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Slider Crank Linkage
that are connected by j-hinges or sliding joints to form a mechanism. and ϕi is the angle of the x-axis of Mi measured relative to the x-axis of F. . so M = 3j-2j-3 = j-3. where di is the coordinate vector of the origin of the frame Mi. If we include the ﬁxed frame as one of the bodies. so N = n+1 and subtract its three parameters then: M = 3N-2j-3. using three parameters Ti = (di. There are M = 3n of these parameters. so M = 3n – 2j.Linkage Mobility A linkage is a connection of n-rigid bodies Bi. Simple closed chain: N = j. so M = 3(j+1)-2j-3. attached to body Bi. Serial chain: N = j+1. ϕi). Each of the rigid bodies Bi can be located in a world reference frame F. i =1…n. Each hinge or sliding joint constrains two of these parameters.
(3/2)N-3. M = 3: j = (3N-6)/2. 8): seven-bar linkage (9. 5): ﬁve-bar linkage (pentagon) (7. This has a solution for even N (4. This has whole number solutions for even N (j = 4 for N = 4): four bar linkage (quadrilateral) (6. . 3): four-bar open chain (3R robot) (6.10): eight bar linkage. j = (3/2)N – 2.Degrees of Freedom The formula M = 3N-2j-3 allows us to determine the number of links and joints (N. M = 2: j = (3N-5)/2. 7): six bar linkage (8. 11): nine-bar linkage. This has whole number of solutions for odd N (5. 6): six-bar closed chain (hexagon) (8. j) in a mechanism to obtain a speciﬁc mobility. M = 1: j = (3N-4)/2. 9): eight-bar parallel platform.
The Slider-Crank Linkage Let R denote a hinge joint and P a sliding joint (prismatic). A four-bar linkage with four revolute joints forms a quadrilateral. RRRP. and PRRP linkages: The RRRP is the slider-crank linkage. These ﬁgures show an RRRR. and the PRRP is called a double slider linkage. . These are the initials in revolute joint and prismatic joint. which are the technical names of these joints. A four-bar linkage that has a prismatic joint forms a triangle.
The PRRR is actually the same as the RRRP.Inversions of the Slider-Crank Cyclic permutation of the joints RRRP to obtain RRPR. and the RPRR (up right) is called a turning block. The RRPR (up left) called an inverted slider-crank. RPRR. and PRRR is the same as changing which link of the four-bar loop is to be the ground link. Each of these is called an inversion of the slider-crank linkage. .
Then. it is generally convenient to consider the slider movement s as either the input or output parameter. let deﬁne as θ the rotation of the crank.Linkage Frames for Slider-Cranks For a slider-crank and its inversions. even if it is not moving relative to the ground link. .
Constraint Equation for a Slider-Crank For slider-crank linkages the constraint equation can take several forms. If the slider is an input or output link. The quadratic formula yields two values of slider position s for each value of the input crank angle θ. then the constraint equation is given by the distance between the two moving pivots of the connecting rod AB. . The range of crank angles that yield real values for s is deﬁned by the discriminant of the quadratic formula.
. Position Loop Equations: yields the angle Velocity Loop Equations The velocity loop equations can be written as the matrix equation and solved using Cramer’s rule.Loop Equations for a Slider-Crank Once the output slide s has been determined using the slider-crank constraint equation. The position and velocity loop equations for a slider-crank are obtained in the same way as for a 4R linkage. the position loop equations are used to compute the coupler angle φ.
s.Acceleration Loop Equations The values of θ. dθ/dt = ωθ and d2θ/dt2 = αθ are known input parameters to the motion of the slider-crank linkage. so the acceleration loop equations can be rearranged into the form. . • Thus. ds/dt are determined by solving the position and velocity loop equations. and dφ/dt = ωφ. the parameters Kx and Ky are known and the acceleration loop equations are solved using Cramer s rule. Acceleration Loop Equations: These equations can be assembled into the matrix equation: • The values for φ.
Machine components designed to manage forces and movement in this way are called mechanisms. then power in equals power out yields the relationship Mechanical advantage is a measure of the force ampliﬁcation achieved by using a tool. .Mechanical Advantage of a Slider Crank (performance) The derivative of the constraint equations yields a relationship between the input angular velocity and output velocity: This yields the speed ratio: R Let the input torque be Tin = Fin r. the device preserves the input power and simply trades off forces against movement to obtain a desired ampliﬁcation in the output force. Ideally. mechanical device or machine system.
. pumps.Slider Crank: Applications (pistons. etc. power/spark plug. compressors. compression. This force moves the piston over a distance transforming chemical into mechanical energy. The expansion of high temperature and high pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to a piston. Four-stroke engines: Piston completes four separate strokes during two separate revolutions (intake.) Internal Combustion Engine: Engine in which the burning of a fuel occurs with air in a combustion chamber. exhaust).
. Instead. The discriminant of quadratic formula deﬁnes the range values for the crank angle θ . The slider position s for each value of the input crank angle θ is computed using the quadratic formula.Inverted Slider Crank The constraint equation for the inverted slider-crank linkage is the distance between the pivots AB on either side of the slider. it equals the amount of slider movement. the distance is not constant. In this case.
The position and velocity loop equations for the inverted slider-crank are obtained in the same way as for a slider-crank linkage. we use its loop equations to compute the coupler angle φ. Position Loop Equations Velocity Loop Equations .Loop Equations: Inverted Slider-Crank Once the output slide s has been determined for the inverted slider crank.
The purpose of the suspension is to ensure that the tires maintain proper contact with the road surface during acceleration. braking and turning of the vehicle.Inverted Slider Crank: Application in Vehicle Suspension The vehicle suspension is the interface between the chassis and body of the vehicle and the road surface. .
Recall that the constraint equation of this linkage is: From this constraint equation.Spring Suspension The suspension formed by using a spring to support a crank form an inverted slider-crank linkage. and by = s0. then for θ=0. we can compute the mechanical advantage of this system to be: Special case Assemble the suspension so bx = a. .
This equation is solved to determine the relationship between the input and output variables. . • The position. such as the coupler angle and its angular velocity. velocity. • The constraint equation of a linkage is obtained from the distance speciﬁed between the input and output moving pivots. These assumptions allow the use of geometry to analyze the movement of the linkage and evaluate its mechanical advantage. Real linkage systems will ﬂex and lose energy through friction and wear. Differentiation of this constraint yields the velocities needed to compute mechanical advantage. and acceleration loop equations are used to compute the other conﬁguration variables in the linkage.Summary • An ideal linkage is a collection of rigid links connected by ideal joints.
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