Ques 1) Write a short note on Historical development of OD.

Ques 2) Differentiate between Team and Groups Ans 1 Organization Development (OD)is a process by which behavioral science knowledge and practices are used to help organizations achieve greater effectiveness, including improved quality of work life and increased productivity (Cummings, & Huse, 1989). In the 1950s and 1960s a new, integrated approach originated known as Organization Development (OD): the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels (group, intergroup, and total organization) to bring about planned change (Newstrom & Davis, 1993) According to one theory, OD emerged from four major backgrounds by Cummings, & Huse, 1989.
1. Laboratory Training:

The National Training laboratories NTL development of training groups known as sensitivity training or T-groups. Laboratory Training began in 1946 when Kurt Lewin and his staff at the Research Center for Group Dynamics at MIT were asked by the Connect Interracial Commission and the Committee on Community Interrelations of the American Jewish Congress for help on training community leaders. A workshop was developed for the leaders to learn about leadership and to discuss problems. At the end of each day, the researchers discussed privately what behaviors and group dynamics they had observed. The leaders asked permission to sit in on these feedback sessions. Reluctant at first, the researchers finally agreed. Thus the first T-group was formed in which people reacted to information about their own behavior.
2. Survey Research Feedback:

Kurt Lewin formed the Research Center for Group Dynamics at MIT in 1945. After he died in 1947, his staff moved to the University of Michigan to join the Survey Research

A team can be a group of people who are working together to accomplish an assigned or general task. laid back setting. information and perspectives . problem solving. or even found in a family setting.Center as part of the Institute for Social Research. a pioneer in developing scientific approaches to attitude surveys five-point Likert scale. and William Whyte discovered that research needed to be closely linked to action if organizational members were to use it to manage change. Productivity and Quality-of-Work-Life (QWL): This was originally developed in Europe during the 1950s and is based on the work of Eric Trist and his colleagues at the Tavistock Institute of Human Relations in London. Action Research: In the 1940s John Collier. random or chosen. such as watching a movie or a sports event. 2) researchers were able to study the process to gain new information. Kurt Lewin. It was headed by Rensis Likert. 4. Action research has two results: 1) organizational members use research on themselves to guide action and change. A group of people could be doing the same thing together. Ans 2) A team is a set of people. the task could be anything from playing sports to making a presentation. A group can be defined by people who are together but not working together to complete a task. 3. and planning. decision making. Groups Individual accountability Come together to Teams Individual and mutual accountability share Frequently come together for discussion. This approach examined both the technical and the human sides of organizations and how they are interrelated. who are working together for a common purpose or goal. Teams can be in a professional setting. but they are observers not the doers.

approach to work shaped by team leader with shaped by manager team members . responsibilities. and tasks Concern with one's own outcome Concern with outcomes of everyone and challenges the team and challenges faces Purpose. Define individual roles. and tasks to help team do its work.Focus on individual goals Focus on team goals Produce individual work products Produce collective work products Define individual roles. approach to work Purpose. goals. goals. often share and rotate them responsibilities.

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