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College of Nursing
OR Readings about
Open Reduction Internal Fixation
Submitted to: Mrs. Adela S. Aldea, RN, MAN Clinical Instructor Submitted by: Albaladejo, Gina D. BSN IV
The first part consists of the round head. There are many muscles and ligaments attached to the humerus. is referred to as the 'forearm'. thus. the term 'arm' is technically used to refer to the upper limb. Only the intra-articular portion of the lateral condyle is involved. The remaining part. Referring to the commonly used meaning of the term arm. This is a long bone that helps in supporting and movement of the upper arm. in the medical field. starting from the shoulder to the wrist. One of the most important constituent in human anatomy. let's have a look at the various arm bones and muscles in our body. from the elbow joint to the wrist. The anatomy of the humerus is divided into 3 parts. from the shoulder to the elbow joint. Arm Bones Anatomy The arm bones anatomy consists of three bones that make up the upper arm and the lower arm. there is a total of two arms in the human body. then the narrow neck and lastly the processes called the tubercules. Let us go into the details of arm bones anatomy by describing these bones in detail. Humerus The upper arm bone that extends from the shoulder to the elbow is called the humerus. the arm plays a vital role in various body functions. The humerus is present in both the arms. The term 'arm' is more often used to refer to the entire limb. The upper arm is made up of the humerus and the lower arm consists of the radius and the ulna. The muscles of the humerus include the following: Deltoid Supraspinatus Pectoralis major Teres major Latissimus dorsi Infraspinatus Biceps brachii Brachialis Coracobrachial . However.ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY OF THE SYSTEM INVOLVE Lateral radiograph of a distal humerus fracture of the left elbow.
or plates used to keep the bone fracture stable in order to heal the right way and to help prevent infection. is an abbreviation for Open Reduction Internal Fixation. after a period of some weeks. or plates can be permanent or temporary and removed when healing takes place. the first cast is a non-weight bearing cast. an incision is made at the site of the break or injury. Later. screws. An open reduction internal fixation refers to a surgical procedure to fix a severe bone fracture. but no procedure is completely free of risk. Open Treatment Reasons for Procedure This surgery is done to repair fractures that would not heal correctly with casting or splinting alone.R. the cast will be removed entirely. which is a branch of medicine concerning the musculoskeletal structure of the body. The steel rods. a cast is usually applied. or break. Under general anesthesia. when the healing has progressed. and the incision is closed with staples or stitches. such as a hip or knee replacement. If you are planning to have this procedure. this cast will be replaced with one that can bear weight. for instance. The surgical procedure is performed by a doctor who specializes in orthopedics. and the fracture is carefully re-aligned or the joint replaced. Brachioradialis Triceps brachii Anconeus Open Reduction Internal Fixation O. Once the open reduction internal fixation is performed. "Internal fixation" refers to the steel rods.F. The hardware is installed. Eventually. "Open reduction" means surgery is needed to realign the bone fracture into the normal position. In the case of an ankle fracture. Open reduction internal fixation can also refer to the surgical repair of a joint. screws. Possible Complications Complications are rare. and crutches can be used to help keep weight off the healing bones. Also Known As: Operative Treatment. your doctor will review a list of possible complications which may include: Infection Bleeding Reaction to anesthesia Blood clots Factors that may increase the risk of complications include: Heart or lung disease History of blood clots Obesity Infection Diabetes .I.
Internal fixation provides essential immobilization and helps to prevent deformity. make sure to let your doctor know if you take any blood-thinners or other medicines. Open reduction is usually performed in combination with internal fixation for femoral and joint fractures. If surgery is urgent. In some instances. wheelchair. It is given through an IV (needle in your vein) in your hand or arm. may be used to numb only the area where the surgery will be done. Description of Procedure Each ORIF surgery differs based on the location and type of fracture. It will block any pain and keep you asleep during the surgery. Anesthesia General anesthesia may be used. the internal fixation device may actually loosen or break as a result of stress. you may be asked to stop taking medicines that thin the blood. If your surgery is scheduled. or aspirin . The incision will be closed with staples or stitches. the broken bone will be put back into place. Arrange for a ride home from surgery. Open reduction is the treatment of choice for compound fractures that are comminuted or accompanied by severe neurovascular injury. or more rarely a local block. the surgeon will wash your skin with an antiseptic and make an incision and aligns the fracture fragments under direct visualization . If your surgery is urgent. wires.Prior to Procedure Since broken bones are caused by trauma or an accident. Then. plates. a breathing tube may be placed to help you breathe while you are asleep. CT scan. like warfarin (Coumadin). Next. nails or rods that goes through the bone will be attached to the bone to hold the broken parts together. you may have: o Physical exam—to check your blood circulation and nerves affected by the broken bone o X-ray. make sure to tell your doctor and the anesthesiologist when you last ate and drank. a spinal anesthetic. . a plate with screws. but it is not a substitute for bone healing. crutches)? An anesthesiologist will talk to you about anesthesia for your surgery. A dressing and/or cast will then be applied. you may not have time to fast beforehand. an ORIF surgery is typically an emergency procedure. This will depend on where the fracture is located and the time it will take to perform the procedure. it is also required if fracture fragments are widely separated or if soft tissue is interposed between pieces of bone. clopidogrel (Plavix). Next. If proper healing fails to occur. or MRI scan —tests that take a picture of your broken bone and surrounding areas o Blood tests o Tetanus shot —depending on the type of fracture and if your immunization is current o Questions your doctor may ask include: How did you break your bone? How much pain do you feel? Do you take any blood-thinning medicines? o Questions you should ask include: Will I need rehabilitation after surgery? What will I need to assist in my recovery (eg. Before your surgery. pins. In general.
.Open reduction and internal fixation of bimalleolar fracture Lateral radiograph after open reduction and pinning of a type III supracondylar humerus fracture.
http://www. The upper arm bone. Distal Humerus Fractures Distal humerus fractures are uncommon injuries in adults. These fractures occur near the elbow joint. 2011. the humerus. Humerus fractures are generally divided into three types of injuries. connects the shoulder to the elbow. ORIF-Written-Output. What is the treatment for a humerus fracture? The good news is that most humerus fractures will heal without surgery. This type of fracture is much more common in children. Reference: Black and Hawks.com/doc/61906824/ORIF-Writen-Output . are more likely to require surgery. Mary Princess. How do humerus fractures occur? Humerus fractures can occur by many different mechanisms. but are most commonly caused by falls. Fractures close to the shoulder and elbow joints.scribd. but the treatment is very different in this age group. Conversely. Surgery may be required when the bone fragments are far out of position.Pathophysiology A humerus fracture is an injury to the bone of the upper arm. Medical Surgical Nursing Clinical Management for Positive Outcomes. fractures in the center of the shaft of the bone rarely require surgery. Determining when the alignment is acceptable depends on a number of factors. and with time the fracture will heal. These fractures most often require surgical treatment unless the bones are held in proper position. Casting is not possible with most types of humerus fractures. The majority of patients can be treated with a sling or brace. even with the bone fragments appear not perfectly aligned. especially fractures that extend into the joint.2004 Uy.
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