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Estrangement from the Deed and the Memory thereof: Freud and Jung on the Pale Criminal in Nietzsche’s Zarafhusfra
Paul Bishop, University o Glasgow, Great Britain f

The figure of the Pale Criminal is delineated by Nietzsche in the first part of Also sprach Zarathustra, and both Freud and Jung discuss this figure in their writings on psychology. In his Einige Charaktertypen aus der psychoanalytischen Arheij (19 16), Freud relates the Pale Criminal to his discovery that many of his patients found a sense of relief when confessing to crimes committed in puberty, and he suggests that behind this lies a sense of (Oedipal) guilt which preceded their specific criminal deeds. For C. G. Jung in Nach der Katastrophe (1945), on the other hand, the Pale Criminal was a useful image to explain the alleged collective guilt which the Germans experienced after the Second World War, although his analysis serves to reveal his own unconscious complicity. By examining what Freud and Jung say about the Pale Criminal, I argue that we can arrive at a better understanding of Nietzsche’s figure as well as an original perspective on the relative interpretative strengths and weaknesses of two psychoanalytic schools.

In this paper, I shall discuss the figure of the “Pale Criminal” from Nietzsche’s Zarathustra and go on to examine the use which Freud and Jung make of it.’ For by analysing what psychoanalysis and analytical psychology say about the Pale Criminal, we can not only understand this figure better, but the interpretations of it by Freud and Jung shed light in turn on their own psychologies and the respective strengths and weaknesses of their interpretative strategies2 From this analysis, the key themes for Nietzsche, Freud and Jung of estrangement and memory emerge in a new light. “Of the Pale Criminal [Vom bleichen Verbrecher]” is the sixth chapter of Part I, written in 1883-1884, of Thus spake Zarathustra [Also sprach Zarathustra]. Zarathustra is arguably Nietzsche’s most important work and undoubtedly his most influential one. The Pale Criminal forms part of the ancillary

this chapter attacks the judges. a certain kind of justice.6 And the themes of contempt. Rohde expressed reservations about this chapter: Your language too has now struck its richest tones: in this respect I consider the ‘Prologue’. (in Part 111) the Frothing Fool. Not all: for in some the figuration of a ghostly abstract representation. rather. in der euch auch euer Gliick zum Eke1 wird und ebenso eure Vernunft und eure Tugend] (43). as Gadamer has recognized. (in Part 11) the Prophet.3 These characters include (in Part I) the Saint in the Forest.“Of the Pale Criminal” recalls Zarathustra’s great declamation in his opening prologue: ‘What is the greatest thing you can experience? It is the hour of the great contempt.~ as the classical philologist Erwin Rohde (1 845-1 898) instantly recognized when Nietzsche sent him a copy of the text. there are several points of connection in terms of concepts and vocabulary between this section and O the f SubZime Ones [Von den Erhabenen]. As Leo Strauss argued in his seminar on Zarathustra.~ In its opening paragraph . Indeed. could also be called a drama. “Of the Pale Criminal” expresses a contempt for justice or. der bleiche Verbrecher hat genickt: aus seinem Auge redet die groDe Verachtung] . the Old Man in the Forest. Although the figure of the Pale Criminal plays no direct part in the dramatic action of Zarathustra and is never referred to again. Die Stunde. aber auch von den spateren Abschnitten manche. darin unubertrefflich. and your reason and your virtue also’ [Was ist das GroDte.Freud and Jung in Nietzsche’s Zarathustra 425 cast of characters introduced in the course of Nietzsche’s prose poem which. . whilst suggesting that the ‘inseparable connection’ between Good and Evil . involving a critique not just of the criminal but also of the judges who would condemn him. the entire chapter functions like a ~ a r a b l eYet it is also one of the more disquieting episodes in Zarathustra. gespensterhaft abstrakten Vorstellung peinlich: besonders in dem bleichen V~rbrecher]. The hour in which even your happiness grows loathsome to you. and (in Part IV) the Magician. reason and virtue are all tackled in this chapter. the Pale Criminal has bowed his neck: from his eye speaks the great contempt’ [Seht. but also some of the later sections. Replying to thank him. makes me feel embarrassed. especially in the Pule Criminal [Auch Deine Sprache findet nun erst ihre vollsten Klange: ich finde besonders die ‘Vorrede’. and the Ugliest Man. taken not from life but as if brought from some unworldly barren waste. the Shadow. sondern wie aus weltfremden Einoden mitgebrachten.‘Behold. superb. held in Chicago in 1959. In particular. Nicht alle: denn in einigen wird mir die Durchfigurierung einer nicht aus dem Leben genommenen. to name but a few. das ihr erleben konnt? Das ist die Stunde der grol3en Verachtung.

and another yet is the image of the deed.ironically recapitulates another central message of Zarathustra’s opening prologue: ‘Man is something that must be overcome’ [Der Mensch ist etwas. The Pale Criminal is pale . as that was set out in the earlier chapter entitled “On the Despisers of the Body” [ Von den Veruchtern des Leibes]. the deed is another. this chapter brings out two important distinctions for Nietzsche. Das Rad des Grundes rollt nicht zwischen ihncn. who has argued: ‘Zarathustra continues to demonstrate himself to be a psychologist who understands the soul because he understands the body’ (p. als er sie tat: aber ihr Bild ertrug er nicht. The opening attack on the judges. das iiberwunden werden soll] . there is the distinction between the conscious intention and the unconscious motive. Ein Bild machte diesen bleichen Menschen bleich. The wheel of causality does not roll between them. as Strauss suggests.which is promoted in Nietzsche’s thought to an importance it had previously enjoyed only in Schopenhauer . [Aber ein anderes ist der Gedanke. Zarathustra’s knowledge of the body .). essence and estrangement. not by the judges.reveals itself. ein anderes das Bild der Tat. Yet Zarathustra says that it is the condemnation of the criminal by himself. Gleichwuchsig war er seiner Tat.’ Who or what is the Pale Criminal? And why is he pale? Zarathustra’s explanation includes the following difficult lines: ~ But the thought is one thing. who treat the criminal like an animal. there is the distinction between the (rational) Ego and the (non-rational) Self. He was equal to his deed when he did it: but he could not endure its image after it was done. ein anderes die Tat.~ Furthermore. That these two points belong to the same thematic problem in Zavuthustra becomes clear from the remark of one of Strauss’s disciples. to be ‘capable of unriddling the secrets of even the most unhealthy exception’ (ibid.8 Nodding like the beast ready for slaughter. Second.43). in the words of Lampert. Laurence Lampert.426 Paul Bishop renders condemnation imp~ssible. das uberwunden werden soll] (53). the Pale Criminal’s expression of contempt ‘My Ego is something that should be overcome’ [Mein Ich ist etwas. An image made this man pale. als sie getan war. And in this chapter.] To try and understand these lines involves an appreciation of the role played by following key themes in Nietzsche’s thought: morality and memory. revenge and ressentiment. which constitutes his highest moment and makes him sublime. First. recalls Nietzsche’s concern elsewhere with issues of justice.

In this deed. and it comes before the deed.”’ [So spricht der rote Richter: “Was mordete doch dieser Verbrecher? Er wollte rauben”]. you have not crept deep enough into . there is what he calls the madness after the deed: ‘The chalk-line charmed the hen. as Zarathustra says. the blow he struck charmed his simple mind .I call this madness after the deed’ [Der Strich bannt die Henne. als er mordete. Instead. From the point of view of the judges who (in both senses of the word) condemn the criminal. But Zarathustra wants to explore the psychology of the crime in more detail: ‘But I tell you: his soul wanted blood not booty: he thirsted for the joy of the knife!’ [Aber ich sage euch: seine Seele wollte Blut. which Zarathustra calls the madness before the deed: ‘Listen. ~ [Seine arme Vernunft aber begriff diesen Wahnsinn nicht und uberredete ihn.Freud and Jung in Nietzsche’s Zarathustra 427 because. he analyses the deed by distinguishing between two kinds of madness. bannte seine arme Vernunft . der Streich. First.of the deed. But he is haunted above all by what this crime has revealed to him about himself.den Wahnsinn nach der Tat heil3e ich dies]. den er fuhrte. “Was liegt an Blut!” sprach sie. its image haunts him. “Will you not at least commit a theft too? Take a revenge?” And he hearkened to his simple mind: its word lay like lead upon him then he robbed as he murdered.or. he has committed a double crime . there is another madness. But Zarathustra does not merely banish intentionality to the murky realms of pathology.’* The Pale Criminal is pale because he is haunted by the memory . as Zarathustra puts it. his exceptional behaviour turns into his very being or essence (Wesen). He did not want to be ashamed of his madness. having committed his crime. “willst du nicht zum mindesten einen Raub dabei machen? Eine Rache nehmen?” Und er horchte auf seine arme Vernunft: wie Blei lag ihre Rede auf ihm da raubte er. Wahnsinn heil3e ich dies: die Ausnahme verkehrte sich ihm zum Wesen]. however. Ah. Er wollte sich nicht seines Wahnsinns schiimen. nicht Raub: er diirstete nach dem Gluck des Messers!]: But his simple mind did not understand this madness and it persuaded him otherwise. the image . Second.] ~ Zarathustra discusses the deed of the Pale Criminal in terms of madness: ‘Now for evermore he saw himself as the perpetrator of one deed. “What is the good of blood?” it said. you judges! There is another madness as well.murder and robbery: ‘Thus says the scarlet judge: “Why did this criminal murder? He wanted to steal. I call this madness: in him the exception has become the rule’ [Immer sah er sich nun als einer Tat Tater.

This prior madness is blood-lust. and Nietzsche’s On the Genealogy of Morals clearly lies behind much of the thinking in Civilization and its Discontents [Das Unbehagen in der Kultur] (1930).~~ Although Freud repeatedly claimed that. Or to put it another way. it is clear to any reader that he was in fact deeply immersed in Nietzsche. He has become. blood for the sake of blood.“zur Vernunft”!]. he proves unequal to the image of it. it is because the Pale Criminal has a guilt-complex that he suffers from a guilty complexion. beyond the pale.428 ~~~ ~ Paul Bishop this soul!’ [Hort. Zarathustra’s talk of madness suggests that the Pale Criminal makes a fit subject for psychiatry. he had never read him. In the second of the two short poems which constitute the Epilogue Unter Freunden to the first Book of Human. Yet having avoided this shame is precisely what brings ’~ guilt (Schuld) upon him and makes him pale. Ach.16 first published in Imago in 1916. For example. Nietzsche talks of bringing reason ‘to its senses’ [Wie Vernunft kommt . ihr krocht mir nicht tief genug in diese Seele!]. now that he has murdered.15 In ‘Some Character-Types met with in Psychoanalytic Work’ [Uber einige Charaktertypen aus der psychoanalytischen Arbeit]. he r ~ b b e d . . he becomes estranged from the memory of it. and particularly in those aspects of estrangement from memory which it foreground~.for the Pale Criminal himself that his reason must intervene and persuade him. blood is ‘a very special juice’. but that his murderous drive must itself acquire necessity in the form of pragmatic justification. And. And as far as Zarathustra is concerned. [Menschliches. In other words. ihr Richter! Einen anderen Wahnsinn gibt es noch: und der ist vor der Tat. Thus it is not surprising that both Freud and Jung were intrigued by the figure of the Pale Criminal. it must be made rational. It is not so much that the Pale Criminal makes a virtue out of his necessity for violence. it is a central part of Nietzsche’s project to understand how reason functions. The voice of reason is described as lying like lead (Blei) on his conscience. For although he was equal to the murder when he committed it. In other words. as we know from Goethe’s Faust. All Too Human. a murderous Urtrieb.” Because he did not wish to be ashamed (sich schcmen) of his madness before the deed. to rob. behind reason there lies the Will to Power. Allzumenschliches]. in order to avoid being influenced by Nietzsche.so estranging . Nietzsche was discussed at the weekly meetings of the Viennese Psychoanalytic Society.” The primitive desire for blood is so shocking and so alien . Indeed. so to speak. not to say psychoanalysis.

that it did not arise from it. I must maintain that the sense of guilt was present before the misdeed. published 1918).’~ the In introduction to his paper. In Criminals from a Sense of Guilt. Freud continued. daB es nicht aus diesem hervorging. Freud explains these crimes in terms of a sense of relief which they bring to the patient. sondern umgekehrt das Vergehen aus dem SchuldbewuBtsein. Yet. According to Freud. the resistance set up by the patient demands that the analyst pay attention to the patient’s character. from a hidden guilt of unknown origins: Paradoxical as it may sound.] In this context. Diese Personen durfte man mit gutem Recht als Verbrecher aus SchuldbewuDtsein bezeichnen. that is. In his earlier case history of Little Huns (1909) and in his later case history of the Wolf Man (written 1914. Freud argued. Freud claims to find an anticipation of his theory in what he originally called in 1916 the ‘dark sayings’ [dunkle Reden] of Nietzsche’s Zarathustra: . committed crimes in order to fix their nebulous sense of (Oedipal) guilt (before the deed) to a specific object. ich muB behaupten.Freud and Jung in Nietzsche’s Zarathustra 429 Freud devoted the third part of his paper to those whom he dubbed ‘Criminals from a Sense of Guilt’ [Die Verbrecher aus Schuldbew~Btsein]. Relief. daB das SchuldbewuDtsein friiher da war als das Vergehen. the conscience of Mankind is an ‘inherited mental force’ [vererbte Seelenmacht] based on ‘the two great criminal intentions’ [die beiden groBen Verbrechen der Menschen] or.18 In the conclusion to his paper. Freud explored the idea of guilt as a motive for misdeeds in greater detail. parricide and incest or. The pre-existence of the guilt feeling had of course been demonstrated by a whole set of other manifestations and effects. Die Praexistenz des Schuldgefiihls hatte sich natiirlich durch eine ganze Reihe von anderen AuBerungen und Wirkungen nachweisen lassen. fraud and arson during the age of puberty.the misdeed arose from the sense of guilt. These people might justly be described as criminals from a sense of guilt. Freud suggested that the analyst is concerned to know ‘what course was followed by the mysterious path that has led from the instinctual wishes to the symptoms’ [iiber welche Stationen der geheimnisvolle Weg von jenen Triebwunschen zu diesen Symptomen gefuhrt hat]. Freud raises the question: what is the origin of ‘this obscure sense of guilt before the deed’ [dieses dunkle Schuldgefiihl vor der Tat]? And he gives us the answer. the Oedipus complex. His patients. to put it yet another way. in other words. [So paradox es klingen mag. but conversely . Freud begins with the clinical observation that many of his patients confess to having committed such crimes as theft.

430 Paul Bishop A friend has called my attention to the fact that the ‘criminal from a sense of guilt’ was known to Nietzsche too. Jung was interested in what Zarathustra called the madness after the deed. however. G. There are. Jung admitted: . Further on. Freud apparently overlooked Zarathustra’s separation of the two moments of shame and guilt. wieviele von den Verbrechern zu diesen “bleichen” zu rechnen sind. nevertheless felt himself deeply implicated. and the utilization of a deed in order to rationalize this feeling. glimmer before us in Zarathustra’s sayings ‘On the Pale Criminal’.21In it.19 C. First. This guilt. The pre-existence of the feeling of guilt. as is clear from the beginning of his essay: ‘we are. By contrast with Freud. much more deeply involved in the recent events in Germany than we like to admit’ [wir sind im allgemeinen vie1 tiefer in das deutsche Geschehen hineingezogen. [Ein Freund hat mich dann darauf aufmerksam gemacht. it was the second of three papers dealing with the psychopathology of National Socialism from an archetypal perspective. in a sense. a Swiss. a couple of problems with Freud’s account. Let us leave it to future research to decide how many criminals are to be reckoned among these ‘pale’ ones. Die Praexistenz des Schuldgefuhls und die Verwendung der Tat zur Rationalisierung desselben schimmern uns aus den Reden Zarathustras “Uber den bleichen Verbrecher” entgegen. The specific context of his remarks is his article entitled After the Catastrophe [Nach der K a t a ~ t r o p h e ]First pub. however. daD der “Verbrecher aus Schuldgefiihl” auch Nietzsche bekannt war. Second. that is.which induces a sense of Oedipal guilt in his patients before they have committed any specific (and.] So Freud is interested in what Zarathustra calls the madness before the deed: the primordial blood-lust .~~ lished in the Neue Schweizer Rundschau in 1945. lesser) crime. then why is the crime caused by this sense of guilt not equally universal? These questions remain unanswered by Freud. Uberlassen wir es zukunftiger Forschung zu entscheiden. he was concerned with estrangement from the memory of the deed. on the whole. In other words. is one in which Jung. despite making a distinction in such later works as Civilization and its Discontents between guilt (Schuld) and regret (Reue). Jung used the figure of the Pale Criminal to elaborate his psychological theory of collective guilt. if the supposed guilt from the Oedipus complex is universal. crime for these patients is a means of relief from the estranging memory of Oedipal guilt. als wir es wahrhaben wollen].analysed by Freud as the desire to kill the father and hence possess the mother .

er scheut nicht davor zuriick... ja menschliche Miihe gekostet. er kann seine Schuld nicht ertragen. aber eben. nirgends so national deutlich wie in Deutschland. from a moral as well as a human point of view. He will stoop to every kind of self-deception if only he can escape the sight of himself. whom . Er will und kann es nicht wahr haben. Das geschieht zwar iiberall. For only a few pages before discussing the inferiority complex of the Germans. and Nietzsche have to say about their country-men?’ [was haben Goethe. Jung had declared in his opening paragraphs that he himself approached the problem of German history ‘with an avowed sense of inferiority’ [von der Seite . Jung drew attention to an alleged ‘inferiority complex’ of the Germans [das deutsche Minderwertigkeitsgefuhl]:‘What did Goethe. but nowhere does it appear to be such a national characteristic as in Germany. durch Selbstbetrug sich den eigenen Anblick zu ersparen. [Dieses Schauspiel erinnert an jene von Nietzsche so trefflich beschriebene Gestalt des “bleichen Verbrechers”. Heine und Nietzsche uber ihr eigenes Land g e ~ a g t ? ]The juxtapo. der in Wirklichkeit alle Merkmale der Hysterie an sich tragt. Ja. who in reality shows all the signs of hysteria. Ich hatte nicht gewuDt. wie er ist. I had not realized how much I myself was affected [. sie zu begehen.. He simply will not and cannot admit that he is what he is. he cannot endure his own guilt. just as he could not help incurring it. der eingestandenen Unterlegenheit].I This inner identity or participation mystique with events in Germany has caused me to experience afresh how painfully wide is the scope of the psychological concept of collective guilt. daJ3 er so ist. [Ich will es dem Leser nicht verheimlichen: noch nie hat ein Aufsatz mir solche moralische. Heine.] Jung continued by extending the characteristics of the Pale Criminal.~~ sition of this remark with an earlier one in the essay gives a clear hint that Jung’s personal affinity with the German psyche may have gone deeper than he had thought. Jung compared the German abnegation of responsibility for the National Socialist state and the Second World War to the reaction of the Pale Criminal to his deed: This spectacle recalls the figure of what Nietzsche so aptly called the ‘Pale Criminal’.Freud and Jung in Nietzsche’s Zarathustra 43 1 I must confess that no article has ever given me so much trouble. It is true that this happens everywhere.] In After the Catastrophe... wie er es auch nicht lassen konnte. bis zu welchem Grad es mich angeht .. wie es scheinen will. Diese innerste Identitat oder “participation mystique” mit dem deutschen Geschehen hat mich noch einmal peinlich und schmerzlich die Tragweite des psychologischen Begriffes der Kollektivschuld erleben lassen.

That is the disgusting thing . On Jung’s account of this condition. For by using the figure of the Pale Criminal in After the Catastrophe. Jung had registered a very strong and extremely negative emotional reaction to the chapter Of the Pale Criminal. ‘So that was the essence of the brute!’ He must confess instead: ‘That was my other side. Das Schicksal hat den Deutschen mit seinem inneren Gegenspieler konfrontiert.’24 [Das ist das Bild eines hysterischen Geisteszustandes oder des “bleichen Verbrechers”. As usual for Jung. Whilst the greater distance between the opposites in the Germans’ psyche is said to account for their amazing energy drive. it is highly significant that Jung should have chosen to invoke an image which he personally had found so disturbing.I The criminal is only a sort of mirror reflex of the criminal impetus of N i e t ~ s c h e . my all too palpable shadow which can no longer be denied.he reaches here one of the pre-stages of his own madness [. the psychic splitting into opposites is typical of the German character and. nicht mehr abzuleugnender Schatten. my alter ego. to the whole German nation. finds personified expresson in the quintessentially Teutonic figure of FaustZ3 Here we have the picture of the hysterical state of mind.”] Even if Jung’s reference to the Pale Criminal is apparently less sophisticated than Freud’s. Fate has confronted every German with his inner counterpart: Faust is face to face with Mephistopheles and can no longer say.. ~ ~ Within the context of his discussion.432 Paul Bishop he diagnosed as hysterical. a psychological condition is understood in terms of the problem of the opposites. held in Zurich from 1934 to 1939. for Jung. According to Jung. sondern mu13 zugeben: “Das ist meine Kehrseite. On 8 May 1935. Mephistopheles ist Faust gegenubergetreten. hysteria is brought about by the oppositions and tensions within the psyche. mein leider allzuwirklicher. his use of the figure of the Pale Criminal in the context of his discussion of Nazi Germany is by no means unimportant. during his Seminar on Zarathustra.I Here Nietzsche really beconies an intellectual criminal. For before the outbreak of the Second World War. Jung is unconsciously voicing his horror not only at the deeds of the Germans but . mein alter ego. Jung declared: [This chapter] is exceedingly disgusting to my feeling [. in which he found evidence of a collective hysteria... it is also held responsible for their supposedly fractured personalities and unhappy lives.. und Faust kann nicht mehr sagen: “Das also war des Pudels Kern”. um mit Nietzsche zu reden. of Nietzsche’s ‘Pale Criminal’.

ihr Richter. and hence us: ‘You should say “enemy. So the Pale Criminal murders and. “Tor” sollt ihr sagen. In this way. Those who would condemn the Pale Criminal on moral grounds and consider themselves virtuous are in turn castigated by Zarathustra: ‘your good people [. On the one hand. aber nicht “Schuft”.Freud and Jung in Nietzsche’s Zarathustra 433 at the ‘shadow-side’of his own personality as well.is itself repeated in the judges’ sentence of execution: ‘Your killing.^^ Yet Zarathustra tells the judges. you should say “invalid. aber nicht “Sunder”]. he robs as well.” but not “sinner”’ [“Feind” sollt ihr sagen. should be a mercy and not a revenge’ [Euer Toten. um lange zu leben. Freud is interested in the madness before the deed and in estrangement from the memory of Oedipal guilt. Thus Jung’s analysis of the Germans turns out to be simultaneously an exercise in self-analysis.” but not “scoundrel”.. Jung is interested in the madness . like this Pale Criminal’ [Wollte ich doch.. But what the voice of reason incites the criminal to do . sol1 ein Mitleid sein und keine Rachel. sie hatten einen Wahnsinn. you judges. an dem sie zugrunde gingen gleich diesem bleichen Verbre~her!]. Zarathustra praises the madness of the Pale Criminal: ‘How I wish they possessed a madness through which they could perish. Zarathustra describes him as ‘a heap of diseases’ [ein Haufen von Krankheiten] and as ‘a knot of savage serpents’ [ein Knauel wilder Schlangen]. “Kranker” sollt ihr sagen. und in einem erbarmlichen Behagen]?’ Compared with the virtuous.. you should say “fool. The sufferings and desires of the Pale Criminal’s body are interpreted by his mind as lust for murder and greed for ‘the joy of the knife’ [das Gluck des Messers]..I possess their virtue in order to live long lives and in a miserable ease’ [Eure Guten . For those such as the Pale Criminal. we must remember that the Pale Criminal is not a pleasant figure.” but not “miscreant”.to take revenge (and hence to murder) . On the other. haben ihre Tugend. mere moral condemnation is rejected by Zarathustra. aber nicht “Bosewicht”. In conclusion. Their respective readings point to the differences between psychoanalysis (Freud) and analytical psychology (Jung). the image of the Pale Criminal functions both to underline the explicit imputation of collective guilt to the Germans and to underline Jung’s confession of his own guilt as well.~~ And it is in terms of psychology that Freud and Jung understood the Pale Criminal. In other words. Zarathustra believes there can be no ‘redemption’ [Erlosung] except ‘a quick death’ [der schnelle TO^]. in order to rationalize his deed.

pp. 87-99. Jung. 1953-1974). Hans-Georg Gadamer. NOTES 1. or the parable of those who sought to drive out the devil and entered . Werke. 510-536. Ed. 1986). Jung. and Stanley Rosen. Joachim Kohler. All other translations are my own. 1990). ‘Ein Seil gekniipft zwischen Mensch und obermensch’: Philosophische Erlauterungen zu Nietzsches erstem “Zarathustra” (Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta. The following editions have been used: Friedrich Nietzsche. Frankfurt am Main and Paris: Peter Lang. 20 vols (Zurich and Stuttgart: RascherlOlteii und Freiburg im Breisgau: Walter. The following translations have been used: Friedrich Nietzsche. The Mask of Enlightenment: Nietzsche’A “Zurathustra” (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. no.. NY: State University of New York Press. Middlesex: Penguin. 4. 1992). Sigmund Freud. Annemarie Pieper. Ronald Lehrer.” in: Nietzsche-Studien. Compare with the parable of the tree in Of the Tree on the Mountain [ Vom Baum am Berge]. 72-75. 1995).434 Paul Bishop after the deed and in estrangement from the memory of a crime of excess and sheer violence (the Holocaust). Timothy Gould. 3 vols (Munich: Carl Hanser.J. 1953-1979). 17-20. Anna Freud et al. 1-15. Gesammelte Werke. pp. pp. see: Hans Weichelt. 20 vols (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. “Das Drama Zarathustras. Karl Schlechta. trans. in: Soundings: An Interdisciplinary Journal. 18 vols (Frankfurt am Main. Gesammelte Werke.. Zarathustra-Kommentur (Leipzig: Felix Meiner. University of Glasgow. 2. 3. ‘What Makes the Pale Criminal Pale: Nietzsche and the Image of the Deed’. In order to allow the reader to use any edition. This paper emerged out of intensive discussion with my former postgraduate colleague David Groiser. James Strachey et al. Ed. 1966). Laurence Lampert: Nietzsche’s Teaching: A n Interpretation of Thus Spoke Zarathustra (New Haven and London: Yale University Press. and C. with whom I have been able to discuss further the ideas in this paper. 4 (Winter. 1 4 6 151. 4344. 58. Greg Whitlock. R. Lilly Jung-Merker et al. pp. Returning to Sils Maria: A Commentary to Nietzsche’s “Also sprach Zarathustra” (New York. Ed. 441443. Nietzsche. Sigmund Freud. vol. 1952-1987).. 1985). Hollingdale (Harmondsworth. For further discussion of the Pale Criminal. *1922). Bern. their use of the figure of the Pale Criminal points to their common intellectual inheritance. Ed. pp.G. 1995). pp. 1961). pp. Thus Spoke Zarathustra. 24 vols (London: Hogarth Press. 1958-1993). The Collected Works. Zarathustras Geheimnis: Friedrich Nietzsche und seine verschliisselte Botschaft: Eine Biographie (Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. references are given by chapter and section number. 170-182. and C. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works. ed.. 1990). Yet at the same time. Sir Herbert Read et al. 15 (1986). Nietzsche’s Presence in Freud’s Life und Thought: On the Origins of a Psychology of’ Dynamic Unconscious Mental Functioning (Albany. G. I am greatly indebted to him and to my colleagues in the Department of German.

IW2.. Nietzsche concluded: ‘One must be superior to Mankind in force. ‘There is still contempt in his eye. durch Hohe der Seele . See the section entitled ‘Have the adherents of the theory of free-will the right to punish?’ [Ob die Anhanger der Lehre vom freien Willen strafen durfen] in Human.. das groBe. 1975-1984). was er liebte!] (Of the Way qf the Creator [ Vom Wege des Schaffenden]).. 8.I”’ [“Meine Verachtung und meine Sehnsucht wachsen miteinander. the law-breaker . $23.I.. 16 vols (Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter. See: ‘I love the great despisers.’ [Man muB der Menschheit uberlegen sein durch Kraft.. I am grateful to Professor Laurence Lampert of Indiana University. Giorgio Colli and Mazzino Montinari (Eds.. “‘My contempt and my desire increase together. the higher I climb.Freud and Jung in Nietzsche’s Zarathustra 435 5. der steigt [. weil sie die groBen Verehrenden sind und Pfeile der Sehnsucht nach dem andern Ufer] (Zara4.das aber ist der Schaffende] (Zarathustra’s Prologue [Zarathustras Vorrede] $9). Briej wechsel. um so mehr verachte ich den. Letter from Erwin Rohde to Nietzsche of 22 December 1883 (Nietzsche.bis endlich die groBe Verachtung aus ihm aufschreit -1 (Of the Three Evil Things [Von den drei Bosen]). der zerbricht ihre Tafeln der Werte. der nicht gerade verachten muBte. and the aphorism ‘The criminal is frequently not equal to his deed: he makes it smaller and slanders it’ [Der Verbrecher ist haufig genug seiner Tat nicht gewachsen: er verkleinert und verleumdet sie] in Beyond Good and Evil [Jenseits von Gut und Bose]. 1996). pp. the more do I despise him who climbs [. 7. weil er verachtet! Was weiB der von Liebe. Leo Strauss and Nietzsche (Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press. the great. je hoher ich steige. Zarathustra links sublimity with . In Of the Sublime Ones [Von den Erhabenen]. for providing me with this information. Allzumenschliches]. 9. And in his foreword to The Anti-Christ [Der Antichrist]. All-Too-Human [Menschliches.).durch Verachtung. 1112. das nicht wie ein WurmfraB kommt. For further discussion. liebende Verachten. ‘Lust for power: before its glance Man crawls and bends and toils and becomes lower than the swine or the snake until at last the cry of the great contempt bursts from him -’ [Herrschsucht: vor deren Blick der Mensch kriecht und duckt und front und niedriger wird als Schlange und Schwein: . 6.]”I (Of the Tree on the Mountainside [Vom Baum am Berge]). 412413.. loving contempt which loves most where it despises most’ [0 meine Seele.. and disgust lurks around his mouth’ [Verachtung ist noch in seinem Auge. and ‘0 my soul. because he despises! What does he know of love who has not had to despise precisely what he loved?’ [Schaffen will der Liebende.. ‘The lover wants to create. in loftiness of soul . the breaker. I taught you contempt that comes not as the gnawing of a worm. thustra’s Prologue [Zarathustras Vorrede] $ ) ‘Behold the good and the just! Whom do they hate most? Him who smashes their tables of values. den Verbrecher:.$109. den Brecher. so es am meisten verachtet] (Of the Greut Longing [Von der groJen Sehnsucht]).but he is their creator’ [Sehe die Guten und Gerechten! Wen hassen sie am meisten? Den. into the swine themselves in O Chastity [Von der Keuschheit] or the parable of f the wanderer who stumbles over a dog in The Leach [Der Blutegel]. see Laurence Lampert.in contempt . Indianapolis. und Eke1 birgt sich an seinem Munde] (Ofthe Sublime Men [Von den Erhabenen]). for they are the great venerators and arrows of longing for the other bank’ [Ich liebe die groBen Verachtenden. ich lehrte dich das Verachten. welches am meisten liebt.

a term derived from Freud’s ‘criminals from a sense of guilt’ (see Bice Benvenuto and Roger Kennedy. 517). blood is an important thematic image in Zarathusfra. 13. dalj Blut Geist ist]. The distinction between ‘shame culture’ and ‘guilt culture’. Zarathustra says: ‘But blood is the worst witness of truth. Of Reading and Writing [ Vom Lesen und Schreiben]. Der Verbrecher und seine Richter (Vienna: Internationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag. In the next chapter. For a more general discussion. And in O the Spirit of Gravity [ Vom Geist der Schwere]. pp. blood poisons and transforms the purest teaching to delusion and hatred of the heart’ [Aber Blut ist der schlechteste Zeuge der Wahrheit. 11 ‘Blut ist ein ganz besonderer Saft’ (Faust I .1740). has its roots in Nietzsche’s writings on morality. and Jacques Lacan. Write with blood: and you will discover that blood is spirit’ [Von allem Geschriebenen liebe ich nur das. published in the Wiener Journal on 15 January 1933) (The Collected Works. . 371-374). this image similarly occurs in Nietzsche’s analysis of the doctrine of sin in On the Genealogy of Morals [Zur Genealogie der Moral]: ‘He has heard. As Timothy Gould has pointed out (p. er hat verstanden. The Works of Jacques Lacan: An Introduction (London: Free Association Books.4 (Paris: Editions du Seuil. p. earlier on. 14. see Richard J. The hen and the chalk-line refer to the fact that. XVIII. Er kommt aus diesem Kreis von Strichen nicht wieder heraus: aus dem Kranken ist “der Sunder” gemacht . yet in Of the Priests [Von den Priestern]. He can no longer get out of this chalk circle: the sick man has been transformed into the “sinner”’ [Er hat gehort. Furthermore. Lacan suggested that the psychosis of a patient called Aimee fell into the category of ‘self-punishment paranoia’ (paranoi’a d’autopunition). pp. $20). der Ungluckliche: jetzt geht es ihm wie der Henne. Zarathustra says: ‘Of all writings I love only that which is written with blood.4 (1932). In an article published in the Sunday Referee on 11 December 1932. 1975). introduced into anthropological discourse by Ruth Benedict (see her The Chrysanthemum and the Sword (1946)). Tales from the German Underworld: Crime and Punishment in the Nineteenth Century (New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ] (111.436 Paul Bishop ~ being ‘a penitential in spirit’ [ein BuBer des Geistes]. um die ein Strich gezogen ist. farmyard fowl apparently perceive a line in front of them as a three-dimensional obstacle. was einer mit seinem Blute schreibt. 1998). 1929). 1. he has understood.. Jung attempted to offer an insight into “Crime and the Soul” (see also “Blick in die Verbrecherseele”. Schreibe mit Blut: und du wirst erfahren. De la psychose paranofaque dans ses rapports avec lapersonnalit. due to their cognitive faculties. Fur further psychoanalytic interest in criminality. 1986). there was play on the sounds of ‘Strich’ and ‘Streich’). I am grateful to David Groiser for bringing this to my attention and for his other helpful comments on the interpretation of this chapter in Zarathustra. 343%346/GesammrnefteWerke. 10. Zarathustra admits: ‘For I love blood’ [Denn ich liebe Blut]. Blut f vergiftet die reinste Lehre noch zu Wahn und Ha13 der Herzen]. 12 It may well be that there is a play on words here between ‘Blei’ and ‘bleich’ (just as. see Franz Alexander and Hugo Staub. In De la psychose paranoiaque dans ses rapports avec la personnalit. And in On War and Warriors [ Vom Krieg und Kriegsvolke].. he describes the sublime as ‘the mantle for the ugly’ [den Mantel des HaBlichen]. XVIIVi. the unfortunate: from now on he is like the hen imprisoned by a chalk line. 43. Evans.

20. you Higher Men. ihr hoheren Menschen. the ant-swarm inanity. Wilhelm von Humboldt in On the Study of Antiquity. Nietzsche und Freud (Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter. Especially That of the Greeks [Uber das Studium des Altertums. 22. 25. pp. meine Briider? sprecht mir: was kiindet euer Leib von ewer Seele? 1st eure Seele nicht Armut und Schmutz und ein erbarmliches Behagen?] (Zarathustra’s Prologue [Zarathustras Vorrede] $3). 16. und des griechischen insbesondere] (1793) and Schiller in his On the Aesthetic Education of Man in a Series of Letters [Uber die asthetische Erziehung des Menschen in einer Reihe von Briefen] (1795) all looked to the Greeks for a wholeness they perceived had been lost in modern Man. 363-391lThe Standard Edition of the Collected Works. see Paul Bishop. 1997). 1989). See Faust’s exclamation when he realizes that the black dog he has found is in fact Mephistopheles in disguise (Faust I . Zarathustra’s remark in Of Voluntary Death [vom freien Tode]: ‘I wish preachers of speedy death would come!’ [Mochten Prediger kommen des schnellen Todes!]. Cf. Like Holderlin. and Jung’s first major work after his break with Freud was called Psychological Types [Psychologische Typen] (1921). Faust und das Faustische: Ein Kapitel deutscher Ideologie (Stuttgart: Klett. 459 and 468. miserable ease. Dislike of the homeland is a common topos in German literature and thought. and Reinhard Gasser. Nietzsche’s “Zarathustra”: Notes of the Seminar given in 1934-1939. For further discussion and references. the petty virtues. For further discussion of the notion of ‘Faustian’ culture.). die Sandkorn-Riicksichten. Freud. Jung’s Reception of Friedrich Nietzsche (Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter. 17. 309-333. Werke. Winckelmann in: Thoughts on the Imitation of Greek Works in Painting and Sculpture [Gedanken iiber die Nachahmung der griechischen Werke in der Malerei und Bildhauerkunst (1755). (Ed. For an analysis of Jung’s use of Nietzsche. see Hans Schwerte. 1. pp. X. 23. 1962). 27. the sand-grain discretion. The Dionysian SeF C. die kleinen Klugheiten. the “happiness of the greatest number”!’ [Ubenvindet mir. ‘But tell me. 26. See Analysis of a Phobia in a Five. the petty prudences. 164. 11. 2 vols (Zurich: Atlantis. At the end of Holderlin’s Hyperion (1797-1799). pp. XIV.). 1944). 18. Cf. 2 vols (London: Routledge. esp. 332-333. I. 194-217. 219-2441The Collected Works. (Ed. die kleinen Tugenden. 21. Jung. 24.G. 19. 1995). pp. James Jarrett. wie die Deutschen] (Friedrich Holderlin. and ‘Overcome. Jung. Hyperion says: ‘I can think of no people more dissociated than the Germans’ [Ich kann mir kein Volk denken. Herder in: On the Knowing and Sensing of the Human Soul [Vom Erkennen und Empfinden der menschlichen Seele] (1778). Gesammelte Werke.Year-Old Boy [Analyse der Phobie eines funfiahrigen Knaben] (1909) and From the History of an Infantile Neurosis [Aus der Geschichte einer infantifen Neurose] ([I9141 1918). das zerriDner ware. Emil Staiger. pp. p.Freud and Jung in Nietzsche’s Zarathustra 437 15. C.1323). X. Typology was to become of central importance to Jungian theory. see Lehrer (note 2). See Wotan (1936) and The Fight with the Shadow [Der Kampf mit dem Schatten] (first broadcast on the BBC Third Programme in 1946). X. my brothers: What does your body say about your soul? Is your soul not poverty and dirt and a miserable ease?’ [Aber auch ihr noch. pp. Gesammelte Werke. G. den Amei- .

. G.D. 42 (1998). Julian Roberts has pointed out. “Uber die Rolle des Asthetischen in der Tiefenpsychologie: Zur Schillerrezeption in der analytischen Psychologie C. Jungs” in: Jahrbuch der Deutschen Schillergesellschaft. 9.Zarathustra says: ‘I love him who justifies the men of the future and redeems the men of the past: for he wants to perish by the men of the present’ [Ich liebe den. p. ‘zugrunde gehen’ means. ‘to perish’ (German Philosophy: An Introduction (Cambridge: Polity Press. welcher die Zukunftigen rechtfertigt und die VergangenAs en erlost: denn er will an den Gegenwiirtigen zugrunde gehen] ($4). “Epistemological Problems and Aesthetic Solutions in Goethe and Jung”. on the one hand. Has published: The Dionysian S e p C. In his Prologue [Vorrede]. 1995. 23 (1994). “Literarische Beziehungen haben nie bestanden”? Thomas Mann and C. Jung’s Reception of Friedrich Nietzsche. 231. ‘to go (the) ground (of Being’) and. G.438 Paul Bishop sen-Kribbelkram. 28. 1988). Paul Bishop. Born 1967. on the other. G. Jung in: Oxford German Studies. University of Glasgow. (Oxford). Ph. in: Goethe Yearbook. Senior Lecturer in German. das erbarmliche Behagen. das “Gliick der meisten”-!] ( O f the Higher Men [ Vom hoheren Menschen] $3).

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