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Abstract -- This paper presents the characterization of forced cooling channels with three different shapes which are applied in traction motors mounted in Hybrid Vehicles (HEVs) or Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs). Generally, there are two different positions of forced cooling channels in electric motors. One way is by drilling holes or cutting cooling channels inside the housing, which is called indirect cooling approach. The other way is to cut the cooling channels at the edges of housing or/and stator back to form direct cooling channels, where the coolant is in direct contact with the hot stator back. In both cases, choosing suitable shapes of cooling channels are necessary. In this paper, both heat transfer coefficient hf and pump power W pump are calculated. The dimensional parameters are easily understood and also used for further thermal analysis of the completed machine by either Finite Element Analysis (FEA) or lumped parameter approaches. In addition, the dimensionless parameters Nusselt number Nu and Darcy friction factor f are evaluated with the aim to understand the characterizations for different channels. These parameters are easily used for further cooling channels optimization. In the end, the thermal analyses for a stator segment with three different shaped channels are carried on by applying the calculated results from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Index Termsforced cooling, laminar flow, traction motor, CFD, thermal analysis

heat transfer performance more than indirect cooling. Thereby the motor can involve higher current density to achieve higher power and torque level compared to motors with indirect cooling approaches.

In order to obtain the best cooling effect with the lowest cost for the direct cooled approaches, a study is carried out to characterize the effect of cooling when using different shapes of forced cooling channels which helps the designers to choose the suitable channel if direct cooling method is applied. The cross-section configurations of the three different shapes are shown in Fig.2.

S one of the major components of Hybrid Vehicles (HEVs) and Zero Emission Vehicles (ZEVs), electrical motors and their performances are of high interest to engineers in the relevant fields. Both electromagnetic and thermal performances of electrical motors influence the energy efficiency and further the cost. After the electromagnetic study of the motor, as presented in [1], this work focuses on improving the thermal performance of the motor. As discussed in [2], there are two different positions of forced cooling channels in electric motors. The conventional way is to make spiral channels in a radial direction in the housing; or drilling/cutting ducts in the axial direction in the housing. Both of the above mentioned cooling jacket designs keep the coolant flowing inside the housing rather than by direct contact to the hot stator back. With this cooling approach, the uncertain contact resistances with poor heat conduction capability between housing and stator back cause problems for dissipating heat from the inside of the motor to the outside. Therefore, with the aim of eliminating the uncertain contact resistance between housing and stator back direct cooling methods where the coolant is in direct contact with the hot stator back is preferred. Fig.1 [2] shows an example of applying direct cooling channels into the housing. Besides, the direct cooling channel can be made either in the stator back, or in the stator back and the housing at the same time. According to the calculations in [2], direct forced cooling enhances the

978-1-4673-0141-1/12/$26.00 2012 IEEE

I.

INTRODUCTION

Rectangular channel

Oval channel

a

Elliptical channel

The dimensional and dimensionless parameters shown in [3-5] are the numerical or empirical values for relatively long ducts with fully developed flow and heat transfer. For the specific application in [2], where the cooling ducts are relatively short and small, the empirical values are not suitable. Therefore, this paper numerically compares the heat transfer performance and cooling cost for developing flow utilizing FLUENT 1 . In the comparisons, both dimensional parameters such as local heat transfer coefficient hf and pumping power W pump , and dimensionless parameters in terms of Nusselt number Nu and Darcy friction factor f are presented. The physical parameters can be directly utilized by the thermal calculations of the completed machines either by FEA

1

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method or lumped parameter method. Meanwhile, the dimensionless parameters are generalized properties, which reflect the inherent characteristics of the cooling ducts but not influenced by the nature of fluids. These can also be applied for further optimization of cooling channels. At the end of the paper, the thermal analyses for a stator segment with three differently shaped channels are carried out using Steady State Thermal 2 in ANSYS Workbench. II. CFD ANALYSIS SET UP

TABLE I

DIFFERENT FLOW RATES FOR DIFFERENT NUMBER OF COOLING DUCTS

15

24

36

0.2

0.067

0.042

0.028

The simulations are carried out by using lubricant oil TransWay DXIII F from Statoil as coolant. There are two reasons for using this oil. Firstly, in the direct cooling system in [2], the coolant contacts directly with the stator back, hence oil rather than water is preferred to avoid corrosion. Secondly, the electrical motor in a hybrid vehicle is mounted inside or in contact with a gearbox. When the electrical motor and reduction gear share the same housing, it is easy to apply the lubricant oil in the reduction gear as the coolant for an electrical machine. The density of the chosen lubricant oil is 852kg/m3 and the dynamic viscosity is 0.00678Pas. In order to keep the coolant inlet flow rate smaller than the one provided by a pump, the ranges of Reynold number of the flow is small enough to be considered as a laminar flow. [6-8] discuss the losses generated by different types of electric motors. The heat generated in the motor presented in [1] is mainly from the windings. If no forced cooling approaches are applied to the end winding, the majority of the heat is dissipated by conduction to the slots, stator, housing and finally by convection and radiation to the surrounding air. With the forced cooling channels applied in the motor as shown in Fig.1, the major portion of the heat generated by the motor is dissipated by convection from the hot walls around the channels in housing or stator to the coolant. With the aim to characterize these cooling ducts, a simplified model is made by neglecting the solid bodies around cooling channels. Besides, because of the good heat conduction in the radial direction of the solid, i.e. perpendicular to the fluid flow direction, the heat flux derivates are relatively small in this direction. As a result, uniform heat flux q is applied around the channel walls (Fig.3).

A. Physical parameters With the inlet flow rate varying from 0.028L/min to 0.2L/min in each channel, as shown in Fig 1, width b is 20mm, while height a varied from 1mm to 20mm. The height width ratio is defined as alfa=b/a (1) Heat transfer coefficient hf and pumping power W pump are calculated as

h f = q /(Tw Tm )

W pump = V P

where q is the heat flux in the unit W/m^2, Tw the average wall temperature over the observed channel walls, Tm the fluid bulk mean temperature of the investigated fluid, Wpump the pumping power in the unit watt, V the flow rate in the unit m3/s and P the pressure drop between the inlet and the outlet in the unit Pa. In addition, for the ease of comparison, another parameter is derived by . (4) Q = hf * A . where Q is the cooling power per Celsius degree in the unit W/C, A the total wetted area of the channels in the unit m2. The total wetted area A is defined by the multiplication of circumference of channel cross section in Fig.2 and the channel length in z direction in Fig.3. This parameter shows the amount of dissipated heat by a certain cooling channel with one degree temperature difference between the coolant and the duct walls. 1) Heat transfer coefficients along fluid flowing direction In the following calculation, the fluid domain is evenly separated into 8 segments along fluid flowing direction. For each segment, an average hf is calculated to reflect the inherent characteristic of developing flow. These average heat transfer values are applicable for 3D FEA thermal simulations over the completed machine. In Fig.4, the average heat transfer coefficients are presented along the main flowing direction, i.e., z axis in Fig. 3, for the three different shapes of channels. The results are obtained for the 15 cooling channels system with the flow rate 0.067L/min and height width ratio 0.1, 0.3, 0.5and 0.7, separately.

As shown in Tab. I, for the three shapes of channels, the total flow rate at 1L/min is divided into 5, 15, 24 and 36 channels, which results in 0.2L/min, 0.067L/min, 0.042L/min and 0.028L/min in each channel, respectively.

2 Steady State Thermal is a registered trademark of the ANSYS. Inc, United States.

1211

700

600

500

400

33 361.8431 385.3466 314.836 8.3395 267.8 33 314.836 8.3395 291.3324 244.3289 220.8253 267.8289 291.3324 217 244.3253 197.31 220.8217 173.8 82 146 197.3 182 220.8 150 217 .31 173.8 11 197.3 146 182 12 150.3 6.8 173.8 07 111 146 5

111

.80 7

150.3

300

126

0.16

200

0.14

flow rate[L/min]

100

10

0.18

3.3

04

alfa=0.1 alfa=0.1 alfa=0.1 alfa=0.3 alfa=0.3 alfa=0.3 alfa=0.5 alfa=0.5 alfa=0.5 alfa=0.7 alfa=0.7 alfa=0.7

rectangular ducts elliptical ducts oval ducts rectangular ducts elliptical ducts oval ducts rectangular ducts elliptical ducts oval ducts rectangular ducts elliptical ducts oval ducts

elliptical channels, the oval channel shows highest cooling power per Celsius, i.e. dissipates the biggest amount of heat with one degree difference between coolant and channel walls, except for alfa 0.3 and 0.5 with flow rate 0.042L/min.

0.2

2 /C] heat transfer coef for rectangular ducts[w/m

.807

0 10

20

30

70

80

126

0.12

10

79

.80

3.3

04

04

36 414.8871 390.24 316.29340.9459 5.593 88 365. 340. 316.2988 9459 593 291.6517 267.0047 291.6517 242.3576 267.0047 217.7 105 193.0 635 14 168 3.7 .416 69 4 3

cooling duct length are calculated for general heat transfer capability comparisons between the different shaped channels. The average hf can be applied in 2D FEA thermal simulations later on. As shown in Fig. 5 to Fig. 7, the flow rates vary from 0.028L/min to 0.2L/min and the height width ratios vary from 0.1 to 1. For the three different shaped channels, the average heat transfer coefficient over the whole duct length is big at high flow rate with small height width ratio alfa. In addition, comparing the three different shaped channels, with identical alfa and flow rate, the oval channels give better heat transfer coefficients than the elliptical and the rectangular channels in most of the cases. Between the rectangular and elliptical channels, the rectangular channel only shows higher heat transfer coefficient than the elliptical channel when height width ratio is smaller than approximately 0.2 and flow rate is smaller than approximately 0.05L/min. Meanwhile, Tab. II shows the pumping powers and the cooling power per Celsius for single duct with height width ratio 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 and with flow rate between 0.042L/min and 0.2L/min for the three different shaped channels. According to the calculations, with identical shaped ducts, the costs to pump the same amount of fluid flow vary notably with the height width ratio. Comparing ducts with height width ratio 0.1 to 0.7, the pumping power is around 100 times bigger, while the cooling power is around 3 times bigger for the duct with alfa 0.1 than the duct with alfa 0.7. With the identical flow rate and height width ratio alfa, among the three shaped channels, the elliptical channel cost more than the other two shapes in terms of pumping power except for alfa 0.5 and 0.7 with flow rate of 0.2L/min. Compared to the rectangular and

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16

14

3.7

Fig. 4 clearly shows that the heat transfer coefficient decreases along the fluid flowing direction which is an inherent characteristic of developing flow. For height width ratio 0.1, rectangular channel shows slightly bigger heat transfer coefficient than elliptical duct after 50mm position from the inlet. However with height width ratio 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7, elliptical and oval ducts show better heat transfer coefficient than the rectangular ducts. 2) Average heat transfer coefficients and pumping losses over the duct length . In this part, the average hf, W pump and Q over the total

10

3.3

04

79

0 .8

04

79

.80

04

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

Fig. 5. Rectangular ducts - height width ratio (alfa) and flow rate VS heat transfer coefficient

alfa

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

flow rate[L/min]

16

8.4

69

11

9.1

22

14

11

9.1

22

0.12

3.7

69

11

9.1

3 22

94

.47

52

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

Fig. 6. Oval ducts height width ratio (alfa) and flow rate VS heat transfer coefficient

0.2 0.18 0.16 0.14

2 heat transfer coef for elliptical ducts[w/m/C]

0.5 alfa

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

.26 9

06

340. 41 39 367.1066 3.3692 9.6317 314.5816 8441 2 288.3 235 62.056 191 314. 340.8441 .794 6 288.31915816 209.5 1 262.0566 316 18 235.7 3.2 941 69 1 209.5 316 15 7.0 06 183 5 .269 1

183

7.0

15

13

0. 74

flow rate[L/min]

0. 74

0.12

.00 6

157

13

13

0. 74

10

4. 48

15

10

78 1 .2 90 1

0.7 0.8 0.9 1

1

0.4

.4 04

81

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.5

alfa

0.6

Fig. 7. Elliptical ducts height width ratio (alfa) and flow rate VS heat transfer coefficient

4.4

81

COMPARISONS BETWEEN THREE DIFFERENT SHAPED CHANNELS WITH DIFFERENT FLOW RATE

Alfa=0.1 Rectangular Oval Elliptical Alfa=0.3 Rectangular Oval Elliptical Alfa=0.5 Rectangular Oval Elliptical Alfa=0.7 Rectangular Oval Elliptical Alfa=0.1 Rectangular Oval Elliptical Alfa=0.3 Rectangular Oval Elliptical Alfa=0.5 Rectangular Oval Elliptical Alfa=0.7 Rectangular Oval Elliptical

0.042L/min Pumping power[W] Cooling power per Celsius degree [W/C] 2.09E-05 1.52 2.12E-05 1.57 3.32E-05 1.53 0.94E-06 1.00E-06 1.43E-06 2.50E-07 2.65E-07 3.86E-07 1.14E-07 1.61E-07 1.94E-07 0.77 0.81 0.82 0.63 0.67 0.66 0.58 0.61 0.62

z x

0.2L/min Pumping power[W] Cooling power per Celsius degree [W/C] 4.89E-04 1.06 4.95E-04 1.11 7.81E-04 0.92 2.26E-05 2.41E-05 3.56E-05 6.21E-06 6.96E-06 6.45E-06 2.88E-06 3.82E-06 3.58E-06 0.49 0.52 0.51 0.39 0.43 0.42 0.37 0.39 0.39

As shown in Fig. 9, with the same flow rate and height width ratio, big heat transfer coefficient is obtained with the shifted when the ratio is smaller than 0.4. Furthermore, comparing to the oval ducts, the shifted rectangular channel obtained larger average heat transfer coefficients with the cases smaller than 0.1 shifted ratios. In addition, the pumping power calculations show that the biggest pumping power appears at the small height width ratio but big shifted rate, which is in the bottom right corner in Fig. 9. Therefore, with the identical flow rate at inlet, in order to obtain better heat transfer coefficient with lower pumping power cost, one should choose small height width ratio channels with smaller than 10% shifted ratios.

1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6

2 heat transfer coef shift along x[w/m/C]

alfa

103.7712

103.7

712

0.5 0.4

12

8.7

15

0.3 0.2 0.1

97

3) Average heat transfer coefficients for Rectangular ducts This section proposes one approach for enhancing the heat transfer performance of forced cooling channels for forced internal flow cooled motor. This approach is applied for rectangular ducts. As shown in Fig. 8, the shifted ratio is defined by S/D. Each shifted segment length L is 10mm. The CFD calculations are based on flow rate 0.2L/min at the inlet for each channel. The shifted ratio S/D and height width ratio alfa are varied. As presented in [10], the shift along the flowing direction can easily be implemented by changing the arrangement of stator laminations.

253.9 278.9 299 564 329.009 354.035 3 379.06217 404.0 429.11886 5 0.2 0.1

3.8

12

153.8241

97 8.7

12

8.7

97

0.4

0.7

0.3

Fig. 9. Shift rate along x direction in Fig.8 and height width ratio (alfa) VS average heat transfer coefficient with flow rate 0.2L/min

B. Dimensionless parameters The physical parameters discussed above can easily be applied in further FEA or lumped parameter model analysis over the whole motor. However, since the dimensional parameters are functions of temperature difference, power density and the properties of the coolant and so on, it is not easy to reflect on the characterization of the different shapes of ducts. Therefore, the dimensionless parameters are introduced and discussed in the following part. In addition, with the formulations of the dimensionless

1213

103.7

10 3.7 71 2

12 79 8. 77

7

712

parameters, designers can calculate back the dimensional parameters easily with the knowledge of the specific design of the channel. Nusselt number Nu and Darcy friction factor f are defined by (5) Nu = hf * Dh / (6) f = P * (2 Dh) /( L * *V ^2) where Dh is the hydraulic diameter of the channel, the thermal conductivity of the coolant, L the length of the channel along z direction in Fig.3, density of the coolant and V the velocity of the flow. The following fitted formulas of Nusselt number and Darcy friction factors are average values over the whole channel length for laminar flow. For developing channels, Nusselt numbers and Darcy friction factors differ along the fluid flowing direction, which are not shown in this paper. However, the methodologies of fitting the dimensionless parameters are the same for local values or average values. As shown in [11], the formula for Nusselt number of the primary surface recuperator (PSR) with small rectangular channels is expressed by (7) where Re is Reynolds number, Pr Prandtl number, h height and Wc width of the small rectangular channel [12]. In this paper, alfa takes place of h/Wc. Also, in [11] the formula for Darcy friction factor f for laminar flow is expressed by f = 112 (8) Re where Re is the Reynolds number. Therefore the fitted equation for Nusselt number is expressed as (9) The fitted equation for Darcy friction factor is expressed

f = n Re

RECTANGULAR CHANNELS

b/a 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

fRe 84.68

65.47 62.19

56.91

fRe 96.72 90.07 86.34 83.91 82.54 82.21 81.56 79.85 79.41 78.61

Nu = k Rei Pr j alfa m

by

(10)

where k, i, j, m and n are the coefficients needed to be fitted. 1) Nusselt number Nu After fitting data to (9), the functions of Nusselt numbers with Re, Pr and alfa are presented for Rectangular ducts Nu = Re0.262 Pr 0.387 alfa0.113 (11) Elliptical ducts

Nu = Re0.325 Pr 0.40 alfa0.257

(12) (13)

Oval ducts

2) Darcy friction factor f After fitting data to (10), the multiplication values of Darcy friction factors f and Reynolds number Re of rectangular channels with different height width ratio are shown in Tab. III. The second column shows the constants of fRe for developed flow in rectangular channel given by [13]. Meanwhile, the third column gives the constants of fRe after function fitting for rectangular channels. As expected, Tab. III shows that the fRe constants in this specific application are higher than the empirical values

C. Conjugated application As mentioned in [14], the primary function of CFD is to determine the cooling flow rate, velocity and pressure distribution in the coolant passages or around the machine. CFD is also capable of solving heat flow paths all the way into the regions of their origin by means of conduction. However, in a R&D environment, it may be useful in prototype design work for validating lumped-parameter thermal models; otherwise, in most cases, it devalues the primary objective of CFD by introducing additional assumptions related to manufacturing processes and material properties. Therefore, in this work, CFD is only used to solve the fluid region by neglecting the solid regions in order to make the CFD analyses relatively easy and fast. Afterward, the CFD numerical results of heat transfer coefficients are applied to thermal calculations including solid parts. The following simulations give an example of CFD simulations results conjugating with thermal analysis software. The thermal analyses are carried out by Steady-State Thermal of ANSYS Workbench. In order to compare the different cooling performances caused by different designs of cooling ducts, the three different shaped cooling channels are applied with three identical simplified geometries of windings, insulations, stator and housing. 24 direct cooling channels are made between stator and housing. All the three cooling channels have height width ratio 0.1 and flow rate 0.042L/min in each channel. According to [1], the nominal current density of the motor is 9A/mm^2 and the motor can operate linearly up to 3 times the nominal current density. Therefore 27A/mm^2 current density is applied in the following thermal analysis. Fig. 10 shows the temperature distributions for motor stator and housing segments in Celsius. Comparing the three temperature plots, it is found that the design in the plot c) with oval channels shows the smallest maximum temperature, while the highest maximum temperature appears in the stator and housing segment with elliptical channels in the plot b). As discussed before, with the highest pumping power, the elliptical channel does not show better heat transfer performances than the other two channel shape designs with flow rate 0.042L/min. In brief, with the same current loading in the winding and flow rate at the channel inlets, slight changes on the channel shapes influence the heat transfer performances of the stator segment and further to the whole motor.

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a)

and complement each other pretty well. All in all, forced cooling channels designs of the traction motor influence the fluid flow mechanisms, furthermore influence the heat transfer and electromagnetic performances of the traction motor. A suitable design of cooling channels increases the overloading capabilities of motors, i.e. more current loading can be involved without reaching the motor temperature limitation. From this work, an oval duct is recommended for this certain application. V.

Stator and housing segment with rectangular channels [1]

REFERENCES

b)

[2]

[3]

c)

[9] [10] Stator and housing segment with elliptical channels Fig. 10. Temperature distributions for stator and housing segment with different shaped channels [11] [12] [13] [14]

IV.

CONCLUSIONS

Firstly, this paper presents the approaches of characterizing different shapes of channels for forced cooling channels in traction motors of HEVs and ZEVs by using CFD analyses. By neglecting the solid parts of motor, the CFD analyses are relatively easy and fast. Both dimensional parameters and dimensionless parameters are presented and discussed. The dimensional parameters can easily be applied to 2D or 3D FEA for thermal analysis or lumped parameter model analysis for the complete motor. The dimensionless parameters are stated in this paper for further use of cooling channels optimization. Furthermore, the temperatures distributions of solid parts of the motor including stator, winding, insulations and housing are calculated by using Steady State Thermal in ANSYS Workbench based on CFD calculated results. As noticed, CFD tool and thermal analysis tool cooperate with

F. Mrquez-Fernndez, A. Reinap, Z. Huang, M. Alakla, "Redesign of the Electrical Rear Wheel Drive (E-RWD) Unit Traction Motor for Improved Overloading Capabilities", International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM), 2012, to be published. Z. Huang, S. Nategh, V. Lassila, M. Alakla, J. Yuan, "Direct Oil Cooling of Traction Motor in Hybrid Drives", IEEE International Electric Vehicle Conference (IEVC), Greensville, South Carolina, USA, March 4-8, 2012. R.K. Shah and M.S. Bhatti, "Laminar Convective Heat Transfer in Ducts", in S. Kakac, R. K, Shah, and W. Aung (eds), Handbook of Single-Phase Convective Heat Transfer, Jon Wiley & Sons, New York, 1987. M. S. Bhatti and R. K. Shah, "Turbulent and Transition Flow Convective Heat Transfer in Ducts", Handbook of Single-Phase Convective Heat Transfer, Jon Wiley & Sons, New York, 1987. R. K. Shah and A. L. London, "Laminar Flow Forced Convection in Ducts", in T. F. Irvine and J. P. Hartnett (eds.), Advances in Heat Transfer (suppl. 1), chapers VII and X, Academic Press, New York, 1987. R.Saidur, "A Review on Electrical Motors Energy Use and Energy Savings", Renewable and Sustainable Energy Review, Vol. 14 (3), 2010, p. 877-898. Y. Bertin, E. Videcoq, S. Thieblin, and D. Petit, "Thermal Behavior of an Electrical Motor Through a Reduced Model", IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, Vol. 15, NO. 2, June 2000. C. A. Cezrio, M. Verardi, S. S. Borges, J. C. D. Silva, A. A. M. Oliveira, "Transient Thermal Analysis of An Induction Electric Motor", 18th International Congress of Mechanical Engineering, November 6-11, 2005, Ouro Preto, MG. Cengel, Yunus A, Introduction to thermodynamics and heat transfer (2nd ed.), McGrw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math, 2007, page 434. Y.G. Dessouky, B.W. Williams, J.E. Fletcher, "Cooling enhancement of Electric Motors", IEE Proc-Electr. Power Appl., Vol 145, No. 1, January 1998. Liu Zhenyu, Cheng Huier, "Multi-objective optimization design analysis of primary surface recuperator for microturbines", 2007. M.D. Xin, P. J. Zhang, J. Yang, "Convective heat transfer of air in micro-rectangular channels", Journal of Engineering Thermophysics 16(1), 1995, p.86-90. Frank M. White, "Fluid Mechanics"(4th ed.), Mcgraw-Hill College, 1998. p.365. A. Boglietti, A. Cavagnino, D. Staton, M. Shanel, M. Mueller and C. Mejuto, "Evolution and Modern Approach for Thermal Analysis of Electrical Machines", IEEE transactions on industrial electronics, Vol. 56, No. 3, March, 2009.

VI.

BIOGRAPHIES

Zhe Huang was born in 1986 in China. In 2008, she received the Bachelor Degree on Electrical Engineering and Automation in Shandong Jianzhu University in China. In 2010 she graduated as a MSc. on Electrical Power Engineering from Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg (Sweden). Currently, she is a PhD student at the Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation department, at the Faculty of Engineering of Lund University (LTH) in Sweden. Francisco Mrquez Fernndez was born in Huelva (Spain) in 1982. In 2006 he graduated as a MSc. on Industrial Engineering with a major in Industrial Electronics from the Engineering School of the University of Seville (Spain). He worked as a R&D engineer at GreenPower Tech. in Seville until 2007. Currently, he is a PhD student at the Industrial Electrical Engineering and Automation department, at the Faculty of Engineering of Lund University (LTH) in Sweden.

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Mats Alakla was born in 1961 in Sweden. He graduated in Electrical Engineering in 1986 from Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg (Sweden). He got his Licentiate degree in 1989 from Chalmers University of Technology and his PhD degree in 1993 from Lund University. Since 1994 he is appointed as full professor in Industrial Electrical Engineering at the Faculty of Engineering of Lund University. He is the coordinator for the Electrical Machines and Drives area in the Swedish Hybrid Vehicles Center. At present time he combines his academic duties with a position as Senior Specialist in Hybrid Technology at Volvo Powertrains. Jinliang Yuan was born in 1963, and completed all his primary/high schools and the university education in China. From 1988, he worked at Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, China as a lecture and an associate professor until he joined Lund University in Sweden in 1999 for his PhD study. After his PhD degree in February 2003, he was promoted as Docent (an honorary degree in Sweden) in April 2006 and now is a full professor at the Department of Energy Sciences, Lund University in Sweden. He is a visiting professor for several universities and a research institute in both Sweden and China, and has supervised 8 PhD students and three obtained their PhD degrees; More than 150 papers of various kinds have been extensively published in international journals and conference proceedings.

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