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(Project Term August-December, 2012)
(Communication / Super Spice, PCB Designing)
D. S. Charan Lokesh Mandhyan Nitin Gaba Praveen Kumar Vidhita Gholap
Registration Number: 10900627 Registration Number: 10903024 Registration Number: 10901820 Registration Number: 10905371 Registration Number: 10905133
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Project Group Number G089.
Under the Guidance of
Mr. R.Madhusudhan Goud,Assistant Professor Discipline of Electronics & Communication Engineering
Lovely Professional University, Phagwara August to December, 2012
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We hereby declare that the project work entitled “Amateur Radio” is an authentic record of our own work carried out as requirements of Capstone Project (Part-I) for the award of degree of B.Tech in 2012). Project Group Number: G089 Name of Student 1: D.S. Charan Registration Number:10900627 Name of Student 2: Lokesh Mandhyan Registration Number:10903024 Name of Student 3: Nitin Gaba Registration Number:10901820 Name of Student 4: Praveen Kumar Registration Number: 10905371 Name of Student 5: Vidhita Gholap Registration Number:10905133 Electronics & Communication( ECE ) from Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, under the guidance of Mr. R.Madhusudhan Goud, during August to December,
(Signature of Student 1) (Signature of Student 2) (Signature of Student 3) (Signature of Student 4) (Signature of Student 5)
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R.CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the declaration statement made by this group of students is correct to the best of my knowledge and belief.Tech in Electronics & Communications (ECE) from Lovely Professional University.ID : 15777 Designation :Assistant Professor Signature of Faculty Mentor Page 4 of 31 . Phagwara.Madhusudhan Goud U. The Capstone Project Proposal based on the technology / tool learnt is fit for the submission and partial fulfillment of the conditions for the award of B. Name : Mr.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is our proud privilege to have Mr.D NARINDER KUMAR for his undying faith in us and making us believe in ourselves. He guided us at tough times and helped us achieve this goal. ABSTRACT Page 5 of 31 . His guidance has been the reason we could complete this project. MADHUSUDHAN SIR as our mentor for this project. We would also like to extend our thanks to our H. He has been an immense help to us since the beginning of the project. AMATEUR RADIO (HAM RADIO). We are very thankful to him for his help and support.O.
With the same approach in mind. and emergency communication. or professional two-way radio services (such as maritime. the final year students of Bachelor of Technology (Electronics and communication). Accordingly an approach is taken to propose a solution. wireless experimentation. This generally is initiated by the inception of an idea or a concept. which is better from the previous ones in one respect or the other.). Amateur radio is the use of designated radio frequency spectrum for purposes of private recreation. List of Contents Page 6 of 31 . but also the in-depth study of the earlier existing products in the same category and their deficiencies.The final year project aims at exposing the students undergoing higher technical studies to the thoughts and logic that must be developed to ensure that one is able to integrate his/her ideas into something concrete. which not only aims at developing a product (Hardware or Software). aviation. we. taxis. and to differentiate it from commercial broadcasting. have taken up the AMATEUR RADIO (HAM RADIO) as our final year project. self-training. non-commercial exchange of messages. The term "amateur" is used to specify persons interested in radio technique solely with a personal aim and without direct pecuniary interest. public safety (such as police and fire). etc.
If you were to ask a dozen different Page 7 of 31 .Pag e no Chapter 1 • Introduction Chapter 2 • • 8-9 Review of Literature Rationale/Scope of the study Objectives of the study System Block diagram and logical diagram Complete work Plan with timelines Expected outcome of the study Preliminary research Experimental work done Conclusions Bibliography 10-11 12-13 14 15 16 17 17 18-29 30 31 Chapter 3 • • Chapter 4 • • • • • • CHAPTER 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION Amateur radio is a community of people that use radio transmitters and receivers to communicate with other Amateur radio operators.
and data communications modes and have access to frequency allocations throughout the RF spectrum to enable communication across a city. non-commercial exchange of messages. An amateur radio operator uses a call sign on the air to legally identify the operator or station. Amateur radio is officially represented and coordinated by the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU). aviation. The amateur radio service is established by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) through the International Telecommunication Regulations. Radio amateurs use a variety of voice. region. Encryption. which is organized in three regions and has at its members the national amateur radio societies which exist in most countries.). the call sign of either the operator or the station may be used. and to differentiate it from commercial broadcasting. public safety (such as police and fire). country. or professional two-way radio services (such as maritime. Amateur radio communication utilizes HF. for example. and data communications modes over radio. The following is a partial list of the modes of communication used. National governments regulate technical and operational characteristics of transmissions and issue individual stations licenses with an identifying call sign. selftraining. According to an estimate made in 2011 by the American Radio Relay League. wireless experimentation. image. whereas in other countries. Generally new modes can be tested in the amateur radio service. etc. the call sign assigned to the station must always be used. taxis. text. UHF and VHF frequencies bands Amateurs use a variety of voice. or even into space. an operator may also select a call sign although these must also conform to the issuing government's allocation and structure used for Amateur Radio call signs.amateurs what ham radio meant to them chances are you would get 12 different answers. Amateur radio (ham radio) is the use of designated radio frequency spectrum for purposes of private recreation. is not generally permitted in the Amateur Radio service except for the special purpose of satellite vehicle control uplinks. image. In some countries. where the mode includes both modulation types and operating protocols. text. continent. although national regulations may require disclosure of a new mode to permit radio licensing authorities to monitor the transmissions. The term "amateur" is used to specify persons interested in radio technique solely with a personal aim and without direct pecuniary interest. Page 8 of 31 . In certain jurisdictions. Prospective amateur operators are tested for their understanding of key concepts in electronics and the host government's radio regulations. two million people throughout the world are regularly involved with amateur radio. the world. Amateur radio operators are often called ham radio operators or simply "hams" and frequently the public is more familiar with this term than with the legal term Radio Amateur. and emergency communication.
the Junior Wireless Club is formed (later renamed the Radio Club of America) Page 9 of 31 .Fig 1.1 shows the international Sign of Amateur Radio. CHAPTER 2 2. Fig 1.2 shows typical RM96 Transceiver.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE • 1909 – First Amateur Radio Club.
licensed Amateur Radio Operator 1914 – Hiram Percy Maxim organizes the American Radio Relay League 1915 . Radio is regulated by the Department of Commerce. 8NH.Emma Candler. becomes the first woman radio amateur 1917 – 6000 Licensed Hams in the US. Irving Vermilya. Computers and Radios become a natural combination. Amateur Radio is temporarily shut Down as America enters World War I IN Early 1920 HAM Radio station Fig 2.1 TRANSMITTER SECTION Fig 2.2 RECEIVER SECTION The 1980’s By 1980 more commercial ham equipment is made in Japan than in the USA.• • • • 1912 – Amateur Radio licensing begins under the Radio Act of 1912. 1ZE is granted “Skill Certificate # 1”.S. Page 10 of 31 . making him the first U.
Unlike commercial systems. The scope of ham radio lies in the same. Annual "Field Days" are Page 11 of 31 . Fig 2. Amateur radio operators are generally experienced in improvising antennas and power sources and most equipment today can be powered by an automobile battery. FCC drops Morse requirements for all Amateur license classes. It is dispersed throughout a community without "choke points" such as cellular telephone sites that can be overloaded. I-pods. amateur radio is often used as a means of emergency communication when wire line.2 SCOPE OF STUDY “HAM RADIO” OUR NATION'S BACKUP COMMUNICATION SYSTEM!” Ham Radios are known for their handy use in times of disasters.3 1980’S RADIO SECTION 21st Century Majority of ISS astronauts are Hams who talk regularly with hams here on Earth. Cell phones introduced in early 80’s. WI-FI) overshadowing the “Gee Whiz” aspect of Amateur Radio. Consumer electronics (cell phones. 2. In times of crisis and natural disasters. cell phones and other conventional means of communications fail. Amateur radio is not as dependent on terrestrial facilities that can fail. Ham Radio still has draw for people who are interested in the inner Workings of radio equipment and signal propagation.
Amateur radio as a hobby has reached an important turning point. but the trend of activity and interest now as compared to five or even ten years ago is changing. however. On December 26. Recent examples include the 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center in Manhattan. 2004. Recently. HF.Now day’s e-hams are becoming popular too. and protecting the hobby that we love?' Amateur radio has prospered over the last twenty years as commercial manufactures were able to grow radio sales in all over the World. except for a DX-pedition that provided a means to coordinate relief efforts. experimental. CHAPTER 3 3. where amateur radio was used to coordinate disaster relief activities when other systems failed. Amateur radio operators can use hundreds of frequencies and can quickly establish networks tying disparate agencies together to enhance Communication. some of these examples are real and some are only periodic in nature. This resulted in a tremendous growth and usage of VHF/UHF and to some extent. with the amateur radio community as a secondary market to their already existing commercial markets. 2004.held in many countries to practice these emergency improvisational skills and usually they held in Tamil Nadu in India. E-hams are an internet version of ham radio and it is helping to reach people about ham radios. Amateur radio is in the midst of a paradigm shift from the vast majority of communicators currently on the bands to a more balanced population representing technical. over the last several decades. and hobbyist who just like to communicate with radios. an earthquake and resulting tsunami across the Indian Ocean wiped out all communications with the Andaman Islands. the 2003 North America blackout and Hurricane Katrina in September 2005. The largest disaster response by Indian Amature Radio operaters was in 2004 at the time of tsunami. Many can point to various examples of why things are changing. ham radio was used to inform weather forecasters with information on Hurricane Frances live from the Bahamas. Amateur Radio operators in the People's Republic of China provided emergency communications after the 2008 Sichuan earthquake and US hams did similar work following Hurricane Ike. On September 2. sustaining.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY Page 12 of 31 . In the Southern States of India government has established new ham radio stations to tackle the disasters in the Coastal Areas. The real issue which we must face is 'does the amateur radio service (ARS) base its future on the precepts created and tested over the last twenty years or do we look at new and novel ways of growing.
Scientists. To advance the state of the Amateur Radio art through individual and collective research . We joins the fraternity and interact with other Students. To provide emergency or public service communications when normal means of communications are disrupted. We will inculcate the communication and leadership skills. We can discuss their views and ideas freely and can educate themselves & others to improve their knowledge on the Subject. Government of India and are encouraged to construct their own Transceiver or Purchase or Operate a Amateur Radio Station including Information Technology through Computers. Doctors. Politicians. 3. Lawyers. We are introduced to the Scientific activity at a very young age and will create an awareness on the importance of Information Technology and Communications in their life. We can win a lot of Awards and Certificates by participating in various events all over the world sitting in their own room. We will possess a license from the Ministry of Communications. Kings and Prime Ministers from all over the World. We can take part or share information on the latest developments in various technologies. plan ahead for their future carriers in their lives. Teachers.2 SYSTEM BLOCKS AND LOGICAL DIAGRAM Page 13 of 31 .
Fig 3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM OF AMETEUR RADIO Fig 3.2 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF RM-96 CHAPTER 4 Page 14 of 31 .
2 EXPECTED OUTCOMES OF THE PROJECT The outputs and deliverables from this project are manifold and designed to establish communication in times of disasters and to gain technical knowledge about the working of Receivers and Transmitters along with the knowledge of spectrum. We are also go through antenna design and hardware and in presentation we are show the hardware of antenna. • • • • • • • • 4. We expect to develop a ready-to-use Ham Radio. In the end we will submit the final report and we will give whole description about project and we will also give the demo of our project by transmitting and receiving voice from other amateur radio license holder. Page 15 of 31 . After becoming the license holder we will do the PCB design of all blocks In next semester.4. We come to know about rules and regulations and guidelines of Indian government(department of telecommunication) about Amateur radio that we have to follow.1 COMPLETE WORKPLAN WITH TIMELINESS • • In our project yet we have design some important blocks and study all blocks of circuit diagram. After designing every blocks we will check it on CRO to know about its performance. In next term first we will give the license exam in December. The expected output of the project is to establish real time communication for free. We expect this project will help to spread the awareness of ham radio. After checking the performance of ham radio we will transmit voice over frequency band allocated to us. Then we assemble the whole blocks and other circuits. We expect to document the process that will be useful for anyone to develop a ham radio. After assembling we will check the performance of amateur radio using spectron analyzer.
D. RM 96 is Consumes Low power and we can run it with the help of battery unless other ham radios require Generators to run them. and RF heating. An RF power amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier used to convert a low-power radiofrequency signal into a larger signal of significant power. typically for RF AMPLIFIER. good gain. RF Output Power can range from a few mW to MW. After examining the various types of ham radios that are available in the market we have decided to develop a RM96 Low Power Transmitter. The introduction of solid-state RF power devices brought the use of lower voltages. 3.4 EXPERIMENTAL WORK DONE 4.4. TV transmissions. higher currents. typically for driving the antenna of a transmitter. for frequencies ranging from VLF (Very Low Frequency) through Microwave Frequencies. One may increase the size of antenna up to 16 meters but with a 2 meter antenna we can communicate over a reasonable area without any difficulties. 2. RM 96 is cost effective and can be is less complex when compared to other ham radios. The basic techniques for RF power amplification can use classes as A. But due to certain complications as per the guidelines of the officer we are using the spectrum for time being and we will appear in Delhi to take the test. B. E. As we need to have a Ham License to operate a ham radio we have approached the “Wireless Monitoring Station” Jalandhar. Most important parameters that defines an RF Power Amplifier are: Page 16 of 31 .4. Unless other ham radios the antenna size is low and in our case it is of 2 meters. Radar. and F. The reasons for choosing RM96 are as follows. good return loss on the input and output. and optimum heat dissipation. and relatively low load resistances.1 RF AMPLIFIER An RF power amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier used to convert a low-power radiofrequency signal into a larger signal of significant power. depend by application. It is usually optimized to have high efficiency. As the RM96 circuit is a bit complex and we can’t find all the Components in PSPICE software we have tried to simulate these circuits in Super Spice Software and we have verified the blocks individually. C.3 PRELIMINARY RESEARCH Preliminary Work of the project started from deciding what kind of ham radio we must develop. 1. 4. RF Power Amplifiers are used in a wide variety of applications including Wireless Communication. high output Power(P1dB) compression.
then attempt to minimize it.2 IF AMPLIFIER In communications and electronic engineering. It's easier to make sharply selective filters at lower fixed frequencies. two or three stages are called double or triple conversion. Power Amplifiers that has low efficiency have high levels of heat dissipation. which could be a limiting factor in particular design.4. Active devices such as transistors cannot deliver much amplification. Gain 3. resulting in a signal at the difference or beat frequency. The Power Amplifier’s Efficiency is a measure of its ability to convert the DC power of the supply into the signal power delivered to the load. and finally ensure that the mechanical and thermal design is adequate under all conditions. Reason for using IF Intermediate frequencies are used for three general reasons. Output Power 2. At very high (gigahertz) frequencies. Linearity. can evaluate the tradeoffs for: Output Power. Lower frequency transistors generally have higher gains so fewer stages are required. DC supply voltage 6. So a high frequency Page 17 of 31 . Intermediate frequencies are used in super heterodyne radio receivers. The Power Class of the amplification determines the type of bias applied to an RF power transistor. Linearity 4. Ruggedness Choosing the bias points of an RF Power Amplifier can determine the level of performance ultimately possible with that PA. 4. When several stages of filters are used. an intermediate frequency (IF) is a frequency to which a carrier frequency is shifted as an intermediate step in transmission or reception. Ordinary Circuits using capacitors and inductors must be replaced with cumbersome high frequency techniques such as strip lines and waveguides. Efficiency. Conversion to an intermediate frequency is useful for several reasons. By comparing PA bias approaches. or other parameters for different applications. First quantify any loss in the circuit. signal processing circuitry performs poorly. they can all be set to a fixed frequency. In addition to the class of operation. There may be several such stages of intermediate frequency in a super heterodyne receiver.1. in which an incoming signal is shifted to an IF for amplification before final detection is done. Stability 5. The definition of the efficiency can be represented in an equation form as: or Power Added Efficiency: Power that is not converted to useful signal is dissipated as heat. Efficiency 7. The intermediate frequency is created by mixing the carrier signal with a local oscillator signal in a process called heterodyning. the overall efficiency of a Power Amplifier is affected by factors such as dielectric and conductor losses. which makes them easier to build and to tune.
picking up a radio station among several that are close in frequency. It is difficult to build amplifiers. filters. 4. Mixers are widely used to shift signals from one frequency range to another. The main reason for using an intermediate frequency is to improve frequency selectivity. a key component of a super heterodyne receiver is a mixer used to move received signals to a common intermediate frequency. Super heterodyne receivers tune in different frequencies by adjusting the frequency of the local oscillator on the input stage.f2 of the original frequencies. is to convert the various different frequencies of the stations to a common frequency for processing. in satellite television receivers. Page 18 of 31 . all the complicated filters and detectors in a radio or television would have to be tuned in unison each time the frequency was changed. In a passive mixer. With all known filtering techniques the filter's bandwidth increases proportionately with the frequency. but easy to build tunable oscillators. TYPES OF MIXER Passive mixers use one or more diodes and rely on the non-linear relation between voltage and current to provide the multiplying element. and it produces new signals at the sum f1 + f2 and difference f1 . Some examples are. Active mixers improve isolation between the ports. in receivers that can be tuned to different frequencies. For example. a process known as heterodyning.4. So a narrower bandwidth and more selectivity can be achieved by converting the signal to a lower IF and performing the filtering at that frequency.3 MIXER In electronics a mixer or frequency mixer is a nonlinear electrical circuit that creates new frequencies from two signals applied to it. a very common task is to separate out or extract signals or components of a signal that are close together in frequency.signal is converted to a lower IF for more convenient processing. the desired output signal is always of lower power than the input signals. for convenience in transmission or further signal processing. Frequency mixers are also used to modulate a carrier frequency in radio transmitters. Other frequency components may also be produced in a practical frequency mixer. two signals at frequencies f1 and f2 are applied to a mixer. In its most common application. as was necessary in the early tuned radio frequency receivers. converting the microwave downlink signal to a much lower intermediate frequency at the dish allows a relatively inexpensive coaxial cable to carry the signal to the rest of the receiver inside the building. For example. an active mixer can be less tolerant of overload. the IF. and all processing after that is done at the same fixed frequency. and detectors that can be tuned to different frequencies. Without using an IF. or extracting the chrominance subcarrier from a TV signal. but may have higher noise and more power consumption. This is called filtering. A second reason. In communication circuits. Active mixers can increase the strength of the product signal.
or can be delivered as hybrid modules. USB = f1 + f2 LSB = f1 . Fig 4. so that neither input signal appears at the output. Unbalanced mixers allow some of both input signals to pass through to the output.f2 Two frequencies of 1000 Hz and 100 Hz are input to the module. but suppresses the carrier. Mixer circuits are characterized by conversion gain. The output from the balanced modulator is a double sideband suppressed carrier signal and it contains all the information that the AM signal has. A single balanced mixer is arranged so that either the local oscillator (LO) or signal input (RF) is suppressed at the output. 4. It is possible to generate an AM signal by taking the output from the balanced modulator and reinserting the carrier.4. but without the carrier.Mixers may also be classified by their topology. .1 Schematic diagram of a double-balanced passive diode mixer. and noise figure.Mixers may be built of discrete components. Double balanced mixers are more complex and require higher drive levels than unbalanced and single balanced designs. Selection of a mixer type is a trade off for a particular application. In a balanced modulator two audio signals are processed to create the sum of the two frequencies with the difference of the two frequencies called the upper and lower sidebands.4 BALANCED MODULATOR A balanced modulator mixes the audio signal and the radio frequency carrier. leaving only the sidebands. but not both. So the resultant output frequencies will be: USB = 1000 Hz + 100 Hz = 1100 Hz Page 19 of 31 . A double balanced mixer has symmetrical paths for both inputs. may be part of integrated circuits. only the product (IF) signal.
which is applied to the antenna. In addition to their use in broadcasting.4.f2 ) Once again two frequencies of 1000 Hz (carrier) and 100 Hz (modulation) are processed with the module when the recover carrier control is rotated clockwise. The purpose of most transmitters is radio communication of information over a distance. Bluetooth enabled devices. This usage usually includes both the transmitter proper. and sends it. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current. as in FM radio transmitter or television transmitter. 4. transmitters are necessary component parts of many electronic devices that communicate by radio. This is true with only sinusoidal (pure fundamental) waveform inputs when the recover carrier control is fully counter-clockwise. usually via wires. The term is popularly used more specifically to refer to a broadcast transmitter.5 TRANSMITTER In electronics and telecommunications a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves. ( f1 . (f1 + f2 ) . the lower sideband (900 Hz) and the upper side band (1100 Hz) at the output. are not usually called transmitters even though they often have similar circuits. such as microwave ovens or diathermy equipment. or in wireless networking devices a digital signal from a computer. to be received by some display or control device located a distance away. Mathematically expressed: F1. In amplitude modulation the carrier signal does not get lost (suppressed) in the modulation process. two-way radios in aircraft.4. wireless computer networks. 4. ships. and spacecraft. such as cell phones.6 RECEIVER Page 20 of 31 . The term transmitter is usually limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes.LSB = 1000 Hz . where a "transmitter" is a telemetry device which converts measurements from a sensor into a signal. Generators of radio waves for heating or industrial purposes. The module will also serve as an amplitude modulator. the antenna. a transmitter used in broadcasting. and often the building it is housed in. or radiolocation. When excited by this alternating current. This creates many upper and lower sideband frequencies that will be predictable ( as in the case of sine and square wave signals) or unpredictable (guitar and violin modulated together).100 Hz = 900 Hz Notice that the two input frequencies have disappeared. such as radar and navigational transmitters. The information is provided to the transmitter in the form of an electronic signal. the antenna radiates radio waves. and navigational beacons. garage door openers. The recovery control may be used to vary the amount of the carrier signal injected into the output creating an increasingly chromatic sounding output. When inputs of complex harmonic structure are used the individual component frequencies are processed to create sums and differences of the component frequencies. radar sets. a video (TV) signal from a video camera. This produces the carrier frequency (1000 Hz). such as an audio (sound) signal from a microphone.An unrelated use of the term is in industrial process control.
and and various harmonic combinations of the input signals. reducing the required complexity of the IF filter. . the VFO is tuned to the same frequency as the incoming radio frequency and Hz. In a simple superhet radio receiver.7 VARIABLE FREQUENCY OSCILLATOR A variable frequency oscillator (VFO) in electronics is an oscillator whose frequency can be tuned (i. The antenna intercepts radio waves (electromagnetic waves) and converts them to tiny alternating currents which are applied to the receiver. These undesired signals are rejected by the IF filter. Devices that contain radio receivers include television sets. wireless computer networks. In addition to the desired IF signal and its unwanted image (the mixing product of opposite sign above).In radio communications. cell phones. bluetooth enabled devices.4. Demodulation takes place at baseband using low-pass filters and amplifiers. depending on the receiver design. and variable frequency audio generators used in musical instruments and audio test equipment. VFOs are often used to tune the frequency of the output signal. If a double balanced mixer is employed. and finally recovers the desired information through demodulation. Other uses include chirp generators for radar systems where the VFO is swept rapidly through a range of frequencies. In a radio frequency (RF) transmitter. The advantage of using a VFO as a hetrodyning oscillator is that only a small portion of the radio receiver (the sections before the mixer such as the preamplifier) need to have a wide bandwidth. the incoming radio frequency signal (at frequency ) from the antenna is mixed with the VFO output signal tuned to . a radio receiver is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form. A radio receiver may be a separate piece of electronic equipment. Page 21 of 31 . images (a video signal) or data (a digital signal). or more commonly. varied) over some range. and the receiver extracts the desired information. It is a necessary component in any tunable radio receiver or transmitter that works by the super heterodyne principle. The IF signal frequency is chosen to be either the sum of the two frequencies at the mixer inputs (up-conversion). two-way radios. and controls the frequency to which the apparatus is tuned. It is used with an antenna.e. often indirectly through a hetrodyning process similar to that described above. In a direct-conversion receiver. The receiver uses electronic filters to separate the wanted radio frequency signal from all other signals. The rest of the receiver can be finely tuned to the IF frequency. the input signals appearing at the mixer outputs are greatly attenuated. the mixer output will also contain the two original frequencies. satellite dishes. timing signal generation for oscilloscopes and time domain reflectometers. or an electronic circuit within another device. and baby monitors. radar equipment. 4. The information produced by the receiver may be in the form of sound (an audio signal). garage door openers. an electronic amplifier to increase the power of the signal for further processing. the difference frequency (down-conversion). producing an intermediate frequency (IF) signal that can be processed downstream to extract the modulated information. radio telescopes. GPS navigation devices.
Each rod is bent into a tight "U" shape and fastened to the acrylic plexi glass boom with stainless steel hardware. But the rod can be bent without heating it first with a torch.8 ANTENNA A Simple 2 m/70 cm Vertical Dipole Antenna This easy to build dual band VHF/UHF antenna makes a great project for the new ham that is ready to get on the 2 meter and 70 centimeter amateur radio bands. 18" long and 2-1/2" wide. The antenna elements are made of 1/8" diameter stainless steel rod. The tricky part is to bend two pieces of rod that come out looking similar is shape.4. The position and hole size for the mast mounting clamp is determined by the size and width of the clamp or U-bolt that you use. Use two pieces of stainless steel rod that are longer than needed then trim them to correct lengths after the rod has been folded into a U shape.2 2m/70cm VERTICAL DIPOLE ANTENNA Probably the hardest part in making this antenna is bending the stainless steel rod. I used a TV antenna mast clamp that fits a 1-1/4" mast. It can be mounted on a roof top for use as a fixed antenna and it also folds conveniently for travel making it an excellent backpack antenna. Drill the holes in the boom as shown in the diagram. Page 22 of 31 . Flat washers large enough to fit across the gap in each element are used to hold the elements in place.4. The design is simple and so is construction. Fig 4. Make each element section as shown in the next diagram. A piece of 1/4" thick cast acrylic plexiglass. I was able to bend the rod by placing it in a bench vise. is used for the boom.
7 cm x 6. 2 each #6 x 32 Wing nuts.3 2m/70cm ANTENNA SPECIFICATIONS The hardware for mounting the antenna elements to the boom is also used to connect the feed line to the antenna. PARTS LISTS All stainless steel element mounting hardware.9 m) long. Use larger size hardware if flat washers do not extend across both sides of the antenna element. are soldered to the ends of the cable. Keep in mind that changes made to one band will affect the other band. TUNING THE ANTENNA To tune the antenna for minimum SWR simply loosen the wing nuts and slide the antenna elements in or out as needed. Some fine tuning by again trimming either the 2 meter or 70 cm sections may be done if desired but this should not be needed. Page 23 of 31 . with the plastic insulation removed. 2 each #6 x 32 x 1" (25 mm) Machine screws. The feed line used was a random length and was not cut to any specific length. For example if you shorten the 2 meter length then you also shorten the 70 cm length. This antenna was fed with RG-8X (Mini 8) 50 ohm coaxial cable.Fig 4. The coaxial cable center lead is connected to the top section and the shield is connected to the bottom section of the antenna. Acrylic Plexiglass. 3' (. 18" x 2-1/2" x 1/4" (45. Crimp-on ring connectors. The coaxial cable center and shield are separated and the leads kept as short as possible. • • • • 2 each 1/8" Stainless steel rod.4 cm x 7 mm).
lossless and lossy transmission lines (two separate implementations).5 SOFTWARE IMPLEMENTATION: SPICE is a general-purpose circuit simulation program for nonlinear dc. switches. mutual inductors.6. Mast mount clamp. 4.• • • • • • 4 each #6 Large flat washers. Circuits may contain resistors. BJTs. it continues to support those capabilities and models which remain in extensive use in the SPICE2 program. and MOSFETs. While SPICE3 is being developed to include new features. and the five most common semiconductor devices: diodes. four types of dependent sources. MESFETs. 2 each #6 Split lock washers. nonlinear transient. 2 each #6 External tooth lock washers.4 AUTOMATIC GAIL CONTROL Page 24 of 31 . JFETs. Plastic cable tie or small U-bolt. independent voltage and current sources.1 AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL FIG 4. and linear ac analyses. inductors.5. 2 each #6 Crimp-on ring connectors. The SPICE3 version is based directly on SPICE 2G. 4. capacitors. uniform distributed RC lines.
6 IMPLEMENTATION OF MIXER Page 25 of 31 .FIG 4.2 MIXER: FIGURE 4.5.5 OUTPUT OF AGC 4.
8 IMPLEMENTATION OF OSCILLATOR Page 26 of 31 .5.7 OUTPUT OF MIXER 4.FIG 4.3 OSCILLATOR FIG 4.
FIG 4.5.4 BALANCED FREQUENCY OSCILLATOR FIG 4.9 OUTPUT OF OSCILLATOR 4.10 IMPLEMENTATION OF BFO Page 27 of 31 .
11 OUTPUT OF BFO 4.FIG 4.5.5 SSB FILTER FIG 4.12 IMPLEMENTATION OF SSB FILTER Page 28 of 31 .
13 OUTPUT OF SSB FILTER Page 29 of 31 .FIG 4.
it is important to have keen knowledge about different ham radios before selecting one.CONCLUSIONS 1. Page 30 of 31 . So that it still has space to develop and it is developing with its highest speed than ever. Government should take necessary steps to spread awareness regarding Ham Radio and its working in coastal areas as it might remain only way for communication in times of disasters. It is very important to simulate all circuits before working on PCB 4. By implementing ham radio we have gained knowledge about how communication system really works. 2. 5. 3. Amateur radio in India is still under developed. 6.
New York: Modern Electrics Publication. Nobelprize. The FCC equipment authorization program does not generally apply to amateur station transmitters.org/mtnview/principles-of-net-control. modify. "Amateur and Amateur-satellite service".gov/services/index. Harishankar. Mark J.gov. Haag. Wilson. Wireless.upenn. First Annual Official Wireless Blue Book of the Wireless Association of America.org. 2011). "What is Ham Radio?". Nobel Prize Winner Jack S. Kilby Credits Amateur Radio for His Start in Electronics.BIBILOGRAPHY 1. and repair their stations. ''". "Principles of Amateur Radio Net Control". CT: American Radio Relay League.pdf) 5.arrl. Newington.scc-ares-races.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2000/kilby-autobio.itu. http://life. Reed.fcc.html 9. Jerry.( http://wireless. VU3NSH (HAM CALL SIGN) 2. QST (American Radio Relay League) 8.html Page 31 of 31 .org. H (May 1909) (PDF). (http://www. Gernsback.''". SCC-AREARACES.http://www.edu/~uparc/documents/First%20Annual%20Official %20Wireless%20Blue%20Book%20-%201909. 10.int/radioclub/ars. About Amateur Stations ''They design.gov.fcc. "How Many Hams?".). International Telecommunication Union.http://nobelprize.org/what-is-ham-radio-1) 4. The ARRL Handbook for Radio Communications 2007 (84th ed. 2002-02-19.html 7. "FCC. Sumner. construct.VU2RM (HAM CALL SIGN) 3. David (August. Dana G (2006). "'Inventor of IC "chip".Archived from the original on 22 August 2010. S. 2005-0620. Rama Mohan Rao . Archived from the original on 4 May 2010. ARRL.seas. (http://www.htm? job=about&id=amateur) 6.org.