# Quantitative Methods for Economics

January 19, 2010

Time allowed: two and a half hours. PLEASE PLEASE, make an eﬀort to write in a legible and organized way Question 1. Completeness in metric spaces. Deﬁnition, examples and counterexamples. Prove that if A is a subset of a complete metric space (X, d), then A is closed iﬀ it is complete. Question 2. The Weierstrass theorem. Main statement, proof, and generalization(s). Question 3. Notions of diﬀerentiability in normed vector spaces and their relation. BONUS: What if f is a concave functional (on an open and convex C ⊆ Rn )? Question 4. In as much detail as you can (but with emphasis on intuition), explain why the following result is true: Theorem Let A, B ⊆ Rn be nonempty convex and disjoint sets. Then there is p ∈ Rn \ {0} such that p · x ≥ p · y for every x ∈ A and y ∈ B. Question 5. Solve the constrained optimum problem: max −2x2 + x2 1 2 2
x∈R

sub x2 − 3x2 = 1 1 2

(HINT: To prove that f is coercive on C substitute for x1 using the constraint and ¯ prove that the resulting function f (x2 ) is coercive on R.)

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Deﬁnition. show that A is totally bounded. 1 . Prove that if f. Continuity of linear operators in normed vector spaces. answer 5 of the following 6 questions. 2011 Please. If A ⊂ B ⊂ M and if B is totally bounded in the metric space M . PLEASE PLEASE. examples and characterization(s). In ﬁnite dimensions? Question 6. discuss the example of the space ℓ2 . Time allowed: two hours 45 minutes. Discuss in detail one of its two variants. The Weierstrass theorem. Deﬁnition. and if f (x) = g(x) for all x ∈ D. Deﬁnition. properties and characterization(s). g : (M.Quantitative Methods for Economics January 18. In particular. properties and characterization(s). Question 3. Deﬁnition. Metric spaces and normed vector spaces. make an eﬀort to write in a legible and organized fashion Question 1. properties and examples. ρ) are continuous and D is a dense subset of M . Question 4. Can you provide an example of a metric vector space whose metric is not induced by a norm? Question 2. d) → (N. then f (x) = g(x) for all x ∈ M . Continuity of functions. properties and relations to continuous functions. Totally bounded sets. Deﬁnitions. Connected sets. Question 5.

make an eﬀort to write in a legible and organized fashion Question 1. Question 6. properties (deﬁne and discuss algebraic sums!). and analogously for (ﬁnite) lim inf. Complete metric spaces. Sequences in R. Deﬁnition. PLEASE PLEASE. If f : M → M is a contraction (deﬁne) and M is a complete metric spaces. Question 5. properties and relations to continuous functions. Deﬁnition. Convex sets. Solve the constrained optimum problem: max −(x2 + x2 + x2 ) 1 2 3 2 x∈R sub to x1 + 2x2 − x3 ≥ 1 and x3 ≥ 0 1 . properties. and an interesting ﬁnite-dimensional result.Quantitative Methods for Economics February 1. Suppose that M is compact and that f : M → N is continuous and bijective. answer 5 of the following 6 questions. Sequences in metric spaces. Compact sets. Prove that any sequence (xn ) in R which has lim sup xn < +∞ has a subsequence that converges to lim sup xn . Show that f is a homeomorphism (deﬁne the latter!). Question 2. does something interesting follow? Question 3. Notions of limit. Product of spaces. notions of convergence and examples. Notions of distance used. and an important result on compactness. 2011 Please. Question 4. Time allowed: two hours 45 minutes. Deﬁnition and basic properties.