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# Ques 1: Why is the term Linear used in the name Linear Programming?

Ans: Linear Programming is a model consisting of linear relationship representing a firm’s objective and resource constraints used to determine a level of operational activity in order to achieve an objective subject to restrictions called constraints. More formally, linear programming is a technique for the optimization of a linear objective function, subject to linear equality and linear inequality constraints The LP model, as in any OR model, has three basic components. 1. Decision variables that we seek to determine. 2. Objective (goal) that we need to optimize (maximize or minimize). 3. Constraints that the solution must satisfy. An example would be taking the limitations of materials and labor, and then determining the "best" production levels for maximal profits under those conditions. Properties of the LP Model 1. Proportionality: This property requires the contribution of each decision variable in both the objective function and the constraints to be directly proportional to the value of the variable. 2. Additivity: This property requires the total contribution of all the variables in the objective function and in the constraints to be the direct sum of the individual contributions of each variable. 3. Certainty: All the objective and constraint coefficients of the LP model are deterministic. All the above points show that why the term linear is used in the name linear programming.

Ques 2: Describe the steps one should follow in formulating a linear programming model? Ans: Steps for Developing an LP Model 1. What decisions need to be made? Define each decision variable. 2. What is the goal of the problem? Write down the objective function as a function of the decision variables. 3. What resources are in short supply and/or what requirements must be met?

and pallets sell for $9 each. Processing costs per mbf of quality lumber are $200 per mbf. the pallet capacity constraint. and pallet-grade logs cost only $4 per log. objective function must have the following general form: Max Z = cP · P + cL · L Step 3 Identify and formulate the constraints. In addition. Step 2 Formulate the objective function Objective function is to maximize daily net revenue. it can produce a maximum of 600 pallets per day.the kiln capacity constraint. has three resource constraints related to equipment limitations. and L = the number of mbf of lumber to produce each day. Grade 1 lumber logs cost $200 per log. It takes 1. How many pallets and how many mbf of lumber should the mill produce? Step 1 Identify the decision variables The problem here is to determine the number of pallets and the number of mbf of lumber to produce each day.4 logs on average to make one mbf of lumber. Similarly. The current example. Greater-than-or-equal constraints will typically be needed when there is a minimum level of something that is required.Formulate the constraints as functions of the decision variables. different grades of logs are used in making each product. Its lumber capacity is limited by its kiln size. Quality lumber sells for $490 per mbf. and four pallets can be made from one log. the decision variables will be: P = the number of pallets to produce each day. Example: A lumber mill can produce pallets of high quality lumber. and the main saw constraint. Limits on what you can do will typically be represented by less-than-or-equal constraints. 1·L 200 . all linear programming formulations have non-negativity constraints on the variables. it can only process 400 logs per day through its main saw. It can dry 200 mbf per day. Of course. Thus. and processing costs per pallet are only $5. The lumber mill has three resource constraints which are determined by equipment limitations -. In addition.

b. For” Less Then” &” Less than or equal to” constraint (ie. Step IV Selecting the graphic technique. Express it in terms of several mathematical constraints & an objective function. The feasible region or the solution space is the area that lies below the constraint lines. Each inequality in the constraint equation has to be treated as an equation. the feasible region or the solution space is the area that lies above the constraint lines. ). Hence. In the similar manner. the total straight lines would be equal to the total no of equations. These 2 sets of values are now plotted on a graph and connected by a straight line. points of the feasible Region the feasible region is determined as follows: a. The same procedure has to be repeated for all the constraints. Formulate the problem mathematically.e. . For” greater than” & “ greater than or equal to” constraints (i. maximisation or minimisation Criterion.). a different arbitrary value is again assigned to the variable & the corresponding value of other variable is easily obtained. Two techniques viz.. An arbitrary value is assigned to one variable & the value of the other variable is obtained by solving the equation. The objective function relates to the optimization aspect is. Corner Point Method and Iso-profit (or Isocost) method may be used. Select the appropriate graphic technique to be used for generating the solution. Solution space or the feasible region is the graphical area which satisfies all the constraints at the same time.4 · L P 0 and L Ques 3: Summarize the steps for solving a linear programming model graphically? Ans: Steps in solving an LP problem graphically are: Step I Defining the problem. each straight line representing one constraint equation. Such a solution point (x. Step II Plot the constraints Graphically. Step III Locate the solution space. y) always occurs at the comer.P 600 400 0 ¼ · P + 1.

the computational difficulties are enormous. LPP can not be used efficiently for large scale problems. But in real life situation they are neither constant nor deterministic.e. It also helps in providing better tools for adjustment to meet changing conditions. The individual who makes use of linear programming methods becomes more objective than subjective. Limitations: 1. For this reason there are Multiple Optimal solution which exists. which must be taken into consideration.Ques 4: In graphical analysis of a linear programming model. It is applicable to only static situations since it does not take into account the effect of time. 3. It improves the quality of decisions. 4. market demand etc. what occurs when the slope of the objective function is same as the slope of one of the constraint equation? Ans: When the objective function is parallel to a binding constraint (i. Linear programming can handle such situation also. the objective function will assume the same optimal value at more than one solution point. 3. LPP deals with problems that have a single objective. LPP under non linear condition usually results in an incorrect soIution 2. constraint that is satisfied as an equation by the optimal solution). Ques 5: What are the benefits and limitations of the graphical method for solving Linear Programming problems? Ans: Benefits: 1. Real life problem may involve multiple objectives. In some problems objective functions and constraints are not linear. Just we can produce so many units of product does not mean that they can be sold. 5. 2. Most business problems involve constraints like raw materials availability. It highlights the bottlenecks in the production processes. 5. even when the large digital computer is available. whereas it may happen that only integer values of the variable are logical. Parameters appearing in the model are assumed to be constant. 6. It helps in attaining the optimum use of productive factors. . 4. LPP may get fractional valued answers for the decision variables.

in a constrained optimization problem. Ques 7: How is the optimal solution point identified on the graph of a linear programming model? Ans: The theory of linear optimisation says that the maximum (and the minimum) value of the objective function will be found on the boundary of the feasible region. More .Ques 6: What constitutes the feasible solution area on the graph of linear programming model? Ans: A feasible region is. On the other hand a linear programming is a constrained optimization problem in which both the objective function and the constraints are linear. the set of solutions satisfying all equalities and/or inequalities. therefore a feasible region on a linear programming problem is the set of solutions of the a linear problem. Feasible Regions can be bounded or unbounded.

just plug each of these points into the objective function. and see which one gives the maximum value. Then we will have a set of points (x. It is used to represent unused or idle resources and since unused capacity makes no contribution to profit. If two vertices give the same value. which is added to the left hand side of the constraint to convert it into an equality equation. it will occur at one of the vertices of the polygon formed by the feasible region (and possibly on one of the sides. then every point on the side between them will also give that value. is called the slack variable. .specifically. Then.y) representing the boundary of the feasible region. if the max occurs at two adjacent vertices).e the feasible region remains the same whether or not the constraint is included in the problem. Ques 8: Why does the co-efficient of a slack variable equal to zero in the objective function? Ans: Slack Variable —The positive variable. So it also doesn’t affect the optimal solution and is also called as redundant constraint. by solving the corresponding equations. the vertices of the polygon formed). so slack variables have coefficient of zero in the objective function. Some linear programs may have one or more constraints that do not affect the feasible region i. Determine first the points of intersection of the constraints (basically.