------------------------------------Algebraic Identities K Singh pp 73 – 75 ab2=abab=a 22 a bb 2 a 2 – b 2= aba−b ab3 =ab a 22 a bb 2 =a 33 a 2 b3 ab2b3 see 21.....1.....8....9 Laws of Mathematics Associative laws .......------ a c a d b c  = b d bd a c ac × = b d bd see 22.....

-----------------------------------------------------------------  Brackets come before ------------------------------------------------------------------x 2. sine of x ------------------------------------------------------------------× Multiplication comes before Division ÷ comes before ------------------------------------------------------------------ Addition comes before Subtraction − ------------------------------------------------------------------- 3sin a x 2b−5 would be read in this order left bracket x squared times a plus b right bracket sine of the result ( sin a x 2b ) times 3 minus 5 Contents p1 8 Notation 19 26 Computer Input . sin x . e x .1 Algebra – sequence of operations [K Singh pp 40 .  x .the same sequence as used by scientific calculators.9.43] Sequence of operations . Of comes before “square of x .

You must UNDO it by using the correct MATHEMATICAL operation.7 + 3b = 7 + 7 You can’t move a term (or number) from one side of the equals sign to the other. a  x 2 b Try http://www.mathsnet.take the layers off one by one.net/algebra/equation. UNDO × with ÷ AND ÷ with × UNDO  with − AND − with  UNDO  with x 2 AND x2 with  UNDO xn with AND n with xn UNDO sin x with sin−1 x AND sin−1 x with sin x UNDO ex with ln x ln x with UNDO 10 x dy dx with log 10 x AND UNDO with n ∫ dx AND AND ex log 10 x with 10 x dy ∫ dx with dx etc Generally (but not always) start with the terms FURTHEST AWAY from the new subject FIRST. Think of the terms in the formula as layers of an onion .10 Changing the subject of a Formula (Transposition) [K Singh pp 53 .html for getting started. MC Contents p1 8 Notation 20 26 Computer Input .66] An equation or formula must always be BALANCED whatever mathematical operation you do to one side of an equals sign must be done to other side as well. (to all the terms) 5a .

11 Simultaneous Equations with 2 variables
[K Singh p 90-98]
General method:
Write down both equations and label (1) and (2).
a 1 xb 1 y=c1 1
a 2 xb 2 y=c 2  2
Multiply every term on both sides of (1) by a 2 and every term on
both sides of (2) by a 1 and re-label as (3) and (4).
a 2 a1 xa 2 b1 y =a 2 c 1 3
a 1 a 2 xa1 b 2 y=a 1 c 2 4
Multiply every term on both sides of (4) by -1 and re-label.
a 2 a1 xa 2 b 1 y=a 2 c 1
3
−a1 a 2 x−a 1 b 2 y=−a1 c 2 5
Add (3) to (5) to eliminate x
Calculate the value of y
Substitute the value of y into equation (1)
Calculate the value of x

MC

Check by substituting the values of x and y into (2)
---------------------------------------------------Graphical Solution
a 1 xb1 y=c1

y

y2

a 2 xb 2 y=c2

y1
x1

x

x2

If f  x = g  x then f  x – g  x=0 - also see 13 and 14
_________________________________________________________
Contents p1

8 Notation

21

26 Computer Input

12 Matrices
[K Singh pp 507 – 566]
Notation:

[ ]

1 0 0 ..
0 1 0 ..
Identity =
0 0 1 ..
. . . ..

A m×n matrix has m rows and n columns.

a ij

an element in the i th row and j th column.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

[

]

[

a 11 a 12
b 11 b12
and B=
a 21 a 22
b 21 b 22

If

A=

then

A B=

and

A× B=

[
[

a 11b11 a 12b12
a 21b 21 a 22b22

]

]

a 11 b11a 12 b 21 a 11 b 12a 12 b 22
a 21 b11a 22 b 21 a 21 b 12a 22 b 22

]

Columns A=Rows B

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Solution of Equations 2 x 2
If A X = B then X = A−1 B

If

A=

[ ]
a b
c d

then the inverse matrix,
−1

A =

where

[

]

1
d −b
, a d −b c≠0
det A −c a

∣ ∣

det A=

a b
=ad −bc
c d

--------------------------------------------------------

Contents p1

8 Notation

22

26 Computer Input

Inverse Matrix, 3 x 3 or larger

Start with

[

∣ ]
[ ∣ ]
a 11 a12 a 13 1 0 0
a 21 a22 a 23 0 1 0
a 31 a32 a 33 0 0 1

carry out row operations to:

1 0 0 b 11 b12 b13
0 1 0 b 21 b22 b23
0 0 1 b 31 b32 b33

b 11 b12 b13
−1
where b 21 b22 b 23 = A
b 31 b32 b33

[

]

1
×transpose of the co-factors of A [place signs!!]
det A

or for 3x3

A−1=

where

a 11 a 12 a13
a
a 23
a
a
a
a
det A= a 21 a 22 a 23 =a 11 22
−a 12 21 23 a 13 21 22
a32 a 33
a 31 a 33
a 31 a 32
a 31 a 32 a33

∣ ∣

_

or use Sarrus' Rule as below

∣ ∣

∣[

_

_

]

a 11 a 12 a 13 a 11 a 12 a 13 a 11 a 12
det A= a 21 a 22 a 23 = a 21 a 22 a 23 a 21 a 22
a 31 a 32 a 33 a 31 a 32 a 33 a 31 a 32
+

+

+

detA=a 11 a 22 a 33 a 12 a 23 a 31 a 13 a 21 a 32
−a 31 a 22 a 13 −a 32 a 23 a 11 −a 33 a 21 a 12
Thanks to Richard Kaczkowski, Aberdeen College.

Contents p1

8 Notation

23

26 Computer Input

23.2. 22.2.3 dx  x 2− x 1 y 1=m x 1+c (1) y 2=m x 2+c (2) then (1) – (2) and solve for m (then c ) Also: A straight line. 22. c is y =m xc where the gradient m= or  y2 – y1   x 2− x 1 or dy  y 2 – y 1 = . See 22.1. y1 ) -ve gradient dx x x1 x2 The general equation of a straight line of gradient m cutting the y axis at 0. b has the equation:  y−b=m x−a Also see 27.1.1 and 17.13 The Straight Line [K Singh pp 100 – 108] y y2 ( x2 .5. y2 ) +ve gradient dy y1 c ( x1 .3.3. gradient m passing through a . back to 22.10 MC ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Contents p1 8 Notation 24 26 Computer Input .

.......... ….......................90 & 109 ...................................... The solutions (roots) x 1 and x 2 of a x 2b xc=0 are given by the Quadratic Formula............... B Geogebra ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Contents p1 8 Notation 25 26 Computer Input .14 Quadratic Equations [K Singh pp 88 ....... 2 −b  b – 4 a c x= ± 2a  2a  −b± b2 – 4 a c  x= or 2 a Definition of a root: The value(s) of x which make y equal to zero...........113] y x= −b 2a x1 -ve a y=a x 2b xc x2 +ve a x c Geogebra quadratic a minimum turning point MC The solutions (roots) x 1 and x 2 of the equation a x 2b xc=0 are the value(s) of x where y=a x 2 b xc crosses the x axis....4 d =0 If y=k  x  A2 B the turning point is − A ............ Also: a x 2 b xc=0 b c 2 x  x =0 a a 2    b a x 2 where 2 2   c d 2= − a  b a 2 see 22........

15 Areas and Volumes Volume of a Prism b Rectangle A=l b Area length l V =A l h Triangle 1 A= b h 2 Circle πd2 A= =π r 2 4 b r d C=π d =2 π r Cylinder side + 2 ends h d l π d2 Total surface area = π d h2 4 2 π r h2 π r 2  d2h V= = r 2 h 4 h Cone Total surface area d V=  d2h  r2h = 12 3 Total surface area = π d 2 =4 π r 2 Sphere d πdl =π r l 2 =  r l r 2 Curved surface area = π d 3 4 π r3 V= = 6 3 Contents p1 8 Notation 26 26 Computer Input .

Notice that an arc is curved.1. b and radius r .16 The Circle A C Minor Sector Minor Segment C A D B B D Major Sector Major Segment -------------------------------------------------------y (x. b a x -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------16.y) r The equation  x – a2 y – b2=r 2 represents a circle centre a .1 Radian Measure r A radian: The angle  subtended (or r made by) an arc the same θ length as the radius of a circle.com degrees and radians Contents p1 8 Notation 27 26 Computer Input . r BE.

with hypotenuse.176] 17.1. −90o≤ o≤90o  or 2 2   ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 17.ca/LivingMathematics/V001N01/UBCExamples/Pythagoras/pythagoras. −90o≤o≤90 o or 2 2   =cos−1 b arccos b the value of the basic angle  whose cosine function value is b . length R .sunsite.ubc.17 Trigonometry [K Singh pp 168 .2 Pythagoras’ Theorem In a right angled triangle.html --------------------------------------------------------Contents p1 8 Notation 28 26 Computer Input . then R 2=a 2b 2 or R=  a b 2 R 2 b use of Pythagoras' Theorem BE surprising uses a Pythagorean distance BE pythagorean distance Interactive proof http://www. and the other two sides of lengths a and b .1 Notation for Trigonometry A Labelling of a triangle b c B C a sin  the value of the sine function of the angle  cos  the value of the cosine function of the angle  tan  the value of the tangent function of the angle  =sin−1 b arcsin b the value of the basic angle  whose sine function −  ≤≤ value is b .  0o ≤o ≤180 o  or  0≤≤  =tan−1 b arctan b the value of the basic angle  whose tangent function −  ≤≤ value is b .

of length H .2. where A is the angle at A.jp/math/java/trig/yogen1/yogen1.192] A b c In any triangle ABC. or next to angle  ) and O (opposite to angle  ) then O θ A MC sin = O H cos = O tan = A A H see also 20 and 13 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[K Singh pp 187 .3 Area formula Area = b c sin A 2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Contents p1 8 Notation 29 26 Computer Input .co.The Triangle In a right angled triangle. SOHCAHTOA H The other two sides have lengths A (adjacent.co.ies. (which is the longest side). B is the angle at B and C is the angle at C the following hold: B a C -------------------------------------------------------17.ies.jp/math/java/trig/seigen/seigen.2.1 Sine Rule Sine Rule a b c = = sin A sin B sin C or sin A sin B sin C = = a b c http://www.2.2 Cosine Rule b 2c 2 – a 2 cos A= 2b c or a 2=b 2c 2 – 2 b ccos A http://www.html -------------------------------------------------------17.html -------------------------------------------------------17. with hypotenuse.

html y=cos x o Calculator answer Geogebra Cosine wave slider Contents p1 http://www.html 8 Notation 30 26 Computer Input .ies.3 Trigonometric Graphs [K Singh pp 177 .jp/math/java/trig/graphSinX/graphSinX.jp/math/java/trig/graphCosX/graphCosX.17.co.ies.co.187] y=sin x o Calculator answer Geogebra Sine wave slider http://www.

330. 90.1. 150. 225. 300 315. 30.Radians Conversion 0.y=tan x o Calculator answer -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17.2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Contents p1 8 Notation 31 26 Computer Input . 360 0     2 3 5 7 5  4 3 5  7 11  2 6 4 3 2 3 4 6 6 4 3 2 3 4 6 Degrees to radians o x ÷180×= rad r r  r Radians to degrees  rad ÷×180=x o =1 radian Geogebra Radians BE degrees and radians see 5. 120. 135. 210. 45. 60. 240.3.1 Degrees . 180. 270.

4 Trigonometric Identities [K Singh pp 203 .17. (the secant of A ). cosec A= . (the cotangent of A ) tan A sin A -------------------------------------------------------- sec A= 1 1 . (the cosecant of A ) cos A sin A -------------------------------------------------------2 sin 2 Acos 2 A=1 2 entered as  sin A   cos A  -------------------------------------------------------(an ODD function) sin −=−sin  (an EVEN function) cos −=cos  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------17.5 Multiple / double angles sin  A B=sin A cos Bcos Asin B sin 2 A=2sin A cos B sin  A – B=sin Acos B – cos Asin B cos  A B=cos Acos B – sin Asin B cos 2 A=cos 2 A – sin 2 A =2 cos2 A−1 1 cos 2 A= cos 2 A1 2 cos 2 A=1−2sin 2 A 1 sin 2 A= 1−cos 2 A 2 cos  A – B=cos Acos Bsin Asin B tan  AB= tan Atan B 1 – tan A tan B tan  A− B= tan A−tan B 1tan A tan B tan 2 A= 2 tan A 1 – tan 2 A --------------------------------------------------------- Contents p1 8 Notation 32 26 Computer Input .213] tan A= sin A cos A cot A= 1 cos A = .

4   Period = [Frequency = 2 ] 2   = phase shift   = phase angle Thanks to Mark Perkins.Products to Sums 1 sin A cos B= sin  ABsin  A− B 2 1 cos Asin B= sin  AB−sin  A−B 2 1 cos Acos B= cos  A Bcos  A− B 2 1 sin Asin B= cos A−B−cos  A B 2 --------------------------------------------------------Sums to Products sin Asin B=2sin             A B A– B cos 2 2 sin A−sin B=2 cos AB A– B sin 2 2 cos Acos B=2cos cos A−cos B=−2 sin     AB A– B cos 2 2 A B A– B sin 2 2 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17. 4.6 Sinusoidal Wave [K Singh pp 195 .202] V =R sin  t  R t see 22.6. Bedford College Contents p1 8 Notation 33 26 Computer Input .

better explained Addition a jbc j d =ac j bd  Multiplication a jbc jd  Division  a jbc− jd  c jd c− jd  Polar Multiplication z 1 z 2=r 1 ∠ 1×r 2 ∠ 2=r 1 r 2 ∠12 Polar Division z 1 r 1 ∠1 r 1 = = ∠1−2  z 2 r 2 ∠ 2 r 2 See also: 20 Co-ordinate conversion MC --------------------------------------------------------De Moivre's Theorem r ∠n=r n ∠ n =r n cos n j sin n  r ∠= r ∠ 2  http://www. 17. b∈ℝ . j b imaginary part. a .2 r =arg z =tan−1 Argument. z a complex number z =a j b (or x y i ) r ∠ a complex number in polar form z complex conjugate of the complex number If z=a j b then the complex conjugate z=a – j b or if z=r ∠  then the complex conjugate z=r ∠− z=a j b=rcos  j sin =r ∠=r e j where j 2=−1 --------------------------------------------------------Im Modulus.506] Notation for Complex Numbers BE .2.com/home.htm ____________________________________________________________ Contents p1 8 Notation 34 26 Computer Input . ( i used on most calculators) j symbol representing a j b a complex number in Cartesian (or Rectangular) form ( x y i on a calculator).justinmullins. r =∣z∣= a 2b 2 jb (or magnitude) see 17.18 Complex Numbers [K Singh pp 464 .imaginary numbers −1 .  b a θ a (or angle) Re Argand Diagram BE .Complex arithmetic .

  b1 a1 b a where a= 2 and b= 2 a3 b3 .19 Vectors Notation for Graphs and Vectors [K Singh pp 568 . where x is the distance from the y axis and y is the distance from the x axis v a vector.. .. Always underlined in written work  AB a vector a i b j a vector in Cartesian form (Rectangular form) r ∠ a vector in polar form (where r=∣v∣ ) )  a vector in Component form (Rectangular Form) ∣v∣ modulus or magnitude of vector v .600] x . a b --------------------------------------------------------- Vectors y x (a. b   a c ac  = b d bd Vector Addition a or v=r  b Geogebra a see also 20 Co-ordinate Conversion Scalar Product θ a×b=∣a∣∣b∣cos  b Dot Product a⋅b=a 1 b 1a 2 b 2a 3 b 3 .b) b r bj θ ai a  A vector v= A point a . y the co-ordinates of a point. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Contents p1 8 Notation 35 26 Computer Input .

 ) = Sharp ADVANCED D. R to P x 2ndF . y ) = r out  P to R SHIFT Rec( r SHIFT .L. y ) = r out RCL tan  out P to R SHIFT Rec( r SHIFT . y or MATH P to R r 2ndF .  or MATH x out RCL tan y out Edit keystrokes for your calculator 2ndF  r  1   out r out 2ndF ⋅  out 2ndF  x y 2 r out x out  x out 2ndF ⋅ y out y out Old Casio fx & VPAM R to P x SHIFT R  P y = r out SHIFT X  Y  out P to R r SHIFT P  R  = x out SHIFT X  Y y out Contents p1 8 Notation 36 26 Computer Input .3 Casio Natural Display Edit keystrokes for your calculator x SHIFT .  ) = x out y R to P SHIFT Pol( Casio S-VPAM and new Texet R to P SHIFT Pol( Edit keystrokes for your calculator x SHIFT .A.20 Co-ordinate Conversion using Scientific Calculators R to P Rectangular to Polar  P to R Polar to Rectangular r ∠ to x to r ∠ (  x jy to r ∠ ) y  x ( r ∠ to  x jy ) y see also 17.

y ) EXE r .Texet .36X R to P x x ↔ y y 3rd R  P r out x ↔ y  out P to R r x ↔ y  2nd P  R x out x ↔ y y out Contents p1 8 Notation 37 26 Computer Input . out R to P OPTN ▶ F2 ▶ ▶ Rec( r .  ) EXE x out ALPHA J EXE y out Casio Graphics (2) R to P FUNC 4 MATH 4 COORD 1 Pol( x . 2ndF CPLX R to P x a y b 2ndF a r out b  out P to R r a  b 2ndF b x out b y out Texas .  ) EXE x ALPHA J EXE y Casio Graphics (7 series) R to P OPTN ▶ F2 ▶ ▶ Pol( x .  ) EXE x . y ) EXE r ALPHA J EXE  P to R FUNC 4 MATH 4 COORD 1 Rec( r . y out Old Texet and old Sharp and some £1 calculators You must be in Complex Number mode.albert 2 R to P x INV x ↔ y y R  P r out INV x ↔ y  out P to R r INV x ↔ y  P  R x out INV x ↔ y y out Casio Graphics (1) R to P SHIFT Pol( x SHIFT . y ) EXE r out ALPHA J EXE  out P to R SHIFT Rec( r SHIFT .

 ) ENTER y out Sharp Graphics R to P MATH (D)CONV (3) xy  r ( x MATH (D)CONV (4) xy   ( y ) ENTER r out x y ) ENTER  out P to R MATH (D)CONV (5) r   x ( r  ) ENTER x out MATH (D)CONV (6) r   y ( r  ) ENTER y out Insert the keystrokes for your calculator here (if different from above) R to P P to R -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Degrees to Radians ÷180× Radians to degrees ÷×180 _____________________________________________________________ Contents p1 8 Notation 38 26 Computer Input . y ) ENTER  out P to R 2nd Angle P  R x ( r . y ) ENTER r out 2nd Angle R  P  ( x .Texas Graphics (TI 83) R to P 2nd Angle R  Pr ( x . ) ENTER x out 2nd Angle P  R y ( r .

1. 1 2 a 0=1  x= x = x 0.  a = a 5.1 MC 1. am an 3.1.1.1.3 Rules of logarithms: MC 1.1 Rules of Indices: [K Singh pp 224 . log  A× B =log Alog B 2. log A n =n log A 4. log a N =  A B =log A – log B log b N log b a ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ exp x≡e x log e x≡ln x log 10 x≡lg x -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Contents p1 8 Notation 39 26 Computer Input .245] notation 8.2 Definition of logarithms If N =a n then n=log a N --------------------------------------------------------21. m a ×a n =a mn 2. a m n 4.21 Indices and Logs 21.5 a 1=a  a=b⇔ bn =a and 2  a= a n -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------21. log 3. k a−n = =a m− n =a mn m n n  a = a 1 n m n k an Also.

.demystifying the natural logarithm --------------------------------------------------------21.. 3! 5! 7 ! 2 4 6   x x x =1−  − ....5 Hyperbolic Functions ..21.. 1! 2! 3 ! 4 ! 5! 6! 7 ! x for ∣x∣∞ BE exponential functions better explained jx sin x= − jx e −e j2 jx e e cos x= 2   3 =x− − jx 5 7 x x x  − ..definitions [K Singh p 246] pronunciation MC x sinh x= −x e −e 2 x   3 =x −x e e cosh x= 2 5 7 x x x   . 1 2 3 for ∣x∣∞ for ∣x∣∞ for 0 x≤2 BE..4 Infinite Series [K Singh pp 338 ..1... 2! 4! 6! x−1  x−12  x−13 ln x= –  −.346] x x2 x3 x 4 x5 x6 x7 e =1       .1. 2! 4! 6! e x −e −x tanh x= x −x e e “shine x” “cosh x” “thaan x” ______________________________________________________________ y = cosh x y = ex y=x y = sinh x y = ln x y = tanh x y = tanh x y = sinh x ke ax slider k lna x  slider Contents p1 8 Notation 40 26 Computer Input . 3! 5! 7! 2 4 6   x x x =1   .

21.1.6 Graphs of Common Functions y=a x 3b x 2c xd y=a x 4b x 3c x 2d x f a y= b x y=x 2 and y= x y=k 1−e− t Contents p1 y=k e− tb 8 Notation 41 26 Computer Input .

com 42 26 Computer Input .1 Notation for Calculus see also section 8 Differentiation dy dx the first derivative of y where y is a function of x (Leibniz) Also see 13 f ' x the first derivative of f  x .t. time. ( ∂ “partial d”) x a small change (increment) in x . (Euler) v˙ the first derivative of v w. x .t. ( f 2  x  is also used) v¨ the second derivative of v w.betterexplained. (as above).r. The f ''  x the second derivative of f  x . (  “delta”) dy dy of dx dx -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Integration ∫ the integral sign (Summa) ∫ f  x dx the indefinite integral of f  x  (the anti-differential of f  x ) b ∫ f  x dx the definite integral of f  x from x =a to x=b a the area under f  x between x=a and x=b F  x the primitive of f  x ( ∫ f  x dx without the c ) L[ f t] the Laplace operator (with parameter s ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------BE . time.gentle introduction to learning Calculus Contents p1 8 Notation discovring pi .r.1.r. (Newtonian mechanics) D u the first derivative of u d2 y dx 2 the second derivative of y w.t.r.t x .22 Calculus 22. (Newtonian mechanics) ∂z ∂x the partial derivative of z w.

22.2 Differential Calculus .Derivatives [K Singh pp 258 .358] dy dx dy or f '  x dx y or f  x  ________________________________________________ xn n x n−1 sin x cos x cos x −sin x ex ex ln x 1 x ________________________________________________ k 0 k xn k n x n−1 sin a x a cos a x cos a x −a sin a x ea x a ea x ln a x a 1 = ax x ________________________________________________ k a xbn k n a a xbn−1 k sin a xb k a cos a xb k cosa xb −k a sin  a xb k tan a xb k a sec 2 a xb= k e axb k a e ax b k ln a xb ka a xb ka cos a xb 2 e x gradient slider ________________________________________________ Contents p1 8 Notation 43 26 Computer Input .

2 2 a – x  x 2a 2 x a −1 . 2 2 a – x x 2a 2 x a a a  x2    −1 cos tan −1 2 sinh a xb a cosha xb cosh a xb a sinh a xb tanh a xb a sech 2 a xb −1 sinh    −1 cosh −1 tanh 1 x a  x2a2 x a 1 . 2 2  x −a x a a . y=k x n c dy =k n x n−1 dx y c x -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Contents p1 8 Notation 44 26 Computer Input . 2 a −x 2 x 2a 2 x 2a 2 _____________________________________________________________ Differentiation as a gradient function (tangent to a curve).Further Standard Derivatives dy or f '  x dx y or f  x ______________________________________________ f '  x f  x ln [ f  x] sin−1 x a 1 .

. close to turning point).............22.- D uv=v Product Rule du dv u =v u ' u v ' dx dx MC .....1 Maxima and Minima (Stationary Points) [K Singh pp 308 ...................... MC dy dx d2 y dx2 + 0 − − – 0 + + 0 + + 0 − ? − ? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22.......325] If y= f  x then at any turning point or stationary point dy = f '  x=0 dx Determine the nature (max....2.....- du dv –u u dx dx vu ' – uv ' D = = 2 v v v2  Quotient Rule v MC ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Contents p1 8 Notation 45 26 Computer Input ..... min or saddle) of the turning points by evaluating gradients locally (i.....2 Differentiation Rules [K Singh pp 274 – 285] For D read differentiate D [k f  x]=k f '  x .....e......2..... k a constant -------------------------------------------------------Function of a function rule D [ f  g  x]= f '  g  x×g '  x dy dy du = × dx du dx MC -------------------------------------------------------If u and v are functions of x then: D uv= Addition Rule du dv  =u ' v ' dx dx ...

2. named  y etc. x and is the partial derivative of z w.704] If z= f  x .5/1.html ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22. where is the partial derivative of z ∂x ∂y ∂x ∂z w.6 Parametric Differentiation [K Singh pp 291 . will cause a small change in z .. named  z ∂z ∂z ∂z  x  y.4 Partial Differentiation [K Singh pp 695 .calculus/3/newton.r.modulus f  x n f '  x n (where f '  x n ≠0 ) f '  xn  x n1= x n – f  x =0 when x n1=x n to accuracy required.2.edu/visual. named  x (delta x) and a small change in y .2.22.t.t y ..5 Implicit Differentiation     ∂z ∂x dy If z = f  x . ≠0 = = or MC dx dx f ' t  dt dx dt ______________________________________________________________      Contents p1 8 Notation 46  26 Computer Input . y then a small change in x .356] f  x =0 with guess value x 0 (from graph) Set ∣ Test for Convergence xn f  x 0  f ' '  x 0 f  x n [ f '  x 0]2 ∣ 1 see 13 see 8 . see 8 ∂y such that  z ≃ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22. http://archives.296] x= f t y=g t If and dx dy = f ' t and =g ' t  dt dt dy dt dx dy g ' t  dy f ' t  .math.3 Formula for the Newton-Raphson Iterative Process [K Singh pp 352 .utk.r.2. y then = dx ∂z ∂y Also dy = 1 dx   dx dy ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22.

22.Integrals [K Singh pp 359 .3 Integral Calculus .462] dy or f  x dx y or ∫ f  x dx or F  x + c ____________________________________________________ x n1 n1 −cos x sin x ex xn sin x cos x ex 1 = x−1 x ln x n≠−1 (when n=−1 ) ____________________________________________________ k kx kx n1 n1 −cos a x a sin a x a ax e a k xn sin a x cos a x e ax k =k x−1 x k ln x n≠−1 (where n=−1 ) ___________________________________________________ k a xb k a xbn1  n1a −k cos a xb a k sin  a xb a k tan a xb a  a xb ke a k ln a xb a n k sin  a xb k cos a xb k sec2  a xb k e a xb  k a xb n≠−1 n=−1 _____________________________________________________ Contents p1 8 Notation 47 26 Computer Input ∫ .

1 Integration by Substitution [K Singh p 368] ∫ f  g  x dx ∫ f u du MC where u=g  x then du du = g '  x and dx= g '  x dx x=b Note change of limits ∫ u when x=b f g  xdx to x=a ∫ f udu u when x=a du is a function of u or du ∈ℝ -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22. x 2a 2 2 2 x −a 2 ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ ______________________________________________________________ Addition Rule ∫ f  x g  x dx=∫ f  x dx∫ g  x dx ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22. x 2a 2 2  x a 1 . x 2a 2 2 2  x −a 1 . x 2a 2 2 2 a −x 1 .6 ∫ u dv=u v−∫ v du MC -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Contents p1 8 Notation 48 26 Computer Input .2 Integration by Parts [K Singh pp 388 .395] see 22.3.Further Standard Integrals dy or f  x dx or F  x + c ________________________________________________________  dy dx y y or f '  x f  x ∫ f  x dx ln  f  x  1 2 2 .3. x a  a 2− x 2 1 2 2 a x sin−1 ln  y   x a 1 x tan−1 a a 1 cosh a xb a 1 sinh  a xb a 1 tanh a xb a x sinh−1 or ln  x x 2a 2  a x cosh−1 or ln  x x 2−a 2  a  a x 1 x 1 tanh−1 ln or a a 2 a a – x  x−a −1 x 1 coth −1 ln or a a 2 a  xa sinh a xb cosh a xb sech 2  a xb     1 .

.Definite Integration [K Singh p 442] b ∫ f  x dx a b =[ F  x c ]a = F bc – F  ac F(b) .html Procedure Plot between limits .2.3 Integrate between left limit.F(a) a x b Hyperlink to interactive demo of areas by integration http://surendranath.3.22. R 2 .3 Indefinite Integration dy = f  x dx dy= f  x  dx ∫ 1dy=∫ f  x dx y=F  xc -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------y 22.3. y = f(x) the mean (or average) value of y over the interval x=a to x=b is y b 1 y= ∫ y dx b−a a a x b -------------------------------------------------------22.a and b Check for roots ( R1 .5 Mean Value [K Singh p 445] y If y= f  x then y .tripod.com/Applets/Math/IntArea/IntAreaApplet.6 Root Mean Square (RMS)  b 1 2 y rms= y dx ∫ b−a a where y= f  x ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Contents p1 8 Notation 49 26 Computer Input . (areas all +ve) y +ve +ve a R1 -ve R2 b x ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22. a .4 Area under a Curve y = f(x) .3. and R1 then between R1 and R 2 and so on to last root R n and right limit b Add moduli of areas.3. R n ) and evaluate See Newton Raphson 22.

9 Partial Fractions [K Singh pp 397 . y  .3.7 Volume of Revolution around the x axis b 2 V = ∫ y dx [J Bird pp 207-208] where y= f  x a ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22.210] The centroid of the area of a lamina y bounded by a curve y= f  x and y = f(x) limits x=a and x=b has co-ordinates  x .8 Centroid [J Bird pp 208 . y) a x b a -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22.3.402] f x A B ≡  see 8  xa xb  x a  x b f  x A B C ≡    xa2  xb  xa  xa2  xb f  x Ax B C ≡ 2  2   x a xb  x a  x a  xb 2 MC ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Contents p1 8 Notation 50 26 Computer Input . b b ∫ x y dx x= a and b ∫ y dx y= 1 2 y dx ∫ 2 a x b y ∫ y dx a Centroid = (x.3.22.

... . . . . .. . y n−1 2× y n−1 . . .10.3.2 b xn a aw a2w yn y1 y2 y3 Trapezium Method w ∫ f  xdx≈  y 12 y 22 y 3.10.22. . ..2 y n y n1  2 a ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Contents p1 8 Notation 51 26 Computer Input . . .3. . 4 n y n1 1× y n1 1 n1 b Sum = ×w = ÷3 = --------------------------------------------------------- n 22.10 Approximation of Definite Integrals [K Singh p 434] 22.3.. 2 n−1 yn 4× y n .1 Simpson's Rule y w= y = f(x) b−a n yn y1 y2 y3 yn-1 yn x1 x2 x3 a b x xn-1 xn w b w ∫ f  x dx≈ Area≈ 3  y 14 y 22 y 3…2 y n−14 y n y n1  a ( n is even) b ∫ f  x dx≈ w3 [ firstlast4 ∑ evens 2 ∑ odds  ] a Multiplier m Product m y n 1× y 1 1 1 4× y 2 2 4 2× y 3 3 2 .

4 Laplace Transforms [J Bird pp 582 – 604] Table of Laplace Transforms L[ f (t )] is defined by ∞ ∫ f t  e−st dt 0 f t 1 2 t 3 tn 4 e−a t 5 1−e−a t 6 t e−a t 7 t n e−a t 8 sin (ω t ) 9 cos (ω t ) 10 1−cos(ω t) 11 ω t sin (ω t ) 12 sin (ω t)−ω t cos (ω t ) 13 e−a t sin(ω t ) 14 e− a t cos(ω t) a e−a t (cos (ω t)− ω sin (ω t )) sin t φ 16 17 a e−a t + ω sin (ω t)−cos(ω t) Contents p1 8 Notation and is written as F  s L[ f t ] 1 15 L [ f (t)] 52 1  L[0]=0 s 1 s2 n! s n 1 1 sa a ssa 1  sa2 n!  san1  2 s  2 s 2 2 s  ω2 s(s 2+ω2) 2 2 s  s 22 2 23  s 22 2  2 2 see 14  sa  sa 2 2  sa  s 2 2  sa  ssin  cos  2 2 s  a 22  sa s 2 2  26 Computer Input .22.

1 Eulers’ method y 1= y 0h y ' 0 13 Range x=ahb where h is the step size a and b are limits x0 y0  y ' 0 y1 Plot the graph of y against x from values in first 2 columns.1 Diff Eq Second order differential equation: [ ] 2 d y dy L =s 2 L[ y ]– s y0− y ' 0 where y ' 0 is the value of at t =0 2 dt dt MC Efunda Calculator Efunda .655] and section 26.Laplace ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 22.693 . See also 26.Differential Equations _____________________________________________________________ Contents p1 8 Notation 53 26 Computer Input .f t 18 sinh (βt ) 19 cosh(βt ) 20 e− a t sinh(β t) 21 e−a t cosh(βt ) L[ f t]  2 s − 2 s 2 2 s −  2 2  sa − sa 2 2  sa − First order differential equation: L [ ] dy =s L[ y ] – y 0 where y 0 is the value of y at t=0 dt see also 26.1 – Runge-Kutta.5 Approximate numerical solution of differential equations [K Singh pp 630 . -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------See also K Singh pp 601 .

.22. See Fourier series applet http://www. (determine from a graph) Fundamental angular frequency = 2 T f t =a 0a 1 cos t a 2 cos 2 t a 3 cos3 t … a n .1 For period T . 3… f t sin n  t dt n=1. See 17.com/fourier/index. 2.. b n constants b1 sin  t b 2 sin 2  t b3 sin 3  t … or ∞ f t =a 0∑ a n cosn  t b n sin n  t  n=1 where a 0= 1 T T 2 ∫ f t  dt mean value of f t over period T −T 2 see 22..falstad. 2.657] and next page and 26 and 26.7 of this book.html --------------------------------------------------------Contents p1 8 Notation 54 26 Computer Input .6 Fourier Series. the smallest period of f t  .9 a n= b n= 2 T 2 T T 2 ∫ f t cosn t dt n=1. 3… −T 2 T 2 ∫ −T 2 Alternatively written as: f t =a 0c1 sin t  1c 2 sin 2 t  2 …c n sin n t  n  a 0 constant. [J Bird pp 611 .. c n = a 2nb 2n and α n=tan −1 () an bn f t = constant + first harmonic + second harmonic + ..3.

and  2 T T -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------!! use  (type as w ) in input. Calculate Sum Start with 6 terms ( n from 1 to 6) but you may need more. Close wxMaxima and start again F6 for text -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Write down the values of T . ______________________________________________________________ Contents p1 8 Notation 55 26 Computer Input .22. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Substitute in the value for w -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Trial plot -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------a 0 By observation OR Input 1 f t  T Integrate between For piecewise functions −T T and 2 2 as above. T 2 1 .6. not a number. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ an 2 f t cosn w t  T −T T Integrate between and 2 2 Input For piecewise functions −T T and 0 and 0 and 2 2 or smaller intervals Add the parts of a n --------------------------------------------------- bn 2 f tsin  n w t T −T T Integrate between and 2 2 Input For piecewise functions as above Add the parts of b n -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Make up the sum a n cos n w t bn sin n w t -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sum Calculus.wxMaxima method. but your interval may have to be 0 to T 2 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Add a 0 to the Sum -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Plot You will have to adjust horizontal range to be able to see the result. .1 Fourier Series .

23 Statistics [K Singh pp 726 .1. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Contents p1 8 Notation 56 26 Computer Input . x ∈ℕ Range maximum value – minimum value Quartiles in a set of ordered data. Upper. 100 2 Mode in a set of data the mode is the most frequently occurring value. Q 3 upper) df degrees of freedom n−1 of a sample.796] 23. Median. Q 3 : the middle value between Q 2 and the maximum. Q 2 : the middle value. Lower. Q 2 median. ( Q 1 lower. Q 1 : the middle value between minimum and Q 2 . P= X −x the probability that the population statistic equals the sample statistic x! x× x−1× x−2× x −3×…×1.1 Notation for Statistics n sample size x xi a sample statistic (a data value) OR the variate X a population statistic x the arithmetic mean point of a sample set of data s standard deviation of a sample  the mean value of a population  standard deviation of a population ∑ the sum of all terms immediately following f frequency Q quartile. Percentile: the k th percentile is in position k 1 ×n .

. . . .23. .averages -------------------------------------------------------Population Standard Deviation =  ∑  x i – x2 =  ∑ f d2 ∑f n d = xi – x -------------------------------------------------------Sample Standard Deviation s=  ∑  xi – x2 n−1 where n is the sample size -------------------------------------------------------Table for the calculation of Sample Mean and Standard Deviation xi f f xi x− x f  x−x  . . x = ∑fx ∑f or x= ∑ xi where x i is the variate. . . . ∑ f  x−x 2= ∑ f xi = x = 2 ∑ f xi = s= n  ∑ f  x−x 2 = n−1 -------------------------------------------------------Coefficient of Variation s ×100 x of a sample (as a %) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ SIR= Semi-interquartile Range Q 3−Q 1 2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Contents p1 8 Notation 57 26 Computer Input .2 Statistical Formulae Mean. n f is frequency n is the sample size BE .

a= ∑ y –b∑ x b= n n ∑ xy – ∑ x ∑ y 2 2 n ∑ x – ∑ x  -------------------------------------------------------Product moment coefficient of Correlation (r value) r=  n ∑ xy – ∑ x ∑ y   2 n ∑ x 2 – ∑ x   n ∑ y 2 − ∑ y  2 −1≤r≤1  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Z= Z Scores x−  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Poisson Distribution .2.the probability of the occurrence of a rare event e −  x P  X = x= x! Geogbra Poisson slider ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------T Test 1 sample Standard Error of the Mean SE  x= T test (1 sample test) t= s n x− SE  x --------------------------------------------------------2 sample for n30 ( d f = n 1n 2 – 2 )  s1 s 2  n1 n2  x − x − 1− 2  t= 1 2 SE  x 1− x 2 SE  x 1−x 2= Standard Error of Mean T test (2 sample test) --------------------------------------------------------2 sample for n30  2 2 n 1 – 1 s 1n2 – 1 s 2 sp= n1n 2−2 1 2 SE  x 1−x 2=s p  n1 n 2 Pooled Standard Deviation Standard Error of Mean  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Contents p1 8 Notation 58 26 Computer Input .23.1 Regression Line .see 13 and 27 For the line y=ab x where b is the gradient and a is the y intercept and n is the number of pairs of values.

000002112 8.9793 0.6 0.9920 0.9732 0.9656 0.280E-12 2.001866 3.4 2.5080 0.6 0.9319 0.1 0.9973 0.9881 0.8438 0.5 0.8340 0.5753 0.9 1.8413 0.9854 0.9115 0.8907 0.1 1.00621 3.8 0.7734 0.9898 0.9573 0.9946 0.8485 0.9545 0.7054 0.9554 0.9332 0.792E-7 9.6879 0.8 2.5 2.8599 0.9525 0.9726 0.9803 0.7 0.5636 0.9616 0.9394 0.9952 0.9699 0.9131 0.3 0.7704 0.7939 0.7 1.2 0.4 1.7642 0.0009676 4.04 0.0 1.9 4.9788 0.9929 0.9916 0.3 0.9932 0.480E-18 2.9987 0.6443 0.5596 0.0 2.6255 0.9 3.8729 0.8508 0.5 9.4 0.9783 0.8 0.5120 0.9 2.7389 0.7673 0.02275 3.0 6.9982 0.9846 0.9756 0.6554 0.5199 0.7910 0.049E-21 These tables are public domain.9236 0.8962 0.9955 0.9429 0.9265 0.9495 0.2 0.8264 0.5 0.8925 0.9406 0.9969 0.8212 0.9940 0.06 0.6844 0.9633 0.8980 0.9207 0.9974 0.9279 0.9896 0.6985 0.9985 0.9744 0.1 0.00820 3.5832 0.5 4.0002326 4.9913 0.01390 3.9968 0.9750 0.9370 0.9345 0.003467 3.9082 0.8159 0.9974 0.9706 0.9821 0.7 2.5871 0.6808 0.1 2.8106 0.9949 0.8749 0.129E-19 2.2 Tables of the Normal Distribution Probability Content from −∞ to Z Z 0.899E-8 2.3 0.9842 0.9959 0.5675 0.9953 0.8790 0.9961 0.5910 0.9251 0.9957 0.6217 0.0001591 4.9772 0.191E-14 2.5714 0.7852 0.8133 0.7422 0.05 0.09 0.9938 0.htm They are produced by APL programs written by the author.6 1.7123 0.004661 3.7995 0.9878 0.9099 0.9808 0.9987 0.9982 0.8 1.9608 0.8770 0.9890 0.9984 0.7357 0.9838 0.9738 0.9505 0.7019 0.5 1.8810 0.0 0.9918 0.9177 0.5279 0.0 1.8708 0.01786 3.9871 0.866E-10 2.9222 0.9990 z 0.6026 0.0 9.0004834 4.9162 0.01072 3.9967 0.9767 0.9956 0.7823 0.9382 0.2 1.7291 0.7088 0.4 0.6064 0.9357 0.9625 0.9964 0.9649 0.9970 0.8849 0.0 0.9925 0.9830 0.6736 0.5 0.0 0.7454 0.9032 0.6664 0.08 0.9975 0.1 0.5987 0.6 0.002555 3.8869 0.5948 0.9812 0.7881 0.9981 0.9945 0.9966 0.8238 0.9986 0.9850 0.7 0.5000 0.9826 0.7549 0.5438 0.3 2.9484 0.0 0.9978 0.5478 0.5 1.9861 0.00003167 Z P{Z to ∞ } 5.9962 0.0 0.6293 0.7580 0.01 0.9761 0.7794 0.7324 0.9778 0.9981 0.0006871 4.9960 0.9306 0.6368 0.9693 0.8888 0.5793 0.9875 0.9515 0.00004810 4.5319 0.7157 0.9887 0.9713 0.8389 0.001350 4.9591 0.9664 0.8944 0.9868 0.9452 0.8643 0.9015 0.9817 0.8830 0.6103 0.7486 0.9798 0.00001335 6.000005413 7.6179 0.5 0.0001078 4.9985 0.9972 0.5517 0.9292 0.0 2.9719 0.9951 0.9686 0.5359 0.7190 0.9984 0.unb.9909 0.7 0.9965 0.6406 0.000001300 8.2 2.000003398 7.5239 0.9971 0.8686 0.9 0.9066 0.8186 0.6628 0.9922 0.9 0.9941 0.6700 0.6517 0.9989 Far Right Tail Probabilities 0 0.9884 0.9463 0.7967 0.6 0.016E-11 2.8577 0.9943 0.9977 0.9927 0.9936 0.8365 0.6 2.03 0.9988 0 0.9441 0.5160 0.8315 0.8289 0.6331 0.9934 0.8621 0.9989 0.9906 0.9582 0.6772 0.9474 0.221E-16 2.9990 0.9911 0.6950 0.2 0.9979 0.0003369 4.9671 0.7611 0. http://www.00007235 4.02 0.0 1.8051 0.9564 0.8078 0.00000854 6.00002066 5.2 0.ca/~knight/utility/NormTble.8554 0.9834 0.7257 0.9901 0.9893 0.4 0.9986 1 z P{Z to ∞ } Z Z P{Z to ∞ } Z P{Z to ∞ } 2.9979 0.9678 0.6915 0.9049 0.8 0.9983 0.9963 0.7517 0.3 1.5398 0.5040 0.2.9948 0.9976 0.7224 0.9864 0.5557 0.4 0.8 7.9535 0.6141 0.6480 0.9980 0.9857 0.3 0.6591 0.8665 0.9192 0.9904 0.9988 0.9641 0.9599 0.9987 0.23.9147 0.9931 0.5 1.math.7 0.07 0.8023 0.8531 0.8997 0.7764 0.933E-7 9. William Knight Contents p1 8 Notation 59 26 Computer Input .8461 0.867E-7 2.9977 0.1 0.5 3.9418 0.00 0.

717 2.05 0.325 1.345 1.701 2.179 3.282 1.html Contents p1 8 Notation 60 26 Computer Input .064 2.552 19 1.berry.660 2.323 1.660 1.310 1.721 2.1 0.edu/vbissonnette/tables/tables.341 1.895 2.055 1.756 1.476 2.583 17 1.708 2.333 1.714 2.060 2.617 1.337 1.250 1.01 df 0.303 1.3 Critical Values of the t Distribution 2-tailed testing 2 sample test 1-tailed testing 0.658 2.074 2.921 1.364 120 1.372 1.703 2.746 2.796 2.602 16 1.771 2.528 21 1.571 4.355 1.998 8 1.228 3.676 2.898 1.290 1.086 2.896 9 1.315 1.321 1.697 2.160 3.365 3.032 0.645 2.423 50 1.289 1.812 2.201 3.729 2.473 28 1.947 1.567 18 1.383 1.812 2.056 2.645 1.356 1.860 2.895 2.706 2.539 20 1.650 14 1.316 1.069 2.447 3.819 1.725 2.299 1.626 1.23.833 2.397 1.750 1.782 2.721 2.457 40 1.363 1. Bissonnette Reproduced with permission http://facultyweb.1 5 2.021 2.485 26 1.676 2.701 2.05 0.960 2.671 2.681 13 1.576 1.508 23 1.080 2.782 2.518 22 1.350 1.833 2.101 2.415 1.262 3.977 1.984 2.145 2.440 1.706 2.787 1.704 1.878 1.314 1.330 1.048 2.708 2.796 2.390 80 1.2.771 2.296 1.764 11 1.779 1.734 2.718 12 1.711 2.746 2.015 3.319 1.671 2.462 30 1.664 2.703 2.499 1.761 2.711 2.131 2.306 3.684 2.624 15 1.660 1.045 2.639 1.860 2.042 2.313 1.740 2.943 2.120 2.143 7 1.403 60 1.009 2.467 29 1.990 2.664 1.831 1.980 2.000 2.492 25 1.697 2.699 2.015 2.734 2.684 2.699 2.753 2.797 1.01 1.714 2.292 1.717 2.845 1.753 2.500 24 1.807 1.943 3.318 1.169 1.821 10 1.761 2.763 1.093 2.365 6 1.678 1.740 2.328 1.327 d f = n 1−1n 2−1=n 1n2 – 2 Copyright (c) 2000 Victor L.311 1.725 2.052 2.658 1.374 100 1.771 1.861 1.707 1.729 2.479 27 1.358 140 1.110 2.012 1.106 1.

.5 Binomial Theorem n n  x y = ∑ k=0  x yn= x n  n n−k k x y k where  n! n = k k ! n – k ! n! n! n! x n−1 y 1 x n−2 y 2.23..7 % Geogebra Normal Dist slider Geogebra Skewed Dist ---------------------------------------------------------------------------23.2.2.2. x 1 y n−1 y n 1!n−1! 2 ! n−2! n−1! 1! ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23.4 Normal Distribution Curve y= 1  2 π  e −x−μ 2 2 2  ±1sd≈68% ±2sd≈95 % ±3 sd≈99. Contents p1 8 Notation 61 26 Computer Input . Aberdeen College.permutations and combinations Permutations Repetition allowed n P r =nr No repetition n Pr= n!  n−r ! order does matter No repetition n Cr= n! r !n−r ! order doesn’t matter Repetition allowed n Cr=  nr−1! r !r−1! order doesn’t matter order does matter Combinations ______________________________________________________________ Thanks to Gillian Cunningham.6 Permutations and Combinations The number of ways of selecting r objects from a total of n BE .

visual guide to interest rates Efunda Calculator ______________________________________________________________ Contents p1 8 Notation 62 26 Computer Input .24 Financial Mathematics Notation for Financial Mathematics i Interest rate (per time period) expressed as a fraction. n Number of time periods (sometimes written as i ) P Principal A Accrued amount a Amount Sn Sum to the n th term (of a geometric progression) NPV Net Present Value (of an accrued amount) irr Internal Rate of Return (when NPV =0 ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Financial Mathematics Formulae r=1i A= P 1i n A= P 1 – d n a r n – 1 S n= r−1 a1−r n  S n= 1−r or a 1 – r−n  P= r−1 (annuities) BE . (usually written as r ) d Discount rate (per time period) expressed as a fraction.

http://www. including differentiation.php/Main_Page Windows: download maxima 5. you do not need to download it although you do usually need to be running Java Runtime Environment (free download).net/wiki/index. Taylor series. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Geogebra free (Open Source) MS Windows and Linux http://www.24. You are not allowed implicit multiplication. integration.casio. 5e 2t3sin  4  typed as 5∗% e ^ 2∗t 3∗sin % pi/ 4 The % sign designates special functions.geogebra.sourceforge. An expression in the algebra window corresponds to an object in the geometry window and vice versa.padowan. Maxima can plot functions and data in two and three dimensions. It is being constantly updated.org This program can be accessed over the web i.dk/graph/ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Casio Calculator Manuals (in pdf format) http://world. GeoGebra is a dynamic mathematics software that joins geometry.e.) MS Windows This is the tool of choice for most engineering mathematics.25 Recommended Computer Programs wxMaxima free (Open Source) MS Windows and Linux http://wxmaxima. Also. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Mathcad ( £1000 approx.0 (or later version) http://portableapps. (numerical values of letters) Maxima is a system for the manipulation of symbolic and numerical expressions. Notes available.com/calc/download/en/manual/ _______________________________________________________________________ Contents p1 8 Notation 63 26 Computer Input . --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Graph free (Open Source) MS Windows A useful graphing tool which is easy to use. algebra and calculus.com/node/18166 (portable application) A open source free download computer algebra system. Laplace transforms and ordinary differential equations.

(2) Also available on toolbars.7 %e^( ) or exp( ) log %pi 10*%pi*0.7 asin(0. Back to 2 Web Sites ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Contents p1 8 Notation 64 26 Computer Input . Spreadsheet programs are not recommended (except for statistical calculations).5 means arcsin(0.5) asin(0.26 Computer Input wxMaxima and Geogebra are recommended .7 sin−1 0..5 (5) In wxMaxima typing pi will produce π as a variable NOT 3.5) asin(0. The same is true for e .5) e x (1) As all programs work in radians by default you must change every input into degrees (if you have to work in degrees).. (3) Only x allowed as variable (4) See also 17.1415.7 ln CTRL g 10 CTRL g*0. Most of this also applies to spreadsheets and online maths sites. Calculator key × ÷ x2 Computer (Keyboard) entry Geogebra (3) Mathcad (2) wxMaxima (5) ∗ ∗ (Shift 8) ∗ / / / ^2 ^2 ^2 (Shift 6 then 2) (Shift 6 then 2) x ▄ or ^ or x y or y x ^ ^ ^  sqrt() (also on drop down list) \ sqrt( ) x  5sin  x o30o  (1) e x ln π 10××0.5) n 1 1  ^ ^ x x Calculator toolbar o o 5sin  x 30  5*sin(x/180*%pi+ o symbol from 5sin  x deg 30 deg  30/180*%pi) drop down list e from drop down list then ^ or exp( ) ln pi 10 pi *0.

Solve ODE.2 Differential Equations see also 22.hawaii.html but put in expression first! -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Note: Implicit multiplication is NOT allowed.1 Newton Raphson load(newton1) newton  f  x .01 etc. y . y 0.4 (2nd page) dy dx typed as d2 y typed as d x2 ‘diff(y.x.edu/~aaronts/maximatutorial.1.5 wxplot2d([discrete.pdf a simple introduction. Paste onto a worksheet ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Assign f(x):=3*x (means f  x =3x ) w:3.math. Equations.3 Runge-Kutta rk  f  x . x 0.Select All Spreadsheet File Right click – Copy as Image. x 0. Do not use ∗ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------26.points]) you can replace points with line.1 wxMaxima Input Note: From version 0. --------------------------------------------------------26.8.26. x . Initial value problem (1) or (2).usu.1 and then p=0.[style. [ x . y .x) note the apostrophe ‘ before diff ‘diff(y. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Contents p1 8 Notation 65 26 Computer Input .7 ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- [ ][ ] ⋅ Matrix multiplication Use .1.2) Equations.. %o# is a previous output line. h] To plot result: See Euler’s Method 22. See http://www.1 use Shift+Enter to enter expressions to change behaviour go to Edit: Configure See wxMaxima Introduction at http://ubuntuone. 3 x is always typed as 3∗x -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Insert Text Box F6 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Zoom in Alt I Zoom out Alt O -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Copy as an Image to a Edit . x end .neng.com/p/x77 See http://www. until outputs are identical to significant figures required --------------------------------------------------------26.edu/cee/faculty/gurro/Maxima. p .. Start with precision p=0.1.7 (means w=3.%o#].

--------------------------------------------------------Symbolic Maths f  x = use Boolean (bold) equals  symbolic units Implicit multiplication: This is allowed but only with variables that cannot be confused with units. 3 x is fine but 3 s must be typed as 3∗s . Also see Mathcad Notes _____________________________________________________________ Contents p1 8 Notation 66 26 Computer Input . When editing expressions use the Ins key to change from editing to the left to editing to the right of cursor.26.2 Mathcad Input Applied Maths Definition of variables and functions variable := number and units (:= use colon :) Example: x:3kg will read as x :=3 kg and a:5 m/s^2 as a :=5 Function m s2 f  x := function in terms of x Example: f(x): x*a will be interpreted as f  x:= x⋅a = gives numerical answer Example f  x = will produce the answer 15 N ▄ You can type a different unit in place of the box and the number will change to satisfy the units chosen. For example.

1 Data presented as x y x1 y1 x2 y2 x3 y3 x4 y4 etc etc Basic Procedure:Put x data in column A and y data in column B Highlight Select Chart Type Titles (Chart Location (Right click on plot (Area Right click on data point Type Options All data Insert (or chart symbol) Chart XY (Scatter) Give graph and axes titles As New Sheet (optional) Format Plot Area Click to white Add Trendline Choose most appropriate Display equation on chart Display R 2 value on chart E) E) E) R 2 value should lie between 0. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Contents p1 8 Notation 67 26 Computer Input . Note: EXCEL is NOT recommended for any mathematical or engineering calculation where accuracy or consistency is vital.2. The closer to 1 the better.95 and 1.27 Using a Spreadsheet to find the ‘best fit’ formula for a set of data. Mathcad and Maxima can be used but are more complicated mathematically but will be more accurate. see 13 and 26 and 23. Geogebra can be used to match a line to data. Open Office Calc will provide the same answers but in a slightly different format. Right click on trendline to change to a better type. The equation displayed is the formula for the data All instructions necessary for MS Excel (E).

Aberdeen College Contents p1 8 Notation 68 26 Computer Input .28 Calibration Error Output Output IDEAL Input = Output Zero Error Input Input Output Output Linearity Error Span Error First and Last Values coincide Input Input Output Output Linearity Error Zero-Span Error First and Last Values coincide Input Input ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Thanks to Olaniyi Olaosebikan.

4×10−9 56. Contents p1 8 Notation 69 26 Computer Input .15 10 .0×10−9 69. Aberdeen College.10 3 .9×10−9 17.68 Permeability Values for some Common Materials Material Permeability  (H/m) Electrical Steel Ferrite (Nickel Zinc) (Ni Zn) Ferrite (Manganese Zinc) (Mn Zn) Steel Nickel (Ni) Aluminium (Al) 5000×10−6 20 – 800×10−6 800×10−6 875×10−6 125×10−6 1.26×10−6 Thanks to Satej Shirodkar.2×10−9 24.15 11.Commonly used prefixes meaning multiple ×1000000000000000 ×1000000000000 ×1000000000 ×1000000 ×1000 ×1 ×1015 ×1012 ×109 ×106 ×103 ×100 ÷1000 prefix Peta symbol kilo P T G M k ×10 −3 milli m ÷1000000 ×10 −6 micro  ÷1000000000 ×10−9 nano n ÷1000000000000 ×10−12 pico p Tera Giga Mega 30 Electrical Tables Table of Resistivities Relative Static Permittivity Material Resistivity   m at 20o C Silver (Ag) Copper (Cu) Gold (Au) Tungsten (W) Nickel (Ni) Iron (Fe) Lead (Pb) Carbon (C) 15.5 .9×10−9 100×10−9 220×10−9 35000×10−9 Material Vacuum Air Diamond (C) Salt (NaCl) Graphite (C) Silicon (Si) Dielectric Constant  r 1 1.00054 5.29 SI Units .

angular velocity _____________________________________________________________ This work. standard deviation. 171 Second Street. damping ratio Eta efficiency. visit http://creativecommons. eigenvalues Mu micro (10-6 ). (Calculus) Epsilon linear strain.0/ (click on icon below) or send a letter to Creative Commons. Aberdeen College is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3. thermal conductivity. kinematic viscosity Delta DIFFERENTIAL.. C= d Rho density. angular acceleration Beta angles Gamma shear strain.. viscosity Theta angles. 3. golden ratio Chi PEARSON’S  2 TEST .. Contents p1 8 Notation 70 26 Computer Input .. to be attributed to Peter K Nicol. heat capacity.31 THE GREEK ALPHABET UPPER lower CASE case Pronunciation A B   E Z H  I K  M N  O  P  T   X                           Examples of use Alpha angles. temperature. California. permittivity Zeta impedance.. coefficient of friction Nu velocity Xi damping coefficient Omicron Pi PRODUCT.. potential energy. San Francisco. flux. time constant Upsilon admittance Phi angles. resistivity Sigma SUM.0 Unported License. Suite 300. angles Psi helix angle (gears). USA. 94105. phase difference Omega RESISTANCE. the change in. To view a copy of this license.141592654. torque.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3. normal stress Tau shear stress. volume strain Iota inertia Kappa compressibility Lambda wavelength.

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