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Introduction Education is the responsibility of the federal government. The national education

system encompasses education beginning from pre-school to university. According to the dictionary, “to educate” means “to bring up and train the mind and way of thinking” and “education” means “the act or process of educating”. So education is quite an important thing which can brighten people’s mind, enlarge their knowledge and lift their ability of some certain areas. The idea of curriculum is hardly new but the way we understand and theorize it has altered over the years and there remains considerable dispute as to meaning. In Latin curriculum was a racing chariot; currere was to run. The definition of curriculum offered by John Kerr and taken up by Vic Kelly in his standard work on the subject is 'All the learning which is planned and guided by the school, whether it is carried on in groups or individually, inside or outside the school. Meanwhile according to the book of “ Understanding and Using Assessment to Improve Student Learning” written by Susan M.Butler and Nancy D.McMunn, curriculum can be defined as a plan that outline a method for instruction and learning or a conceptual framework that outline a definite learning goals and expectations. Curriculum tells what students should know and be able to do after they have practiced instruction and before they are assessed. It also facilitates teachers to prepare their coursework to produce a greater student learning. Nevertheless, changes in the world are resulting in changes in curriculum design. The new curriculum that had been revealed is different from the traditional curriculum. The new curriculum emphasized of depth understanding and solve the problems more that coverage the topics and overemphasis on knowledge which is been emphasized in traditional curriculum. Meanwhile the focus of the new curriculum is more on the results compare to the traditional curriculum that focus on the activities. As the conclusion, if teachers do not use the state or district curriculum, his students will not fare well on state or district measures of achievement. Since the implemented curriculum and measures of student achievement are so closely allied, it is important that the school or district

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develop a quality curriculum. The educational systems of our country, Malaysia with one of the big countries in the world, UK are very complicated in some degree. There are a lot of similarities and differences between them. They both have advantages and disadvantages in each phase of education.

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History of Science Curriculum Development In Malaysia A decade before the end of the British rule, the educational system in Malaya was

reorganized along the lines of the Barnes Report of 1951. Up to that point of time, Malaya's educational system lacked uniformity in curriculum and an articulated rationale for a policy which would be relevant to the political and socio-economic goals of the people. The country's three principal ethnic communities which are Malays, Chinese and Indians ran their own schools, the latter two often importing a syllabus used in the countries of their origin. The Barnes Report recommended a national school system, which would provide primary education for 6 years in Malaya and English, hoping that over a period of time, the attraction to have separate schools in Chinese and Tamil would wane and disappear. The reaction of the Chinese community to the Barnes Report was not totally positive. While the community agreed with the basic recommendation that Malay be treated as the principal language, it felt that there should be some provision to recognize Chinese and Tamil as important components of a new definition of Malaya's national identity. Early science education that had been found in schools was begin from year of 1931, which the contents only include the Basic Science Curriculum as a preparation of life. On 1941, the implementation of science program was stopped because of the Second World War. In year 1956, “ Penyata Razak ” was implemented in all school which state that science subject must be followed by all students in all level. Before this, traditional curriculum just only emphasized on getting the knowledge and basic skills which are reading, writing and numbering through apprenticeship system. This curriculum were being taught formally which more to concept “ helping teachers do the homework and working at paddy field and orchard, memorizing Al-Quran, learning Jawi so that students know how to pray ”.

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4 . Form 1 and Form 6 ( Lower ). 1972 : Modern Pure Science Curriculum ( biology. physic and chemistry ) for upper secondary school which based on Nuffield O-Level Curriculum was implemented. 1983 : Integrated Curriculum For Primary School was fully implemented. 1980 : Integrated Curriculum For Secondary School had been legislated. 1999 : Smart School had been introduced and PEKA had replaced the Paper 3 examination for Biology. 2003 : Science subject had been taught in English at the level of Standard 1. Physic and Chemistry.Follows are the chronology of development science curriculum in Malaysia school : 1969 : Union Science Curriculum ( Kurikulum Sains Paduan) for lower secondary school which based on the Union Science Scottish was implemented at 22 schools. 1989 : Integrated Curriculum For Secondary School had been used by all secondary school.

Then. Secondary schools also had limited selection powers at the age of 11. publishing the examination results of schools. Financial control would be handed to the head teacher and governors of a school. An element of choice was introduced. Primary and Secondary Schools could. remove themselves fully from their respective Local Education Authorities and would be completely funded by central government. The Act uses a common technique in UK legislation in that it makes it illegal to offer or advertise any qualification that appears to be. the Local Management of Schools (LMS) was introduced. At each key stage a number of educational objectives were to be achieved.2 In United Kingdom History has a distinctive contribution to make to the aims of the national curriculum.264. Scottish education legislation is separate from that of the rest of the UK. It also forms the basis for the United States' No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. where parents could specify which school was their preferred choice. The Education Reform Act of 1988 is widely regarded as the most important single piece of education legislation in England. under this provision. The National Curriculum (NC) was introduced also 'Key Stages' (KS) were introduced in schools too. This part of the act allowed all schools to be taken out of the direct financial control of Local Authorities.000 pre-school places available . This restriction is then removed in respect of qualifications from bodies on a list maintained by Statutory Instrument. 5 . Wales. 353. and Northern Ireland since the 'Butler' Education Act 1944.000 in day nurseries. The main provisions of the Education Reform Act are Grant Maintained Schools (GMS) were introduced.000 in playgroups and other settings and 320. were introduced. League tables. All four year olds are now promised a part-time place of five morning or afternoon sessions per week.000 with child minders.2. or might be mistaken for a UK degree. Controls on the use of the word 'degree' were introduced with respect to UK bodies. The government has promised to improve the quality of education available for this age group and to increase the quantity of available places. At the end of 2000 there were 937. and the government has set a target of providing a place for two thirds of three year olds by 2002.

robust and resilient and able to master scientific knowledge and technological competency’. practice good moral values. 6 . dynamic and progressive.3. 6). The National Philosophy of Science Education states that. capable of coping with the changes of scientific and technological advances and be able to manage nature with wisdom and responsibility for the betterment of mankind. science is compulsory to all while at the upper secondary level. This is to be achieved through providing opportunities for students to acquire sufficient skills. Science is taught as a subject at the upper primary level (years 4.1 Aims and Objective of Science Curriculum In Malaysia The main aim of science at the primary level is to lay the foundation for building a society that is culturally scientific and technological. knowledge and values through experiential learning that inculcates the sense of responsibility towards the environment and a high regard of nature’s creation. At the lower primary level. Scientific skills refer to process skills and manipulative skills. dynamic. science education. science for secondary. Emphasis is given on the mastery of scientific skills needed to study and understand the world. At the primary and lower secondary levels. ‘In consonance with the National Education Philosophy. competent in scientific skills. physics. students either take core science or choose science electives. 150 minutes per week is given to this subject. therefore. 5. Science is a core subject in the school curriculum and comprises science for primary. caring. biology. science education in Malaysia nurtures a science and technology culture by focusing on the development of individuals who are competitive. With this philosophy.0 3. chemistry and additional science. The science curriculum is developed centrally. is aimed at developing the potentials of individuals in an overall and integrated manner so as to produce Malaysian citizens who are scientifically and technologically literate. elements of science are integrated across the curriculum.

physical world they live in. including the recognition that such uses can have both beneficial and harmful effects • social development.1 Promoting pupils’ spiritual. and exploring questions such as when does life start and where does life come from? • moral development. create. through helping pupils see the need to draw conclusions using observation and evidence rather than preconception or prejudice. and 7 . behave and live.3. feel. social and cultural development through science Promoting key skills through science Promoting other aspects of the curriculum Promoting pupils’ spiritual. social and cultural development through science Science provides opportunities to promote: • spiritual development. and through discussion of the implications of the uses of scientific knowledge. material. through pupils sensing the natural.2. through helping pupils recognize how scientific discoveries and ideas have affected the way people think. through helping pupils recognize how the formation of opinion and the justification of decisions can be informed by experimental evidence.2 In United Kingdom The aim and objectives of science curriculum in United Kingdom consists of four elements which are : • • • 3. moral. moral. reflecting on their part in it. and drawing attention to how different interpretations of scientific evidence can be used in discussing social issues • cultural development.

2. 3. through reflecting on what they have done and evaluating what they have achieved • problem solving.drawing attention to how cultural differences can influence the extent to which scientific ideas are accepted. through pupils engaging in the processes of scientific enquiry 8 . through finding ways to answer scientific questions with creative solutions. considering and analyzing first-hand and secondary data • • • IT. used and valued.3 Promoting other aspects of the curriculum Science provides opportunities to promote: • thinking skills. through finding out about and communicating facts. 3. ideas and opinions in a variety of contexts • application of number. through using a wide range of ICT working with others. through collecting. through carrying out scientific investigations Improving own learning and performance.2 Promoting key skills through science Science provides opportunities for pupils to develop the key skills of: • communication.2.

such as diversity and interdependence. the main aims that can be summarized is they want to develop students to be more spiritual. 3. through developing pupils’ skills in decision making on the basis of sound science.• enterprise and entrepreneurial skills. chemistry and additional science. gentle. However. biology. the exploration of values and ethics relating to the applications of science and technology. vibrant and progressive. science for secondary. physics.3 Comparison of aims and objectives In Malaysia. The objectives of it to put down the base for structuring a society that is racially scientific and technological. social and culture through science. and developing pupils’ knowledge and understanding of some key concepts. engineers and workplaces • education for sustainable development. science is a core subject in the school curriculum and comprises science for primary. Both country have the same aims which want their students to be culturally scientific so that the knowledge of science is not being used for the useless things. 9 . through pupils learning about the work of scientists and of the ways in which scientific ideas are used in technological products and processes • work-related learning. in United Kingdom. through studies of science-based industrial and commercial enterprises and through contacts with local scientists. moral.

no formal preschool program however aid based programs in rural Pre-school communities are provided by the government · In most cases only wealthy families can afford to send children to private preschools · Religious schools also provide pre-school programs in the country · Residential buildings have been converted as pre-schools as no formal training or certification is needed to start one · Some sections private schools have pre-school Primarily Education Year 1 to Year 6 also known as Standard 1 to Standard 6 6 to 12 years old 10 .1.0 4.4.1 4.1 Level Contents of Science Curriculum In Malaysia Level of Education in Malaysia Description · Not compulsory.

written Malay. English. PriAprily School Evaluation Test (Ujian Penilaian Sekolah Rendah or UPSR) that tests Malay comprehension.Year 1 to Year 3 Level Two – Year 4 to Year 6 · Mandated by Malaysian law and handled by the Ministry of Education · Divided into the national schools and vernacular schools · Mixed medium of instruction Science and Mathematics in Standard 1 are taught in English. Science. and Mathematics UPSR not compulsory but administered by most vernacular schools to allow for reintegration of students into national schools for secondary education Secondary Education · Composed of 5 years of schooling known as Form 1 to Form 5 13 to 18 years old · Public secondary schools are extensions of 11 . other subjects taught in Malay · Students take a standardized test.Level One .

before graduating secondary school SPM is based on the old British ‘School Certificate’ examination which later became the General Certificate ‘O’ Levels examination 12 .the national schools · Students can take up Form 6 or the matriculation program after the SPM Tests administered At the end of Form 3: · Students Evaluation take or the the Lower Penilaian Secondary Menengah Rendah (PMR) · Test results determine the placement of students into either the Science Stream or the Arts Stream Science stream commonly more desirable than the arts stream and students July shift from the science stream to the arts stream but not vice versa At the end of Form 5: · Students are required to take the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) or the Malaysian Certificate of Education examination.

Form 6 · Consists of 2 years of study: o Lower 6 – Tingkatan Enam Rendah o Upper 6 – Tingkatan Enam Atas · Students are required to take the Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia (STPM) or Malaysian Higher School Certificate examination equivalent to the General Certificate of Education ‘A’ Levels examination or the Higher School Certificate · STPM internationally recognized and July be used to enter private local universities for undergraduate courses 13 .

4.1.2 Content of primary science curriculum The basic knowledge of the primary school science program (years 4 to 6) is organized around five areas of study. 14 . as shown in Table 1.

While the traditional pure sciences have been in the curriculum for a longtime. oceanography and space science. Elective sciences at this level are allocated 160 minutes per week.4. students are offered science electives (biology. The contents of science curriculum at the upper secondary level are organized around specific themes as shown in Table 3. earth science. inculcation of moral values concurring with the premise that man is entrusted with the responsibility of managing the world and its resources wisely. The curriculum at this level further develops.3 Content of secondary science curriculum Science continues to be offered as a core subject to all students at the lower secondary level. nurtures and reinforces what has been learned at the lower primary level. It comprises elements of physics. chemistry. physics and additional science) in addition to the core science. The electives tend to be favored by students who have acquired good passes at the national examinations taken at the end of lower secondary level of schooling. mastery of scientific and thinking skills. Those taking two or more electives are not required to study core science. 15 . agriculture. biology. additional science is relatively new. Table 2 breaks down the allocation of time for science subjects.1. At the upper secondary level. chemistry. This will enable pupils to understand and appreciate the role of science and its application in daily living as well as for the development of the nation. Particular emphasis is given on the acquisition of scientific knowledge. The time allocated is 200 minutes per week.

4.2. materials and phenomena.2 4.4. drawings.1. They share their ideas and communicate them using scientific language. explore and ask questions about living things. They use reference materials to find out more about scientific ideas.1 Syllabus Knowledge.1 In United Kingdom Key Stage 1 During key stage 1 pupil observe. They begin to work together to collect evidence to help them answer questions and to link this to simple scientific ideas. skills and understanding 16 .2. They evaluate evidence and consider whether tests or comparisons are fair. charts and tables.

They begin to think about 17 . materials and their properties and physical processes. They apply their knowledge and understanding of scientific ideas to familiar phenomena.2. materials and phenomena.Teaching should ensure that scientific enquiry is taught through contexts taken from the sections on life processes and living things. Scientific enquiry -Ideas and evidence in science -Planning -Obtaining and presenting evidence -Considering evidence and evaluating Life processes and living things -Life processes -Humans and other animals -Green plants -Variation and classification -Living things in their environment Materials and their properties -Grouping materials -Changing materials Physical processes -Electricity -Forces and motion -Light and sound 4.2 Key Stage 2 During key stage 2 pupils learn about a wider range of living things. everyday things and their personal health. They begin to make links between ideas and to explain things using simple models and theories.

and communicate ideas using a wide range of scientific language. They talk about their work and its significance. materials and their properties and physical processes. Scientific enquiry -Ideas and evidence in science -Investigative skills -Planning -Considering evidence and evaluating Life processes and living things -Life processes -Humans and other animals -Nutrition -Circulation -Movement -Growth and reproduction -Health -Green plants -Growth and nutrition -Reproduction Variation and classification 18 . conventional diagrams.the positive and negative effects of scientific and technological developments on the environment and in other contexts.2. They carry out more systematic investigations. They use a range of reference sources in their work. 4. skills and understanding Teaching should ensure that scientific enquiry is taught through contexts taken from the sections on life processes and living things. charts and graphs.2.1 Syllabus Knowledge. working on their own and with others.

3 Key Stage 3 During key stage 3 pupils build on their scientific knowledge and understanding and make connections between different areas of science. They take account of others’ views and understand why opinions may differ.2. in particular the strength of the evidence they and others have 19 . -Separating mixtures of materials Physical processes -Electricity -Simple circuits -Forces and motion -Types of force -Light and sound -Everyday effects of light -Seeing -Vibration and sound The Earth and beyond -The Sun. They use scientific ideas and models to explain phenomena and events. Earth and Moon -Periodic changes 4.Living things in their environment -Adaptation -Feeding relationships -Micro-organisms Materials and their properties -Grouping and classifying materials -Changing materials. They think about the positive and negative effects of scientific and technological developments on the environment and in other contexts. and to understand a range of familiar applications of science. They do more quantitative work. carrying out investigations on their own and with others. They evaluate their work.

They select and use a wide range of reference sources. materials and their properties and physical processes.2. They learn how scientists work together on present day scientific developments and about the importance of experimental evidence in supporting scientific ideas. They communicate clearly what they did and its significance.collected.3. 4. Scientific enquiry -Ideas and evidence in science -Investigative skills -Planning -Obtaining and presenting evidence -Considering evidence -Evaluating Life processes and living things -Cells and cell functions -Humans as organisms -Nutrition -Movement -Reproduction -Breathing -Respiration -Health Green plants as organisms -Nutrition and growth -Respiration 20 .1 Syllabus Knowledge. skills and understanding Teaching should ensure that scientific enquiry is taught through contexts taken from the sections on life processes and living things.

compounds and mixtures Changing materials -Physical changes -Geological changes -Chemical reactions Patterns of behaviour -Metals -Acids and bases Physical processes Electricity and magnetism -Circuits -Magnetic fields -Electromagnets Forces and motion -Force and linear motion -Force and rotation -Force and pressure 21 . liquids and gases -Elements. classification and inheritance -Variation -Classification -Inheritance Living things in their environment -Adaptation and competition -Feeding relationships Materials and their properties Classifying materials -Solids.Variation.

They communicate their ideas clearly and precisely in a variety of ways. working on their own and with others. They explore how technological advances relate to the scientific ideas underpinning them. and how different groups have different views about the role of science.2. give rise to controversy and how social and cultural contexts may affect the extent to which theories are accepted.2.1 Syllabus Knowledge. materials and their properties and physical processes.Light and sound -The behaviour of light -Hearing -Vibration and sound The Earth and beyond -The solar system Energy resources and energy transfer -Energy resources -Conservation of energy 4. They do more quantitative work and evaluate critically the evidence collected and conclusions drawn. They see how scientists work together to develop new ideas. They consider the power and limitations of science in addressing industrial. 4. ethical and environmental issues. skills and understanding Teaching should ensure that scientific enquiry is taught through contexts taken from the sections on life processes and living things.4 Key Stage 4 (Single) During key stage 4 pupils learn about a wider range of scientific ideas and consider them in greater depth. When they carry out investigations they use a range ofapproaches and select appropriate reference sources. laying the foundations for further study. 22 . at first.4. how new theories may.

Scientific enquiry -Ideas and evidence in science -Investigative skills -Planning -Obtaining and presenting evidence -Considering evidence -Evaluating Life processes and living things Cell activity Humans as organisms -Nutrition -Circulation -Nervous system -Hormones -Homeostasis -Health Variation. inheritance and evolution -Variation -Inheritance -Evolution Living things in their environment -Adaptation and competition Materials and their properties Classifying materials -Atomic structure Changing materials -Useful products from organic sources Patterns of behaviour 23 .

laying the foundations for further study. When they carry out investigations they use a range of approaches and select appropriate reference sources.2.-The periodic table -Chemical reactions -Rates of reaction -Reactions involving enzymes Physical processes Electricity -Circuits -Mains electricity Waves -Characteristics of waves -The electromagnetic spectrum -Sound and ultrasound The Earth and beyond -The solar system and the wider universe Energy resources and energy transfer -Energy transfer -Electromagnetic effects Radioactivity 4. ethical and environmental issues. and how different groups have different views about the role of science. They consider the power and limitations of science in addressing industrial. They do more quantitative work and evaluate critically the evidence collected and conclusions drawn.5 Key Stage 4 (Double) During key stage 4 pupils learn about a wider range of scientific ideas and consider them in greater depth. working on their own and with others. They explore how technological advances relate to the scientific ideas underpinning them. They communicate their ideas clearly and precisely in a variety of 24 .

They see how scientists work together to develop new ideas.1 Syllabus Knowledge. give rise to controversy and how social and cultural contexts may affect the extent to which theories are accepted. how new theories may.5.ways. Scientific enquiry -Ideas and evidence in science -Investigative skills -Planning -Obtaining and presenting evidence -Considering evidence -Evaluating Life processes and living things Cell activity Humans as organisms -Nutrition -Circulation -Breathing -Respiration -Nervous system -Hormones -Homeostasis -Health Green plants as organisms -Nutrition 25 . 4. at first.2. materials and their properties and physical processes. skills and understanding Teaching should ensure that scientific enquiry is taught through contexts taken from the sections on life processes and living things.

inheritance and evolution -Variation -Inheritance -Evolution Living things in their environment -Adaptation and competition -Energy and nutrient transfer Materials and their properties Classifying materials -Atomic structure -Bonding Changing materials -Useful products from organic sources -Useful products from metal ores and rocks -Useful products from air -Quantitative chemistry -Changes to the Earth and atmosphere Patterns of behaviour -The periodic table -Chemical reactions -Rates of reaction -Reactions involving enzymes -Reversible reactions -Energy transfer in reactions 26 .-Hormones -Transport and water relations Variation.

For instance. 27 . at this year they will learn and investigate about the living world. So. Life processes and living things. In Malaysia the students will start to learn Science at the age of 7 (year 1). the material world.3 Comparison of the contents of science curriculum First at the primary school. They will continue learn about the topics further in key stage 2. Materials and their properties and Physical processes. But the topics that they learn were too basic and not as advance as learning science in UK. because at the age of 5-7 (key stage 1) the students were started to learn Science subject. 4. work. as shown above. electromagnetic effects.Physical processes Electricity -Circuits -Mains electricity -Electric charge Forces and motion -Force and acceleration -Force and non-uniform motion Waves -Characteristics of waves -The electromagnetic spectrum -Sound and ultrasound -Seismic waves The Earth and beyond -The solar system and the wider universe Energy resources and energy transfer -Energy transfer. power. earth and universe and the technology. So they were exposed to the foundation or basic in science earlier. the syllabus from UK is more advance. energy. the physical world. They will start to learn about science in more details at year 4. at key stage 1 they will learn about scientific enquiry.

the students will be introduce to four specific science subjects which are additional science.At the secondary school. 5.1 Teaching and Learning Strategies in Science Curriculum In Malaysia The effectiveness of cooperative learning in mathematics and science is well established by research. at the upper secondary. But there are some additional topics that they have to learn for instance. the students will learn more details about the same topics in the primary school. In Malaysia.0 5. physics. radioactivity and cell activity. in UK. but in Malaysia the students are given opportunity to choose the science elective subjects based on their result. If the result is not qualified for students to take the science elective. At this stage which means at form 4. Meanwhile. Cooperative learning created many learning opportunities that do not typically occur in traditional classrooms. at the lower secondary they will learn more details topics that they had learn in primary school. According to Nor Azizah (1996). Hence. chemistry. the students also will be exposed towards the practical laboratory which consists in biology. In UK all the students are compulsory to learn the science subject. they will choose any subjects that they want to learn according to their PMR result. 28 . they have to choose the additional science as their major subject. chemistry and biology. cooperative learning has the potential in science classroom because of the following factors: • • science students always work in group during science experiment in the laboratory therefore what they need is the skill to work in group science laboratory is spacious with intact desk and chairs. physic or additional science subject.

The programmes of study set out what pupils should be taught in science at key stages 1. When planning. How cooperative learning affects student achievement and problem solving skills was investigated by Effandi (2003). 3 and 4 and provide the basis for planning schemes of work. This study of intact groups compares students’ mathematics achievement and problem solving skills. The experimental section was instructed using cooperative learning methods and the control section was instructed using the traditional lecture method.2 In United Kingdom The programmes of study set out what pupils should be taught. Central to the goals of cooperative learning in science and mathematics education is the enhancement of achievement. He also found that students in the cooperative learning group had a favorable response towards group work. use of 29 . 5. Since it is impossible here to summarize the vast literature on cooperative learning.• • science classes are usually two periods with 40 minutes each. It is for schools to choose how they organise their school curriculum to include the programmes of study for science. and the attainment targets set out the expected standards of pupils’ performance. schools should also consider the general teaching requirements for inclusion. 2. The effect size was moderate and therefore practically meaningful. problem solving skills. attitudes and inculcate values. enough time for cooperative learning during experiment many values can be inculcated such as cleanliness and trustworthy Science teachers need to try cooperative learning in order to enhance scientific skills and to increase achievement in science. Cooperative group instruction showed significantly better results in mathematics achievement and problem solving skills. He concluded that the utilization of cooperative learning methods is a preferable alternative to traditional instructional method. the author would only focus on selected studies done locally.

language.3 Comparison of teaching and learning strategies In Malaysia. manageable teaching plans. science students always effort in group during 30 . and health and safety that apply across the programmes of study. there are two programmes of study at key stage 4. chemistry and physics. almost of the teachers use the cooperative learning in class as it helps to improve the understanding of students. Teaching should ensure that scientific enquiry is taught through contexts taken from the sections on life processes and living things. 5. The Breadth of study identifies contexts in which science should be taught. skills and understanding in each programme of study identify the four areas of science that pupils study: • • • • scientific enquiry life processes and living things materials and their properties physical processes. makes clear that technological applications should be studied. Science at key stage 4. Pupils may be taught either the single or the double science programme of study. For instance. The Knowledge. cooperative learning has been used as the one of the strategies in teaching and learning process. Single science and double science. use of information and communication technology. Based on the research that have been done before. Single science is intended for a minority of pupils who have good reason to spend more time on other subject. The Government firmly believes that double science or the three separate sciences should be taken by the great majority of pupils. The requirements of either option would also be met by pupils taking GCSE courses in all three of the separate sciences of biology. materials and their properties and physical processes. Schools may find exemplar schemes of work at key stages 1. 2 and 3 helpful to show how the programmes of study and attainment targets can be translated into practical. and identifies what should be taught about communication and health and safety in science.

materials and their properties and physical processes. it will change the whole culture of knowledge acquisition. 31 . thus making the students find fun in learning. The age of admission to the first year of primary education is six years old. Therefore.0 6. Formal education in Malaysia is provided at four levels . upper secondary and post secondary. in United Kingdom teaching process should guarantee that scientific enquiry is taught through contexts taken from the sections on life processes and living things. to a combination of centralized examination and school-based assessment. teacher will be train to get ready to use any best approach to the students for school based assessment. Promotion from grade to grade is automatic. Both country use different strategies as they want to fit it with their students and environments. With the move.primary. Meanwhile.1 Assessments in Science Curriculum In Malaysia A new assessment system for schools will be implemented by 2010 to give way for the change of the Malaysian education system from centralized examination. 6.science experimentation in the laboratory therefore what they need is the ability to cooperate within a group. lower secondary.

1994) and their impact on teaching and learning (Resnick & Resnick. Key Stage 1 Teacher assessment for students will cover: 32 .1991). But some students can make choice to enter Form 6 level which they have to take STPM at the end of upper 6 level. they will take SPM examination at the end of Form 5 to make sure they get the opportunity to further their study in university. It also allows schools to see whether they are teaching effectively by comparing their pupils' performance to national results. This helps the school to make plans for their future learning. both in the academic and professional fields provided by universities. Hence. at the end of each level. physic and chemistry as their major subject. students sit for common public examinations.2 In United Kingdom Students will take national tests at the end of Key Stages 2 and 3. However. above or below the target level for their age.Continuous schoolbased assessment is administered at all grades and at all levels. new approaches to assessment have emerged in a number of countries. students need to take UPSR examination before they can enter secondary school. Over the past few years. These have come primarily from a variety of overlapping debates concerning the purposes and methods of assessment (Messick. If they get a good result students can take a science stream subject such as biology. The forms that examinations and assessment take care widely recognized as determinants of educational practices. when they are in Form Three they will face PMR examination to further their study in Form 4. colleges and other educational training institutions. For primary level. Malaysia like other educational systems. Successful completion of secondary education can lead to a number of opportunities for further study and training at postsecondary and tertiary levels. 6. has been concerned with how the changes in assessment practices and procedures can improve teaching and learning. Next. The tests are intended to show if students is working at.

Key Stage 2 Key Stage 2 tests for students will cover: • • • English .including mental arithmetic science These tests are taken on set days in mid-May. The tasks and tests cover: • • • reading writing (including handwriting and spelling) maths The tasks and tests can be taken at a time the school chooses. The teacher assessment covers: • English 33 .• • • • • reading writing speaking and listening mathematic science These assessments take account of how your child performed in Key Stage 1 tasks and tests for seven year olds.reading. This is to make sure teachers make consistent assessments of children's work. By the age of seven. most children are expected to achieve level 2. The teacher assessment is moderated by your local authority. They last for less than three hours altogether. The results are not reported separately but are used to help the teacher assess students work. writing (including handwriting) and spelling maths . and last less than five-and-a-half hours altogether.

most children are expected to achieve level 4. they last between seven and eight hours.including mental mathematics science The tests take place on set days at the beginning of May.• • maths science By the age of 11. Key Stage 3 The Key Stage 3 tests for students will cover: • • • English (including reading. writing and studying a Shakespeare play) maths . The teacher assessment for 14 year olds covers: • • • • • • • • • • • • English maths science history geography modern foreign languages design and technology Information and Communication Technology (ICT) art and design music physical education citizenship 34 . In total.

support and celebrate. It indicates the specific laws and provisions that give direction to curriculum documents. parents. young people should relish the opportunity for discovery and achievement that the curriculum offers. 35 . This examination is very important to students for continuing their study to higher level of education.and there remains considerable dispute as to meaning. The most important assessment occurs at age 16 when students pursue their GCSE's or General Certificate of Secondary Education. Students are automatically goes to next level of education when there are in school. Meanwhile. UPSR is for Standard 6 students. most children are expected to achieve level 5. Laws of Malaysia) provides the fundamental basis for curriculum policies in Malaysia.• religious education By the age of 14.3 Comparison of the assessments In Malaysia. There should be real pride in our curriculum: the learning that the nation has decided to set before its young. in United Kingdom students will take national tests at the end of Key Stages 2 and 3. SPM is for Form 5 students and STPM is for upper Form 6 students. or finish school and go into the working world. Teachers. Once students complete their GCSE's they have the choice to go onto further education and then potential higher education. the media and the public should all see the curriculum as something to embrace. employers. the assessments that government has provided are in examination style. GCSE’s or General Certificate of Secondary Education will be taken by students at key stage 4 when they are 16 years old. Most of all. 6. the Education Act 1996 (Act 550. In Malaysia. Overall there are 4 stage of examination that need to be taken by students before moving to another level of education.0 Conclusion The idea of curriculum is hardly new but the way we understand and theorize it has altered over the years . PMR is for Form 3 students. 7. In United Kingdom students are assessed at the end of each stage. The curriculum should be treasured.

skillful and cherish the national aspiration for unity. spiritual) by imparting general knowledge and skills. Generally key stages 1 and 2 will be undertaken at primary school and at 11 years old a student will move onto secondary school and finish key stages 3 and 4. is the official language of instruction. skills and values are incorporated so as to bring the integrated development of the intellectual. Common central assessment and examinations at the end of the respective periods of schooling are also being practiced. fostering healthy attitudes and instilling accepted moral values. Until 1988 schools were free to decide what they taught their pupils. The elements of knowledge. Malay. 36 . Its aim was to make sure that all pupils had a balanced education by stating the topics that should be taught and the standards expected to be attained by pupils. which are allowed to use other major ethnic languages as the medium of instruction. A uniform system of education in both primary and secondary schools has been established whereby a national curriculum is used in all schools. Key Stage 3 . In United Kingdom. However. physical. The national language. The integrated approach is the main focus in the design of the Integrated Curriculum for Primary School and Integrated Curriculum for Secondary School. trained. by law. The national curriculum promotes unity through the use of a single medium of instruction (the national language) and the provision of the same core subjects for all pupils in all schools within the National Education System. all children of compulsory school age (5 to 16) must receive a full time education that is suited to their age. aptitude and special educational needs (SEN).14 to 16 years old. emotional. The aim is to produce Malaysian citizens who are balanced. Key Stage 2 . The school curriculum is expected to contribute to the holistic development of the individual (mental. with Religious Education being the only compulsory subject.5 to 7 years old. emotional and physical aspects of the individual.These regulations are mandatory for all schools. ability. the cultural diversity of different ethnic groups in Malaysia is preserved through the existence of National Type Schools. spiritual. As a result of the Education Reform Act 1988 The National Curriculum of England was developed and then introduced in 1992.7 to 11 years old.11 to 14 years old and Key Stage 4 . The education system in the UK is also split into "key stages" which are Key Stage 1 .

emeraldinsight.pdf (Educational development and reformation in Malaysia: past. present and future ) 3.8.unescobkk.ibe.0 References 1.unesco. http://www.pdf 37 .com/Insight/viewPDF.org/fileadmin/user_upload/esd/documents/workshops/esdn et07/reports/Malaysia-UPSI__Tanjong_Malim. http://www. http://www.pdf 2.jsessionid=0160712E69486 534CA0EE098889AC367? Filename=html/Output/Published/EmeraldFullTextArticle/Pdf/0740360503.jsp.org/curriculum/China/Pdf/IImalaysia.

http://curriculum.org.aspx 38 .4.uk/uploads/QCA-07-3344-p_Science_KS3_tcm8413.pdf?return=/key-stages-3-and-4/subjects/science/keystage3/index.qca.

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