FINAL REPORT

ACCELERATING THE CHANGE:

SELECTING BEST PRACTICES
TO PROMOTE

TOTAL SANITATION AND SANITATION MARKETING (TSSM)
IN EAST JAVA
Addressed to Prepared by
The Jawa Pos Institute of Pro-Otonomi (JPIP)

ACCELERATING THE CHANGE:

SELECTING BEST PRACTICES
TO PROMOTE

TOTAL SANITATION AND SANITATION MARKETING (TSSM)
IN EAST JAVA
Addressed to Prepared by

The Jawa Pos Institute of Pro-Otonomi (JPIP)

FOREWORD
s a new parameter in Otonomi Awards (OA) 2009, sanitation is a rising star. JPIP reveals many initiatives of local government (pemda) to improve the quality of sanitation. There are 48 development initiatives on sanitation. It is good news since sanitation seems to be a given problem for 100 million of population in Indonesia. They cannot access minimum need of healthy sanitation, particularly healthy toilet. At the same time, there is a new awareness of local governments to approach sanitation from inner side of community. Sanitation facilities provision is an old approach and gradually has been left. Local governments in East Java have applied a new reference of sanitation development. They focus more on raising awareness and improving independency of community to achieve sanitation improvement. Non-government actors are involved more to boost the target of achievement on sanitation. JPIP also reveals that most parties are misleading to say that sanitation is merely about problems. Indeed, sanitation is business opportunities as well. Big amount of money circulates every year range from toilet paper to septic tank emptying business. Pemdas (local governments) in East Java have not fully realised the economic value added of sanitation yet. Sanitation policies and programs remain to focus more on behaviour change and institutionalisation. It is a challenge for the near future policies. This final report seeks to record initiatives of 38 districts in East Java on sanitation development. Its content demonstrates an amazing achievement of sanitation development in each district. At the same time, this book explains several weaknesses shall be found its solutions in the near future. It is also a part of attempt to accelerate sanitation development. JPIP uses otonomi awards as the instrument of acceleration. Competition is a new mechanism to shortly cut district and community advancement. JPIP gives highly appreciation to Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) the World Bank for all hardware and software assistances to explore sanitation development practices in East Java. As well, JPIP presents this report to all of parties having devoted its time and dedication. They are Jawa Pos Group, UP3D ITS, and other sponsors. Last but not least, JPIP will always remember dedication of JPIP’s research team to explore sanitation initiatives in East Java. They are Wawan Sobari, Redhi Setiadi, Hariatni Novitasari, Dadan Suparjo, Gandha W. Prabowo, Tedi Erviantono, Sutikno, Robiyan Arifin, Anggun Trisnanto, and Oni Sugandha. JPIP is most welcome for dialogue and critics to improve this work in the future.

A

Surabaya, 24th June 2009 The Jawa Pos Institute of Pro-Otonomi (JPIP)

Rohman Budijanto
Executive Director

CONTENTS
Foreword Contents List of tables List of Charts List of Boxes CHAPTER 1. BACKGROUND CHAPTER 2. METHODOLOGI 2.1 Indicators 2.2 Research Method CHAPTER 3. FIELDWORK REPORT 3.1 Sanitation Improvement 3.2 Sanitation Marketing 3.3 Sanitation Institutionalisation 3.4 The Implementation of Community Based Total Sanitation Principles (STBM) 3.5 Determined Factors to Succeed Sanitation Programs 3.6 Local Budget Commitment on Sanitation CHAPTER 4. THE AWARDEES AND JUSTIFICATION 1. Lumajang Regency 2. Nganjuk Regency 3. Blitar Municipality 4. Pacitan Regency 5. Kediri Regency CHAPTER 5. RECOMMENDATION: STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE SANITATION IN EAST JAVA 5.1 Important Findings 5.2 Kebijakan Perbaikan Kualitas Sanitasi Masyarakat 5.3 Closing Notes: Proving Governance of Sanitation 1 2 3 3 3 4 6 6 7 8 8 9 11 12 13 14 18 18 19 20 20 22 24 24 24 25

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ACCELERATING THE CHANGE: SELECTING BEST PRACTICES TO PROMOTE TOTAL SANITATION AND SANITATION MARKETING (TSSM) IN EAST JAVA

LIST OF TABLES
TABLE 1. TABLE 2. TABLE 3. TABLE 4. TABLE 5. TABLE 6. TABLE 7. TABLE 8. TABLE 9. TABLE 10. TABLE 11. Facts of Sanitation in Indonesia Sanitation Parameters Research Method Sanitation Improvement in East Java in 2008 Perception Score Efforts on Sanitation Marketing in East Java in 2008 Sanitation Institutionalisation Efforts in East Java in 2008 District’s Budget Allocation on Sanitation in 2008 CLTS Locations in Nganjuk ODF Sub-Villages in Nganjuk Rank of Districts on the Parameter of Sanitation 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 15 19 19 23

LIST OF CHARTS
CHART 1. CHART 2. CHART 3. CHART 4. CHART 5. CHART 6. CHART 7. CHART 7. Efforts to Raise Awareness on Sanitation Efforts on Sanitation Marketing Efforts on Sanitation Institutionalisation The Implementation of STBM Principles Determination to Succeed Sanitation Program The Ratio of Budget on Sanitation Compared to Total Direct Budget The Ratio of Sanitation Budget Compared to the Number of the Poor in Each District Rank of Districts on the Parameter of Sanitation 9 10 11 14 14 16 17 21

LIST OF BOXES
BOX 1. BOX 2. BOX 3. ODF Networking among Non-Government Actors Supply networking in Jombang Distinguished Institutionalisation in Pacitan and Blitar 8 10 12

ACCELERATING THE CHANGE: SELECTING BEST PRACTICES TO PROMOTE TOTAL SANITATION AND SANITATION MARKETING (TSSM) IN EAST JAVA

3

CHAPTER

1 BACKGROUND
T
he Jawa Pos Institute of Pro-Otonomi (JPIP) has empirical argument to incorporate sanitation as a specific parameter in Otonomi Awards (OA). The poor sanitation quality in Indonesia is the strongest argument as recorded by several international organisations. According to the Join Monitoring Program UNICEF/WHO, sanitation service growth in Indonesia is slower than other ASEAN countries. Within 1990 to 2004, the growth achieved nine percent only. Although, it is a good achievement for a huge and dense country such Indonesia, nonetheless, this achievement is lower than Vietnam achieving 25 percent, Thailand 19 percent, and Philippine 15 percent (WSP, 2008). Also, the poor hygiene behaviour worsened this condition. USAID BHS Baseline Survey was conducted in six provinces in 2006 revealed poor hand wash habit. Less than 15 percent of mother takes hand wash prior to or after five important activities. They are prior to preparing food, feeding its children, eat, clean child faeces, and after defecating. Poor sanitary behaviour and facilities are the main risk of various contagious diseases for children and adult. Referring to WSP, in 2005, the total health financial lost in Indonesia achieved Rp 2.719 trillion. The biggest share is for care cost, then productivity cost, and premature mortality. Water cost is far greater for Rp 8.016 trillion. The biggest portion is for drinking water, then, domestic water. Thereby, monitoring of sanitation quality improvement policies and programs are very important in OA 2009. JPIP attempts to record both practices, good and poor sanitation practices.

TABLE 1. Facts of Sanitation in Indonesia
QUANTITATIVE DATA
✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ Sanitation service growth within 1990-2004 had only achieved 9 % Total health financial loss achieves Rp 2.719 trillion in 2005 Total water financial loss is bigger for Rp 8.016 trillion in 2005 100 million population live with poor sanitation Demand on healthy toilet can reach 2.27 million per year ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦

QUALITATIVE FACTS
Impact of poor sanitation:
Health impact Water resource impact Environmental impact Tourism impact Other welfare impacts
SOURCE: WSP 2008

16

Jawa Pos
Putusan Banding Kasus Dana BI

CMYK

Jawa Pos

. Selasa 10 Februari 2009

Diseases and other mortality causes as impact of poor sanitation DIRECT DISEASES
✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ Diarrhoea Helminthes Scabies Trachoma Hepatitis A Hepatitis E ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦

Hukuman Burhanuddin Tambah Enam Bulan

INDIRECT DISEASES
Malnutrition ALRI Malaria Chickenpox Malnutrition of protein energy

BANGGA INDONESIA: Valentino Rossi saat memberi keterangan pers di Hotel Mulia, Jakarta, kemarin pagi.

AGUS WAHYUDI /JAWA POS

MASIH PAKAI KRUK: Valentino Rossi di panggung Istora Senayan, Jakarta, kemarin. Kaki kirinya masih belum sembuh, harus mendapat belasan jahitan karena terjatuh dan menginjak meja kaca di rumahnya di Italia pekan lalu.

AGUS WAHYUDI/JAWA POS

/JAWA POS TUNGGU TANDA TANGAN: Fans Valentino menunggu tanda tangan buku otobiografi Rossi pagar Istora Senayan, Jakarta, kemarin. di luar Sayang, Rossi tidak bisa keluar karena massa membeludak.

AGUS WAHYUDI

Kunjungan Sehari Rossi di Jakarta

Bertemu Tak Bertemu Sama-Sama Menangis

JAKARTA – Alih-alih mendapatkan keringanan hukuman, upaya banding atas vonis Pengadilan Tipikor yang dilakukan mantan Gubernur Bank Indonesia (BI) Burhanuddin Abdullah membuat dirinya merana. Di Pengadilan Tinggi (PT) DKI Jakarta, hukuman mantan Menko Perekonomian era Presiden Abdurrahman Wahid itu justru diperberat setengah tahun. Semula, vonis pengadilan tingkat pertama yang dijatuhkan (29/ AGUS WAHYUDI/JAWA POS 11) tahun lalu menghukum Bur- PERTIMBANGKAN KASASI: Mantan Gubernur BI Burhanuddin saat hanuddin lima tahun penjara. menjalani persidangan di Pengadilan Tipikor, 8 Oktober tahun lalu. Pria 63 tahun itu dianggap ber- memberikan uang kepada si A, B, hakim kompak salah karena sebagai anggota de- C, pada putusan terdan orang-orang itu,’’ungkapnya. sebut. wan gubernur turut memutuskan Hakim anggota I MoerBukan penggunaan dana Yayasan Pe- kuman hanya tambahan hu- diono mengungkapkan pendapat badan, hakim juga me- berbeda (dissenting ngembangan Perbankan Indone- merintah opinion) terjaksa untuk merampas hadap putusan sia (YPPI) senilai Rp 100 miliar. uang itu. Dia mengyang Tak terima atas putusan itu, tersebut. telah dibagi-bagikan anggap perbuatan Burhanuddin Yakni, Rp 68,5 miliar bersama-sama Burhanuddin pun mengajukan dari anggota dewan para mantan pejabat BI yang gubernur banding. Namun, sidang yang di- tersangkut lainnya kasus hukum serta Rp rugikan negara. bukanlah mepimpin Yanto Kartono, Jumat (6/ 31,5 Kenyataannya, miliar yang mengalir kepa- pendapat 2), menghukum dirinya lima ta- da sejumlah anggota DPR. ’’Uang mengubahberbeda tersebut tidak hun enam bulan. ’’Putusan yang yang vonis yang dijatuhkan diberikan itu harus dirampas terhadap diberikan majelis hakim me- untuk mantan orang nomor negara,’’ tegasnya. satu di bank sentral itu. mang naik. Ada amar putusan Burhanuddin tidak dibebani Madya mengungkapkan, selain yang berubah,’’ jelas Madya Su- uang pengganti sebagaimana ter- memproses harja, humas PT DKI Jakarta, ke- dakwa banding Burhanudkorupsi lain karena tidak din, PT marin (9/2). Madya juga menjadi ada sedang merapatkan bansepeser salah seorang anggota majelis kantongnya.pun aliran dana ke ding atas dua pejabat teras BI Berdasar putusan yang turut terseret dalam sidang itu. skandal Rp 100 itu, hakim Menurut dia, pertimbangan ma- melanggar menilai Burhanuddin miliar itu, yakni Rusli Simanpasal 3 UU Tipikor. juntak dan Oey jelis adalah Burhanuddin meru- ’’Ini Hoey Tiong. karena Burhanuddin adalah Atas putusan tersebut, tim kuapakan bankir nasional. Dia juga pejabat negara,’’ terangnya. sa hukum Burhanuddin bersiap dianggap memiliki jabatan straSemula, Burhanuddin dianggap kasasi. tegis yang sudah dikenal di level melanggar ’’Semangatnya tetap ada, pasal 2 (1) UU yang tapi belum internasional. ’’Kedudukannya sama. Majelis yang diketuai Gus- Muhammad diputuskan,’’ ujar juga amat sentral. Karena itu, su- rizal Assegaf, pengacara berpendapat, Burhanuddin Burhanuddin, dah seyogianya memberikan con- secara kemarin. Assegaf hingga saat ini belum toh yang baik,’’ jelasnya kemarin. dewan bersama-sama anggota gubernur lainnya, yakni menerima Pertimbangan lain hakim me- Aslim salinan putusan bannambah hukuman Burhanuddin, tapea, Tajuddin, Bun Bunan Hu- ding tersebut. Namun, dia mekata Madya, seharusnya dia tidak kan dan Aulia Pohan, melaku- mastikan kliennya tidak bersalah tindak pidana yang me- atas adanya membagi-bagikan uang kepada rugikan aliran dana Rp 100 keuangan negara. miliar dari banyak orang. ’’Seharusnya tidak Tidak semua anggota majelis mantan YPPI ke DPR dan para pejabat BI. (git/kim)

Economic potency of sanitation
Sanitation is always associated with dirtiness, smell, and other unused matters. Nevertheless, many people obtain economic benefit from sanitation activities. According to WSP’s study, 45 percent of population in Indonesia recently live under bad sanitation services. This number is equal to 100 million of population. They live without accessible, secure, and private toilet. Population growth of Indonesia reaches 1.3 percent per year. Consequently, Indonesia needs 2.8 million decent sanitation facilities. In other words, healthy toilet demands can reach 2.27 million per year. In order to meet those demands, supply of material for construction can reach at least Rp 2.4 trillion. Meanwhile, healthy behaviour improvements have a potency to open a business opportunities in providing soap, toilet paper, and septic tank emptying. The amount of those opportunities can reach Rp 2.422 trillion per year (WSP, 2008).

JAKARTA – Kunjungan sehari Valentino Rossi, bintang MotoGP dari tim Fiat Yamaha, kemarin sempat menghebohkan Jakarta. Sejak datang sampai pulang, pembalap 29 tahun itu seolah selalu kucing-kucingan dengan para penggemarnya. Ketika tiba di Bandara SoekarnoHatta pada Minggu malam lalu (8/2), kehebohan terjadi sejak Rossi turun dari pesawat yang mengantarnya dari Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, tempat dia menjalani uji coba motor pada 5-7 Februari lalu. ”Belum sempat sampai ke baris imigrasi, ratusan penggemar sudah menyerbu Rossi,” ungkap Dyonisius Beti, vice president director Yamaha Motor Kencana Indonesia. Dyonisius menceritakan, Rossi sampai DARI SURABAYA: Fans Valentino Rossi dari Surabaya khusus datangAGUS WAHYUDI / JAWA POS untuk bertemu Rossi di Istora, Jakarta, kemarin. Mereka dilarikan ke dalam toilet. Di sana dilaberburu tanda tangan bintang MotoGP itu. kukan meeting bagaimana mengeluarkan Rossi dari bandara tanpa diserbu peng- karena ”serbuan” penggemar, penyeleng- tak bisa bertemu Rossi. Apalagi, tidak segemar. Saat itu, para penggemar memang gara tak mau mengambil risiko. Rossi pun dikit yang punya harapan tinggi bisa mendilarikan lagi ke Hotel Mulia Senayan. sudah menunggu di berbagai pintu dapatkan tanda tangan sang bintang. keKemarin pihak Yamaha meminta maaf luar. Pada akhirnya, Rossi ”diloloskan” Seperti Nathin Soewandi, 22, salah satu lewat pintu keluar yang biasanya dise- dengan segala kejadian itu. Mau tidak pengidola Rossi yang sempat ikut masuk mau Rossi memang harus diamankan. diakan untuk tenaga kerja Indonesia (TKI). Apalagi, semua orang tampaknya me- ballroom Hotel Mulia saat konferensi pers Kemarin siang, Rossi kembali kucingkemarin pagi. Dia sempat kecewa kucingan dengan wartawan dan peng- mang penasaran. Beberapa polisi yang se- menangis karena tak bisa mendapat dan gemar. Dia tampil di panggung di Istora harusnya bertugas mengamankan justru tangan Rossi. Padahal, dia sudah tanda memSenayan sekitar pukul 14.00 WIB, me- ikut-ikut mengejarnya untuk minta tanda bawa karikatur Rossi yang dia buat sendiri. nyapa ribuan penggemar yang didatang- tangan. Bahkan, ada polisi yang memTak kehabisan akal, sambil sesengkan Yamaha dari berbagai penjuru tanah bawa helm untuk ditandatangani Rossi! gukan, dia menitipkan karikatur itu Karena ”pergerakan” yang dibatasi, keair. ”Selamat siang,” kata Rossi begitu pada Masao Furusawa, executive officer Rossi pun tak bisa menyapa semua pengtampil di atas panggung. Yamaha Motor Co Ltd (salah satu bos Setelah itu, dia seharusnya berjalan ke- gemarnya. Beberapa yang beruntung balap Yamaha). ”Saya berharap Bapak bertemu Rossi di ruang VIP Istora Senaluar Istora, mengunjungi panggung bisa menyampaikan gambar ini kepada dan sejumlah stan Yamaha yang telah yan sampai menangis-nangis saking se- Rossi,” ucap Nathin. disiapkan di luar gedung tersebut. Tapi, nangnya bisa bertemu dengan sang idola. Sebagai ”hadiah penghibur,” Nathin minTidak sedikit pula yang menangis karena ta foto bareng dengan Furusawa. (vem)

INGIN JUMPA SANG BINTANG: Ribuan

fans menunggu kedatangan Valentino

Rossi di luar Istora Senayan, Jakarta,

AGUS WAHYUDI /JAWA POS

kemarin.

4

ACCELERATING THE CHANGE: SELECTING BEST PRACTICES TO PROMOTE TOTAL SANITATION AND SANITATION MARKETING (TSSM) IN EAST JAVA

Jawa Pos

. Senin 4 Mei 2009

10
BINGKAI OTONOMI

upaya Beberapa di antaranya dian, dilakukan peinsenS). Pro- lumnya. Kemu kompetisi dan pemberian Lumamasaran sanitasi (SToP pada latihan fasilitator yang pesertanya tif. Kabupaten Jombang, adauk gram tersebut terutama fokus ra- diambil dari wilayah-wilayah jang, Pasuruan, dan Nganj menem. kesadaran masya peningkatan yang n implementasi progra iki atau menggu- sasara ator adalah ujung tombak lah beberapa daerah kat untuk memil Fasilit mekanisme kompetisi. Cam SToPS di rapkan yang nakan jamban sehat. tasi- pelaksanaan progra fasilitator ranya, antardusun dan desa ba tnya, SToPS yang diimplemen ya diper- lapangan. Berikui berbagai me- berbeda dipacu agar berlom kan di kabupaten awaln aian ODF. cu melalu con- mempercepat pencap rian inwater and sanita- memi kenalkan oleh i partisipatif dan Sementara itu, pembe ) Bank Dunia tode diskus di tingkat komunitas uang. an- tion program (WSP la. Hal ter- toh empiris sentif tidak melulu berupa selain di Jatim tidak lagi menek a mensecara sukare m pem- kota (dusun). Intinya, merek aten Trenggalek, PADA 1970-an progra lebih kan pada pemberian subsidi, sebut cukup masuk akal dorong agar masyarakat beralih Di Kabup ODF mendapatkan ga desa bangunan sanitasi keluar upaya menumdan sesuai dengan fakta dari kebiasaan buang air di sem- setiap intah ber- melainkan atau pedan peberorientasi fisik. Pemer bantuan Rp 5 juta, bupati sa- buhkan kesadaran rakat. kebutuhan. Menurut hasil barang tempat. saat deWAWAN/JPIP upaya menyediakan sarana jabat lain bersedia hadir Begitu sanitasi masya Pengembangpenstudi Program n, untuk rilaku Terakhir adalah monitoringnnya klarasi program tersebut. sia nitasi, terutama jamba SD Gucialit, Lumajang. i maan Sektor Sanitasi Indone ep, Pamen progr am. Tujua as cuci tangan murid Fokus Baru memperbaiki kualitas sanitas deKEBERSIHAN: Aktivit persen komu- capaia adalah mengetahui hasil pula Jombang, Sumen linggo, pada 2006, 47 nya ya syarakat. Namun, bukan gkat. kasan, Lumajang, Probo itas program sanirakat masih utaman Mayor bersama nitas masya pemicuan yang dilakukan Ponorogo, dan Pacitan. rajat kesehatan yang menin us pada upabuang air di sembarang masyarakat. Kemudian, ditentu- Nganjuk, it karena tasi berfok faktor pendorong i, han peJustru prevalensi penyak mem- Hal itu menjadi dimungkintempat. Yaitu, sunga momok. ya-upaya peruba kan langkah-langkah untuk rong ODF di kabupaten sanitasi buruk tetap jadi a, pe- rilaku masyarakat. Metersendiri bagi masyarakat. ya kolam, kebun, dan areal percepat pencapaian ODF. KEBERHASILAN mendonance) sanitasi cukup optimal. Upa(gover Salah satu penyebabny ngi nurut temuan JPIP, terPerubahan perilaku faktan upenyakit arkan karena tata kelola k pihak yang berpersawahan. Sehingga, dibare pengg SToPS tidak hanya menaw sanitasi melibatkan banya nyediaan sarana tidak progr am perba ikan tidak hanya terjadi pada u sanitasi kan semata. l karena perilak ya-upaya perbaikan i ma- dapat 48 pilar kan pendekatan baru, melain didominasi pemerintah jamban sehat, tapi juga disampaikan ka- timbu tidak terelakkan. perbaikan perilaku sanitas beda latar belakang. Tidak masyarakat, pemerintah, lembaga dan tujuan yang naan lain. Kegiatan pemasyafasilitas sanitasi yang buruk i SToPS pula fleksibilitas syarakat. Maka, walau buruk bupaten dan kota. Sebanyak 36 Selain itu, hubungan antarau meminimalkan perbedaan kedui Mekanisme pelaksanaan ana, jelas. Sehingga, pada tingkat ko- sanitasn kebiasaan cuci tangan mamp tersedia, perilaku sanitas Misal- di antaranya berorientasi pertinggi daripada kabupaten cukup sederh donor, dan pihak lain isme program bi- rakatasabun telah dilakukan di 15 yang berkedudukan lebih ik keterlibatan ku masya rakat. oleh dimulai dengan road show. munitas, mekan masih kerap ditemukan. dukan. Tidak ada pihak dengan konteks pakai . Selain itu, kabupaten di n oleh pe- ubaha n perila 12 program lain yakni m tersebut mampu menar sasi sa disesuaikan nya, penyediaan jamba daerah me- Sementara itu, yang lain sehingga progra Kegiatan itu bentuk sosialipen- spesifik masyarakat setempat. menerapkan pengelolaan merin tah ternya ta tidak air di berorientasi fisik. dengan isi dan ukan beberapa Jatim berbasis komunitas. Mimasyarakat cukup tinggi. kebijakan. Keputusan untuk menjaperilaku awal terkait ut Tim JPIP menem ngurangi kebiasaan buang tnya, Upaya-upaya perbaikan masyarakat. daerah dan sampah n program. Hal terseb Kedua, terkait pembuatan rjo, rang tempat. Akiba i berasal dari kesukarelaanprogram. Deinasi progr am dekata dilaku kan meng ingat upaya pemerintah memo difi- salnya ditemukan di Sidoa semba sanita si didom g lankan perbaikan sanitas (*) arkan maran air dan tanah oleh pengentasan kebiasaan buang air pentin m itu masya rakat untuk t komunitas. Probolinggo, dan Lamongan. ga donor hanya menaw ditanggung mapence sar progra Pemerintah dan lemba tion perbedaan menda gram sebe- kasinya pada tingka yang sebagian besar tinja tetap tinggi. sembarangan (open defeca program-pro dalam memumikian juga, pembiayaan r dari pengalaman terse- free/O DF). Hingg a 2008, 21 dengan negosiasi dan konsultasi Belaja i syarakat. Maka, terjadi mener apkan perbaikan sanitasi. arah pembangunan sanitas but, telah ap kesetuskan pilihan kebijakan n JPIP, kabup aten menjamin kepatuhan terhad berubah. Berdasar temua dan program sanitasi total dan peTerakhir, mekanisme untuk rakat. Tidak ada sanksi hukum bagi aten g ke TPA Bemasya program sanitasi kabup fa- sampah yang dibuan pakatan diserahkan kepada ada adalah sanksi sosial yang berasal dari Sementara itu, penyediaan di nowo. Kota lain yang melakukan dimiliki pelanggar kepatuhan. Yang pihak yang memiliki kebiasaan sanitasi a ditemukan PROGRAM sanitasi dan Kota di Jatim atan serupa adalah ProboHa- silitas MCK bersam paten masyarakat terhadap pihak- san bersama ditaati secara efektif. pula oleh kota-kota di Jatim.agak Kota Mojokerto, Madiun, dan Su- pendekdan Blitar. Hanya, dua kota Program Sanitasi Kabu buruk. Dengan begitu, keputu pencapaian ODF semata-mata dinya pendekatannya yang kabu- rabaya. Atas dasar analisis kebu- linggo t belum semasif Surabaya. atan m Namun, benarkah percep pemerintah daepemda memba- tersebu m sanitasi lain yang diteKota berbeda dengan progra masyarakat dan kerelaan kat- tuhan masyarakat, Progra Kabupaten tentukan besarnya peran Atau, karena kuatnya peran lembaga paten. Khusus upaya pening ma- ngun MCK di lokasi yang ditentuediaan di kawasan perkotaan, ankota Sanitasi massal/Peny rah untuk bekerja sama? satu faktor lain yang tidak kalah memasyarakat di- mukan program sanitasi masyaan akses jamban sehat, (TSSM) SToPS m fi- kan. Kemudian, tara lain, septic tank komunal donor? JPIP menemukan kepala daerah. sih berorientasi pada progra ba- serahi mandat pemeliharaan. asi TSSM (Magetan, sanitasi pesantren Sanitasi Replik en yang Pengelolaan Kawasan ya alokasi entasi rakat (sanimas), nentukan, yaitu komitm mosik. Salah satu program pemng) masuk akal. Analisis besarn Meski cenderung berori Sampa en), serta perbaikan dan Terpadu dan Berkelanjutan Faktor terakhir ternyata cukup hasil pencapaian kondisi ODF, dan nyak dilaku kan adalah peningkatan akses (sanitr g kualitas air bersih. Temuan Sanimas i, komunal fisik dalam nitorin Sanitasi Pesantren daerah APBD untuk program sanitas bangunan septic tank rakat n Keluarga n sehat, kota memiliki pro- menarik lainnya berupa pengarusterus-menerus dari kepala yang Jamba ian secara cuci, dan jamba Perbaikan Sanitasi Masya keterlibatan serta perhat serta fasilitas mandi, faatan limbah IKM sanita si lain yang ber- utamaan pembangunan sanitasi si tersebut. Peran kepala daerah Peman hal gram Pembangunan Sanita s air minum ternyata mampu menjelaskan u mendorong percepatan ODF. kakus (MCK) bersama. tidak orientasi pada perubahan periPengawasan Kualita mamp treaming sanitation). ut Perkotaan menargetkan intensif dan berkualitas bergelut dengan (mains rusutamaan adalah kePilihan program terseb isi ulang h selatan Jatim berani lahan laku. Kota yang Penga Pelayanan Pengolahan Sehat Satu kabupaten di wilayakabupaten pada 2010. Padahal, daerah terlepas dari keterbatasan ma persoalan sampah berinisiatif is pemb aGerakan Air Minum h Teruta Sampah Terpadu Berbas giatan peren canaa n pencapaian ODF di seluru di kawasan perkotaan. nya pada November 2007. mbangkan program pe- ngunan jangka panjang sanitasi (GEMAS) pencanangan pen- menge Komunitas pakai gan komitmen tersebut baru memulai kawas an-ka wasan padat tank ngelolaan sampah berbasis komuGerakan cuci tangan tidak terlepas dari doron aan. Program tersebut diteProgram Kali Bersih Target pencapaian itu duduk. Penyediaan septic Bli- nitas. Terutama melalui kegiatan perkot di Kota Blitar dan Surasabun (CTPS) mbangan Program Penge Kota kepala daerah yang tinggi. arnya merup akan tantan gan untuk h rumah tang- mukan komunal ditemukan di ian, proKoperasi HIPPAMS Pengolahan Sampah Pasuru- komposting sampaoleh warga. baya. Denga n demik sting Kond isi terseb ut seben program sanitasi. Sebab, terwujudnya s air ri tar, Kediri, Malang, dan Takakura dan Kompo merupakan kebuMoU pengawasan kualita kelurah- ga secara mandi sanitasi kan di gram sanitasi membuktikan keberhasilan ta masih bergantung pada faktor an. Warga satu RW atau Sarana air bersih untuk Upaya paling masif ditemu yang tuhan semua masyarakat, tidak ternya PDAM tinja dan h Berbasis governance sanitasi air minum an menyalurkan limbah a karena negosiasi dan Pengelolaan Sampa ya dengan hasil . Bukan semat Pengawasan kualitas at status kota dan katank Kota Suraba komitmen kepala daerah masyarakat dan pembuat kebijakan. kan. Dampak- tersek urine mereka pada septic Masyarakat han isi ulang secara cukup menggembira i volum e bupaten. (wawan/jpip) WSLIC konsultasi antara kebutu ng sangat beruntung masyarakat yang Sampah Melanjutkan Program raksasa yang dibangun nya bisa meng urang Awarding Pengelolaan atan Maka, untuk saat sekara n keberpihakan tinggi terhadap perAwarding di tingkat Kecam itas khusus dan terisolasi. Komun denga anjutannya, memiliki kepala daerah SUGENG/JAWA POS mampu menjamin keberl baikan sanitasi Meski belum /j i )

Dit Jamban Terpanjang Mulai
asi temuan indikator sanit Meski tergolong baru, tasi Terjadi perubahan orien cukup mengejutkan. ankan peran yang lebih mengedep pembangunan paran peneliti The Jawa masyarakat. Berikut pema (JPIP) Wawan Sobari. tonomi Pos Institute of Pro-O

i di Jawa Timur 9 Tentang Sanitas nomi Daerah 200 Hasil Monitoring Oto

ATEN-KOTA SE-JATIM ARENA INOVASI KABUP

inggalkan

sa Bergantung Komitmen Pengua

Sampah pun Dikelola Berba

sis Komunitas

Those amounts show the h h h huge b i business opportunities on sanitation. Y there are only small number of enterprises can benefit ii i i Yet, h l ll b f i these opportunities. They undertake business on plastic waste recycling, public toilet service, toilet maintenance service, and septic tank emptying. In contrast, there are other huge business opportunities on sanitation that have not optimally been managed yet. For example, septic tank construction and standardised closet business, domestic sewerage system, and private solid waste transportation and recycling. In addition to behaviour change, the role of national and sub-national government in enabling sanitation market is very important. Both levels of governments can promote to generating economic value added on sanitation improvement (sanitation marketing). For instances, a set of policies to endorse the use of standardised septic tank and toilet. Or government can privatise solid waste transportation and recycling. Sub-national government (pemda) can also take a bigger role to give incentives to sanitation business growth. For example, pemda can issue an easy licensing procedures and requirements for sanitation business enterprises establishment.

ACCELERATING THE CHANGE: SELECTING BEST PRACTICES TO PROMOTE TOTAL SANITATION AND SANITATION MARKETING (TSSM) IN EAST JAVA

5

CHAPTER

2 METHODOLOGI
2.1 Indicators
The sub-national government’ (pemda) efforts to boost sanitation quality improvement are the main indicator in assessing sanitation parameter. It can be programs, policies as well as strategies that have been executed till 2008. However, the focus of assessment is not solely addressed to sanitation facilities provision. On the contrary, the assessment emphasises on any effort to promote community behaviour improvement on sanitation. Those changes are very urgent, since sanitation facilities provision programs had been failed in 1970s-1980s. The programs could not change poor sanitation behaviour. Also, sanitation improvement is not domain of the government only. In this indicator, JPIP assesses to what extent that sanitation improvement can create networks among communities as well as with the government. In other words, sanitation improvements are participatory conducted by optimally engage communities. The second indicator is marketing sanitation. It refers to any activity or pemda’s policy to enhance sanitation behaviour. At the same time, the policy or program is economically value added embedded. For example, a program to boost organic fertilizer consumption by farmers, at least, can encourage productive composting by communities. The last indicator is sanitation institutionalisation. It refers to every pemda’ effort aimed to sustain sanitation improvement. Institutionalisation can be conducted by pemda as well as community. Pemda can endorse a political commitment to improve sanitation by forming a task force among local offices (SKPD). This policy is intended to integrate sanitation improvement policies. As well, pemda can encourage community wisdom to sustain good behaviour on sanitation. For example, pemda can support village regulation (perdes) to boost open defecation free (ODF) among villagers. Then, what sort of activities categorised as sanitation improvement? In order to search the activities, JPIP refers to the five pillars of sanitation. Those are access improvement to healthy toilet, raising awareness of soap hand wash, access improvement to domestic water supply, solid waste management improvement, and domestic sewerage system improvement. As one of the parameters in award competition, JPIP contests programs and policies on sanitation. Then, JPIP ranks them based on the three categories of assessments. The assessments composed of innovation, public survey, and existasses ing condition of sanitation. For example, budget commitment of pemda o 10 on sanitation and budget commitment for the poor to KOKI get access to healthy sanitation. Prioritas Masih . Mitan Sanitasi Total One last note, the more integrated all of the sanitation Berbasis Masy arakat programs the better its judgement. It means an integrative Manfaat Ekon program covering those three main indicators of assessp Lagi Diasosias omi Tak ikan Kotor ment m can gain high score. Moreover, the same assessment is performed on integrated effort to execute the five pillars of total sanitation. Therefore, JPIP expects that health sanitation behaviour can ca reduce water financial cost of Local water supply enterprise pri (PDAM) to clean water. As community keep the river from fro polluted material as the result of poor sanitation. As well, we there is an expectation to reduce endemic diarrhoea.
ARENA INOVA SI KABUPATEN -KOTA SE-JA TIM

Jawa Pos

Menurut Anda sanitasi buru , apa problem utama k Ada dua sisi, di Indonesia? dan dari bawayakni persoalan dari atas terletak pada h. Persoalan dari atas UP3D FOR JPIP buruknya imple Eddy S. Soed peraturan. Kont mentasi SANITASI selam jono menyulitkan. rol lemah, tanggung a ini diasosiasikan dengan jawab Padahal, perat sebag kotor Persoalan dari urannya sendi lintas departemen hal yang diang an, bau, dan hal- mem ian kecil pihak yang bisa bawah terletak ri sudah bagu pentingnya sanita s. pada Namun, fakta gap tidak berguna. nis anfaatkannya. Misalnya, si. Saat ini masy pemahaman masyaraka bisdaur sebali dan minyak MENJADIKAN arakat lebih mem t akan pihak yang mend knya, banyak sa toilet ulang sampah plastik, tanah. Sanitasi jabutuhkan sanitasi sebabelum menjadi gai parameter nomi dari kegia apat manfaat eko- toilet umum, jasa pemelihara prioritas kebut listrik khusus dalam an , sedot WC. tan sanitasi. Contohnya? nitoring OA uhan. Berdasar hasil bukan tanpa moSebal Lihat saja nasib Fakta buruknya sebab. sen penduduk studi WSP, 45 per- pelua iknya, masih ada sejum sanitasi di Indolah Indonesia kini ng 16 juta jiwa yang Sungai Brantas di Jawa nesia merupakan tanpa pelayanan hidup nitasi usaha dalam bidang saTimur. Terda hidup di sepan alasan palin sanitasi yang yang potensial Brantas. Seba pat sekitar kuat. Dalam kurun jang Daera atau setara denga g baik, tergar tapi belum 1990–2004, kelimbah ruma gian besar tidak memilikih Aliran Sungai (DAS) naikan pelay Mereka hidup n 100 juta orang. pemb ap optimal. Misalnya, usaha h anan tanpa sangat renda tangga. Akibatnya, kuali fasilitas pengolahan mencapai semb sanitasi hanya ses tempat buang kemudahan ak- stand uatan septic tank dan klose h. tas ilan sejumlah perus Padahal, airnya digunakan air Sungai Brantas Pencapaian terseb persen. yang aman dan air besar dan kecil ruma ar, sistem pengolahan limba t mentara perila ahaan daerah sebag h tangga, bersifat pribad h ut lebih renda air minum (PDA ai pasokan oleh bila dibandingk GRAFIS: HERI Dengan laju i. h masih kerap ku buruk sanitasi OWEL/ JAWA dan pengolahandan pengangkutan M). POS kan perbaikan dilakukan. Lalu, apa perso yang 25 perse an dengan Vietnam duduk 1,3 persepertumbuhan penperila Perba n, Selain perub sampah swasta. n, setiap tahun Kurang sekal alan spesifik pada tingk sen, dan Filipi Thailand 19 per- hanya ikan perilaku sanitasi bukan Misalnya, mendukun ku sanitasi. dapat kebut ter- masyaraka ahan perilaku sanitasi i at daerah? g peraturan uhan 2,8 juta milik pemda. komitmen APBD perda yang mengatur t yang akan mend (WSP, 2008) na 15 persen fasilitas tumbu Sebab, dalam desa (perd es) yang sanitasi yang orong mem beri indikator ini baik. sanksi bagi dalam APBD . Contohnya, kebanyakan sanitasi. Apalagi, pada Sela in itu dinila kian, kebutuhan Dengan demi- merin hnya pasar sanitasi, peran kabupaten dan alokasi angga diper buru k berapa kuat usaha i juga se- BAB semb warga yang masih petah dan pemda jamban sehat persen. Mesk dengan perila mencapai 2,27 arangan. tidak kalah penbisa ting. Yaitu perbaikan i, ada sejumlah kota di Jawa Timur di ran sanitasi kuhigiene yang sanitasi mamp juta Lantas, bawa , mendorong kecil daerah rendah. USAI Untuk memenuhi setahun. terciptanya yang sudah lebih h satu nilai tambah D jejaring (netw u menciptakan terkategoriupaya seperti apa yang kebut Apa kendala ekono ne Survey di BHS Baselibaik. syarakat serta ork) antarma- tuk meng perbaikan sanitasi? Un- ban sehat saja, nilai permiuhan jam- upaya perbaikan mi atas upayaenam Sebenarnya, yang menyulitkan perb antar pada 2006 meng provinsi sanita dan pemda. Artiny masyarakat cu pada etahuinya, JPIP menga- han bangunan sedikitnya ntaan ba- sanitasi). Misal sanitasi (marketing Undang-Undang si itu urusan negara. aikan sanitasi? kebiasaan cuci ungkapkan mencapai tuk nya, kebijakan lima Sebag (UU) nitasi dilakukan a, kegiatan sa- Yaitu, penin pilar sanitasi total. Rp 2,4 triliun. Sementara tangan tidak unmendorong pengg Lingkungan Hidup Sumber Daya Air dan aimana diamanatkan baik. Kurang perba secara unaan septic UU tentang Penge dari 15 peryang menyebutk patif dengan keterl partisi- let sehat gkatan akses pada toi- perilaku sehat berpotensi membikan tank dan kloset ditanggung sen ibu menc , peningkata lolaan yang testandar peluang usaha an bahwa infras uka nitasi. negar uci n kesad syarakat secara ibatan ma- cuci tangan satruktur masyarakat dan a. Namun, saat ini pakai sabun sebelutangan pakai sabun, perba aran kertas toilet, danpengadaan sabun, ngang Atau upaya swastanisasi optimal. justru diserahkan dasar itu swasta melal peIndikator kedu kutan supla bisnis Sebenarnya, sesudah lima kegiat m atau kepada itu bentuk ketida ui istilah pemberdayaan a adalah baikai air bersih rumah tangg ikan Nilainya tidak tangg sedot WC. pah secara dan pengelolaan sama, per- setahu masyarakat. ung-tanggung, kmampuan negar terbatas. n penge sebelum meny an penting. Yaitu, (mem mark eting n diperkirakan a. Pemd iapkan maka asarkan sanit sanit asi dan perba lolaan sampah padat, Dengan kond memberi maka nan, terka ikan pengelolaan 2,422 triliun (WSP mencapai Rp banya a bisa pula berperan lebih asi). Yaitu, k untuk mem limbah bisa berkontri isi seperti ini, bagaiman membersihkan n anak, makan, jakanit setiap upaya atau kebi- cair rumah tangga. Angka-angka , 2008). berikan insen a pemerinta tif tumbuhny (mk/e-mail: buang air besar pemda meng tersebut menu Pertama, melalbusi untuk mengatasi perso h daer (BAB) anak, jukkan besar embangkan wawansobari@jpip.or.id) n- tasi. Cont a usaha sektor saniperbaikan perila dan sesudah BAB alan sanitasi? ah nya sanitasi. Kedu ui alokasi anggaran yang ohnya, mela . anitasi. Saat ini peluang bisnis s- dahan a, menggunak bern ilai ekon ku sanitasi yang memang sudah perizinan usaha lui kemupentingnya sanita an jalur pendi berpihak pada perbaikan omi. Misa lnya, ada nitasi. prog ram pemd Indik (wawan/mk) bidang sadalam kegiatan si melalui kurikulum dikan. Yaitu, menjelaskan a untu k meUpay a peme ator Penilaian ngga pendi kongkret, bukan perbaikan sanita hanya hafalan. dikan. Namun harus (pem da) untu rinta h daer ah organlakkan penggunaan pupu si terletak pada k ik bagi pertan k mend oron perilaku masy Sebab, pada dasarnya perb aikan ian. Program g seper arakat. (waw kual an/mk) masyarakat meru itas sanit asi doronti itu setidaknya bisa meng kegiatan pakan indikator utama penil mendatangkan komposting yang aian uang Baik berwujud parameter ini. Terak an, maupun program, kebijak- lemb hir adalah indikator pestrate diimplementasika gi yang telah upay agaan sanitasi. Yakni, setiap a pemd n hingga 2008 Hanya, fokus . keberlanju a untuk mendorong penilaiannya tan perbaikan ditujukan kepad tidak Pelem sanitasi. a an fasilitas sanitaupaya penyedia- tingka bagaan bisa dilakukan pada t pemerintah daera Titik berat justru si semata. h maupun masyarakat. ditekankan upay a mend Pemda bisa oron g peru pada mendorong ko perilaku sanit baha n m i i l

Sanitasi buru wujud dari tiadak merupakan nya prioritas kebutuhan untu inti pandanga k sehat. Inilah n pakar sani tasi ITS Eddy S. Soedjono PhD yang dituturka n kepada JPIP .

Parameter Baru Monev

Senin 9 Febru ari 2009

2009

Salah satu para meter baru dalam Otonomi Awards (OA) 2009 adalah sanitasi. Apa saja yang dimonitor dala m parameter tersebut? Berikut pemaparan peneliti the Jawa Pos Institute of Pro-Otonomi (JPIP) Wawan Sob ari.

TABLE 2. Sanitation Parameters
POSSIBLE PRACTICES
✦ Access improvement to healthy toilet ✦ Raising awareness of soap hand wash ✦ Access improvement of domestic water supply ✦ Solid waste management improvement ✦ Domestic liquid waste management improvement.

INDICATOR

FOCUS

Behaviour improvement on sanitation Sanitation Marketing Sanitation Institutionalisation

✦ Pemda’ attempts to promote community behaviour change on sanitation ✦ Pemda’ efforts to encourage networking among communities and pemda in changing sanitation behaviour ✦ Pemda’ Programs or policies to generate economic value added of sanitation improvement Attempts to keep sustaining behaviour change on sanitation by pemda and communities

6

ACCELERATING THE CHANGE: SELECTING BEST PRACTICES TO PROMOTE TOTAL SANITATION AND SANITATION MARKETING (TSSM) IN EAST JAVA

2.2 Research Method
In conducting this study, JPIP combines qualitative and quantitative method. Qualitative method is addressed to analyse and collect qualitative facts and data relating to initiatives, programs, and local innovations to improve quality of sanitation. Also, JPIP collects qualitative data from supporting documents on innovation conducted by pemda. JPIP conducts observation to the sites where sanitation improvements are undertaken. JPIP’s research team directly checks the sites, takes pictures and interviews informally with community or direct beneficiaries of sanitation improvement. Meanwhile, JPIP conduct the quantitative method through public survey. This survey is intended to dig local community perceptions out concerning the benefit of sanitation improvements programs and policies. In addition, quantitative data come from official documents of pemda, especially existing data relating to sanitation. In gathering data, JPIP applies four techniques. First is in-depth interview to explore data and information relating to sanitation programs and policies. Interview is intended to collect information about program design and its implementation and achievement till 2008. Key informants as data sources are local offices (SKPD) that responsible for handling sanitation program. The program practically conducted by health office, environmental office, and clean service office.

TABLE 3. Research Method
METHODS DATA GATHERING TECHNIQUES
In-depth interview

DATA TYPES
Interview notes Program description

RESPONDENT/ KEY INFORMATION
Head of SKPD that Responsible for sanitation SKPD that responsible for sanitation ✦ Direct beneficiaries ✦ Professional communities and civil society ✦ Sanitation officers Direct and indirect beneficiaries SKPD that responsible for sanitation

NUMBER
Conditional Conditional

Qualitative Method

Collecting documents

Observasi

Observation notes

Conditional

Quantitative method

Observation Existing data collection

Quantitative data Existing data

3800

10
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ri ukur) yang gram best dan -pro at. anti katego meter (alat ada para kecapaian program kan. Dig basis masyarak a asi. A, tidak uasi AGAKNY tif untuk eval n-kota selain inovdisebut inovatif total ber perform s spor ameter pate tah kabu na program yang rangnya’’. Jela jujur, dan Untuk par ri pelembagaan ’’ba dan pemerin ego practice an demikian kare konkret. Jelas dari banyak sisi gan politik, kat itik diganti den Dikatak k program yang a. Bisa dinilai ram sulit dikecoh. pol ten-kota. ah soso a. Jelas lokasiny ah prog a-adakan adal asi, sebu D kabupa anny Bukan diad keberada ang. Dengan inov r-benar ada. kinerjaDPR bena sudut pand itu memang omi daerah e h awal ram O l 1), langkah alias progpelaksanaan oton egi dalam n lalu (28/ Award 2009 din strat Terkait ah RABU peka aan Otonomi menyusu -pro gram kepala daer ksan (otda), JPIP si pro gramkota yan g tahap pela hadapan beberapa n-kota di Jawa alua men gev tah kab upa tenkabupate meter mulai. Di akilan 38 alisasikan para pem erin atif. best dan perw menyosi dampak rd 2009. disebut inovDi antaranya, at di kabuTimur, JPIP Otonomi Awa Pena, Jawa saja? ator ha raky Apa ya dap dan indik alisasi di Gra dampakn ai den gan nya terha practice- Dalam hal itu, engah, dan Acara sosi ligu s dira ngk yelaraskan /JAWA POS ta. seka BOY SLAMET paten-ko ngka pendek, men itu harus Pos itu lik bertema Men Mem acu dialog dan peserta selain berja panjang, program ung an. dialog pub n Kor ups i amb seorang ana Maksum i. Salah berjangka dan berk esin Pen ang Daerah. jakan, itu antara lain, s berinovas di ik dan kebi n. sumber, ala stra tegi k berhenti Inovasi gai nara ar, Deputi Kep unga best secara polit akan serta da untu Bahkan, in berkesinamb dianggap r, pemda Hadir seba bagi pem atan p. JPIP Kanwil sari Azh n alasan s dijam ua belum cuku ni, program yangpara perencana n yang besannya untuk kegi a KPK. KPK Anta irman, Kepala , buka haru ketu bun Ketua if wenanga anfaatka sem korupsi kepada ja Suk Kar Mar il us lagi. Yak ide-ide keat yang ntasan Toh, itu ya program , kan usul kungan. ta mem BPKP Djad baya Zindar dan Wak t lebih khus dihasilkan dari ta. Kreatif artin kebutuhan : Pembera mengaju ini lembaga justru mer tidak ramah ling ingkatkan PAD Sura ng ATIF Wiyono, menuntu haruslah selama awasan ini mmen BPK di NG INOV etan seda Sesuai paten-ko itu en Untung Afandi. i. Sebab, ya, yang alnya, untuk ak izin pada pena sDITANTA Kabupaten Mag peng practice unan daerah kabulokalistis. Cerdas. Arif Bupati Srag Mis omi mat punyai fungsi gawasi. Akibatn u n salah satu ik dari Surabaya beri bany ahkan kele si ketermem ayaan ekon pembang baru. Bersifat Wali Kota ik itu merupaka JPIP pada publ ah itu justr , yang men pemda mem C tanpa mengind tarnya. k mengata pemberd tinggi. an tidak ada ah legislatif daer daerah. Ini omi, dan p di seki upaya untumanusia, keuangan itu temu ndak lokal. galian Dialog publ n keberpihakanpemerintah akili akin taan ekon daerah sem itme g wad buruk otonomi ini silkan dari a, modal rat bang n lingkungan hidu a, cukup mew ra an publik . dan kehe bentuk kom b, akhir-akhir nov asi meeka terje pelayan l, nilai harus diha rtiny anggaran i anta agi serin taria prasaran boroskan dari tahun dem t loka ua, parameter meter ini terb n menjadi ikon seringnya merflik dengan Selain itu, pat, baik sarana ah. Seba rasi itu, sepe keterkaitan erat ling as beri daer mal Ilust na Ked JPIP tidak mem omi ). Para annya, taku laan seol ah gatakan terjadi kare psi, terlibat kon n antarangni, pelayana na batasan setem skil, maupun nerus diharapkan monitoring oton services daer ah kan daerah. Alas untuk men si dan pen gelo na desenrah. uan, (public kator. Yak administrasi. hukum kare dan kare lisa kasus koru ah, dan pertikaia memberi tiga indi kemamp itu, yang terus-me atif antardae evaluasi ngembang dengan penegak salah satu tardese ntra p di daerah. Ini l dari pengeakan menjadi hatan, dan siasi yang kan riset n yang inov paten-kota di Karena kepala daer mnya. JPIP apre berurusa daerah menjadi idikan, kese inovasi mampu mekungan hidu jadi titik awa menciptakan kabu m menjalan as program dala ah Padahal, meter pend akan memberikan daerah jika bisa ah yang men gota di tahun dala ’’adu’’ kreativit banyak program program-program pemerint ntasan korupsi. tah tralisasi kungan yang bisa itu. gi bagi daer idikJPIP p para pemerin ng pend nilai ting n kinerja politik entasan kedaerah ialah dengan makin in beragam pula t? get pembera kunci dalam setia JPIP. rusak lolaan ling berbeda. at h tinggi pada bosan di bida hanaan lan menjadi isi Award Bukanka inovatif akan makkebutuhan setempa tuhan raky tero nunjukka t, parameter pengiskinan yang eder merupaka dua kond lingkungan akan liknya akan Otonomi 2001, JPIP ai an kebu ingmembuat n, dan peny ah. Bukan haKeempa indikator n pada 1 April disi Jatim yang, lokalistis, sesu inkan keragam n rakyat di mas hata entasan kem a: Jakarta) geatau seba gkin pula, , dan Kon ing. Peng (bac an, kese inistrasi di daer rika dan men ntralisasi mun pusat. Mas sus miskinan secara terpusat ra optimal. Seyang khas artinya mencerm h pula kebutuhan? Sejak didi nsif memonitor daerah. Sekarena dese baik. Namun, lingkungan. lui yanan adm kan program lebih alan seca orang miskin Dan, itu daerah. Bukanka diseragamka kemajuan mela if secara khu ah dilakukan jalan secara inte ksanaan otonomi rikan Jawa menjadi nasi pengelolaan gapresiasi a tidak berj nya men gkin r dinilai didi men n ke daer orang terbukti paling tahu siap di banyak ah tidak mun hnya mempercepat an dan perspekt indikato valuasi pelalembaga yang ngkat kabuterjadi stagitu, JPIP akan san kebijakan tatar masing liti JPIP yang turu daer ama ya pastilah yang n, bab, an peri dan indimasing otda itu sesunggu inovatif. Pada robo h. tiap tahu a tempatn Karena n terus bers anfagumumk oleh pene minggu penu politik lokal. er da –lewat–te pu mem nan Jadi, inti program-programmengajak dan ingi k mempercepat dan di man iri. Pos ini men sesuai paremet yang berada kemiski ma satu tinggi pemiliki––yang mam r itu untuk r kinerja hat kondisi untu a an ta ta besa r, sela ga, paramete daerah send pengentasan loka l yan g , keragam JPIP senantias n-kota di Jatim gaman. paten-ko i kabupaten-ko yang dim enangan yang itu, Keti ifat p indikato r untuk meli ni, dalam daya alam Karena hka n sent uha n menaikkan Yak indikato seperti ini,erintah kabupate ama dalam kera h baik itu bers k kator. Bag t teratas pada setia tertinggi atkan kew akses sumberdan menginsoal Ada tiga l suatu daerah. akuntabilitas, aan n untu jadi lebi mem butu Bukan hanya teta pi juga ya, sama pem daerah. Maju bers erataan p. di peringka kan pengharg rikan buka dan men men politik loka isipasi publik, i, beri tegrasi. lik pem jaga kelestariann lingkungan hidu kemajua maju, sejahtera, Award JPIP dibe an pola dan atenJPIP mem omi Award. delapan, JPIP e- terindap atan eko nom yanan pub men elolaan bidang part DPRD. Ukuran na itu, Otonomi best practice deng dan yang diut paling tahu pen berikan kew akses pela rja politik. sikan peng berupa Oton untuk kali ke erintah kadan kine daerah telah mem ram g ada - tegra b, daerahlah yang dan bahaya ling permudah annya secara ini, ah daerah. if. Kare pem ujudkan prog ling mem a. Yan untuk mew rja relat omi hi Tahun sakan Seba elolaan berdayak Otonomi luas bagi pemerint n yang ng capaian dan n k ada juar gukur kinemengelola oton a. (mk/red kat keru bosa dan mem parameter peng n pemerhati mendoro ang-kalah. Tida an dan kesetaraa b kebutuhan akan men tang ting dalam di daerahny or.id) n sebelum - nangan yang harus ada tero masyarakat atira jawa kota isasi Kelima, p. Kekhaw hidup an tahu tode men ialah keragam itu, i@jpip. bupatenguna men ing. desentral up kungan satu para hidu eda deng Karena m bidang pelibatan da berani practice ah masing-mas email: redh pem kungan n tentang dampak . makan JPIP daerah. Berb ada tambahan tasi. Dedaerah cukke- setiadi, yang best berarti dala bangun daerah, DPRD harus di daer omi Award 2009 sani n ini ri lingkunga lingkungan di program pembangunan nya, tahu us, yakni tentang JPIP akan lah dibe uju Oton dalam mempada publik, dan a, terutama n ini r khus terhadap Pasalnya, sete siny n tantangan berinovasi men pamete 09 n. ikia n, tahu tah daerah - transpara sebagaimana fung unan. Selamat beralasa para ARDS 20 nga n dem kinerja pemerin kat berperan awasan pembang untuk dicerr dan satu masyara OMI AW menguku meter utama sanitasi . Beberapa dalam peng D ini penting para RI OTON benahan DPR unan n ekoda lima Kinerja patkan pem ritas pembang membangun KATEGO us. embanga Bidang meter khusparameter peng ent). Pada pagai prio senang han uduk yang Menonjol Utama ilai pulu ih en pend barangan. seba da bahkan lebih lopm Paling ah Pertama, bosan Bidang Kategori yang bern tar 32 pers r sem nomic deve rja pemerint an Tero Menonjol akit pem ek mercusuar hal warganya mas k ada seki buang air besa ah deng Ekonomi nomi (eco JPIP melihat kine r. Yakni, perPaling rja Politi proy ulkan peny 1. Daer bangunan Terobosan sembaku er baru ng Kine Pem berperila otensi menimb rupiah, pada air besar rameter ini m tiga indikato an ekonomi, njol Bida dengan ik paramet ai, ah ng Meno miliar satu lain. 2. Daeryanan Publ Profil Paling ni, parameyang bua g sampah di sung ini ada Hal itu berp kesehatan baru-baru ini daerah dala omi, pemeratalokal. an Pela banyak guan ih yang TAHUN alkan JPIP. Yak ekon ah deng buan mbuhan dan gang yang dirilis WSP at buru kny a rken 3. Daer tumbuhan ayaan ekonomi rja pemean, mem ai akses air bers yang ng Pertu kine yang dipe sanitasi daerah. Award 2009 berd puny tif Bida kat rang sampah Data lain wa akib Khusus an dan pem JPIP mengukur gup aya kan n Inova kan bah ara dan mas yara 4 tidak mem pengelolaan Kategori Pemerata ter khususitu, pada Otonomi yang dinaTerobosa yata an Bidang Artinya, rah dala m men ah. Juga n ilai ah deng Inovatif hargaan n Inovatif men tasi itu, neg finansial Rp 10,7 cukup, dan . Karena daer berdayaa 1. Daer omi bosan akan men adai lebih sani ng Pem bosa an Tero bahan peng rint ah dae ekonomi di erintah daeEkon tif Bida tidak mem tahun ini JPIP m perbaikan ekonomi mi kerugian ah deng ada tam rah dengan Tero Total Berbasis uhan n Inova yanan 2. Daer omi mengala tahun. Kerugian inya menempertumb imana upaya pemsi eko nom i Terobosa ng Pela Karena itu, ah daerah dala perubahan Ekon makan Dae dorong Sanitasi dengan tif Bida triliun perangkan lagi. Nila un. Kon disi n Inova Daerah Lokal dilihat baga akan dist ribu Dengan derja pemerint kat, mendorong yarakat Men 3. bosa kine erat dalam an Tero Ekonomi yara Bidang r mas kat ternyata menceng Rp 55,9 6 trili kan banyak kat. ah deng rah mem pelosok-pelosok. k terhenti di Inovatif sanitasi mas kerangka piki hi/mk) ka 4. Daer hatan bosan Masyara sanitasi masyarara mem adai dan an Tero n Kese bus ang tentu memprihatin selama ini Bidang hingga ke bangunan tida ah deng idika perilaku anitasi sehat. (red tasi Inovatif Masalah eles aika n seca 1 ini. Dari . pem 5. Daeryanan PendTerobosan r tersebut b, masalah sani tah daerah. mikian, paten-kota saja omi, peneliti m bers an Pela Dasa Bidang belu m ters asuki abad ke-2 at WS P ah deng ekon inistrasi k. Seba kabu pemerin g menem- dala n onjol Daer nan Adm lew pusat 6 fil Men a mem berdayaa i ebanyak218 piha d Ban k i rhatian

Inti kun melalu menjadi sum an daerah inovasi Mak kemaju tif JPIP Itu artinya 9. program. Direktur Ekseku nitoring 200 tar mo tulisan i pengan Berikut sebaga relatif fair,

Second is by collecting documents and program achievement. JPIP gains these data from SKPD that responsible for sanitation. Third is obthe servatio This technique is addressed to verify factually the informaservation. tion and data conveyed by SKPD. JPIP’ researchers, then, visit sanitation mbil program sites, observe its results, and conduct dialogues with direct PRD sa itasi si D benefic ciaries. Evalua presiasi San Fou is public survey. The purpose of public survey is to obtain Fourth Menga direct information from public. They are direct and indirect beneficiaries. JPIP cooperates with Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology J (UP3 ITS) Surabaya to conduct public survey in 38 regencies and (UP3D mun municipalities. Fi is existing data collection. These are program achievements Fifth as well as local budget support for sanitation. Then, JPIP processes w all of data and score them. Finally, JPIP combines and ranks all of sco are aimed to decide the award winner. scores One note, JPIP finally does not apply WSP’ existing indicators du to partial comprehensiveness. Several data, such as supply due c creation for craftsman training can only be found in regencies, n n in municipality. Thus, it is unfair for all districts. In addition, not Kebersiha pada Komitmen Mendorong JPIP has time limitation to incorporate all indicators. However, JPIP will prepare better in the next OA.
Februari Senin 2

Pos Jawa 2009

i Awards Otonom

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n dilak2009 aka i Award inovasi Otonom Mei nanti. Ada ana sanakan egoti award. Sar ada baru kat umum diti itasi prasarana san

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7

CHAPTER

3 FIELDWORK REPORT
3.1 Sanitation Improvement
During 1970’s, the family sanitation program was mainly physical oriented. The government provided sanitation facility aimed to increase the family’s sanitation quality. However, this program could not improve the degree of health. Yet, the prevalence of sanitation disease remains to be a problem. One of the causes is that the facility provision did not change community behaviour in tandem. Even though, they use toilets, it was easy, at the same time, to find poor sanitation habit. For instance, community remains to defecate openly though the government provides accessible healthy toilets. Thus, water and land pollution remain high. Learning from those experiences, the direction of sanitation development has changed. Based on the JPIP’s finding, districts in East Java have no longer focused more on giving subsidy in improving sanitation. Nonetheless, districts have attempted to raise awareness of sanitation behaviour. Majority of sanitation program emphasise on efforts to change people behaviour. In accelerating and socialising sanitation improvement, The Districts of Lumajang JPIP finds 46 programs and policies to increase sanitation in 38 regencies and muattempts to cooperate with non-government nicipalities. 36 of them focus on changing behaviour. Meanwhile, 12 programs are actors. One of the cators involved is local physical oriented. radio station, namely FM Radio Swara Semeru. The programs are dominated by efforts to achieve open defecation free (ODF). By This private owned radio involved to the end of 2008, 21 districts have implemented total sanitation and sanitation marketaccelerate ODF. The radio conducted ing (TSSM). This program mainly focuses on the improvement of people consciousa spectacular activity named 7S or the ness on having or using healthier toilet. construction of 1111 tolilets in one day. This TSSM was introduced firstly by Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) of the World attempt succeeded to be documented in Bank. This program is implemented voluntarily. Each district can propose a demand to Indonesia Record Museum (MURI) on 31 May 2008. The radio located the construction implement TSSM in its community. in seven villages and 26 sub-villages at the TSSM implementation is quite simple. TSSM is begun with a road show. This is a Pasirjambe sub-District. preliminary socialization relating to the objective of the program and approach. Road show is urgently undertaken since TSSM has significant difference from the previous programs that is physical oriented. Following the show, TSSM team conduct training for local (indigenous) facilitators from targeted areas. They are the main actor in implementing TSSM. Next, facilitators undertake triggering activities by using participatory method through empirical discussions among communities. Facilitators particularly seek to drive the transformation of sanitation behaviour leading to ODF. The final activity is monitoring. This activity is intentionally addressed to review the triggering output and outcome. Then, the next step is decisive discussion to accelerate ODF achievement.

1

TABLE 4. Sanitation Improvement in East Java in 2008
INDICATOR
✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦

PROGRAM/POLICIES REGENCY MUNICIPALITY
SToPS (TSSM) TSSM replication (Magetan, Sampang) Community Sanitation (Sanimas) Family Toilet (Jamban Keluarga) SME’s waste recycling (Pemanfaatan limbah IKM) Quality control of drinking water refill Healthy drinking water movement (GEMAS) Hand soap wash movement (CTPS) Cooperative of HIPPAMS (community water management and beneficiaries association) Socialisation of takakura Basket and Composting Clean water facilities for sanitation Community based waste management Following WSLIC program up Awarding on sanitation at the sub-district level ✦ Massive sanitation/providing communal septic tank ✦ Integrated and sustainable sanitation area management ✦ Sanitation at Pesantren (Islamic Boarding School) ✦ Community sanitation improvement ✦ Urban sanitation development program ✦ Community based solid waste management ✦ Clean river program ✦ Solid waste management improvement program ✦ Controlling the quality of water supply from local water supply enterprise ✦ Quality control of drinking water refill ✦ Awarding on community based solid waste management
Source: Primary data of Monitoring Otonomi Awards 2009

Sanitation Improvement

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TSSM does not only offer a new approach, but also provide flexibility and clear objective. Thus, TSSM can adjust to the specific condition of the community. JPIP discovers some districts and local communities’ efforts to modify TSSM implementation. Some of them give positive incentives to boost ODF achievement among communities and villages. In addition, Nganjuk, Lumajang, Pasuruan and Jombang compete ODF achievements and strategies among communities and villages. Meanwhile, the incentive awarded to the community or village is not merely financial incentive. In Trenggalek, each ODF village is awarded of Rp 5 million. Moreover, the head of district and its officers commit to attend every ODF declaration. Furthermore, Jombang, Sumenep, Pamekasan, Lumajang, Probolinggo, Nganjuk, Ponorogo, dan Pacitan have pursued the similar mechanism. The rise of community awareness is not only in using healthy toilet, but also other practices of sanitation pillars. For example, 15 districts have campaigned of hand soap washing. Besides, three districts have implemented community based solid waste management. They are Lamongan, Sidoarjo, Probolinggo, and Lumajang.

Public Survey
Public survey seeks to reveal community perceptions on pemda’s performance in implementing sanitation improvement, sanitation marketing, and sanitation institutionalisation. Perception is based on community observation and experiences on sanitation development initiative. The survey presents some positive statements, then, respondents give their responds to the statements. There are four possible perceptions as shown below: Each score of survey result is an aggregate of total 3,800 respondents in 38 districts in East Java. Each score represents respondents’ perceptions on the five main question, that are ferformance of sanitation improvement, sanitation marketing, and sanitation institutionalisation. As well, perceptions on the implementation of STBM principles and the determined factors to succeed sanitation programs . According to public survey result, JPIP finds that respondent agree to say that pemda has some efforts to raise community awareness on sanitation behaviour (chart 1). The score reaches 3.67. Five of six statements are justified 4 or agree by total respondents. It means respondents agree that pemda has shown their efforts to raise community awareness to use or to have healthy toilet, to improve capability to use healthy toilet (and communal septic tank), to raise awareness of hand soap washing, and to enhance community’s capability for accessing domestic clean water supply. Also, respondents confirm pemda’s efforts to raise awareness on solid waste management properly. 4 4 4 3.67 TABLE 5. 4 4 4

Perception score
SCORE 1 2 4 5

JUSTIFICATION
Very Disagree Disagree Agree Very Agree

3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Toilet Using Toilet Ownership Water Hand soap Supply washing Solid waste Liquid waste Average

2

CHART 1.
EFFORTS TO RAISE AWARENESS ON SANITATION
Source: Primary Data of Public Survey OA 2009

Raising Awareness

In fact, respondents disagree to remark on pemda’s performance in raising awareness on domestic liquid waste management. In other words, there have not efforts yet of pemda on domestic liquid waste management. Thus, it is a crucial note for pemda and other institutions to raise awareness of domestic liquid waste management in the near future.

3.2 Sanitation Marketing
Some regencies and municipalities have started sanitation marketing. However, the result is less in number than behaviour changes on sanitation. Activities to generate economic value added of sanitation improvement are limited in impact. Economic benefit has just impacted on small scale economy. One of the popular attempts is to create a supply network with material store. These supply networks are found in Jombang and Ponorogo. Other initiatives are plastic waste recycling to make hand bag and handicraft. JPIP find these initiatives in Surabaya, Pasuruan Regency, and Probolinggo Regency. As well, Kediri Regency conducts training for closet craftsmen. Meanwhile, some regencies and municipalities have provided walking toilet in public spaces, such as in traditional market and City Park. Indeed, pemda has not explored other marketing sanitation opportunities yet. It has not been able to promote sanitation market growth yet. Relating to solid waste management, till 2008, there are no pemdas enabling private solid waste transportation. As well, there is no

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pemda attempting to make enabling policies for emptying septic tank business, sewerage system business, and composting enterprises. In general, table 6 below shows efforts on sanitation marketing:

TABLE 6. Efforts on Sanitation Marketing in East Java in 2008
INDICATOR
✦ ✦ ✦ ✦ ✦

PROGRAM/POLICIES REGENCIES
Craftsman training Communal composting Recycling SME’s waste for liquid organic fertilizer Recycling plastic waste Creating supply networks with financial institution and material store ✦ Surveying and training closet craftsman

MUNICIPALITIES
✦ Recycling plastic waste ✦ Partnership between pemda and private sector in composting

Sanitation Marketing

Source: Primary data of Monitoring Otonomi Awards 2009

Survey public result is in line with those findings. Respondents perceive that sanitation marketing efforts have not run as smoothly as raising awareness on health sanitation. Respondents confirm that they do not agree that pemda has attempted to create enabling policies and programs of economic potency on sanitation. The average score of respondent perception is 2.8. According to public survey result, pemda has not seriously undertaken two efforts. First is pemda does not give local tax or retribution incentive to the private entities relating to sanitation improvement. Indeed, local government has privileged authority to give such incentive. Those incentives are expected to encourage the growth of sanitation market. Respondents also confirm that pemda has less attention to give more chances to enterprises in maintaining sanitation facilities of pemda’ building and other facilities (contacting out). Nevertheless, respondents agree that pemda has opened sanitation market in compost business. Pemda campaigns to use organic fertilizer for soil. However, rrespondents agree that pemda has served better for licensing process, particularly to sanitation business entities. There are no barriers in licensing process. Moreover, respondents agree that pemda has opened opportunities for private enterprises to make a partnership (public private partnership/PPP) in managing public sanitation facilities. For instances, pemda undertakes sharing of public toilet management in bus station, traditional market, and other public facilities. Municipality of Blitar, even, has involved a private enterprise in managing solid waste.

2

Supply networking in Jombang

In accelerating ODF, Health Office has attempted to make a cooperation between community and private entities in constructing healthy toilets. Cooperation between community and material store is an agreemen in providing discounted toilet materials. Even, the store give a chance for community to pay in installments. Two stores involving in this network supply are “ Toko Dua Putra”

in Pagerwojo Village and “Toko Lumintu” in Glagahan. Both stores are located in Perak Sub-district. The office also has created an initial network with a cooperative named “Koperasi Karya Sehat”. The cooperative will make a leasing cooperation with material stores in providing toliet material for community demands. Then, community will pay in installments to the cooperative.

4

CHART 2.
EFFORTS ON SANITATION MARKETING

4 4 2
Composting Insentive

3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5

4 2
PPP Contracting Out Average

SOURCE: PRIMARY DATA OF MONITORING OTONOMI AWARDS 2009

Licensing

2.8

1 0.5 0

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3.3 Sanitation Institutionalisation
Sanitation institutionalisation is relatively similar in all districts. 21 of 29 regencies implementing SToPS have formed coordination team on sanitation. The rests are in progress. Meanwhile, the institutionalisation in muncipalities is more similar than in regencies. In addition to form the same team, sustainability of sanitation improvement is relatively ensured due to strategic long-term sanitation planning (renstra). The two municipalities having the renstra are Blitar and Surabaya. Community distinctively has unique institutionalisation mechanism. In order to prevent poor sanitation behaviour return, two villages in Pacitan issued two village regulations in 2008. These villages enact sanctions for open defecators. Another interesting mechanism to boost ODF is by rewarding positive incentive. Pemda give financial incentive to ODF villages. Or, regents commit to attend every ODF declaration. These two sorts of incentive are effective enough to encourage ODF achievement among communities. In general, table 7 below shows sanitation institutionalisation programs:

TABLE 7. Sanitation Institutionalisation Efforts in East Java in 2008
INDIKATOR PROGRAMS/POLICIES REGENCY MUNICIPALITY
Institutionalisation by pemda:
✦ Forming The coordination team of SToPS at the district and sub-district level ✦ Forming School Health Unit (UKS) at the district and subdistrict level ✦ Institutionalising community based water supply association ✦ Forming Forum Kabupaten Sehat ✦ Mid-term development plan on sanitation ✦ Institutionalising Sanitation Development Plan ✦ Forming the sanitation team at the municipal level ✦ MoU between health office and local water supply enterprise to oversee the quality of domestic water supply ✦ Give sanctions to whom open defecate ✦ Awarding
Source: Primary data of Monitoring Otonomi Awards 2009

Sanitation Institutionalisation

Institutionalisation by community
✦ Give sanctions to whom open defecate ✦ Awarding

Public survey on institutionalisation sanitation is relatively better than sanitation marketing. The average score of perception reaches 3.25. Respondents agree that pemda has shown its efforts to sustain sanitation improvement. Respondents agree that pemda has formed a team to accelerate sanitation improvements. The team engages sanitarian as well as communities. JPIP finds that 85% of total 38 regencies and municipalities in East Java have had the team at the government level.

4

CHART 3.
UPAYA PELEMBAGAAN SANITASI
SUMBER: DATA PRIMER SURVEI PUBLIK OA 2009

4 2

3 4 4 4 4 4 3.25 2
ste e Av

2 1 0

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3

Distinguished Institutionalisation in Pacitan and Blitar
The village regulation of Poko number 6/2008 concerning ODF Program enacts sanctions for open defecators. The regulation obliges them to sweep village office floors. Meanwhile, in another village named Gedompol obliges for paying Rp 50 thousand or equal to 50 kg of cements to whom open defecate. This sanction is regulated in the Village regulation of Gedompol number 01/2009 concerning ODF. The similar mechanism is also used in the municipality of Blitar. The Sukorejo villagers agree to take pictures for everybody open defecating in the river. Then, they print and stick the picture on the village billboard. In order to implement the regulation, community shares to buy digital camera.

Respondents also show pemda’ supports on social sanction initiated by communities, including another support for composting activities by pemda, in terms of facilitation. Nonetheless, respondents do not agree about pemda’ encouragement to establish specific institution in community to sustain sanitation improvement in their neighbourhood. In other words, Pemda has not realised yet the importance of such institution. In fact, there are some pemdas having encouraged such institution. For example, in Lumajang, the regent issued a decree Number 188.45/271/427.12/2007 concerning sanitation and community based water supply management association of “Tirta Lestari”. This is a community based association consists of 46 groups of ex-WSLIC-2 location programs. This association has demonstrated its roles in providing domestic water supply independently. The last five questions explore pemda’ efforts to promote cooperation among communities in achieving the five pillars of total sanitation. Among those pillars, respondents do not agree to the statement that pemda has attempted to support cooperation among communities as well as pemda in managing domestic liquid waste. That perception is consistent with the previous answers relating to sanitation improvements. Efforts to encourage better domestic liquid waste management have not undertaken seriously yet. Thereby, this finding becomes a recommendation to be followed up by focusing more on domestic liquid waste management.

3.4 The Implementation of Community Based Total Sanitation Principles (STBM)
The implementation of community based total sanitation program has 6 principles as guidance to be applied, namely: 1. The improvement of pemda’ and other stakeholders supports 2. Creating clean and sanitary live style of community 3. Improving sanitation facilities 4. Sustaining local indigenous and wisdom 5. Abolishing subsidy for facilities provision 6. Involving community in monitoring and evaluation

Banner of community’s commitment to improve sanitation at Glagahan Village, Perak Sub-district, Jombang.

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JPIP, then, confirms the implementation of these principles to the respondents. JPIP inquiries about pemda’ efforts to improve sanitation, sanitation marketing, and sanitation institutionalisation. Pemda has referred to five of six principles. Respondents say that the second principle has not applied yet. In this survey, JPIP translates the second principle into any effort of pemda to give positive incentive (award) to community’ involvements. Community can possibly involve to improve and to sustain sanitation improvement. In fact, some regencies and municipalities have applied this principle. Respondents in Surabaya, Malang regency and municipality, Jombang, Nganjuk, Lumajang, Probolinggo Municipality, and Lamongan testify that this principle has been applied. Thus, other 30 regencies have to follow these regencies and municipalities’ efforts to give positive incentives on community involvement in improving sanitation.
4.0

CHART 4.
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF STBM PRINCIPLES

3.0 2.0 1.0

3

4

4

4

4 2
Partnership

4
Incentive Participation

SOURCE: PRIMARY DATA OF MONITORING OTONOMI AWARDS 2009

0

Average

Curriculum Social Solidarity Participation in Monev

3.5 Determined Factors to Succeed Sanitation Programs
According to JPIP’s study in 2007, the dominant role of head of districts contributes to 73.2% of decision to execute district’s innovation. In other words, head of district is the main decision maker on the implementation of innovation. Indeed, SKPD contributes to 50 percent of the innovative idea. Meanwhile, head of district contributes to 30.1 percent of innovative idea. Public survey reveals the similar finding. Respondents confirm that determined factor to succeed sanitation improvement programs is mainly the commitment of head of district. 58.65 percent of respondent confirm this statement. Following commitment head of district is local budget commitment confirmed by 7.33 percent of respondents. The next is community participation confirmed by 6.64 percent of respondents. These huge gaps show strong dependency on head of district’ commitments in improving sanitation. This is an ironic finding as sanitation improvement programs have been claimed to involve more community roles. In fact, the success remains to depend on individual commitment of head of district. Then, it is a crucial point to creativelly find other strategies to highly improve determined factors of community. JPIP believes that the more community participation, the higher prospective sustainability of sanitation improvement programs in terms of policy and implementation.
0 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00
58.65 6.09 4.95 2.52 1.05 1.88 6.64 1.92 7.33 2.01 2.43 3.53 1.01
SOURCE: PRIMARY DATA OF MONITORING OTONOMI AWARDS 2009

Commitment Rule of Law Competence SKPD synergy Incentive Transparency Participation DPRD's Commitment APBD Allocation Socialisation Community's Commitment Program Design Supports

CHART 5
DETERMINATION TO SUCCEED SANITATION PROGRAM

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Communal septic tank at the Nurul Ulum Islamic Boarding School, Blitar Municipality.

3.6 Local Budget Commitment on Sanitation
JPIP attempts to know pemda’s commitment on sanitation improvement by inquiring local budget (APBD) allocation. Thus, it is not only about head of district’s commitment to succeed sanitation improvement, but also local council (DPRD)’s support in enacting the budget. Therefore, sanitation is an important priority in local development. JPIP applies two indicators to know local budget commitment. First is the amount of local budget allocation compares to direct expenditure (non-salary expenditure). Second is the analysis of comparison between sanitation budget allocation and the percentage of poor population in a district. The first indicator is intended to know to what extent the commitment of pemda in improving sanitation. Local budget accumulation addressed to the five pillars of sanitation development can demonstrate this commitment. However, after verifying APBD, sanitation improvement programs are also funded by the national government. For example, National government allocates specific grant (DAK) for improving water supply programs. Madiun Regency, Magetan, Trenggalek, Kota Blitar and Kota Pasuruan receive DAK for sanitation improvement. These districts shall allocate sharing budget for 10 percent of total DAK. The other indicator seeks to assess pro-poor sanitation improvement. It founds on an assumption that the poor is very rampant to be ignored in accessing health sanitation due to its less capability. Thus, the more number of the poor should be followed by the higher budget allocation for sanitation. However, that budget is allocated more on physical sanitation facilities than behaviour change orientation. JPIP identifies such indications from the title of the program as well as the office to execute the program, such as the office of public works and the office of cleaning and park service office. Table 8 demonstrates the amount of APBD allocation on sanitation improvement, especially for construction. All of districts in East Java allocate sanitation improvement budget.1 The amount ranges from Rp 141 million to Rp 18.2 billion. In general, the average of APBD allocation for sanitation in East Java is Rp 4.750.422.706 million. Based on this average allocated budget, there are only 14 districts allocating budget more than the average. On the contrary, 24 districts allocate less than the average. Sidoarjo is the most committed to allocate budget on sanitation and Tuban is the least one. Even though Sidoarjo has the biggest commitment on budget allocation, in fact, Batu Municipality has the highest ratio of budget on sanitation compared to total direct budget (non-salary). Batu is followed by Probolinggo Municipality, Trenggalek, Malang Municipality, and Probolinggo Regency .Chart 6 shows the rank of this ratio. Tuban has the least ratio of budget on sanitation compared to total direct budget (non-salary). It only allocates 0.0002 percent of
1 These data is distinctivelly for Jember, since JPIP could not access APBD 2008. Then, JPIP assess budget allocation on sanitation based on the APBD 2007.

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RANKING
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

DISTRICTS
Sidoarjo Trenggalek Malang Kota Probolinggo Kota Banyuwangi Batu Malang Probolinggo Gresik Jombang Bondowoso Pasuruan Kediri Kota Lamongan Jember Tulungagung Kediri Bangkalan Pacitan Sampang Pasuruan Kota Magetan Ponorogo Ngawi Blitar Mojokerto Sumenep Madiun Blitar Kota Mojokerto Kota Madiun Kota Bojonegoro Situbondo Nganjuk Surabaya Lumajang Pamekasan Tuban

TOTAL BUDGET (RP)
18.247.134.625 14.092.235.000 13.356.060.130 9.438.072.000 8.917.923.700 7.831.287.100 7.383.306.000 7.274.530.000 6.253.553.855 5.797.051.000 5.065.812.400 4.935.900.000 4.850.432.000 4.751.864.300 4.551.449.949 4.503.060.000 4.430.956.000 4.227.250.000 4.182.500.000 3.660.051.000 3.598.730.600 3.392.235.000 3.253.000.000 3.052.500.000 2.926.666.650 2.661.050.961 2.644.013.908 2.593.250.000 2.202.900.000 2.166.388.900 1.778.584.000 1.632.819.190 1.366.500.000 1.270.750.000 877.769.468 772.475.100 435.000.000 141.000.000

TABLE 8.
District’s Budget Allocation on Sanitation in 2008
total direct budget. In contrary, Lumajang has the second smallest budget commitment on sanitation. Its ratio only reaches 0,001 percent. Meanwhile, the average ratio of budget on sanitation compared to total direct budget among districts in East Java can reach 0.0085 percent. 14 districts have the ratio above this average. Chart 7 shows the ratio of sanitation budget compared to the number of the poor in each district. The average ratio among districts in East Java is 0.139. It means the poor has better chance to receive budget allocation on sanitation for 0,139 percent. Probolinggo Regency allocates the highest budget compared to other districts. The ratio can reach 0.429. Trenggalek position the second rank with the ratio of 0.422. Then, according to the average ratio among districts in East Java, 25 districts allocate sanitation budget under this average. Tuban has the weakest commitment on this indicator. Despite, there is no sanction for district giving less commitment on sanitation improvement. These data have shown empirical situation of the low commitment on sanitation development, specially, compared to the number of the poor.

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CHART 6.
THE RATIO OF BUDGET ON SANITATION COMPARED TO TOTAL DIRECT BUDGET (%)

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ACCELERATING THE CHANGE: SELECTING BEST PRACTICES TO PROMOTE TOTAL SANITATION AND SANITATION MARKETING (TSSM) IN EAST JAVA

CHART 7.
THE RATIO OF SANITATION BUDGET COMPARED TO THE NUMBER OF THE POOR IN EACH DISTRICT

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CHAPTER

4 THE AWARDEES AND JUSTIFICATION

n this new parameter, there is a tight competition among regions in East Java. The difference of total score among five nominees is almost same. The average difference score among them is 13.8 only. Even, the difference score between Pacitan (4th rank) and Kediri (5th rank) is 2 only. The ranking composed of three data sources, namely public survey, innovation and existing condition. A region might have the low score for existing condition. However, public survey and innovation are high. It is happened to Lumajang. The position of this region is supported by the high score of innovation and public survey. In fact, the existing condition score is very low. JPIP explains the profile of each nominee as well as the ranking below:

I

1. LUMAJANG REGENCY
Lumajang is awarded Otonomi Award (OA) as the Region with an Innovative Breakthrough in Promoting Community-Led Total Sanitation. Nganjuk Regency, Blitar Municipality, Pacitan Regency and Kediri Regency respectively follow Lumajang. Lumajang Regency has the high score of innovation and public survey. Though, the score of existing data is at the second lowest compared to all districts. Total score of this region is 708. It consists of 354 for public survey, 354 for innovation and 2 for existing condition. Innovation score donates to the total score. The innovations of Lumajang is an initiation to integrate several programs lead to TSSM. They are improvement of better access to healthy toilets, raising awareness of hand soap washing, community based solid waste management, networking among actors, and limited implementation of domestic liquid waste management. The most competitive point of Lumajang compared to other districts is an integrated approach to total sanitation. Each office has sanitation content program. Lumajang started sanitation development prior to CLTS intervention. However, the development just covered 51.9 percent of need, since this is physically oriented than raising awareness. Pemda firstly conducted a training for trainer for communy facilitators as the preliminary activity in 2005. They consist of community leaders. The training took two sub-villages in Purworejo Village sub-district of Senduro as the fieldwork sites. They practiced CLTS approach to drive ODF in these two sub-villages. Pemda continued to train other facilitators at the level of sub-district in 2006. They are facilitators at Pronojiwo, Gucialit, dan Senduro sub-district. The participants are sanitary staff of Community health care, public works offices at the level of sub-district, School teachers, and other sub-district staffs. As the result of these activities, Gucialit sub-district declared ODF in 2007. As well, in 2007, Lumajang strated to implement SToPS (TSSM). There have been improvements attained from 2005 to 2008. That are toilet access improvement and community participation improvement. Healthy toilet access raised from 50.9 percent 84.17 percent. Active communities in line with ODF mision can reach 209 communities. Meanwhile, ODF village can reach 29 villages of 76 involved villages. Two sub-districts had reached ODF, namely Gucialit dan Senduro for 6 months in 2008. As well, Community contribution to achieve ODF can reach Rp 1.3 billion. This success strory, then, inspires other villages to apply the same approace to achive ODF. The Regent and staffs ussually attend ODF declaration to appreciate community. The attendance can encourage more other villages and communities to achieve ODF. Pemda also conducts training of hand soap wahing in schools. Pemda use School health related teacher to promote this habit. In addition pemda publishes poster concerning hand soap washing. In this activity, pemda engages PT Indosat and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) to boost this habit. In 2008, helath office undertaken basic sanitation survey. Health office attempt to collech evaluation data on sanitation as well as develop data base on sanitation applied for thev future sanitation policy. Pemda also endorse community water supply association aimed to contribute more to sanitation development. In 2008, there are 46 association servicing communities to access clean water. The regent issued regent’s decree number 18 8.45/271/427.12/2007 to meet all of community associations into comunity based water supply associations “ Tirto Lestari” at the district level. One of success associations is “Tirto Mandiri”. This association can cover water supply service for five villages, which are Krasak, Kalisemut, Dadapan, Gucialit, Meraan, and Kenongo. Each custumer should pay for Rp 5 million to get water access. This association can collect community contribution for total Rp 250 million. In addition, Health office conducted basic sanitation survey in 2008. The survey collected crucial data relating to sanitation existing condition per household in Lumajang. In addition to evaluate sanitation improvement, other offices can benefit this survey result as the basic data for other developments related needs.

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Lumajang has also undertaken solid waste management. Pemda creates a cooperation between cleaning and park office and community. Each sub-village has garbage cart to collect solid waste from households. In the rural areas, pemda introduces compost management gor organic waste. In addition to solid waste, several villages have started to manage domestic liquid waste. One key succees of sanitation development in Lumajang is the involvement of non-government actors. Thet consist of Lumajang Healt Forum (FLS), Tirto Lestari community based water supply Association, local radio station, Private sectors (PT Indosat and PT Unilever), community fasilitators, and donor agency (JICA). Another key succees is that local offices (SKPD) integrate sanitation into development policies. Local offices, such as, Industry and Trade office, Healt Office, Education and Culture Office, Public Works Office have sanitation related programs. In addition, the office of public relations campaign ODF in cooperate with “Swara Lumajang” Radio Station as well as at the pemda’ webiste at www.lumajang. go.id. Meanwhile, information and communication office socialise ODF through Community information Groups (KIM). Other offices and agencies involved are cooperative and SME’s office, Community empowerment office, environmental office, Religious Office, and Laocal Developmen Planning Agency.

2. NGANJUK REGENCY
Nganjuk positions the second rank in this parameter. Nganjuk can accumulate total score of 708. This regency has firstly implemented sanitation program in 1975. This program emphasised more on physical oriented development charity. The government did not touch awareness and behaviour aspects of sanitation. Thus, this approach led to failure of the program. Reflecting on this failure, Nganjuk adopted CLTS in 2006. This new approach focuses more on raising awareness of community to the need of sanitation. As the pioneer, CLTS was conducted in 30 communities (sub-village) in 7 sub-districts.

TABLE 9. CLTS Locations in Nganjuk
FIRST PHASE
No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

SECOND PHASE
Locations
4 sub-villages in di 4 villages 4 sub-villages in di 4 villages 4 sub-villages in di 4 villages 4 sub-villages in di 4 villages 5 sub-villages in di 5 villages 5 sub-villages in di 5 villages 4 sub-villages in di 4 villages

Sub-Districts
Jatikalen Lengkong Sukomoro Nganjuk Bagor Berbek Sawahan

No
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Sub-Districts
Gondang Baron Rejoso Wilangan Ngluyu Patianrowo Pace Ngronggot

Locations
2 sub-villages 4 sub-villages 1 sub-villages 1 sub-villages 1 sub-villages 1 sub-villages 1 sub-villages 1 sub-villages

Pemda incorporates sanitation policy into all sectors of development. It is supported by several offices, such as Health office, Education office, and Local Development Planning Agency. Each office has commitment to succeed CLTS. Two months after the coordination meeting among offices, pemda conducted TSSM training in January 2008. The participants came from 7 sub-districts. Each sub-district sent 5 participants. Theyoriginated from Puskemas, TABEL 10. Public Works office at the sub-district level, sanitation agency at the sub-district level, vilODF Sub-Villages in Nganjuk lage empowering agency at the sub-district level, PKK at the sub-district level, and NGO’s such as NU and Fattayat. NO SUB-VILLAGE VILLAGE Budgeting policy can show pemda’s commitment to promote sanitation. Pemda al1 Sumbergondang Perning located Rp 93,065,000 in 2009 (DAU). As well, pemda recieved Rp 99,095,000 from the 2 Karangasem Balonpacul national government (DAK) for sanitation program. Tpemda spent this budget on training of facilitators, triggering ODF at the community 3 Karangasem Gandu level, and program monitoring and evaluation. The local government did not provide 4 Barenggeneng Bareng money to stimulate community. Surprisingly, people were able to donate independently. It can reach Rp 547,000,000 in total. It means that, Rp 1 from local government can stimu5 Pulowetan Dlururejo late community participation for Rp 5,50. 6 Mlaten Ngrami By the end of December 2008, two villages declared ODF, that are Perning Village in 7 Songsong Jatikalen Jatikalen sub-district and Bareng Village in Sawahan sub-district. Perning Village only took 3 months to achieve ODF. villagers have changed their behav8 Plosorejo Kapas iour. They declared ODF on March, 15, 2008. Perning Village has three sub-village, Sum9 Meko Sidokare bergondang, Perning, and Seloguno. Sumbergondang was the first sub-village declaring ODF. 10 Tondowesi Pule The communities in two others sub-villages collaborated to build toilets. The head of village warned communities in these two sub-villages to work quickly. If don’t, he will ask the people from Sumbergondang sub-district to build them toilets.

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After seeing the spirit from the people, local government then gave incentives. Local government built clean water facility in Sumbergondang sub-village. In Perning sub-village and Seloguno sub-village, pemda promised to build roads. In order to sustain this improvement, Village issued a sanction on 15 March 2008. To whom open defecate, village will fine Rp 100 thousand per person. This program also drives other sector, marketing sanitation. Sanitarians in Jatikalen sub-village and Gondang sub-sub-village have designed healthy and inexpensive toilet. It costs Rp 750 thousand only. The marketing network has spread into several sub-districts such as Jatikalen, Lengkong, Gondang, Ngluyu, and Baron. Till 2008, two thousands toilets have been built by using this model.

3. BLITAR MUNICIPALITY
Blitar Municipality positions the 3rd rank with total score 678. It consists of 357 from public survey, innovation 320, and existing data 17. Public survey donates most to the accumulation score. Blitar has aprogram “The Increase of Sanitation Quality for the Poor”. Some areas are becoming the locus, such as Kelurahan Sukorejo, or Kelurahan Pakunden, Sukorejo. Both kelurahan are located in Sukorejo Sub-District2. Sanitation improvement in Blitar is focused on the poor. They have special qualifications, such as poor sanitation and poor condition. It is collaborated with local government program to fight against poverty (GPMK). In GPMK program which has been declared in November 2008, sanitation is one of the programs. It has been signed by six mayors in Indonesia, who received Indonesia Sanitation Sector Development Program (ISSDP). Efforts to promote sanitation, such as controlling pollution and environmental damage, raises by using Sanimas Program, and sanitation quality mapping. The mapping conducted in over populated areas. Local government also monitors the implementation of this program according to strategic plan. Municipality government also develops waste management. Such as, by making waste management master plan, increasing the waste management, and monitoring of the waste management master plan. Residents also involve in waste management, campaign to use less plastic bags, community to care waste and the environment, and so on.

4. PACITAN REGENCY
Pacitan positions 4th rank among 38 districts in East Java. It is supported by score of public survey 329, 312 for innovation and 20 for existing data. Comparing to other four districts, Pacitan has the highest score in existing data. SToPS is one of innovative programs. It has been started since 2007. Like SToPS in other regions in East Java, it is always started with training amongst the facilitators in district level, sub-district level and village level. It consists of sanitarian from puskesmas, posyandu member, and so on. Then, locations were defined in three sub-districts.

Mrs. Ratna Josodipoero from WSP The World Bank and the Governor of East Java, Mr. Soekarwo, (right corner) with the awardees, including the best performer on sanitation, the Regent of Lumajang, Mr. Sharazad Masdar (the 3rd from right).
2 Kelurahan has the same level with Desa (Village). It is an urban term for desa

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Lumajang Nganjuk Blitar Kota Pacitan Kediri Malang Kota Trenggalek Lamongan Pamekasan Malang Mojokerto Kota Jombang Probolinggo Kota Magetan Surabaya Kota Sampang Blitar Tulungagung Bondowoso Bojonegoro Ponorogo Probolinggo Ngawi Batu Kota Sumenep Kediri Kota Sidoarjo Pasuruan Bangkalan Banyuwangi Mojokerto Gresik Madiun Madiun Kota Pasuruan Kota Situbondo Tuban Jember

354 349 357 329 336 354 284 295 301 354 321 329 354 286 307 270 312 313 312 257 288 322 280 360 291 347 305 283 254 314 301 306 290 315 277 304 260 291

0

375
341 320 312 303 283 345 317 303 260

750
2 3 17 20 8 23 42 18 32 8

1,125
708 690 678 641

1,500

354

639 637 629 612 604 602 581 579 570 570 565 563 558 556 550 550 549 547 545 539 533 525 523 517 488

247 11 250 12 215 35 284 11 258 6 292 21 246 14 243 11 238 18 293 9 261 14 225 41 265 9 178 31 242 18 178 11 8 218 20 234 10 234 19 167 23 7 178 11 8 165 19 5 178 8 15112 1 178 18 8 141 3 1 178 4 14116 1

481 480 471 469 466 455 446 439 432

CHART 8.
RANK OF DISCTRICTS ON THE PARAMETER OF SANITATION

Survai Publik PUBLIC SURVEY

Inovasi INNOVATION

Eksisting EXISTING

Total TOTAL

The three sub-districts are Pringkuku, Donorojo and Punung. The three sub-districts are located in western Pacitan. Water in these three regions is very scare, dry, and stony. 10 villages in each sub-district have been chosen. The natural leaders such as teachers, religious leader, and others have important role to implement this program. The trigger has been done in February 2008. The result, 91 from 117 sub-villages have declared ODF. 10 villages also has declared ODF, five villages in Donorojo, four villages in Pringkuku sub-district and one village in Punung sub-district. ODF declaration in three villages was attended by the regent (Soko and Poko in Pringkuku and Gedongpol, Donorojo). In 2007, local government has allocated Rp. 25 million for SToPS program, and Rp. 50 million in 2008. For the sustainability of this ODF, each village has different sanction. It is proposed that they would not return in previous habit. For example, in Poko village, Pringkuku, the head of village has passed Village Regulation Number 6/2008 about Institutionalization of ODF. If they are back to previous habit, they have to clean the floor of village office.

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Meanwhile, in Gedompol, Donorojo, head of village has issued Village Regulation (Perdes) Number 1/2009 about Open Defecation Free. In this Perdes, people who break the regulation have to pay for Rp 50 thousand. It ios equal to one zak cement. The implementation of STOPS still deals with several obstacles. Such as, Community’ mindset (attitude) is relatively difficult to change as well as geographic barriers. Open defecation habit can be found, occasionally, even though they have toilet.

5. KEDIRI REGENCY
The fifth rank from this parameter is Kediri Regency. Total score is 639. Public survey score is 336, 303 for public survey and 8 for existing condition. Sanitation was pioneered in Kediri In 2001 by WSLIC-2 program implementation. For five years, this program has reached 55 villages from 35 target villages. CLTS was started in this regency in 2007. Both CLTS and STOPS have been implemented in 19 sub-districts. But, only seven sub-districts participate intensively. They involve community organizations such as Fattayat, Muslimat, NU, PKK and other organisations. One of the programs is toilet bowl production. It is not expensive to make bowl. The Health office has trained several people to make toilet bowl. They have already separated urine from faeces. It can also be used to make organic fertilizer. One pack of cement could produce 14 toilet bowls. It means that one toilet bowl only needs Rp 5 thousand. Community also modified the program by cooperate with some supplier stores. So, they can pay for the lower prices.

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TABEL 11. Rank of Districts on thr Parameter of Sanitation
RANK
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

DISTRICT
Lumajang Nganjuk Blitar Kota Pacitan Kediri Malang Kota Trenggalek Lamongan Pamekasan Malang Mojokerto Kota Jombang Probolinggo Kota Magetan Surabaya Kota Sampang Blitar Tulungagung Bondowoso Bojonegoro Ponorogo Probolinggo Ngawi Batu Kota Sumenep Kediri Kota Sidoarjo Pasuruan Bangkalan Banyuwangi Mojokerto Gresik Madiun Madiun Kota Pasuruan Kota Situbondo Tuban Jember

PUBLIC SURVEY
354 349 357 329 336 354 284 295 301 354 321 329 354 286 307 270 312 313 312 257 288 322 280 360 291 347 305 283 254 314 301 306 290 315 277 304 260 291

INNOVATION
354 341 320 312 303 283 345 317 303 247 260 250 215 284 258 292 246 243 238 293 261 225 265 178 242 178 218 234 234 167 178 165 178 151 178 141 178 141

EXISTING
2 3 17 20 8 23 42 18 32 11 8 12 35 11 6 21 14 11 18 9 14 41 9 31 18 11 20 10 19 23 11 19 8 12 18 3 0,4 16

TOTAL
708 690 678 641 639 637 629 612 604 602 581 579 570 570 565 563 558 556 550 550 549 547 545 539 533 525 523 517 488 481 480 471 469 466 455 446 439 432

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CHAPTER

5 RECOMMENDATION:
5.1 Important Findings

STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE SANITATION IN EAST JAVA

By deepening fieldwork and public survey result as well as document analyses, JPIP remarks several critical notes which shall be found its solutions. Firstly, the implementation of sanitation improvement following governance of sanitation has effectively promoted sanitation improvement. Flexibility of SToPS implementation can follow local specific contexts. JPIP finds an argument that by performing flexibly, SToPS has allowed consultation and negotiation between pemda and community. Thus, the decision to improve sanitation is highly accepted. As well, the community has a sense of belonging to the program Nevertheless, the domination of head of districts in decision making to improve sanitation is a preliminary weakness. Since the domination can create an independency to succeed sanitation improvement. In fact, the high committed head of district has positively impacted on sanitation improvement. Secondly, there is a less initiative on sanitation marketing. The district initiatives emphasised more on behaviour change and sanitation institutionalisation. The districts have not realised yet economic potency beyond sanitation improvement. Thereby, sanitation marketing strategies have not been explored yet. Finally, among the five pillars of sanitation, majority of districts have not undertaken domestic liquid waste management improvement. JPIP does not find many initiatives on domestic liquid waste management improvement. As well, public survey result has shown the similar data. It is necessary, then, to reveal the problems or barriers hampering the initiatives to occur. Why such initiatives are have not been priorities in sanitation improvement? Are there other obstacles faced by community?

5.2 Policies to Improve Sanitation
According to the previous arguments, pemda and community remain to face challenges in improving community based sanitation. Thus, JPIP proposes some relevant recommendations to be critically assessed and followed them up at the district level. First is the importance of pemda’ breakthroughs aimed to endorse sanitation marketing. Pemda can give positive incentives to communities, cooperatives, and private enterprises to make business on sanitation work. Incentive is not merely financial incentive or subsidy from government, but also enabling policies to stimulate sanitation marketing. Next, pemda relies more on formal policies in improving sanitation. According to fieldwork result, JPIP states that ODF achievements rely more on the community participation. Formal regulation cannot easily boost sanitation improvement. Therefore, the role of alternative to policies is urgently needed. For instance, pemda undertakes public campaign engaging non-government actors as well as mass media. It is logical as non-government actors dynamically follow the change. Third is to arrange sanitation development system for the near future. The sanitation development system is addressed to release

All head of districts of the award winners with Minister of Home Affairs Mr. Mardiyanto, Governor of East Java, Mr. Soekarwo, Deputy of Governor, Syaifullah Yusuf, and CEO of Jawa Pos, Dahlan Iskan.

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ACCELERATING THE CHANGE: SELECTING BEST PRACTICES TO PROMOTE TOTAL SANITATION AND SANITATION MARKETING (TSSM) IN EAST JAVA

from the dependency on the willingness and commitment of head of district on sanitation improvement. Therefore, pemda can keep sustaining sanitation improvement program though head of districts are periodically changing. Next, pemda needs to find the best solution to handle the problem of domestic liquid waste management. JPIP proposes to undertake several pilot projects of domestic liquid waste management improvement at the level of community. Pemda, then, can transfer knowledge and experience gained from the best prototype projects to others communities. Finally, pemda needs more creativity to design positive incentives for communities that can accelerate sanitation improvement. The forms of Incentives are not merely financial incentives. Pemda can also give more attention and seriousness to appreciate community involvement and achievement in improving sanitation.

5.3 Closing Notes: Proving Governance of Sanitation
Optimal sanitation governance has succeeded to endorse ODF achievement. Efforts to improve sanitation have involved various stakeholders from different background. The role of pemda is not dominant anymore. Thus, communication between communities, local governments, donors, and other parties are very urgent. Every party has the same level. There is no party higher than others. Thereby, equal relation among stakeholders can attract community to participate. Also, relating to policy making, the decision to implement better sanitation comes voluntarily from the local community. There are negotiations and consultations in deciding policy choice to run TSSM. Pemda and donor offer program only. Thus, community supports are the most resource needed. Finally, among communities agree about compliance guarantee. there are no formal sanctions to be committed to the community. Indeed, social sanctions are issued by community are remarkably effective. However, is it right that achievement of ODF is determined by the role of community and local government partnership? What about the strong role of donor? JPIP found a factor also determining the success of TSSM implementation. It is the head of district’s commitment. Head of district commitment can explain the amount of APBD allocation on sanitation, other achievement, and other pemda’s policies. The intensive and high commitment of head of district can endorse ODF achievement. The regent of Trenggalek is one of the most encouraged regents to achieve ODF. Trenggalek has targeted to be totally ODF in 2010. In fact, Trenggalek just began TSSM in November 2007. The dependency on this commitment is a challenge to sanitation improvement, as it can reduce the sustainability of sanitation improvement. Thus, negotiation and consultation between community and pemda seem to be meaningless to succeed sanitation improvement. There should be another systematic mechanism to reduce this dependency.

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The Jawa Pos Institute of Pro-Otonomi (JPIP) is an independent and non-profit organisation that was founded by Jawa Pos Group in 2001. JPIP intensively conducts monitoring and evaluation of local autonomy implementation. JPIP applies ‘progressive decentralisation approach’ to endorse local governments to create innovation in local economic development, public service, local political performance, environmental management, and poverty alleviation. JPIP augmented a new parameter on sanitation in 2009. These six parameters are references to assess local advancement in 38 districts in East Java, 40 districts in Central Java and Yogyakarta, 13 districts in East Kalimantan, and 23 districts in South Sulawesi. JPIP annually presents otonomi awards to districts having the best performance in each indicator.

Graha Pena Building suite 801, Jl Ahmad Yani 88 Surabaya phone (031) 820 2038, 820 2164 fax (031) 820 2081email otonomi@jpip.or.id

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