This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

# 57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Professor Fred Stern Fall 2006

Chapter 6

1

**Chapter 6 Differential Analysis of Fluid Flow
**

Inviscid flow: Euler’s equations of motion

Flow fields in which the shearing stresses are zero are said to be inviscid, nonviscous, or frictionless. for fluids in which there are no shearing stresses the normal stress at a point is independent of direction: − p = σ xx = σ yy = σ zz For an inviscid flow in which all the shearing stresses are zero, and the normal stresses are replaced by −p, the Navier-Stokes Equations reduce to Euler’s equations ⎡ ∂V ⎤ + ( V ⋅∇ ) V ⎥ ρ g − ∇p = ρ ⎢ ⎣ ∂t ⎦ In Cartesian coordinates: ⎛ ∂u ∂p ∂u ∂u ∂u ⎞ ρ gx − = ρ ⎜ + u + v + w ⎟ ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ∂t

ρgy −

ρ gz −

⎛ ∂v ∂p ∂v ∂v ∂v ⎞ = ρ⎜ +u +v +w ⎟ ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ∂t

⎛ ∂w ∂p ∂w ∂w ∂w ⎞ = ρ⎜ +u +v +w ⎟ ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ∂t The Bernoulli equation derived from Euler’s equations The Bernoulli equation can also be derived, starting from Euler’s equations. For inviscid, incompressible fluids, we end up with the same equation p V2 + + gz = const ρ 2

1

not limited to applications along a streamline. The Bernoulli equation has exactly the same form at that for inviscid flows: p1 V12 p2 V22 + + z1 = + + z2 γ 2g γ 2g but it can now be applied between any two points in the flow field.57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Professor Fred Stern Fall 2006 Chapter 6 2 It is often convenient to write the Bernoulli equation between two points (1) and (2) along a streamline and to express the equation in the “head” form by dividing each term by g so that p1 V12 p2 V22 + + z1 = + + z2 γ 2g γ 2g The Bernoulli equation is restricted to the following: • inviscid flow • steady flow • incompressible flow • flow along a streamline The Irrotational Flow and corresponding Bernoulli equation If we make one additional assumption—that the flow is irrotational ∇ × V = 0 —the analysis of inviscid flow problems is further simplified. 2 .

v= . as ∂φ ∂φ ∂φ u= . called velocity potential. y. z. (b) through channels The Velocity Potential For an irrotational flow: ⎛ ∂w ∂v ⎞ ⎛ ∂u ∂w ⎞ ⎛ ∂v ∂u ⎞ ∇×V = ⎜ − ⎟i + ⎜ − ⎟ j+ ⎜ − ⎟k = 0 ∂y ∂z ⎠ ⎝ ∂z ∂x ⎠ ⎝ ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ So we have ∂w ∂v ∂u ∂w ∂v ∂u = . w= ∂x ∂y ∂z In vector form: V = ∇φ 3 . t). = ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y It follows that in this case the velocity components can be expressed in terms of a scalar function φ (x.57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Professor Fred Stern Fall 2006 Chapter 6 3 Various regions of flow: (a) around bodies. = .

whereas the stream function is a consequence of conservation of mass. It is to be noted.57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Professor Fred Stern Fall 2006 Chapter 6 4 The velocity potential is a consequence of the irrotationality of the flow field. irrotational flow. For simplicity. whereas the stream function is restricted to two-dimensional flows. only plane (two-dimensional) flows will be considered. ∂ψ ∂ψ u= . basic solutions can be simply added to obtain more complicated solutions because of the major advantage of Laplace equation that it is a linear PDE. In Cartesian coordinates: ∂ 2φ ∂ 2φ ∂ 2φ + 2 + 2 =0 2 ∂x ∂y ∂z In cylindrical coordinates: 1 ∂ ⎛ ∂φ ⎞ 1 ∂φ ∂ 2φ + 2 =0 ⎜r ⎟+ 2 2 ∂z r ∂r ⎝ ∂r ⎠ r ∂θ Some Basic. that the velocity potential can be defined for a general three-dimensional flow. it follows that ∇ 2φ = 0 The velocity potential satisfies the Laplace equation. v=− ∂y ∂x 4 . Plane Potential Flows For potential flow. Since we can define a stream function for plane flow. For an incompressible flow we know from the conservation of mass: ∇⋅V = 0 and therefore for incompressible. however.

57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Professor Fred Stern Fall 2006 Chapter 6 5 If we now impose the condition of irrotationality. as illustrated by this figure Along streamlines ψ=const: dy v = dx along ψ = const u Along equipotential lines = const ∂φ ∂φ dφ = dx + dy = udx + vdy = 0 ∂x ∂y 5 . It is apparent from these results that the velocity potential and the stream function are somehow related. it follows ∂u ∂v = ∂y ∂x and in terms of the stream function ∂ ⎛ ∂ψ ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂ψ ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = ⎜− ⎟ ∂y ⎝ ∂y ⎠ ∂x ⎝ ∂x ⎠ ∂ 2ψ ∂ 2ψ + =0 ∂x 2 ∂y 2 Thus. for a plane irrotational flow we can use either the velocity potential or the stream function—both must satisfy Laplace's equation in two dimensions. It can be shown that lines of constant (called equipotential lines) are orthogonal to lines of constant ψ (streamlines) at all points where they intersect. Recall that two lines are orthogonal if the product of their slopes is −1.

57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Professor Fred Stern Fall 2006 Chapter 6 6 dy u =− dx along φ = const v Uniform flow at angle α with the x axis Velocity potential: φ = U ( x cos α + y sin α ) Stream function: ψ = U ( y cos α − x sin α ) Velocity components: u = U cos α . m < 0 sink) Velocity potential: φ = 2π ln r Stream function: ψ = m θ 2π m m . v = U sin α Source or sink (m > 0 source. vr = Velocity components: 2π r vθ = 0 6 .

Γ < 0 clockwise) Velocity potential: φ = 2π θ Stream function: ψ = − Γ Γ ln r 2π vθ = Velocity components: vr = 0. Velocity components: 2 r Velocity potential: φ = vθ = − K sin θ r2 7 .57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Professor Fred Stern Fall 2006 Chapter 6 7 Free vortex (Γ > 0 counterclockwise. Doublet (with strength k=ma/π) Γ 2π r K cos θ r K sin θ ψ= Stream function: r K cos θ vr = − .

vθ = −U sin θ Velocity components: 2π r Rankine Ovals Rankine ovals are formed by combining a source and sink with a uniform flow. m φ = Ur cos θ + ln r Velocity potential: 2π m ψ = Ur sin θ + θ Stream function: 2π m vr = − . (b) replacement of streamline ψ = πbU with solid boundary to form half-body. 8 . Plane Potential Flows Source in a Uniform Stream—Half-Body Flow around a half-body is obtained by the addition of a source to a uniform flow. The flow around a half-body: (a) superposition of a source and a uniform flow.57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Professor Fred Stern Fall 2006 Chapter 6 8 Superposition of Basic.

The flow around a circular cylinder K cos θ φ = Ur cos θ + Velocity potential: r 9 .57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Professor Fred Stern Fall 2006 Chapter 6 9 The flow around a Rankine oval: (a) superposition of source–sink pair and a uniform flow. m φ = Ur cos θ − ( ln r1 − ln r2 ) Velocity potential: 2π m ⎛ 2ar sin θ ⎞ ψ = Ur sin θ − tan −1 ⎜ 2 2 ⎟ Stream function: 2π ⎝ r −a ⎠ 12 ⎛ ma ⎞ 2 Body half length: l = ⎜ π U + a ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ h2 − a 2 2π Uh h= tan Body half width: 2a m Flow around a Circular Cylinder A doublet combined with a uniform flow can be used to represent flow around a circular cylinder. (b) replacement of streamline ψ = 0 with solid boundary to form Rankine oval.

57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Professor Fred Stern Fall 2006 Chapter 6 10 Stream function: ψ = Ur sin θ − Velocity components: ⎛ a2 ⎞ vr = U ⎜1 − 2 ⎟ cos θ . ⎝ r ⎠ K sin θ r ⎛ a2 ⎞ vθ = −U ⎜1 + 2 ⎟ sin θ ⎝ r ⎠ 10 .