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The term Acoustics of building describe the production and transmission of sound inside the building. The following points should be taken into consideration for the acoustic design of the buildings, auditorium, cinema theatres etc. 1. The sound heard by the audience should be sufficiently loud in any part of the hall. 2. The quality of the speech and music should not be changed anywhere inside the hall. 3. There should not be focusing of sound in any part of the hall. 4. There should not be any vibrations due to resonance. 5. There should not be any other noise from other sources in the hall. For practical rooms the absorption materials are parts of the decoration; furniture carpets and curtains. These are all simple porous absorbers. By restricting air particle movements, the sound energy is converted into heat through the frictional forces.
In building acoustics where we concentrate on the noise level due to what goes on in adjacent rooms (or outside) an important parameter is the sound insulation. Values in building acoustics should be normalized and objective, i.e. independent of the current conditions (amount of absorption) of the room. Primarily we want to characterize a wall's ability to insulate rather than the current sound level in the receiving room. This is very much because most countries have regulations on how good the insulation at least should be. We are here talking about the sending room - which is where the noise originates - and the receiving room - where we measure the amount of noise coming through the wall. By correcting the measured level difference in a certain way, we compensate for the effect that the reverberation time has on the sound level in the receiving room. Note that many buildings have homogenous structures of low loss factors, typically solid concrete walls. In such constructions sound energy is transmitted with very little attenuation. This calls for impact sound insulation measurements in addition to the airborne sound insulation.
So the reverberation is minimized by covering the inner surfaces of the hall using absorption materials like carpets wall screens. This is most noticeable when the sound source stops but the reflections continue. To minimize this defect. is created when a sound is produced in an enclosed space causing a large number of echoes to build up and then slowly decay as the sound is absorbed by the walls and air. Typical examples are the echo produced by the bottom of a well.Two more important factors should also be considered for good acoustic design of the buildings. The Nature of Absorption . T will be minimized by increasing the value of α. In the above Sabine’s equation. Reverberation 1. an echo (plural echoes) is a reflection of sound. 1. T = 0. or reverb. arriving at the listener some time after the direct sound. Sabine derived an equation for the reverberation time. A reverberation. until they can no longer be heard. by a building. 2. A true echo is a single reflection of the sound source. α the absorption co-efficient of the surface inside and A the total area of the inner surface of the hall.16V / α A seconds Where V is the volume of the hall. Reverberation: Reverberation is the persistence of sound in a particular space after the original sound is removed. Echo: In audio signal processing and acoustics. decreasing in amplitude. Echo and 2. The time delay is the extra distance divided by the speed of sound. or by the walls of an enclosed room. porous tiles etc.
This property comes in addition to any frequency dependence of the material used in the absorber.For practical rooms the absorption materials are parts of the decoration. the sound energy is converted into heat through the frictional forces. The quarter wavelengths at high frequencies become comparable with the thickness of the carpet and the absorption increases. baroque music. rooms can in this way be more or less optimised to their uses such as for romantic orchestra music. . the most effective place to put an absorber must be at the point where the particle velocity is at its maximum. These are all simple porousabsorbers. This follows from the fact that as the frequency is increased the wavelength becomes smaller. By restricting air particle movements. carpets and curtains. pop-music or speech. It can be shown that this takes place a quarter of a wavelength from the boundary (assuming that the angle of incidence is perpendicular to the wall). furniture. Consequently. a carpet lying on the floor will absorb better at high frequencies than at low frequencies. If the room is equipped with different absorbers absorbing different frequencies to different extents you may "tune" the room to a certain sound balance by adjusting the amount of the different type of absorbers. This means that an absorber's ability to absorb will be frequency dependent qua its position. Typically. The reason why is that since the absorption is due to particle movement restrictions. Note that contrary to popular belief absorbers put directly on the wall are not as effective as those placed a bit apart from the wall.
or property damage. alert those in a structure to the presence of an uncontrolled fire in the event one occurs.. Examples of these include: Not exceeding the maximum occupancy within any part of the building. or other fixtures with more electric current than they are rated for. Maintaining proper fire exits and proper exit signage (e. Fire safety is often a component of building safety. Fire hoses built into a structure can sometimes be used by occupants to mitigate fires while the fire department is responding. . injury.Fire Safety Provisions Fire safety provisions refers to precautions that are taken to prevent or reduce the likelihood of a fire that may result in death. exit signs pointing to them that can function in a power failure) Compliance with electrical codes to prevent overheating and ignition from electrical faults or problems such as poor wire insulation or overloading wiring. better enable those threatened by a fire to survive. conductors. Key elements of a fire safety policy Building a facility in accordance with the version of the local building code Maintaining a facility and conducting yourself in accordance with the provisions of the fire code. or to reduce the damage caused by a fire. The Chief Fire Prevention Officer or Chief of Fire Prevention will normally train newcomers to the Fire Prevention Division and may also conduct inspections or make presentations. Those who inspect buildings for violations of the Fire Code and go into schools to educate children on Fire Safety topics are fire department members known as fire prevention officers. This is based on the occupants and operators of the building being aware of the applicable regulations and advice.g.
such as the propping open of fire doors. The fire code is aimed primarily at preventing fires. Conduct fire drills at regular intervals throughout the year. Maintaining a high level of training and awareness of occupants and users of the building to avoid obvious mistakes. Fire code It is a set of rules prescribing minimum requirements to prevent fire and explosion hazards arising from storage. issuing Orders To Comply and. use) . model rockets (licenses for manufacture. handling. Maintaining fire alarm systems for detection and warning of fire. hazardous materials that may be needed inside the building for storage or operational requirements (such as solvents in spray booths). is not compromised. explosives. storage. Properly storing and using. The fire code also addresses inspection and maintenance requirements of various fire protection equipment in order to maintain optimal active and passive fire protection measures. and that the original design basis of the building. sale. Prohibiting flammable materials in certain areas of the facility. It complements the building code.Placing and maintaining the correct type of fire extinguishers in easily accessible places. or use of dangerous materials. transportation. mortars and cannons. potentially. or from other specific hazardous conditions. List of some typical fire and explosion issues in a fire code fireworks. including the basic plan set out by the architect. Ensuring that spray fireproofing remains undamaged. ensuring that necessary training and equipment will be on hand. Obtaining and maintaining a complete inventory of fires tops. Periodically inspecting buildings for violations. prosecuting or closing buildings that are not in compliance. until the deficiencies are corrected or condemning it in extreme cases.
hospital. 10 liters of gasoline inside a residential dwelling) specific uses and specific flammables (e. smoking. dry cleaning. placement.. and inspecting fire extinguishing equipment general storage and handling of flammable liquids.) other hazards (flammable decorations.g. explosive dusts. fire extinguisher. bulk matches. welding.. elderly care. Generally. markings. equipment) limitations on locations and quantities of flammables (e.g. bonfires. etc.S. prs that require a smoke detector. space heaters. plastics manufacturing) permits and limitations in various building occupancies (assembly hall. pesticides. theater. tire yards) Electrical safety codes such as the National Electrical Code (by the National Fire Protection Association) for the U. personnel training. solids. and some other places in the Americas Fuel gas code Fire safety plan A fire safety plan is required by all North American national. school. asphalt kettles. the owner of the . sprinkler system. or other specific equipment or procedures removal of interior and exterior obstructions to emergency exits or firefighters and removal of hazardous materials permits and limitations in special outdoor applications (tents. child care. gases (tanks.certification for servicing. gasoline distribution. state and provincial fire codes based on building use or occupancy types.
Buildings with elaborate emergency systems may require the assistance of a fire protection consultant. After the plan has been prepared. it must be submitted to the Chief Fire Official or authority having jurisdiction for approval. In addition to this. can provide information about the location of things like the nuclear medicine ward. Using this. the owner is responsible for implementing the fire safety plan and training all staff in their duties. fire fighters can locate and avoid potential dangers such as hazardous material (hazmat) storage areas and flammable chemicals. a copy of the approved fire safety plan must be available for the responding fire departments use. 16 percent of all fire fighter deaths in 2002 occurred due to a structural collapse or because the fire . fire safety plans can also provide specialized information that. Fire safety plan structure Key contact information Utility services (Including shut-off valves for water. gas and electric) Access issues Dangerous stored materials Location of people with special needs Connections to sprinkler system Layout. in the case of a hospital fire. Once approved.building is responsible for the preparation of a fire safety plan. According to FEMA. It is also the owner’s responsibility to ensure that all visitors and staff are informed of what to do in case of fire. and site plan of building Maintenance schedules for life safety systems Personnel training and fire drill procedures Use of fire safety plans Fire safety plans are a useful tool for fire fighters to have because they allow them to know critical information about a building that they may have to go into. During a fire emergency. drawing. fire safety plans also greatly improve the safety of fire fighters. In addition to this.
and it is difficult for people to update their fire plans. such as commercial.fighter got lost. only around 10 percent of are up-to-date. assembly. This problem has been solved through the introduction of digital fire plans. and they are required for all buildings. This. . and of those. there are around 8 million buildings that legally require a fire safety plan. as well as give the fire fighter knowledge of where he is in the building. These fire plans are stored in a database and can be accessed wirelessly on site by firefighters and are much simpler for building owners to update. is not always the case. industrial. Up until now. be it due to provincial or state law. The problem with this is that sorting and storing these plans is a challenge. only half of the required buildings have fire plans. however. etc. all fire plans were stored in paper form in the fire department. Fire safety plans in the fire code In North America alone. a copy of the approved fire safety plan shall be available for the responding fire department. Advances in fire safety planning As previously stated. As a result. Fire safety plans can outline any possible structural hazards. Not having a fire safety plan for buildings which fit the fire code occupancy type can result in a fine.
.7 m 6.8 m.0 m 3. except in the case of back to back sites where the width of the yard could be reduced to 3m provided no erection.6 m 7.5 degree to the horizontal. Every room intended for human habitation should abut an interior or exterior opening air space of the width r dimensions specified below.9 m 4.5 m OPEN SPACE AROUND RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Front open space: every building should have a front yard of minimum width of 3m and in case of two or more sides a width of an average of 3 m but in no case it shall be less than 1. Where height of building above plinth adjoining the open air space does not exceed 5m 6m 9m 12 m 15 m 18 m 21 m Minimum width of open air space throughout 3.5 m and at no place the yard measuring less than 3 m as an inseparable part of the building.Open Space Requirements Open air space for ventilation. Rear open space: Every residential building shall have a yard of an average width of 4.8 m 5. re-erection or material alteration of the building shall be undertaken. if at common plot line straight lines drawn downwards and outwards from the line of intersection of the outer surface of any rear wall of the building with the roof perpendicular to that line form an angle of more than 63. Such a yard shall form an inseparable part of the site.0 m 3.
the width shall not be less than 3m. rear open space and the side open space and the angle 45 and 63. OPEN SPACE FOR BUILDINGS OTHER THAN RESIDENTIAL The front. In case. re-erection or material alteration of a residential building sall also be applicable to business and industrial buildings. however that the local authority may prescribe the front and rear open spaces as required. In case. widths and the rules governing those shall be laid down by the authority in each case. rear and side yards.Side open space: every residential building may have a permanently open air space not less than 1m in width on one of its sides other than its front and rear and such side open space shall form an inseparable part of the site. it shall be in accordance with the requirements mentioned in the previous paragraph. The rules applicable to residential buildings with regard to front open space. side open air space is to be used for ventilation. Thermal Insulation . provided. the side open space abuts a road.5 degree governing erection.
thus saving the owner money.Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer (the transfer of thermal energy between objects of differing temperature) between objects in thermal contact or in range of radiative influence. Heat flow is an inevitable consequence of contact between objects of differing temperature. provides more uniform temperatures throughout the space. thus producing a more comfortable occupant environment when outside temperatures are extremely cold or hot. Thermal insulation provides a region of insulation in which thermal conduction is reduced orthermal radiation is reflected rather than absorbed by the lower-temperature body. or adjustment. insulation is permanent and does not require maintenance. a building: is energy-efficient. The insulating capability of a material is measured with thermal conductivity (k). as well as with suitable object shapes and materials. lowers the Triton rating of the carbon footprint produced by the house. other important properties of insulting materials are product density (ρ) and specific heat capacity (c). Thermal insulation can be achieved with especially engineered methods or processes. both coming from the outside and from other rooms inside a building. When well insulated. ceilings and windows to the interior walls. has minimal recurring expense. Many forms of thermal insulation also reduce noise and vibration. Window insulation film can be applied in weatherization applications to reduce incoming thermal radiation in summer and loss in winter. . Maintaining acceptable temperatures in buildings (by heating and cooling) uses a large proportion of global energy consumption. In thermal engineering. Low thermal conductivity is equivalent to high insulating capability (R-value). thus producing a more comfortable environment. upkeep. Unlike heating and cooling equipment. There is less temperature gradient both vertically (between ankle height and head height) and horizontally from exterior walls.
animal fibre (sheep's wool). cement. perlite.In industry. If these are not insulated. In a narrow sense insulation can just refer to the insulation materials employed to slow heat loss. . However. In addition. plant straw. lower. an R-value does not take into account the quality of construction or local environmental factors for each building. polystyrene. and earth or soil. but it can also involve a range of designs and techniques to address the main modes of heat transfer . and therefore the cost and environmental impact. plant fibre (cannabis. Insulation reduces unwanted heat loss or gain and can decrease the energy demands of heating and cooling systems. etc. cork. The effectiveness of insulation is commonly evaluated by its R-value. rock wool. vermiculite. energy has to be expended to raise. wood fibre. radiation and convection materials. flax. Thermal insulation in buildings is an important factor to achieving thermal comfort for its occupants. Construction quality issues include inadequate vapor barriers. cotton.conduction. such as: cellulose. and problems with draft-proofing.). this increases the energy requirements of a process. or maintain the temperature of objects or process fluids. urethane foam. It does not necessarily deal with issues of adequate ventilation and may or may not affect the level of sound insulation. glass wool. the properties and density of the insulation material itself is critical.
 . energy costs. the correct combination of materials and building techniques to suit the particular situation. insulating beyond what code requires is often recommended. This may alter throughout the day and from season to season. The insulation strategy of a building needs to be based on a careful consideration of the mode of energy transfer and the direction and intensity in which it moves. It is important to choose an appropriate design. you first need to find out how much insulation you already have in your home and where. climate.Planning How much insulation a house should have depends on building design. and personal preference. budget. To determine whether you should add insulation. Building codes specify only the bare minimum. A qualified home energy auditor will include an insulation check as a routine part of a wholehouse energy audit. Regional climates make for different requirements.
Natural ventilation is the ventilation of a building with outside air without the use of a fan or other mechanical system. Ventilation is used to remove unpleasant smells and excessive moisture. Kitchens and bathrooms typically have mechanical exhaust to control odors and sometimes humidity. Movement of air between indoor spaces. The vents or flues carry the products of combustion which have to be expelled from the building in a way which does not cause harm to the occupants of the building. boilers. to keep interior building air circulating. introduce outside air. and to prevent stagnation of the interior air. fireplaces. It can be achieved with openable windows or trickle vents when the spaces to ventilate are small and the architecture permits. "Mechanical" or "forced" ventilation is used to control indoor air quality. Definition Ventilation is the intentional movement of air from outside a building to the inside. Ventilation includes both the exchange of air to the outside as well as circulation of air within the building. which mean the exhausts of clothes dryers and combustion equipment such as water heaters. It mustn't be confused with vents orflues. Ceiling fans and table/floor fans circulate air within a room for the purpose of reducing the perceived temperature because of evaporation of perspiration on the skin of the occupants. is called transfer air. . Factors in the design of such systems include the flow rate (which is a function of the fan speed and exhaust vent size) and noise level.Ventilation Ventilating is the process of "changing" or replacing air in any space to provide high indoor air quality . and not the outside. and wood stoves.
Most often natural ventilation is assured through operable windows but it can also be achieved through temperature and pressure differences between spaces. ventilation air is necessary to dilute odors and limit the concentration of carbon dioxideand airborne pollutants such as dust. smoke and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). can provide ventilation air by cleaning and recirculating a proportion of the air inside a building. The natural component. sometimes subject to unpredictable external weather conditions may not always be adequate to ventilate the desired space. but is often used to provide ventilation air. humidify and dehumidify the space. The mechanical and natural components may be used in conjunction with each other or separately at different times of day. Types of ventilation Mechanical or forced ventilation: through an air handling unit or direct injection to a space by a fan. Mixed Mode Ventilation or Hybrid ventilation: utilises both mechanical and natural ventilation processes. such as a fan. . cool. A local exhaust fan can enhance infiltration or natural ventilation. Infiltration is separate from ventilation. Ventilation air is often delivered to spaces by mechanical systems which may also heat. thus increasing the ventilation air flow rate. Air movement into buildings can occur due to uncontrolled infiltration of outside air through the building fabric (see stack effect) or the use of deliberate natural ventilation strategies. Advanced air filtration and treatment processes such as scrubbing. Natural ventilation occurs when the air in a space is changed with outdoor air without the use of mechanical systems.Necessity When people or animals are present in buildings.
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