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HowDoSchoolLibrariesHelp PennsylvaniaStudentsAchieve AcademicSuccess? AcademicSuccess?

WhatSchoolLibraryAdvocatesNeedtoKnow

MaryK.Biagini,Ph.D.
AssociateProfessorandDirector, SchoolLibraryCer8ca8onProgram SchoolofInforma8onSciences,UniversityofPi?sburgh October2012

Introduction
Thisbooklet: Explainswhyschoollibraryprogramsareessen9altostudentacademicsuccess; Presentsanoverviewofrecentresearchthatdemonstrateshowstudentsandteachersbenetfromschool libraries; OutlinesthestateofpublicschoollibrariesinPennsylvaniabasedona2011studyconductedbytheStateBoardof Educa9on;and Recommendsstepsschoollibraryadvocatescantaketoassurethatallelementaryandsecondarystudentsin Pennsylvaniahaveaccesstoalibraryintheirschools.

Coverphoto:PennWynneElementarySchoolLibrarianBrahinTabbgivespointerstoapairoffourthgradestudents.
StuartGoldenberg

Whatskillsdo21stcenturylearnersneedtosucceedacademically?
Studentsmustbeableto: Inquire,thinkcri9callyandgainknowledge; Drawconclusions,makeinformeddecisions,applyknowledgetonewsitua9onsandcreatenewknowledge; Shareknowledgeandpar9cipateethicallyandproduc9velyasmembersofourdemocra9csociety;and Pursuepersonalandaesthe9cgrowth.(AmericanAssocia,onofSchoolLibrarians,2007.)

Whydostudentsneedaschoollibraryprogramtoachieve academicsuccess?
Students at every grade level who have access to a school library and a schoollibrarianachievegreateracademicsuccessthanstudentswhodont have such access. Over the past 20 years, na9onallyknown researchers haveconductedsurveysandstudiedstandardizedtestresultsin22states, includingPennsylvania,andtheseresearchers havedemonstratedconclu sively that eec9ve school library programs contribute to the academic successofelementaryandsecondarystudents. Inthe21stcenturywith informationavailableinmany formats,studentsmustalsobe transliterateabletounder standtextinpicture,video,and digitalformatsacrossmultiple platforms.

In2012,Dr.KeithCurryLanceandtheRSLResearchGroupconducteda secondresearchstudyinPennsylvania(therstwasin2000)andproducedsubstan9alsuppor9ngevidencethatan eec9veschoollibraryprogramhelpsPennsylvaniastudentsachieveacademicsuccess. These researchers compared how well students scored on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment ReadingandWri9ngTestsinthe20102011schoolyear with the quality of the school libraries to which the studentshadaccess. Reading and wri9ng are the founda9onal skillsstudents needtoachieveacademicsuccessineverysubjectarea. In the 21st century with informa9on available in many formats, students must also be transliterateable to understand text in picture, video, and digital formats acrossmul9pleplaZorms.Accesstoaneec9veschool library helps students achieve these needed mul9ple literacies.

WayneElementarySchoolLibrarianSueDahlstromleadsa Airstgradestudentthrougharesearchassignment.
StuartGoldenberg

Howdostudentsbene=itfroma21stcenturyschoollibraryprogram?
The mission of the school library is to ensure that students and sta are eec9ve users of ideas and informa9on. Thefocusoftheschoollibraryprogramisonthestudentratherthanonthedissemina9onofinforma9on.(AASL,2007.) Schoollibrariansempowerstudentstobe: Cri9calthinkers, Enthusias9creaders, Skillfulresearchersand Ethicalusersofinforma9on.(AASL,2009.) Schoollibrarianshelpstudentsto: Achieve academic success in all subjects and at every grade level by building and developing their informa9on literacyskills; Embodythevaluesofdigitalci9zenship; Fosteranenthusiasmforindependentreading;and Valuelifelonglearning.(AASL,2007.) Librarians are cer9ed teachers who are highly skilled in using the latest informa9on technologies and in teaching teachers how to integrate these technologies intotheirteaching/learningprocess.Librariansarealso specialists in educa9onal resources, who plan with teacherscollabora9velytointegratethemostappropri ate resourcesandtheteachingofrelatedinforma9onliter acyskillsintoinstruc9onalunits. PalisadesHighSchoolLibrarianKarenHornbergerworks withseniorAnneliJenningsonapodcast Informa9on literacy skills focus on helping students project. inquire, think cri9cally and gain knowledge; draw StuartGoldernberg conclusions, make informed decisions, apply knowledge to new situa9ons and create new knowledge;andshareknowledgeandpar9cipateeth icallyandproduc9velyasmembersofourdemocra9csociety.(AASL,2007.)

Studentswhoareinforma9onliteraterecognizewhentheyneedinforma9onandknowhowtoaccess,evaluate,and useinforma9oneec9vely.Schoollibrariansinstructstudentsintheseskillsandassesstheirlearningincollabora9on withteachersineachsubjectarea.

Whatcomponentsdoesa21stcenturyschoollibraryprogramneedto playanactiveandintegralpartinstudentlearning?

Aschoollibraryprogramneedsaphysicallibrary,buttheschoollibraryismuchmorethanaroomwithresources.
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Students and their teachers need these specic components or program building blocks for their teaching and learningsuccess: Afull9me,cer9edlibrarianandlibrarysupportsta; A PK12 informa9on literacy curriculum integrated with all academic subjects and PA Common Core Standards; Aprogramofac9vi9esthatencouragesstudentstobeindependentreaders; Acollec9onofcurrentprintandelectronicresources; Networkedanduptodateinforma9ontechnologiesforteachingandlearningthatareaccessibleinthe library,andtheschool,andathome; Accesstothelibraryanditsresourcesandtothelibrarianthroughouttheschooldayandbeyond;and Adequatefundingtoupdatelibraryresourcesandtechnologyannually. Eachofthesebuildingblockscontributestothesuccessofthelibraryprogram,butthefounda9onblockisafull 9me,cer9edschoollibrarian.

WhattheResearchShows:

Inalltheresearchconductedacross22states,thepresenceofeachofthesecomponentsshowsaposi9ve eectonstudentscoresonstandardizedreadingandwri9ngtests.(SchoolLibrariesWork!,2008.)

Statusin2011PASchoolLibraries:

AlmostallpublicschooldistrictschoolsinPAhadalibrary(94%).TheSchoolDistrictofPhiladelphiahadthe greatestnumberofschoolsthatdidnothavealibrary;atleast103of254schools(morethan40%)hadno schoollibrary.

Whyisafulltime,certi=iedschoollibrariansoimportanttostudent learningandacademicachievement?
Theschoollibrariansmostimportantresponsibilityisto collaborate with teachers in the teachinglearning pro cesssothatallstudentscanlearnandachieveacademic success. Librarians collaborate with teachers by inte gra9ngtheteachingofrelatedinforma9onliteracyskills withthecurriculumofeachacademic subject andwith thePACommonCoreStandards. To accomplish this collabora9on, the school librarian must work closely each day with teachers in planning instruc9on across the curriculum, teaching informa9on literacy skills to students and assessing how well the studentsarelearning. Forthesakeofstudentlearning,itisimportantforschool districtstoemployaLibraryScienceK12cer9edschool
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HempAieldSchoolDistrictLibraryDepartmentSupervi sorCathiFurmanworkswithSocialStudiesteacher DougWebbandninthgradestudentsatHempAield HighSchool.


StuartGoldenberg

librarianforeachschool.Inschoolswherethelibrarianisavailableonlypart9meduringtheschooldayorononly certaindaysoftheschoolweek,thelibrariansarentabletospendenough9meineachschooltoknowtheteachers orthestudentsorwhatteachingandlearningishappeningintheclassrooms.Thesepart9melibrarians,ofenatthe elementarylevel,mayservefromtwoschoolstoasmanyastenschools.

WhattheResearchShows:

Acrossmul9pleresearchstudies,resultsdemonstratethathavingcer9edschoollibrariansandaidesemergedas themostcri9calcomponentofthelibraryprogramatalllevels.(SchoolLibrariesWork!,2008.) In schools where students have access to a full9me, cer9ed librarian who collaborates with teachers and integratestheteachingofinforma9onliteracyintothecurriculumandthePACommonCoreStandards,students scorehigheronstandardizedPSSAReadingandWri9ngTests.(Lance,2012.)

Statusin2011PASchools:Full9me,LibraryScienceK12Cer9edLibrarians

89%ofschoolsemployedLibraryScienceK12cer9edschoollibrarians;butonly44%oftheselibrarianswerefull 9me(i.e.,workingatleast35hoursperweekinonelibrary). SomeschooldistrictsinPennsylvaniaemployedteacherswhohadnotsuccessfullycompletedspecializedcourse workandsupervisedeldexperienceinaschoollibrarytoworkindistrictlibraries.


Whatarethemostimportantresponsibilitiesofaschoollibrarianto helpstudentsachieveacademicsuccess?
Forschoollibraryprogramstobe successfulinhelpingstudentsachieveacademicsuccess,theinforma9onliteracy curriculumthatthelibrarianteachesmustbeanintegralpartofthecurriculumandtheteachingofeachsubjectat eachgradelevelinalignmentwiththePACommonCoreStandards. SchoollibrariansareteacherswithPennsylvaniacer9 ca9oninLibraryScience,K12.Theyac9velyserveas technologyleadersintheirschoolsandteachemerging instruc9onaltechnologiesandWebbasedtoolsto bothstudentsandteachers.Schoollibrariansalsolead theschoolinencouragingstudentstoread.

WhattheResearchShows:

Themore ofen students receive instruc9on in in forma9onliteracyfromtheirlibrarians,thehigher theirtestscoresinreadingandwri9ng. (SchoolLibrar iesWork!,2008.) Schoollibrariansplayaleadingroleinencouraging studentstoreadindependentlyforinforma9onand pleasure and to develop a habit of independent reading. Both administrators and teachers value thisrolehighly.(Lance,2012.)

GarnetValleyElementarySchoolAifthgraderNickGabos sharesamagazinewithhisclassmateintheschoolslibrary. StuartGoldenberg

Statusin2011PASchoolLibraries:

TwothirdsofPAschoollibrariansdidnothaveadesignated9metomeetwithteacherstocollaborateonteaching. OnlyhalfofschoollibrarieshadaBoardapproved,K12informa9onliteracycurriculumthatislessthanveyears old.


Whyisalibraryaidesoimportanttostudentacademicsuccess?
In a busy school library, many rou9ne tasks must be accomplished each schooldaycircula9ngbooksandotherresources,reshelvingbooks,rell ingprinterswithpaper,schedulingclasses,andcheckingaiendance.Ifthe librarianspends9meeachdayontheserou9ne,butnecessarytasks,there isveryliile9meforcollabora9ngwithteachers,teachingteachersandstu dents how to use informa9on technology, and encouraging independent reading.Alibrarianwhohastheassistanceofanaidecanconcentrateon the daily collabora9ve planning, teaching and assessment ac9vi9es with teachersandstudentsthatleadtostudentacademicsuccess.

WhattheResearchShows:

The more 9me a librarian spends collabora9ng with teachers and teaching informa9on literacy skills to students, the beier those stu dentsperformonstandardizedreadingandwri9ngtests.(Lance,2012.)

Statusin2011PASchoolLibraries:

Almost 70% of school libraries had at least some hours of an aides 9me;but30%ofschoollibrarieshadnolibraryaide.

Whyisadministrativesupportfortheschool libraryprogramsoimportantforstudent academicachievement?

NewHopeSoleburyHighSchool LibrarianMarySchwander(right) reviewsthedaysschedulewith LibraryAssistantLisaMaldzin.


StuartGoldenberg

Thesuperintendentandthebuildingprincipalaredecisionmakersandcansupportcri9calcomponentsofthelibrary program and ini9ate change, such as exible scheduling at the elementary level so that the librarian has the opportunitytocollaboratewithteachersandtoencourageindependentreading.

WhattheResearchShows:

Students performed beier on reading and wri9ngtests in schoolswhere the principal placed high value on the librariancollabora9ngwithteachersinplanningandteachingandprovidinginserviceeduca9ontoteachers,met regularlywiththelibrarian,andappointedthelibrariantoserveonkeyschoolcommiiees.(Lance,2012.)

Statusin2011PASchoolLibraries:

Inalmosttwothirdsofschools,thelibrarianwasnotallocated9meduringtheschooldaytomeetwithteachers; andspentlessthanonehouradayplanningwithteachers. Morethanhalfoflibrarianswereassignedtwohoursorfewerperweekinnonlibrarydu9es;onlyonefhhadno otherdu9es. Only 40% of school librarians served on grade level or departmental commiiees; only onequarter served on technologycommiiees.

Whyisalargecollectionofcurrentbooksimportantforstudent academicachievement?

Studentsneedlargecollec9onsofcurrentandrelevantbooksandmagazinestoencouragethemtoread independently.Thesizeofthecollec9on,however,isnottheonlyconsidera9on;thecurrencyoftheseresourcesis equallyimportant.Outofdatebookscannotprovidestudentswith9mely andaccurateinforma9ontheyneedfortheirlearning,andstudents wont choosetoreadwornanddatedbooksthathavenoappeal.

WhattheResearchShows:

Students perform beier on the PSSA Reading and Wri9ng Tests in schoolswherethelibrarycollec9onislargerandincludesmorecurrentre sources.(Lance,2012.)

Statusin2011PASchoolLibraries:
The size of almost twothirds of school library collec9ons is between 5,000and15,000volumes. Almost 40% of libraries have collec9ons that are between 16 and 25 printbooksperstudent.The2011publica9onGuidelinesforPennsylvania SchoolLibraryProgramsrecommendsaminimumof20volumesper studentattheelementarylevel,25volumesasastandardand30volumes asexemplary.Atthemiddleandhighschoollevels,15volumesare recommendedasaminimum,20volumesasastandardand25volumesas exemplary.

PhoenixvilleAreaMiddleSchool maintainsanextensiveprint collection.


StuartGoldenberg

Whyisinformationtechnologythatsupportsteachingandlearning importantforstudentacademicachievement?

Studentsmusthavecon9nuousaccesstothelibrarysonlinecatalogandotherrelatedelectronicanddigitalresources andlicenseddatabaseswithintheschoolandremotelyfromhome.Studentsneedtolearntouseinforma9ontech nologybeginningintheprimarygrades;accesstoinforma9ontechnology,however,isnotequalacrossschoolsand school districts. The digital divide is a factor between the have students and the havenot students who have limitedaccesstoinforma9ontechnologyandhavescantandoutdatedcompu9ngequipment.
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Informa9ontechnologyinfrastructureincludes: Networkinginfrastructureandnetworkedcomputers; Onlinecatalogofresourcesanddigitalresources; Adap9vetechnologiesforstudentswithspecialphysicalandlearningneeds;and Onetoonelaptopprogramsforstudents. Themost important component of integra9ng informa9ontechnology successfully intoteaching and learning is for thelibrariantoteachteachersandstudentstouseexis9ngandemerginginforma9ontechnologiesandWeb2.0tools onaregularbasistocorrelatewithcurriculumcontentateachgradelevel.

Whattheresearchshows:

Ateverygradelevel,studentsinschoolswithmorelibrary computers averaged higher test scores in reading and wri9ng on the American College Test. (School Libraries Work!,
2008.)

Where networked computers linked school libraries with classrooms, labs and other instruc9onal sites, students earnedhigherPSSAReadingTestscores.(Lance,2012.)

Statusin2011PASchoolLibraries:

All500schooldistrictsweremembersofstatefundedAc cessPAandPOWERLibraryandhadaccesstoitslicensed GarnetValleyElementarySchoolLibrarianTracy databasesandencyclopedias. NelsonreviewsdatabasesearcheswithapairofAifth Studentsinhalftheschoolshadaccesstoanaddi9onal15 gradestudents. databasesbeyondwhatwasoeredinPOWERLibrary,but StuartGoldenberg studentsinmorethanaquarterofschoollibrariesdidnot haveaccesstoanyaddi9onaldatabases. Morethan75%ofschoolsdidnotprovideeBooksintheironsitecollec9ons. More than 90% of schools provided access to an online catalog in the library and in the school, but only 70% providedaccessremotelyfromhome.

Whyisitimportanttostudentacademicsuccessforstudentsand teacherstohaveaccesstotheschoollibraryandtheschoollibrarian throughouttheschoolday?

Studentsbenetacademicallyfromaccesstothelibraryandthelibrarianthroughouttheschooldayandbeforeand aferthestudentschoolday. Most high schools and middle schools have exible scheduling so that teachers can schedule their classes into the library when it ismost benecial to the students based on their unitsof study. At the elementary level, however, many libraries use a xed schedule, and each teachers class is scheduled for a period in the library each week. Ofentheteacherdoesnotaccompanytheclasstothelibrarybecauseofacontractualarrangementtoprovideeach
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classroom teacher with a planning period. The teacher and the librarian are unable to collaborate in this arrangement. Manyelementaryschoollibrarieshaveonlyenoughsea9ngforoneclassat a 9me. Therefore, a teacher whose class could make best use of the libraryduringaspecicperiodbasedonwhatisbeingtaughtmaynotuse itbecauseanotherteacherandclassisscheduledintothelibraryforthat period.Studentswhodonothaveaccesstoafull9melibrarianmaynot bepermiiedtousethelibrarywhenthelibrarianisnotpresentormaybe permiiedtousethelibraryonlytocirculatebookswithanaidepresent.

Whattheresearchshows:

Students who had greater access to the library in total number of hoursachievedhigherreadingscores.(Lance,2012.) Studentsinelementaryschoolsthatusedexibleschedulingforlibrary accessachievedhigherscoresthatthosestudentsinschoolsthatused xedlibraryschedules.(SchoolLibrariesWork!,2008.)

Statusin2011PASchoolLibraries:

Only 28% of libraries oer exible scheduling; most teachers dont accompany their students to the library so the teacher and librarian arenotabletocollaborate. Half of PA school libraries are not open beyond the school day for students; more than onethird are open only 14 hours beyond the studentschooldayperweek.

UpperMerionHighSchoolLibrarian SharonNardellihasopenedherlibrary tostudentsduringtheirlunchperiod.


StuartGoldenberg

Whyisadequatefundingforlibraryresourcesimportantforstudent academicachievement?
Schoollibrariesrepresentsizeable investmentsmadebyschooldistrictsovermul9pleyearsthefacilityitself,sta, resources and equipment, technology support and networking fees. An adequate annual budget is necessary to purchase new resources during each school year and to lease equipment, licensed databases and other electronic resources. Consistent annual funding assures that the collec9on and the informa9ontechnology infrastructure will remaincurrentanduseful. The 2011 Guidelines for Pennsylvania School Libraries recommended that elementary schools allocate $41 per student, middle schools allocate $45 per student and high schools allocate $50 per student for library resources. Unfortunately,overatenyearperiod,librarybudgetshavedecreasedinpurchasingpowerbecauseoftheincreased costofresourcesandlicensingduringthisperiod.

WhattheResearchShows:

Students in schools that spent more moneytwiceasmuchormoreontheir school libraries were associated withhigherstudentscoresonthePSSAReadingTest.(SchoolLibrariesWork!,2008.) Studentsinelementaryandmiddleschoolsthatspent moreonlibraryresources hadhigherwri9ngscores than studentsinschoolswhereloweramountswerespent.(Lance,2012.)
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Statusin2011PASchoolLibraries:

NearlytwothirdsofPAdistrictsallocatedbetween$1and$15perstudentonlibraryresources.(Almost40%of districtsallocatedbetween$1and$10;21%allocatedbetween$11and$15.) Thenumberofschooldistrictsthatallocatednofundsforlibraryresourcesincreasedeachyearsince20002001. Most schoollibrariesdontreceiveanyoutsidefundingfromgrants,fundraising,orcontribu9onsfromschoolor communitygroups.

Isthereastatethatistakingactiontoassurestrongschoollibrary programsforitsPK12students?
In2012,theNewYorkStateBoardofRegentsaccepteda2020VisionandPlanforLibraryServicesthat: Adoptsandimplementsastatewideinforma9onuencycurriculumthatisalignedwiththeNewYorkStateP12 CommonCoreLearningStandards; Requiresanelementaryschoollibrarianineveryschooltostrengtheninstruc9onalleadership; Createsincen9vestoencouragedistrictstoexpandandpromoteaccesstotheschoollibrarycollec9on Createsincen9vestoencouragedistrictstoadoptexiblescheduling.(NewYorkBoardofRegents,2012.)

Howcanschoollibraryadvocateshelpstudentsbene=itfromagood schoollibraryprogram?
Schoollibraryadvocatescan: Assess the adequacy of nancial support providedby their districts toschool library programs for professional and supportstang,collec9onsofresources,andtechnologyinfrastructureandcompu9ngequipmentinthelibrary. EncourageadministratorstodevelopandimplementawriEen,K12sequencedinformaHonliteracycurriculumthat isalignedwithK12subjectareacurriculaandwiththePACommonCoreStandardsandthatisapprovedbythe schoolslocalgoverningboard.Justaseachsubjectareahasasequen9al,ver9calcurriculumforgradesK12,so tooshouldthelibraryprogramhavesuchaninforma9onliteracycurriculumthatcorrelateswithsubjectarea curriculaandacademicstandardsandisintegratedintosubjectlearningac9vi9es. Discusswithadministratorstheadvantagesofamovetoaexiblescheduleforlibrariesinelementaryschoolsto allowfortheallimportant9meneededforteachersandschoollibrarianstoplantogetherandtoteachandassess studentlearningcollabora9vely. Assessthecurrency,usefulnessandscopeofthetotalcollecHonofresources,includingcurrentbooksmagazinesand newspapersinprintandelectronicformats,availabletostudents,especiallythosewithspecialneedswhomust haveadap9vetechnologiesandthosewhoareEnglishLanguageLearners.
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EncourageadministratorstomakeportableeReadersandeBooksavailabletostudentsthroughopensourceaccess toolssuchastheInterna9onalChildrensDigitalLibrary. InvesHgatesourcesofgrantfundingfromcommunitygroupsandoutsideagenciesandworkwithlibrarianstoapply forapplicablegrants. Addresstheneedforadequatepublicfundstosustainqualityschoollibraryprogramsbyspeakingwithelected ocialsatthestateandlocallevel.Dothisintandemwithgrantapplica9onsandac9vi9essuchasbookfairs. PlanschoolwideacHviHesthatencouragestudentstoreadthroughouttheschoolyear.Readingcompe99onsamong grades,bookclubs,authorvisits,bookfairs,usingWeb2.0toolstocreatebookreviewpodcastsand dropeverythingandreadcampaignsareexamplesofsuchac9vi9es. Develop a comprehensive plan for engaging parents and community members in student learning, with the school libraryasthecenterpiece. Allstakeholders,decisionmakersandpolicymakershavearesponsibilitytoworktogethertoprovideeec9veschool library programs for every student in every publiclyfunded school in Pennsylvania so that all students can meet academicstandardsandachievesuccess.

ASnapshotofPublicEducationinPennsylvania
PIMS*datafor201112schoolyear,PennsylvaniaDepartmentofEducaHon
Demographics NumberofStudents,PK12 NumberofSchoolDistricts NumberofSchoolsinSchoolDistricts 201112Figures 1,781,206**students 500schooldistricts 2,929schools

Number of Comprehensive Career & Technical Centers 12CCTCs (CCTC) NumberofCharterSchools 161charterschools
*PennsylvaniaInforma9onManagementSystem

**Includesenrolledstudentsinschooldistricts,charterschools,statejuvenilecorrec9onins9tu9onsandcomprehensivecareerandtechnical centers.

Sources
AmericanAssocia9onofSchoolLibrarians.EmpoweringLearners:GuidelinesforSchoolLibraryMediaPrograms.Chicago:Ameri canLibraryAssocia9on,2009. AmericanAssocia9onofSchoolLibrarians.Standardsforthe21stCenturyLearner.Chicago:AmericanLibraryAssocia9on,2007 hip://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/aasl/guidelinesandstandards/learningstandards/standards.cfm Lance,KeithCurry.HowPennsylvaniaSchoolLibrariesPayO:InvestmentsinStudentAchievementandAcademicStandards. hip://paschoollibraryproject.org/2012. 11

NewYorkBoardofRegents.Crea,ngtheFuture:A2020VisionandPlanforLibraryServicesinNewYorkState.2012. hip://nysl.nysed.gov/libdev/adviscns/rac/2020nal/2020nal.pdf PennsylvaniaStateBoardofEduca9on:PennsylvaniaSchoolLibraryStudy:FindingsandRecommenda,ons,2011 hip://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/research_reports_and_studies/19722/school_library_study/941391 PennsylvaniaDepartmentofEduca9on,OceofCommonwealthLibraries. GuidelinesforPennsylvaniaSchoolLibraryPrograms.Harrisburg,PA:CommonwealthLibraries,2011. hip://pa.webjunc9on.org/paschoolguidelines//ar9cles/content/116271282 SchoolLibrariesWork!ResearchFounda9onPaper.NewYork:Scholas9cLibraryPublishing,2008. hip://www.scholas9c.com/content/collateral_resources/pdf/s/slw3_2008.pdf

CreditsandAcknowledgments
The201112PASchoolLibraryProjectisaNa9onalLeadershipresearchgrantprojectfundedbytheIns9tuteofMuseumand LibraryServices(IMLS.)Theprojectu9lizeddatafromthe2011PennsylvaniaSchoolLibraryStudyconductedbythePennsylvania StateBoardofEduca9onandthe2011PennsylvaniaSystemofSchoolAssessment(PSSA)ReadingandWri9ngtestscores. Dr. Keith Curry Lance and the RSL Research Group, Colorado, with assistance from Dr. Mary K. Biagini, Associate Professor and Director,SchoolLibraryCer9ca9onProgramintheSchoolofInforma9onSciencesattheUniversityofPiisburgh,analyzeddata andconductedtheresearch. Allndingsandrelatedqualita9vesurveysofschooladministrators,teachers,andlibrarianscanbefoundattheprojectwebsite: hip://paschoollibraryproject.org Ifyouwouldlikemoreinforma9onaboutthe2011PennsylvaniaSchoolLibraryStudy,pleaseconsultthePAStateBoardof Educa9onwebsite: hip://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/research_reports_and_studies/19722/school_library_study/941391 Theprojectpartnersare:ThePennsylvaniaSchoolLibrariansAssocia9onrepresentedbyDebraKachel;HealthSciencesLibrary Consor9umrepresentedbyJosephScorza;andtheEduca9onLawCenterofPennsylvaniarepresentedbySandraZelno. Quan9ta9vendingshavebeenreinforcedbytheresultsbyqualita9vesurveysofthepercep9onsofschoollibrarians,teachers, andschooladministratorsthatwerecollectedviaelectronicsurveysconductedinspring2012.Projectstaalsogathered percep9onsfromaprofessionaljudgmentpanelandfromothereduca9onstakeholders,suchasparentsandcommunityleaders, throughfourregionalfocusgroupsheldinMarchandApril2012.

AlthoughthisprojectisfundedbytheIns,tuteofMuseumandLibraryServices, any views, ndings, conclusions or recommenda,ons expressed on this website do not necessarily represent those of the Ins,tute of Museum and Library Services.

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paschoollibraryproject.org