# Chapter 7

Natural Convection
7_001

A bare horizontal steam pipe with an o.d. of 12 inches carries saturated steam at 240 F. The temperature of
the ambient air is 70 F. Calculate the rate of heat loss by natural convection, expressed as Btu per hour per
foot of pipe length.
Solution:
X = NGr,f ⋅ NPr,f

N Gr,f =
NPr,f =

D o 3ρ f 2 gβ f ∆t
µf 2
c pµf

kf
Table A-25.
Film temperature = tf = (1/2)(ts + ta) = (1/2)(240 + 70) = 155 F
cp = 0.2407
µf = 0.0494
kf = 0.01702

NPr,f =

c pµf
kf

= 0.6986

ρ 2βgc p

= 0.858 × 10 6
µk
ρf = 0.065 lb/cu ft

Y=

Y=

(0.065)2 β(4.17 × 108 )(0.2407) = 0.858 × 106
(0.0494)(0.01702)

β = 0.001701
Do = 12 in = 1.0 ft
∆t = 240 F - 70 F = 170 F
(1)3 (0.065)2 4.17 × 108 (0.001701)(170) = 208,767,123
N Gr,f =
(0.0494)2
X = NGr,f ⋅ NPr,f

(

)

X = (208,767,123 )(0.6986) = 1.5 × 10 8
3

9

Equation 7-7a: X from 10 to 10
hc = 0.27 ∆t 
 Do 

( 1)

hc = 0.27 170

0.25

0.25

= 0.975

q/L = hcπD∆T = (0.975)(π)(1)(170)
q/L = 521 Btu/hr-ft . . . Ans.
7_002

The parallel wooden outer and inner walls of a building are 15 ft long, 10 ft high, and 4 inches apart. The
inner surface of the inner wall is 70 F, and the inner surface of the outer wall is at 0 F.
a.
Calculate the total heat loss, expressed as Btu per hr, neglecting any leakage of air through the
walls.
b.
Repeat the calculation for the case in which the air space is divided in half by a sheet of aluminum
foil, 0.001 inch thick, stretched parallel to the walls.
Solution:

Page 1 of 4

01408 NPr = 0.ts2) Page 2 of 4 .1 x 10 C = 0.166 × 106 Y= (0.283)(0.0419)2 L = 10 ft high 5 7 Then.365 ( ) 1 9 n [(7.17 × 108 )(1.3333 ’ hc = 0.994 x 10 x = 4 in = 0. ” ” qc/A = hc (ts1 .ts2) qc = (0. a. hc ' x C = 1 kf L 9 x ( )  x 3ρ f 2 gβ f ∆t  c p µ      k  µf 2    hc ' (0.001 inch thick.Chapter 7 Natural Convection A = 15 ft x 10 ft L = 10 ft Total heat loss.3333 ft NGr.3333)3 (0.713 ρ 2βgc p = 2. . With air space divided in half by a sheet of aluminum foil.tsf) = hc (tsf .17 × 108 (0.832.x = (0.856.5 Btu/hr .080)2 β 4.856.0419 kf = 0. 0. ’ qc = hc A(ts1 .2396) = 2.01408) 10 0. n = 1/3 Equation 7-9b.071) = (0.1 x 10 to 1. b. For NGr.0) = 7. NGr.080 lb/cu ft (0.994 × 10-3 )(70 .3333) (0.0419)(0.080)2 (4.2396 µf = 0.x from 2.166 × 10 6 µk ρ = 0.713)] 1 3 Equation 7-9.0) qc = 3.283 = 8 × 106 (0.01408) Y= ( ) -3 β = 1. Ans.x = x 3 ρ 2 gβ f ∆t µf 2 tf = (1/2)(70 + 0) = 35 F cp = 0.071. .ts2) ’ qc/A = hc (ts1 .3650(150)(70 .

hc ' x C = 1 kf L 9 x ( )  x 3ρ f 2 gβ f ∆t  c p µ      k  µf 2    hc ' (0.989×10-3 )(70 .Chapter 7 Natural Convection Try tsf= 35 F For 70 F side: tf = (1/2)(70 + 35) = 52.7111 ρ 2βgc p = 1.989 x 10 x = (1/2)(4 in .9995 in = 0.2396) = 2.x = (0.0774 lb/cu ft (0.0145) Y= ( ) -3 β = 1.0145 NPr = 0.2396 µ = 0.920)(0.7111)] For 0 F side: tf = (1/2)(35 + 0) = 52.17 × 108 (0.2398 µ = 0.17 × 108 (0. ( ) 1 9 n [(434.35×105 (0.1666 ft Page 3 of 4 1 3 .75 × 106 Y= (0.04300)(0.001 in) = 1.75 × 10 6 µk ρ = 0.04070)(0.0430)2 L = 10 ft high 5 7 Then.35) = 434.213 x 10 x = (1/2)(4 in .0.7165 ρ 2βgc p = 2.1666 ft NGr.265 at 70 F side.920= 4.5 F Properties of air: cp = 0. For NGr.0145) 10 0.5 F Properties of air: cp = 0.1 x 10 to 1.01361) Y= ( -3 ) β = 2.0774)2 (4.91× 10 6 µk ρ = 0.1666 ’ hc = 0.1 x 10 C = 0.9995 in = 0.001 in) = 1.1666)3 (0.083)2 β 4.0.04070 k = 0.91× 106 Y= (0.04300 k = 0.2398) = 1.083 lb/cu ft (0.1666) (0.071) = (0.x from 2.0774)2 β 4.17×108 )(1.01361 NPr = 0. n = 1/3 Equation 7-9b.071.

.end - Page 4 of 4 .17×108 )(2.x = (0. hc ' x C  x 3ρ f 2 gβ f ∆t  c p µ    = 1   k  kf µf 2 L 9    x n ( ) hc ' (0.265)(70 .123 = 6.0) tsf = 34 F qc/A = (0.281)(tsf .1 x 10 to 1.21×105 (0.213×10-3 )(35 .1 x 10 C = 0. Ans.281 at 0 F side.1666) (0.ts2) (0. .Chapter 7 Natural Convection NGr.x from 2. For NGr. ( ) 1 9 [(621.1666 ’ hc = 0.1666)3 (0. .0407)2 L = 10 ft high 5 7 Then.265)(150)(70 -34) qc/A = 1432 Btu/hr .071) = (0.01361) 10 0.0) = 621.tsf) = hc (tsf .7165)] 1 3 Then: ” ” qc/A = hc (ts1 .tsf) = (0.083)2 (4.123)(0.071. n = 1/3 Equation 7-9b.